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Sample records for aconiti lateralis preparata

  1. [Investigating mechanism of toxicity reduction by combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata on terms of proteins self-assembly].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-jie; Shen, Yong; Liao, Ri-tao; Gao, Guan-zhen; Ke, Li-jing; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-02-01

    The combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata can increase efficacy and decrease toxicity. This study started from the phenomena of protein self-assembly in the mixed decoction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. The attenuated mechanism was explored between the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by using the protein of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and aconitine which was the major toxic component of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein with aconitine could form stable particles which particle mean diameter was (206.2 ± 2.02) nm and (238.20 ± 1.23) nm at pH 5.0 in normal temperature. Through the mouse acute toxicity experiment found that injection of aconitine monomer all mice were killed, and injection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine particles with the same content of aconitine all mice survived. Survey the stability of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine shows that the colloid particles is stable at room temperature, and it has the possibility to candidate drug carrier. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein can reduce the toxicity of aconitine through self-assembly.

  2. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Diode Array Detection and Hybrid Ion Trap-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Shi, Shepo; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yunfang; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    Dual roles have been widely disclosed for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Chinese name: Fuzi) by acting as an effective herbal medicine accompanied with high toxicity risk and narrow therapeutic range. Aconite alkaloids, also known as diterpenoid alkaloids (DAs), have been proved to be primary therapeutic as well as toxic material basis of Fuzi. In the present study, we aim to characterize qualitative profile along with quantitative features of DAs in Fuzi, which could benefit the quality control of Fuzi as well as its safe medication in clinic. Chromatographic fingerprinting was achieved using 12 batches of crude materials collected from different habitats (similarities >0.9) by hyphenating liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection. Simultaneous determination of six primary DAs, namely benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, mesaconine, aconitine and hypaconitine, was also carried out. The developed method was systematically validated and successfully applied for quantitative characterization. Significant variations were observed regarding the contents of those six analytes among different raw materials. A total of 99 DAs were detected and characterized, including 9 unambiguous identities and 77 putative assignments, as well as 13 unknown compounds, from the representative extract by LC coupled with hybrid ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The findings obtained herein could favor in-depth understanding of the chemical composition of DAs and the quality control of Fuzi.

  4. Proboscis lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Gary J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Milite, James P; Dyleski, Robin

    2008-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 1-month-old female infant presented with a congenital nasal appendage in the left medial canthal region with associated left-sided nasal hypoplasia. The diagnosis of proboscis lateralis was made, and a 2-stage excision and reconstruction was performed in conjunction with probing and irrigation of the lacrimal system. The patient had markedly abnormal nasal anatomy, but a patent lower canalicular system with anomalous entry in the nose and a distally stenotic upper canalicular system on the affected side. A case report and review of proboscis lateralis is provided, as treatment of this rare congenital malformation should be multidisciplinary and necessitates an informed oculoplastic surgeon or ophthalmologist's assistance. PMID:19033859

  5. Isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jonathan M; Riedel, Matthew D; McCormick, Frank M; Nho, Shane J

    2013-10-01

    Isolated avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon is a very rare injury. To our knowledge, only 1 case has been reported in the literature. This tendon is crucial to knee stability and proper patellofemoral tracking. As isolated avulsion of the tendon tends to occur in young, active males, early surgical repair is recommended to allow them to maintain a high level of functional ability. We present the case of a 49-year-old man who sustained an isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion injury. The injury was successfully treated with suture anchor repair.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of Rehmannie Radix Preparata (Sookjihwang) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin-Jyung; Bao, Cun Liu; Park, Soojin

    2010-01-01

    Rhemannie Radix Preparata (RRP) has been previously employed in traditional oriental medicine as a treatment for diabetic thirst and improving blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate its hypoglycemic control by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Further, RRP extracts were prepared in water (RRPW), in 50% ethanol (RRP50), and in 100% ethanol (RRP100), respectively, and compared for their actions in diabetic rats. The oral treatment of RRP (5 mg/kg b.w./d) to diabetic rats for 21 days resulted in a significant decline in blood glucose by 67% compared to diabetic control rats (P < 0.05). The altered activities of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the livers of diabetic rats were reversed significantly to near-normal levels by the administration of RRP (P < 0.05). Among the three RRP extracts, RRP100 was the most effective in terms of hypoglycemic action. However, the administration of RRP to diabetic rats did not improve insulin production. The modulatory effects of RRP100 on the attenuation of carbohydrate enzyme activities appear to hold promise for widespread use for the treatment of diabetes in the future. PMID:21103092

  7. Proboscis lateralis: clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elhamd, Kamal-Eldin Ahmed; Al-Hewaige, Mohammad Tharwat

    2005-02-01

    Proboscis lateralis is one of the rare craniofacial congenital anomalies which presents as an obvious deformity of the nose. It tends to occur in male offspring of consanguineous marriages. This is a report of computerized tomography of this rare anomaly. In proboscis lateralis, the nasal cavity on one side is completely normal, while on the affected side it is replaced by a trunk-like process attached to the medial portion of the orbital roof. This anomaly occurs sporadically as an isolated defect or in association with other anomalies. It is usually associated with developmental failure of the paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct. PMID:15829074

  8. [Comparative study of Coptidis Rhizoma and Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix on cell differentiation in lewis lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bei; Hou, Xi-Dong; Li, Hong; Qi, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Gang-Gang; Liu, Lin-Xin; Wang, Pei; Du, Gang-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Coptidis Rhizoma and Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix represent hot Chinese medicine and cold Chinese medicine respectively. The purpose of this study is to observe the differentiation effect of Coptidis Rhizoma and Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix on lewis lung cancer and compare effect of hot Chinese medicine and cold Chinese medicine on tumor progression. In this study, the rat serum containing Coptidis Rhizoma or Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix was prepared to treat lewis lung cancer cells in vitro, and effects of the serum containing Coptidis Rhizoma or Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix on cell differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) were investigated. In vivo, the subcutaneous implant model and pulmonary metastasis model of lewis lung cancer were established. Tumor bearing mice were taken water decoction of coptis chinensis or aconite by intragastric administration bid for four weeks, and the influences of coptis chinensis and aconite on tumor progression were evaluated by body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, red cell ATPase, blood rheology, intratumor hypoxia, capillary permeability and GJIC. The results showed that the serum containing aconite could induce cell differentiation, inhibit cell proliferation and migration, promote SDH activity and GJIC in lewis lung cancer cells. The serum containing Coptidis Rhizoma increased cell adhesion and decreased SDH activity and GJIC without cell differentiation although it also suppressed cell proliferation. Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix water decoction could keep body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, red cell ATPase and blood rheology, and improve intratumor hypoxia, capillary permeability and GJIC in tumor bearing mice, which led to slower tumor growth and less metastasis. Coptidis Rhizoma water decoction decreased body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, red cell ATPase, blood rheology and GJIC, and promoted intratumor hypoxia and capillary

  9. A rare case of proboscis lateralis with median cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Junpei

    2010-09-01

    A very rare case of proboscis lateralis is reported. This case is different from previously reported cases due to proboscis lateralis, single nostril, loss of columella, and median cleft lip without holoprosencephaly. In addition, this is considered the first surviving individual with proboscis lateralis accompanied by median cleft lip. PMID:20509764

  10. Proboscis lateralis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Lütfi; Uysal, Osman Ata

    2003-10-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a rare congenital anomaly and heminasal aplasia is the most common associated anomaly. The proboscis is an ideal donor structure that has good colour and texture match to reconstruct the heminose and should not be sacrified. We present the staged reconstruction of two patients using a subcutaneous tunnel method. An individualised approach to the patient determines the ideal method of reconstruction. PMID:12969672

  11. Postinjection vastus lateralis atrophy: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Haber, M; Kovan, E; Andary, M; Honet, J

    2000-09-01

    We report two cases of postsurgical intramuscular meperidine injection with injury to the femoral nerve and subsequent vastus lateralis atrophy. The first case is a patient who had arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; the second, a patient with a C6-C7 anterior fusion. Photographs, radiography, and electrodiagnostic studies clearly depict the nature of the injuries, and their etiology is discussed. These case reports describe a unique neuropathic injection injury that, to our knowledge, has never before been described in the literature.

  12. Pulse spectrum study on the effect of sie-zie-tang and Radix aconiti.

    PubMed

    Wang, W K; Hsu, T L; Chiang, Y; Wang, Y Y

    1997-01-01

    Extracts of the traditional Chinese formula Sie-Zie-Tang as well as one of its main components, Radix Aconiti were injected into rats intraperitoneally to observe pressure wave spectrum changes at the caudate artery. We found that Radix Aconiti decreased the C0 (DC term of the pulse), C5 and C6 (the harmonic proportions of the 5th and the 6th harmonic), but increased C2 and C3 (the harmonic proportions of the second and the third harmonic) significantly. For Sie-Zie-Tang, the increases of C2, C3, and C4 were accompanied by the decreasing of C0. The decreases of C5, C6 were small and not significant. The additional ingredients in the formula reduce toxic side effects (arrhythmia or heart failure caused by faster and stronger heart beat) due to Radix Aconiti. For human subjects, low dose Sie-Zie-Tang tends to normalize the Fourier components of the pressure wave. Orally taking the formula elevates the harmonic proportion of the harmonic that is lower than normal, but suppresses the higher one. Our results provides a possible mechanism for heart meridian related herbs. It strengthens heart beats, and normalizes energy distribution to different meridians. The study on Sie-Zie-Tang reveals another formula construction to reduce toxic side effects.

  13. Performances of malaria P.f/Pan rapid test device Acon® (Pf HRP2/pan aldolase) and malaria Pf rapid test device Acon® (Pf HRP2) for the diagnosis of malaria in adults and children living in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou Akotet, Marielle Karine; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Madoungou, Blondel; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2013-09-01

    The Malaria Pf Rapid Test Device Acon® (Acon Labs) and the pan HRP2/aldolase RDT, Malaria P.f/Pan Rapid Test Device Acon® (Acon Labs), performances were evaluated for malaria species diagnosis in 592 febrile patients living in Gabon using microscopy as gold standard. Sensitivities were equal or above 96.0% for Plasmodium falciparum detection, of 62.5% for non-P. falciparum malaria species detection and higher in younger children (100%). Negative predictive values were greater than 97.0%. Acon®HRP2 had a higher specificity (96.6%) and lower false-positive (FP) rate (9.3%) compared to Acon®Pf/Pan, which had a specificity of 87.3% and a FP rate of 27.1% (P < 0.01). Overall, 32.5% of all Acon® Pf/Pan tests resulted in a "faint band" with only 2 resulted from samples with a parasitemia below 100 p/μL. The accuracy of Acon®HRP2 RDT for the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection is confirmed. However, the high FP rate observed with Acon®Pf/Pan is a limitation for its use.

  14. Proboscis lateralis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elhamd, Kamal-Eldin Ahmed

    2004-04-01

    Proboscis Lateralis (PL) is one of the congenital anomalies of the nose which presents as obvious deformity. This is a report of two cases of the rare anomaly PL. One presented with right PL and the second presented with left PL. In this rare anomaly, the nasal cavity on one side is completely normal while on the affected side, the nasal cavity is replaced by a tube of skin and soft tissue attached to the inner canthus of the eye. This anomaly occurs sporadic as an isolated defect or in association with other anomalies. It is usually associated with failure of the paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct development. Embryologically, this anomaly is a result of imperfect fusion of the lateral nasal wall and maxillary processes (Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 23 (1992) 275). PMID:15013620

  15. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  16. Proboscis Lateralis : A Rare Bilateral Case in Association with Holoprosencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Coumary, Sendhil

    2015-01-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a very rare congenital craniofacial malformation characterized by a trunk like tubular appendage arising commonly from roof of the orbit near medial canthus. It may be seen as an isolated defect with sporadic occurrence or it may be associated with a spectrum of anomalies. It is usually unilateral and very few bilateral cases of proboscis lateralis have been reported in the literature worldwide. Alobar holoprosencephaly is commonly associated with a single central proboscis and cyclopia. Here we report an unusual case of a bilateral proboscis lateralis seen in association with holoprosencephaly. PMID:26436002

  17. Proboscis Lateralis : A Rare Bilateral Case in Association with Holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Kolluru, Vasavi; Coumary, Sendhil

    2015-08-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a very rare congenital craniofacial malformation characterized by a trunk like tubular appendage arising commonly from roof of the orbit near medial canthus. It may be seen as an isolated defect with sporadic occurrence or it may be associated with a spectrum of anomalies. It is usually unilateral and very few bilateral cases of proboscis lateralis have been reported in the literature worldwide. Alobar holoprosencephaly is commonly associated with a single central proboscis and cyclopia. Here we report an unusual case of a bilateral proboscis lateralis seen in association with holoprosencephaly. PMID:26436002

  18. Analysis of fingerprints features of infrared spectra of various processed products of Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu-ya; Yang, Ping; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun; Bao, Xiao-hua; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)) are employed to analyze various processed products and ether extracts of Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii. There is a resemblance among the spectra of different processed products. The major difference lies in the absorption peak at 1641 cm -1 in the IR spectra, which reflects the transformation of raw aconite to the processed products. There are distinctive differences in the absorption peaks in the range of 1800-1500 cm -1 in the second derivative spectra, which has better resolution, of different processed products. 2D-IR spectra, which elevate the resolution further, can present even more differences among the products in the range of 1800-800 cm -1. Analysis of ether extracts of various processed products proves that there are alcohols, esters, carboxylic acids or ketones in all of them. However, their contents in different samples have obvious differences. With the advantages of high resolution, high-speed and convenience, IR can quickly and precisely distinguish various processed products of Radix A. kusnezoffii, and can be applied to predict the tendency of transformation of the complicated chemical mixture systems under heat perturbation.

  19. Proboscis lateralis with ipsilateral sinonasal and olfactory pathway aplasia.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Sanjay; Shah, Darshan; Rawat, Sudarshan; Shukla, Rahul

    2010-02-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a rare craniofacial malformation characterized by absence of nasal cavity on one side with a trunk-like nasal appendage protruding from superomedial portion of the ipsilateral orbit. High-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are extremely useful in evaluating this congenital condition and the wide spectrum of associated anomalies occurring in the surrounding anatomical regions and brain. We present a case of proboscis lateralis in a 2-year-old girl with associated ipsilateral sinonasal aplasia, orbital cyst, absent olfactory bulb and olfactory tract. Absence of ipsilateral olfactory pathway in this rare disorder has been documented on high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging by us for the first time in English medical literature. PMID:20152374

  20. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy. PMID:24814003

  1. Age‐related neuromuscular changes affecting human vastus lateralis

    PubMed Central

    Piasecki, M.; Ireland, A.; Stashuk, D.; Hamilton‐Wright, A.; Jones, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Skeletal muscle size and strength decline in older age.The vastus lateralis, a large thigh muscle, undergoes extensive neuromuscular remodelling in healthy ageing, as characterized by a loss of motor neurons, enlargement of surviving motor units and instability of neuromuscular junction transmission.The loss of motor axons and changes to motor unit potential transmission precede a clinically‐relevant loss of muscle mass and function. Abstract The anterior thigh muscles are particularly susceptible to muscle loss and weakness during ageing, although how this is associated with changes to neuromuscular structure and function in terms of motor unit (MU) number, size and MU potential (MUP) stability remains unclear. Intramuscular (I.M.) and surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) during voluntary contractions held at 25% maximal knee extensor strength in 22 young (mean ± SD, 25.3 ± 4.8 years) and 20 physically active older men (71.4 ± 6.2 years). MUP size, firing rates, phases, turns and near fibre (NF) jiggle were determined and MU number estimates (MUNEs) were made by comparing average surface MUP with maximal electrically‐evoked compound muscle action potentials. Quadriceps cross‐sectional area was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. In total, 379 individual MUs were sampled in younger men and 346 in older men. Compared to the MU in younger participants, those in older participants had 8% lower firing rates and larger MUP size (+25%), as well as increased complexity, as indicated by phases (+13%), turns (+20%) and NF jiggle (+11%) (all P < 0.0005). The MUNE values (derived from the area of muscle in range of the surface‐electrode) in older participants were ∼70% of those in the young (P < 0.05). Taking into consideration the 30% smaller cross‐sectional area of the VL, the total number of MUs in the older muscles was between 50% and 60% lower compared to in young muscles (P < 0

  2. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  3. Redescription Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and Phylogeny of the Prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael B; O'connell, Kyle A; Wostl, Elijah; Riyanto, Awal; Kurniawan, Nia; Smith, Eric N; Grismer, L Lee

    2016-01-01

    We redescribe Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) on the basis of new specimens. Cyrtodactylus lateralis is a prehensile-tailed species, known from scattered lowland to mid-elevation localities in northern Sumatra. The prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus are more speciose and have a wider distribution than previously thought. This group includes a mainland SE Asian clade consisting of C. elok, C. interdigitalis, and C. brevipalmatus and an insular clade containing C. durio, C. lateralis, C. nuaulu, C. serratus, C. spinosus, and C. stresemanni. However, a distinctive color pattern in the Wallacean and Papuan species and uncertainty surrounding the type locality of C. stresemanni raise unresolved questions about the inclusiveness of the insular clade. DNA sequence data supports a close relationship between C. elok and C. interdigitalis, but also reveals that C. lateralis and C. durio are not closely related to these species. PMID:27394838

  4. Estimating CO2 fluxes in the Bay Area from a dense surface network: First estimates from the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BeACON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Teige, V. E.; Shusterman, A.; Maness, H.; Harley, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The paradigm in ground-based trace gas measurements has been to employ a sparse network of high-precision instruments that can be used to measure atmospheric concentrations. However, the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BeACON) project aims to provide a better understanding of the emissions and physical processes governing CO2 by deploying a high density of moderate-precision instruments. Here we present the first estimate of hourly urban carbon dioxide fluxes at 1 km spatial resolution in California's Bay Area using the BeACON network. The CO2 fluxes are estimated in a mesoscale inverse modeling framework using WRF-STILT and a custom state-of-the-science prior inventory. We also present a series of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) with synthetic observations derived from our custom 1 km inventory that resolves fine-scale CO2 fluxes such as individual highways and attempt to retrieve them using the EDGARv4.2 and VULCAN inventories, which are too coarse to resolve individual highways. These OSSEs allow us to determine the extent to which a dense network can quantify fine-scale CO2 fluxes from sources such as traffic and provide an estimate of the information content of a dense network. This will allow us to place rigorous error bounds on the CO2 fluxes from California's Bay Area and inform future greenhouse gas measurement strategies.

  5. Proboscis lateralis: a rare craniofacial anomaly, reconstruction, and long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    David, Lisa R; Sanger, Claire; Fisher, David; Argenta, Louis C

    2008-07-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a rare spontaneous congenital anomaly that results from a failure of normal embryological nasal development. The ensuing deformity consists of imbrication of the nasal soft tissues into a tubelike proboscis and can be associated with ipsilateral heminasal aplasia, choanal atresia, and multiple other abnormalities. A case report of a patient with proboscis lateralis is presented, with a 27-year follow-up detailing the complexities of long-term surgical management. After 15 major surgical interventions, there is relatively normal facial symmetry, but abnormalities remain with the underlying craniofacial skeleton and nasopharyngeal airway. Proboscis lateralis is not an isolated soft tissue abnormality but is a craniofacial defect that requires a long-term multidisciplinary approach to the surgical timing and treatment with lifelong follow-up. PMID:18650742

  6. Isolated avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon insertion in a weightlifter: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Trikha, Paul S; Wood, David G

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We report a case of isolated, unilateral avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon from its insertion at the patella. This was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, and underwent successful surgical repair. Case presentation A healthy 32-year-old national level power lifter presented with an isolated avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon. After a failed course of conservative therapy he underwent surgical repair and a graded physical therapy programme. One year later he returned to full training with no evidence of re-rupture. Conclusion This is the first reported case of an isolated vastus lateralis avulsion. Our experience suggests that magnetic resonance imaging is invaluable in the diagnosis of this condition and that surgical repair provides a good outcome in high demand patients. PMID:19918436

  7. Proboscis lateralis-like appendage: description of a new facial anomaly.

    PubMed

    Arora, Garima; Arora, Vipin; Chawla, Deepak

    2011-04-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a rare craniofacial anomaly characterized by a trunk-like process attached to the medial portion of the orbital roof on the affected side. We report a case, which, though resembling proboscis lateralis in some ways, has certain unique features. This case had an appendage arising from the right malar region with a central tract lined by stratified squamous epithelium. It had erectile properties and was communicating with an enlarged ipsilateral maxillary sinus. Because of these characteristic features it appears to be a new, as yet unreported, facial anomaly. PMID:21200312

  8. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVALVE, MULINA LATERALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for using the dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis) to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A multilab...

  9. Urine production rate and water balance in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis and Cardisoma guanhumi.

    PubMed

    Harris, R R

    1977-06-01

    1. The rate of urine production in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville) and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille maintained on s.w.-moist sand was measured by inulin clearance. 2. The inulin U/B ratios in both species rose to about unity after 48 h, and remained at this level. It was concluded that neither species withdrew water from the primary urine. 3. The relatively high rate of inulin clearance in G. lateralis (10-69% body wt day-1) was considerably reduced when animals were transferred to dry sand (2-15% body wt day-1). 4. The rate of water loss on dry sand was measured in G. lateralis and changes in the haemolymph and urine osmolality recorded. 5. The prevention of possible reabsorption of water from voided urine did not appear to affect significantly the rate of water loss in conditions of water deprivation. 6. The maintenance of urine production rates measured on s.w.-moist sand would double the water loss of G. lateralis in dry conditions.

  10. Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscles in asymptomatic subjects during the sit-to-stand procedure

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Boram

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the vastus medialis oblique to vastus lateralis ratio in two pelvic tilt positions while performing the sit-to-stand task. [Subjects and Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis muscles of 46 healthy subjects (25 males, 21 females) were recorded by surface electromyography during the STS task with anterior pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine extended and pelvis in an anterior tilt) and neutral pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine relaxed and pelvis in the neutral tilt position) positions. Changes in vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis activation and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were analyzed. [Results] Vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscle activation significantly increased in neutral pelvic tilt position, but the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio was not statistically different. [Conclusion] The sit-to-stand procedure with neutral pelvic tilt position increased activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis, usefully strengthening the quadriceps, but did not selectively activate the vastus medialis oblique muscle. PMID:25931753

  11. Nasal reconstruction in heminasal deficiency (proboscis lateralis): two case reports, with airway reconstruction in one case.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Helmut; Eppstein, Ron Julius; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a very rare congenital malformation with heminasal hypoplasia or aplasia. The affected side is represented by a trunk (proboscis) which can be positioned from the upper eyelid down to the alar base. We present two cases of proboscis lateralis, one in which we reconstructed an airway. The first case is a 16-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia. Immediately after birth, a proboscis lateralis was resected from the right upper eyelid as primary treatment elsewhere. We reconstructed the nose using costal cartilage as framework. A paramedian forehead flap was transposed to give the patient a nose with adult dimensions. We made no attempt to reconstruct an airway in this case as unilateral nasal breathing appeared adequate. The second case is a 14-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia on his right side, where a nodule-like appendix was existent with a fistula underneath. A computed tomographic scan revealed an existing hypoplastic posterior nasal airway and a complete ventilated sinus system. The fact that there was an existing posterior airway encouraged us to construct an anterior airway to create an airflow passage. Costal cartilage was taken for framework reconstruction and nasal skin was completely replaced by a paramedian forehead flap. The reconstructed airflow passage was stable. PMID:24918715

  12. Quadriceps Muscle Mechanical Simulator for Training of Vastus Medialis Obliquus and Vastus Lateralis Obliquus Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Irmak, Rafet; Irmak, Ahsen; Biçer, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In classical anatomy quadriceps muscle has four heads. Clinical studies have demostrated 6 heads of this muscle. These heads were demostrated seperately not only by their functional properties,but also by innervation and kinesiological properties. In our previous study we have developed and demostrated electrophysiological properties of vastus medialis obliquus by an electronic patient simulator. The purpose of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator which can be used to demostrate mechanical properties of 6 heads of quadriceps muscle and the screw home mechanism. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscle has 6 heads: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis obliquus, vastus medialis longus, vastus lateralis obliquus and vastus lateralis longus. The fundamental mechanical properties of each head is seperated by insersio and angle of pull. Main design principle was to demostrate all heads with insersio and angle of pull properties. Second design principle was to demostrate the screw-home mechanism which is the result of difference in articular surfaces of medial and lateral of condyles of femur. Results: Final design of the simulator consists of three planes for demostration of angle of pull and pulling forces (patellar plane, proximal and distal planes) of each heads. On each plane channels were graved as origo and insersio for demostration of angle of pull. Distal plane was movable for demostration of pulling forces in different angels of knee flexion and extention. Also proximal plane was adjustable to demostrate different sitting and standing positions. Srew home mechanism was demostrated by specially designed hingle mechanism. Left and right side hingle mechanisms have different radii as femoral condyles and this difference can cause rotation in terminal extension as in the screw home mechanism. Conclusion: Vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis obliquus and screw-home mechanism have clinical significance. We were not able to find

  13. Exploring processing adjuvants’ influence on traditional Chinese medicine compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuming; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Xu, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that when crude Pinelliae rhizome and Pinelliae rhizoma preparatum are combined with Aconiti Radix Cocta respectively, the toxicity of the combination varies. However, the component's transformation between different compatibility have remained unclear. Objective: In this paper, a novel approach using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was established for exploring the influence of processing adjuvants (PAs) on the compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome. Materials and Methods: In order to obtain information about the representative markers between different groups, an exhaustive study of different protocols based on adding or removing different PAs step by step was carried out and the influence of PAs on compatibility was investigated. Results: It was found that lime can facilitate diester diterpenoid alkaloids with high toxicity in Aconiti Radix Cocta to be converted into low-toxic or non-toxic derivatives. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma had no remarkable effect on the process. Conclusion: The established method in this study will be of great significance to process research mechanism and study on traditional Chinese Medicine compatibility and clinical application. PMID:25422550

  14. Recombinant Antigens rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 for Serological Diagnosis of Leptospirosis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Cuilian; Yan, Weiwei; Xiang, Hua; He, Hongxuan; Yang, Maosheng; Ijaz, Muhammad; Useh, Nicodemus; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; McDonough, Patrick L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Mohamed, Hussni; Yang, Zhibang; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Animal leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the United States and around the world. In a previous study, we applied four recombinant antigens, rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 of Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans) for the serological diagnosis of equine leptospirosis (Ye et al, Serodiagnosis of equine leptospirosis by ELISA using four recombinant protein markers, Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 21:478–483). In this study, the same four recombinant antigens were evaluated for their potential to diagnose canine leptospirosis by ELISA. A total of 305 canine sera that were Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (n = 102) and MAT-positive (n = 203) to 5 serovars (Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola and Hardjo) were tested. When individual recombinant antigens were used, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8; 89.7% and 81.4% for rLoa22; 92.6% and 84.3% for rLipL32 and 99.5% and 84.3% for rLipL21, respectively compared to the MAT. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL32, 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL21, 89.7% and 87.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLoa22, 89.7% and 87.3% to rLipL21 and rLoa22, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLipL21 and rLipL32 and 89.2% and 94.1% for rLoa22 and rLipL32 when one of the two antigens was test positive. The use of all four antigens in the ELISA assay was found to be sensitive and specific, easy to perform, and agreed with the results of the standard Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination test (MAT) for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. PMID:25526513

  15. Recombinant antigens rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cuilian; Yan, Weiwei; Xiang, Hua; He, Hongxuan; Yang, Maosheng; Ijaz, Muhammad; Useh, Nicodemus; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; McDonough, Patrick L; McDonough, Sean P; Mohamed, Hussni; Yang, Zhibang; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Animal leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the United States and around the world. In a previous study, we applied four recombinant antigens, rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 of Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans) for the serological diagnosis of equine leptospirosis (Ye et al, Serodiagnosis of equine leptospirosis by ELISA using four recombinant protein markers, Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 21:478-483). In this study, the same four recombinant antigens were evaluated for their potential to diagnose canine leptospirosis by ELISA. A total of 305 canine sera that were Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (n = 102) and MAT-positive (n = 203) to 5 serovars (Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola and Hardjo) were tested. When individual recombinant antigens were used, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8; 89.7% and 81.4% for rLoa22; 92.6% and 84.3% for rLipL32 and 99.5% and 84.3% for rLipL21, respectively compared to the MAT. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL32, 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL21, 89.7% and 87.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLoa22, 89.7% and 87.3% to rLipL21 and rLoa22, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLipL21 and rLipL32 and 89.2% and 94.1% for rLoa22 and rLipL32 when one of the two antigens was test positive. The use of all four antigens in the ELISA assay was found to be sensitive and specific, easy to perform, and agreed with the results of the standard Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination test (MAT) for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. PMID:25526513

  16. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the architecture of collagen fibres in chicken M. iliotibialis lateralis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, H; Tabata, S; Kakakibara, K; Nishimura, S; Gotoh, T; Koga, Y

    2001-07-01

    1. The collagen architecture of M. iliotibialis lateralis in chicken was observed under the scanning electron microscope after muscle maceration in NaOH. 2. Immunohistochemical methods showed Type I and III collagens to be distributed over both perimysium and endomysium. 3. Thick perimysium around secondary myofibre fasciculi was composed of many large longitudinal collagen bundles and a few small circumferential bundles. In contrast, thin perimysium around primary myofibre fasciculi showed mainly circumferential bundles. 4. Endomysium had a honeycomb-like structure and consisted of a fine collagen mesh, its main fibre striation being circumferential. 5. It is suggested that functional demand differs between thick perimysium and thin endomysium.

  17. The effect of lymph drainage on the myoelectric manifestation of vastus lateralis fatigue: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Taian M; Readi, Nathalli G; Schwarcke, Lorenzo; Botter, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Variations in surface electromyograms (EMGs) collected from the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric fatiguing contractions were investigated pre-post lymphatic drainage (intervention group, N=3) and pre-post rest (control group, N=3). The slope of conduction velocity and of EMG amplitude and spectral descriptors was computed from the start to the failure time; the instant after which subjects could not endure contractions. When compared to subjects in the control group, those in the intervention group endured longer. Similarly, muscle fatigue affected to a lesser extent EMGs following lymphatic drainage than following rest. These preliminary results suggest the lymphatic drainage may potentially delay muscle fatigue. PMID:26737823

  18. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica E; Ostrom, Cara E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-04-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24h period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Morgan, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  20. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  1. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica E; Ostrom, Cara E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-04-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24h period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate. PMID:20005230

  2. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Jessica E.; Ostrom, Cara E.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Florant, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009)) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24 hour period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). The reason for the persistence of ghrelin in plasma at this time is unclear, but circulating ghrelin in hibernators may be involved with the control of sleep in these animals. This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate. PMID:20005230

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the molting gland (Y-organ) from the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sunetra; Pitts, Natalie L; Mudron, Megan R; Durica, David S; Mykles, Donald L

    2016-03-01

    In decapod crustaceans, arthropod steroid hormones or ecdysteroids regulate molting. These hormones are synthesized and released from a pair of molting glands called the Y-organs (YO). Cyclic nucleotide, mTOR, and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways mediate molt cycle-dependent phase transitions in the YO. To further identify the genes involved in the regulation of molting, a YO transcriptome was generated from three biological replicates of intermolt blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries generated 227,811,829 100-base pair (bp) paired-end reads; following trimming, 90% of the reads were used for further analyses. The trimmed reads were assembled de novo using Trinity software to generate 288,673 contigs with a mean length of 872 bp and a median length of 1842 bp. Redundancy among contig sequences was reduced by CD-HIT-EST, and the output constituted the baseline transcriptome database. Using Bowtie2, 92% to 93% of the reads were mapped back to the transcriptome. Individual contigs were annotated using BLAST, HMMER, TMHMM, SignalP, and Trinotate, resulting in assignments of 20% of the contigs. Functional and pathway annotations were carried out via gene ontology (GO) and KEGG orthology (KO) analyses; 58% and 44% of the contigs with BLASTx hits were assigned to GO and KO terms, respectively. The gene expression profile was similar to a crayfish YO transcriptome database, and the relative abundance of each contig was highly correlated among the three G. lateralis replicates. Signal transduction pathway orthologs were well represented, including those in the mTOR, TGFβ, cyclic nucleotide, MAP kinase, calcium, VEGF, phosphatidylinositol, ErbB, Wnt, Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, and Notch pathways. PMID:26689334

  4. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  5. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Perry, Matthew C; Kohn, Richard A; Paynter, Kennedy T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  6. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  7. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    PubMed

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (P<0.05) regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX) and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX) and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX). Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B) such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C) such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training. PMID:15493580

  8. Regional Surface Electromyography of the Vastus Lateralis During Strength and Power Exercises.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Stucchi, Diana T; DeMartini, Julie K; Roti, Melissa W

    2016-06-01

    Earp, JE, Stucchi, DT, DeMartini, JK, and Roti, MW. Regional surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis during strength and power exercises. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1585-1591, 2016-Neuromuscular activation during and chronic adaptation from exercise are innately linked and both can vary along a muscle's length. During high-force and high-speed exercise, intramuscular hypertrophy follows set patterns that provide the greatest biomechanical advantages. However, it is unknown if muscle activity as recorded by surface electromyography (sEMG) will follow these patterns. The purpose of the present study was to compare vastus lateralis intramuscular sEMG during the heavy squat (HS) and unloaded jump squat (JS) exercises. Ten subjects performed HS with 80% of maximum load and unloaded JS to parallel-depth, while intramuscular peak sEMG and mean sEMG were measured at 33% (proximal), 50% (middle), and 67% (distal) thigh length. Muscle activity was compared between regions and exercises using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferoni post hoc corrections. Peak sEMG was greater proximally in JS than HS (p = 0.033), but similar in the middle and distal regions (p = 0.521, 0.594, respectively), whereas mean sEMG was similar between all regions (p = 0.150-0.979). In addition, a main effect was found in which peak and mean sEMG were greater proximally than the middle and distal regions (p = 0.001, 0.006). Muscle activity measured using sEMG displayed dissimilar patterns to previously observed regional hypertrophy. Specifically, although previous research found greater proximal hypertrophy in JS than HS, in the present study peak sEMG was greater in HS than JS. Furthermore, distally where HS elicited greater hypertrophy than JS, no differences in sEMG were present. Thus, regional sEMG appears not to be a viable tool for predicting differences in regional hypertrophy, most likely due to technological constraints and intramuscular differences in muscle structure.

  9. Estimation of active force-length characteristics of human vastus lateralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Y; Kawakami, Y; Ito, M; Fukunaga, T

    1997-01-01

    The length and angles of fascicles were determined for the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) using ultrasonography in 6 subjects performing ramp isometric knee extension. The subject increased torque from zero (relax) to maximum (MVC) with the knee positioned every 15 degrees, from 10 degrees to 100 degrees flexion (0 degrees = full extension). As the knee was positioned closer to extension, fascicle length was shorter [116 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SEM) mm at 100 degrees vs. 88 +/- 4.1 mm at 10 degrees (relax)]. The fascicle length of the VL decreased with increasing torque at each knee position [116 +/- 4.7 (relax) to 92 +/- 4.3 mm (MVC) at 100 degrees]. On the other hand, fascicle angles increased with an increase in torque. These changes reflected the compliance of the muscle-tendon complex which increased as the knee reached a straight position. The estimated muscle force of the VL was maximal (2,052 +/- 125 N) for a fascicle length of 78 +/- 2.7 mm (i.e. optimum length) with the knee positioned at 70 degrees of flexion. The relationship between muscle force and fascicle length indicated that the VL uses the ascending (knee < 70 degrees), plateau (70 degrees), and descending regions (> 70 degrees) of the force-length curve.

  10. Effect of eccentric contraction on satellite cell activation in human vastus lateralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Yoko; Kawai, Minako; Mori, Futoshi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    We compared the time-course of satellite cell (SC) activation between eccentric and concentric contractions in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle after step exercise. Young adults participated in a 30-min step up/down exercise which mainly involved concentric contractions with the right VL muscle and eccentric contractions with the left VL muscle. The concentric and eccentric contraction phases of the VL muscles were identified by changes in the electromyogram (EMG) and knee joint angle. Biopsy samples were taken from both VL muscles at three time periods: before the exercise and 2 and 5 days after the exercise. We found that the numbers of SCs were significantly increased in the type IIa fibers of the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise. The expression of both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) mRNA had significantly increased in the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise and in the right VL at 5 days after the exercise. The expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1 mRNA also increased in the left VL at 2 days after exercise. These results indicate that eccentric contraction can effectively activate SC proliferation for up to 5 days after exercise. Similar changes in HGF, MyoD and TRPC1 mRNA expression suggest that HGF/c-Met signal activation through cation influx has a major impact on skeletal muscle SC activation in response to eccentric exercise.

  11. Validity of fascicle length estimation in the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ando, Ryosuke; Taniguchi, Keigo; Saito, Akira; Fujimiya, Mineko; Katayose, Masaki; Akima, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of fascicle length estimation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) using ultrasonography. The fascicle lengths of the VL and VI muscles were measured directly (dFL) using calipers, and were estimated (estmFL) using ultrasonography, in 10 legs from five Thiel's embalmed cadavers. To determine the validity of the estmFLs, FL was estimated using five previously published models and compared with dFL. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of two of the five models were>0.75, indicating that these estimates were valid. Both of these models combined measurement of the length of the visible part of the fascicle with linear extrapolation of the length of the part of the fascicle that was not visible on the sonographic image. The ICCs and absolute% difference were best in models that used appropriate pennation angles. These results suggest that two of the five previously published models are valid for obtaining estmFL of the VL and VI using ultrasonography.

  12. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  13. Reconstruction of the tongue and mouth floor with the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap after cancer ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Liu, K; Shao, Z; Shang, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate a novel approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction using the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap (MVLF). The surgical techniques, benefits, complication rate, and the aesthetic and functional results are described. A series of six patients underwent functional tongue reconstruction between July 2013 and November 2014. The myofascial vastus lateralis flap was obtained as follows: the vastus lateralis muscle was exposed, the neurovascular pedicle was identified, and the myofascial flap was raised. Postoperatively, the neotongue appeared plump and was able to maintain palatal contact. Moreover, no obvious decrease in flap volume was observed during the follow-up period. Most patients experienced good tongue mobility. Further use of the MVLF should confirm whether the mucous membrane on the surface of the flap becomes part of the tongue mucosa in the true sense, whether and how well the patients will recover their sense of taste, and the degree to which quality of life is improved after nerve anastomosis. So far, it appears to be a suitable approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction.

  14. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture.

  15. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture. PMID:20801442

  16. [Expression of thermostable recombiant Luciola lateralis luciferase and development of heat-stable pyrosequencing system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Zou, Bingjie; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Guohua

    2012-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a tool based on bioluminescence reaction for real-time analyzing DNA sequences. The sensitivity of pyrosequencing mainly depends on luciferase in reaction mixture. However, the instability of pyrosequencing reagents caused by fragile wild Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL) in conventional pyrosequencing usually leads to unsatisfied results, which limits the application of pyrosequencing. In order to improve the stability of pyrosequencing reagents, the coding sequences of mutant thermostable Luciola lateralis luciferase (rt-LlL) was synthesized, and inserted into the plasmid of pET28a(+) to express the thermostable rt-LlL with a 6 x His-tag in the N terminal. The purified rt-LlL with the molecular mass of 60 kDa was obtained by Ni-affinity chromatography. The specific activity of rt-LlL was determined as 4.29 x 10(10) RLU/mg. Moreover, the thermostability of rt-LlL was investigated, and the results showed that rt-LlL had activity at 50 degrees C, and remained 90% of activity after incubated at 40 degrees C for 25 min. Finally, rt-LlL was used to substitute commercial Photinus pyralis luciferase in conventional pyrosequencing reagent to get thermostable pyrosequencing reagent. Comparing with conventional pyrosequencing reagent, the thermostable pyrosequencing reagent is more stable, and it's activity would not lose when incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. This study laid foundation of establishing reliable and stable pyrosequencing system which would be applied in Point-of-Care Testing. PMID:23016312

  17. [Morphologic basis for electric stimulation therapy of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles].

    PubMed

    Chomiak, J

    1993-01-01

    Based on knowledge of the pattern of motorend plates in the m. vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL), the author investigated the electrically most excitable sites which can be used in standard procedures of transcutaneous electric stimulation in muscular hypotrophy. The investigation was made in 21 patients, most of them after a reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and one healthy adult. For stimulation and recording of potentials the EMG device Neuromatic 2000 C (Dantec, Scovlunde, Denmark) was used. First by means of a needle electrode the zone of motorend plates was verified. Then the minimal intensities causing muscular contraction and equal amplitude were compared during stimulation of the zone of motorend plates and 2.5 proximal and distal from the zone. The potentials were recorded by means of surface electrodes from distal portions of the muscle bellies. In five patients automatic RTI 50 analysis according to Brismar was used as well as monopolar stimulation where the cathode was placed at different sites above the muscle belly and the anode above the proximal margin of the muscle. The results of evaluation of minimal stimulation intensities of both muscles revealed significantly lowest values during stimulation of the zone of motorend plates (mean VM 8.5 mA, VL 9.9 mA) followed by intensities on stimulation proximally from the zone (VM 18.2 mA, VL 17.5 mA) and the highest intensities were recorded on stimulation of the distal part of the muscle (VM 21.2 mA, VL 25.8 mA). Similarly the results of RTI 50 analysis and monopolar stimulation provide evidence of maximal excitability in the area of the motorend plate zone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae), from Arkansas, USA

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Connior, Matthew B.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Robison, Henry W.

    2014-01-01

    Between February 2011 and January 2014, 75 ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Say, 1823) were collected from 13 counties of Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma, USA, and examined for coccidia. Two (3%) and 11 (15%) S. lateralis were found to be passing oocysts of a new choleoeimerian and isosporan, respectively. Oöcysts of Choleoeimeria ouachitensis n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal with a smooth, colourless, bi– layered wall and measure 27.2 × 15.6 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.8 μm, L/W 1.3; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are present; the walls have two valves joined by longitudinal sutures; a sporocyst residuum consisted of dispersed granules between sporozoites. Oöcysts of Isospora koberi n. sp. are ovoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 25.1 × 20.5 μm, L/W 1.2; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is rarely present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.4 × 8.6 μm, L/W 1.3; a nipple-like Stieda body and a subStieda body are present without a paraStieda body; a sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. This is the second choleoeimerian and third isosporan reported from S. lateralis. PMID:24711115

  19. A refined technique for sciatic denervation in a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) model of disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sarukhanov, Valeri; Van Andel, Roger; Treat, Michael D; Utz, Jenifer C; van Breukelen, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of both muscle and bone can occur rapidly during periods of inactivity. In several rodent models developed for the study of disuse atrophy, immobilization is induced by prolonged cage restraint, hind limb unloading, tenotomy, sciatic nerve block or sciatic denervation. In less tractable species such as wild-caught hibernating rodents, the sciatic denervation model is superior in terms of both animal welfare and applicability to the characteristics of natural cases of disuse atrophy. The authors describe a refined surgical approach to sciatic denervation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), a hibernating species, that improves animal welfare and reduces the incidence of post-operative complications such as autotomy.

  20. ACL reconstructed patients with a BPTB graft present an impaired vastus lateralis neuromuscular response during high intensity running.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kostas; Ziogas, Giorgos; Ristanis, Stavros; Tsepis, Elias; Stergiou, Nicholas; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the electromyographic response of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed leg is similar to that of the intact contralateral leg and healthy controls, during moderate and high intensity running. Fourteen bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) ACL reconstructed amateur soccer players and fourteen healthy control amateur soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) traces from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were collected bilaterally, as athletes ran on a treadmill for 10 min on separate occasions, at moderate and high intensity. The dependent variable examined was the EMG amplitude during stance. During the moderate intensity running, EMG amplitude of the VL did not increase with time for any of the tested legs. During the high intensity running, the EMG amplitude of the VL increased significantly with time for the intact (F=6.747, p=0.001) and the control leg (F=4.258, p=0.008), but remained unchanged for the ACL reconstructed leg. During moderate intensity running, there was no difference in the neuromuscular response of the VL in the reconstructed leg compared to the intact and control leg. High intensity running resulted in an impaired neuromuscular response of the VL in the reconstructed leg compared to the intact and control leg. It seems that potential impairments of the neuromuscular response after ACL reconstruction should be tested under high rather than moderate intensity efforts.

  1. Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Gao, Xiumei; Xia, Ye; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Guerra, Ranieri; Hu, Limin

    2010-01-01

    Background Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. Objective To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. Methods The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). Results In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. Conclusion The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27325938

  2. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  3. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Semik, D; Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Duda, K; Kilarski, W M

    2005-01-01

    Muscle fibre profile area (Af), volume density (Vv), capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF) and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD) were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A), nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B) with the background of 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C) with 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6%) and C (50.5%; 26.4%). However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%). There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD) was 245 (group A), 308 (group B) and 325 (group C). Significant differences (P<0.05) in CF and CD, were found only between group A (1.9; 245) and both groups of trained men, B and C (2.1; 308 and 325). However, endurance athletes (group B), such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C) such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. PMID:15871557

  4. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  5. Do Epigenetic Events Take Place in the Vastus Lateralis of Patients with Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Ausin, Pilar; Martinez-Llorens, Juana; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Several biological mechanisms including epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle atrophy. Investigations conducted so far have focused on the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction in advanced COPD. We assessed whether the epigenetic profile may be altered in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild COPD, normal body composition, and mildly impaired muscle function and exercise capacity. In vastus lateralis (VL) of mild COPD patients with well-preserved body composition and in healthy age-matched controls, expression of DNA methylation, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HTAs) and deacetylases (HDACs), protein acetylation, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligases, and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to healthy controls, in the VL of mild COPD patients, muscle function and exercise capacity were moderately reduced, DNA methylation levels did not differ, miR-1 expression levels were increased and positively correlated with both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and quadriceps force, HDAC4 protein levels were increased, and muscle fiber types and sizes were not different. Moderate skeletal muscle dysfunction is a relevant feature in patients with mild COPD and preserved body composition. Several epigenetic events are differentially expressed in the limb muscles of these patients, probably as an attempt to counterbalance the underlying mechanisms that alter muscle function and mass. The study of patients at early stages of their disease is of interest as they are a target for timely therapeutic interventions that may slow down the course of the disease and prevent the deleterious effects of major comorbidities. PMID:25013984

  6. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  7. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  8. Bioluminescence of a firefly pupa: involvement of a luciferase isotype in the dim glow of pupae and eggs in the Japanese firefly, Luciola lateralis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Furuhashi, Mana; Bessho, Manabu; Sagawa, Shingo; Ikeya, Haruyoshi; Inouye, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    We isolated cDNA for a luciferase isotype, LlLuc2, from the ovary of the Japanese firefly, Luciola lateralis. The gene product LlLuc2 showed 59% amino acid identity with LlLuc1, which had been isolated from the adult L. lateralis lantern. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that LlLuc2 is an orthologue of LcLuc2 from Luciola cruciata. The spectral maxima of the luminescence by recombinant LlLuc1 and LlLuc2 were 550 and 539 nm, respectively. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LlLuc1 was expressed predominantly in larvae and adults, and LlLuc2 was expressed in eggs and pupae, which glow dimly, and we found that the in vivo luminescence spectra of the egg and pupa in L. lateralis were in good agreement with the in vitro luminescence spectrum by LlLuc2. These results suggest that, in L. lateralis, LlLuc1 is responsible for the yellowish luminescence of larval and adult lanterns, and LlLuc2 is responsible for the dim, greenish glow of eggs and whole pupae. Similar results were obtained in L. cruciata.

  9. Does Ecophysiology Determine Invasion Success? A Comparison between the Invasive Boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis and the Native Sigara lateralis (Hemiptera, Corixidae) in South-West Spain

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, Cristina; Calosi, Piero; Boyero, Luz; Green, Andy J.; Bilton, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis, a native of North America, is the only alien corixid identified in Europe. First detected in 1997 in southern Portugal, it has spread into south-west Spain including Doñana National Park. Its impact on native taxa in the same area is unclear, but it is the dominant species in several permanent, saline wetlands. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated whether the ecophysiology of this alien species favours its spread in the Iberian Peninsula and its relative success in saline areas. We compared physiological responses to heating (Critical Thermal maximum), cooling (Critical Thermal minimum) and freezing (Super Cooling Point) in the native Sigara lateralis and introduced T. v. verticalis acclimated to different temperatures and salinities. The larger S. lateralis generally outperformed T. v. verticalis and appeared to possess a broader thermal tolerance range. In both taxa, CTmax was highest in animals exposed to a combination of high conductivities and relatively low acclimation temperatures. However, CTmax was generally higher in T. v. verticalis and lower in S. lateralis when acclimated at higher temperatures. CTmin were lower (greater tolerance to cold) after acclimation to high conductivities in T. v. verticalis, and following acclimation to low conductivities in S. lateralis. Both acclimation temperature and conductivity influenced corixids' freezing tolerance; however, only in T. v. verticalis did SCP decrease after exposure to both high temperature and conductivity. T. v. verticalis showed a higher range of mean responses over all treatments. Conclusions Whilst the native S. lateralis may have a broader thermal range, the alien species performs particularly well at higher salinities and temperatures and this ability may facilitate its invasion in Mediterranean areas. The greater plasticity of T. v. verticalis may further facilitate its spread in the future, as it may be more able to respond to climate

  10. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  11. Observations on variation in the ultrastructure of the proximal testicular ducts of the Ground Skink, Scincella lateralis (Reptilia: Squamata).

    PubMed

    Sever, David M; Rheubert, Justin L; Hill, Toren A; Siegel, Dustin S

    2013-04-01

    The North American Ground Skink, Scincella lateralis, is a member of the most speciose family of lizards, the Scincidae. The only descriptions of the testicular ducts of skinks concern the light microscopy of 13 species in eight other genera. We combine histological observations with results from transmission electron microscopy on a sample of skinks collected throughout the active season. The single rete testis has squamous epithelium with a large, indented nucleus and no junctional complexes between cells or conspicuous organelles. Nuclei of sperm in the rete testis area are associated with cytoplasmic bodies that are lost in the ductuli efferentes. The ductuli efferentes have both ciliated and nonciliated cells and show little seasonal variation except for the narrowing of intercellular canaliculi when sperm are absent. When the ductus epididymis contains sperm, the anterior one-third lacks copious secretory material around luminal sperm, whereas in the posterior two-thirds sperm are embedded in a dense matrix of secretory material. Light and dark principal cells exist and both contain saccular, often distended rough endoplasmic reticula, and widened intercellular canaliculi that bridge intracellular spaces. Junctional complexes are lacking between principal cells except for apical tight junctions. Electron-dense secretory granules coalesce at the luminal border for apocrine release. The cranial end of the ductus deferens is similar in cytology to the posterior ductus epididymis. Each of the nine squamates in which the proximal testicular ducts have been studied with electron microscopy has some unique characters, but no synapomorphies for squamates as a group are recognized.

  12. Geographically pervasive effects of urban noise on frequency and syllable rate of songs and calls in silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A.; Parris, Kirsten M.; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in the Northern Hemisphere have shown that songbirds living in noisy urban environments sing at higher frequencies than their rural counterparts. However, several aspects of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. These include the geographical scale over which such patterns occur (most studies have compared local populations), and whether they involve phenotypic plasticity or microevolutionary change. We conducted a field study of silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) vocalizations over more than 1 million km2 of urban and rural south-eastern Australia, and compared possible effects of urban noise on songs (which are learned) and contact calls (which are innate). Across 14 paired urban and rural populations, silvereyes consistently sang both songs and contact calls at higher frequencies in urban environments. Syllable rate (syllables per second) decreased in urban environments, consistent with the hypothesis that reflective structures degrade song and encourage longer intervals between syllables. This comprehensive study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate varied adaptations of urban bird vocalizations over a vast geographical area, and to provide insight into the mechanism responsible for these changes. PMID:21208948

  13. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injuries☆

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Schäfer, Gabriel Santo; de Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo; Vituri, Rogério Fonseca; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze strength and integrated electromyography (IEMG) data in order to determine the neuromuscular efficiency (NME) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, during the preoperative and postoperative periods; and to compare the injured limb at these two times, using the non-operated limb as a control. Methods EMG data and BF and VL strength data were collected during three maximum isometric contractions in knee flexion and extension movements. The assessment protocol was applied before the operation and two months after the operation, and the NME of the BF and VL muscles was obtained. Results There was no difference in the NME of the VL muscle from before to after the operation. On the other hand, the NME of the BF in the non-operated limb was found to have increased, two months after the surgery. Conclusions The NME provides a good estimate of muscle function because it is directly related to muscle strength and capacity for activation. However, the results indicated that two months after the ACL reconstruction procedure, at the time when loading in the open kinetic chain within rehabilitation protocols is usually started, the neuromuscular efficiency of the VL and BF had still not been reestablished. PMID:26229914

  14. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Park, So-Mi; Yun, Sae-Bom; Lee, Ae-Ran; Lee, Yun-Seob; Yong, Min-Sik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  15. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-kyung; Park, So-mi; Yun, Sae-bom; Lee, Ae-ran; Lee, Yun-seob; Yong, Min-sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  16. Fibre Size and Capillary Supply in Human M.vastus Lateralis after Long-Duration Spaceflight: Effects of Countermeasure Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenkman, Boris S.; Stepantsov, Victor I.; Cheglova, Irina A.; Kulev, Alexander P.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana L.

    1996-01-01

    Muscle fiber atrophy is shown to be induced in human m.vastus lateralis even during short duration spaceflight. A study carried out to evaluate the effects of long duration spaceflight on human skeletal muscle fiber characteristics is reported on. Muscle fiber size and capillary supply were measured in samples obtained from the m.vastus lateralis of astronauts before and after a long duration flight. Most of the astronauts performed more than 80 percent of the recommended exercise training loads in terms of volume and intensity. Very slight fiber changes were found in fiber size and muscle capillary supply indices. It is concluded that the main factor which maintained fiber characteristics in the astronauts was the exercise measures taken by them.

  17. Historical habitat barriers prevent ring-like genetic continuity throughout the distribution of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Swaim, Karen; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequences to examine the mixed effects of geophysical, habitat, and contemporary urban barriers on the genetics of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus), a species with close ties to declining coastal scrub and chaparral habitat in the eastern San Francisco Bay area of California. We used cluster assignments to characterize population genetic structuring with respect to land management units and approximate Bayesian analysis to rank the ability of five alternative evolutionary hypotheses to explain the inferred structure. Then, we estimated rates of contemporary and historical migration among the major clusters and measured the fit of different historical migration models to better understand the formation of the current population structure. Our results reveal a ring-like pattern of historical connectivity around the Tri-Valley area of the East Bay (i.e., San Ramon, Amador, and Livermore valleys), with clusters largely corresponding to different management units. We found no evidence of continuous gene flow throughout the ring, however, and that the main gap in continuity is centered across the Livermore Valley. Historical migration models support higher rates of gene flow away from the terminal ends of the ring on the north and south sides of the Valley, compared with rates into those areas from western sites that border the interior San Francisco Bay. We attribute the break in ring-like connectivity to the presence of unsuitable habitat within the Livermore Valley that has been reinforced by 20th century urbanization, and the asymmetry in gene flow rates to spatial constraints on movement and east–west environmental gradients influenced by the proximity of the San Francisco Bay.

  18. Testing the Role of Meander Cutoff in Promoting Gene Flow across a Riverine Barrier in Ground Skinks (Scincella lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Nathan D.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC) is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river’s diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis) separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1) individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2) individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3) immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4) the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers. PMID:23658778

  19. Repair of proboscis lateralis.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Kemal; Karşidag, Semra; Ozçelik, Derya; Sadikoğlu, Buğra; Baş, Lütfü

    2005-01-01

    We report an 8-year-old girl presented with a proboscis on the right nasal nostril, right heminasal hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and cleft lip and palate on the other side. After repair of the cleft lip and palate and the hypertelorism, we successfully reconstructed the heminose with a V-Y advancement flap containing the proboscis tube. PMID:16019753

  20. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Activity in the Back Squat and Barbell Hip Thrust Exercises.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-12-01

    The back squat and barbell hip thrust are both popular exercises used to target the lower body musculature; however, these exercises have yet to be compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis between the back squat and barbell hip thrust. Thirteen trained women (n = 13; age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; mass = 58.2 kg) performed estimated 10-repetition maximums (RM) in the back squat and barbell hip thrust. The barbell hip thrust elicited significantly greater mean (69.5% vs 29.4%) and peak (172% vs 84.9%) upper gluteus maximus, mean (86.8% vs 45.4%) and peak (216% vs 130%) lower gluteus maximus, and mean (40.8% vs 14.9%) and peak (86.9% vs 37.5%) biceps femoris EMG activity than the back squat. There were no significant differences in mean (99.5% vs 110%) or peak (216% vs 244%) vastus lateralis EMG activity. The barbell hip thrust activates the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris to a greater degree than the back squat when using estimated 10RM loads. Longitudinal training studies are needed to determine if this enhanced activation correlates with increased strength, hypertrophy, and performance.

  1. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1998-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  2. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1997-12-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  3. Effects of visibility and types of the ground surface on the muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-ki; Lee, Dong-yeop; Kim, Jin-Seop; Hong, Ji-Heon; You, Jae-Ho; Park, In-mo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of visibility and types of ground surface (stable and unstable) during the performance of squats on the muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 25 healthy adults in their 20s. They performed squats under four conditions: stable ground surface (SGS) with vision-allowed; unstable ground surface (UGS) with vision-allowed; SGS with vision-blocked; and UGS with vision-blocked. The different conditions were performed on different days. Surface electromyogram (EMG) values were recorded. [Results] The most significant difference in the activity of the VMO and VL was observed when the subjects performed squats on the UGS, with their vision blocked. [Conclusion] For the selective activation of the VMO, performing squats on an UGS was effective, and it was more effective when subjects’ vision was blocked. PMID:26356407

  4. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  5. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  6. Rheb, an activator of target of rapamycin, in the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: cloning and effects of molting and unweighting on expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    MacLea, Kyle S; Abuhagr, Ali M; Pitts, Natalie L; Covi, Joseph A; Bader, Brandon D; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

    2012-02-15

    Molt-induced claw muscle atrophy in decapod crustaceans facilitates exuviation and is coordinated by ecdysteroid hormones. There is a 4-fold reduction in mass accompanied by remodeling of the contractile apparatus, which is associated with an 11-fold increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis by the end of the premolt period. Loss of a walking limb or claw causes a loss of mass in the associated thoracic musculature; this unweighting atrophy occurs in intermolt and is ecdysteroid independent. Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth in mammals; it suppresses protein synthesis, in part, by inhibiting the insulin/metazoan target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Signaling via mTOR activates translation by phosphorylating ribosomal S6 kinase (s6k) and 4E-binding protein 1. Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain), a GTP-binding protein, is a key activator of mTOR and is inhibited by Rheb-GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Akt protein kinase inactivates Rheb-GAP, thus slowing Rheb-GTPase activity and maintaining mTOR in the active state. We hypothesized that the large increase in global protein synthesis in claw muscle was due to regulation of mTOR activity by ecdysteroids, caused either directly or indirectly via Mstn. In the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, a Mstn-like gene (Gl-Mstn) is downregulated as much as 17-fold in claw muscle during premolt and upregulated 3-fold in unweighted thoracic muscle during intermolt. Gl-Mstn expression in claw muscle is negatively correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroid level. Full-length cDNAs encoding Rheb orthologs from three crustacean species (G. lateralis, Carcinus maenas and Homarus americanus), as well as partial cDNAs encoding Akt (Gl-Akt), mTOR (Gl-mTOR) and s6k (Gl-s6k) from G. lateralis, were cloned. The effects of molting on insulin/mTOR signaling components were quantified in claw closer, weighted thoracic and unweighted thoracic muscles using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gl-Rheb m

  7. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  8. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  9. Effects of open and closed kinetic chains of sling exercise therapy on the muscle activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise. PMID:25276016

  10. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-06-01

    Bridging exercise variations are well researched and commonly employed for both rehabilitation and sport performance. However, resisted bridge exercise variations have not yet been compared in a controlled experimental study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography (EMG) amplitude for the barbell, band, and American hip thrust variations. Thirteen healthy female subjects (age = 28.9 y; height = 164.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg) familiar with the hip thrust performed 10 repetitions of their 10-repetition maximum of each variation in a counterbalanced and randomized order. The barbell hip thrust variation elicited statistically greater mean gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the American and band hip thrusts, and statistically greater peak gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the band hip thrust (P ≤ .05), but no other statistical differences were observed. It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.

  11. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-02-01

    Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P ≤ .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

  12. Mosquito Communities and Avian Malaria Prevalence in Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) Within Forest Edge and Interior Habitats in a New Zealand Regional Park.

    PubMed

    Gudex-Cross, David; Barraclough, Rosemary K; Brunton, Dianne H; Derraik, José G B

    2015-09-01

    Forest fragmentation and agricultural development are important anthropogenic landscape alterations affecting the disease dynamics of malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.), largely through their effects on vector communities. We compared vector abundance and species composition at two forest edge sites abutting pastureland and two forest interior sites in New Zealand, while simultaneously assessing avian malaria prevalence in silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). Twenty-two of 240 (9.2%) individual silvereyes captured across all sites tested positive for avian malaria, and Plasmodium prevalence was nearly identical in edge and interior habitats. A total of 580 mosquito specimens were trapped across all sites. These comprised five different species: the introduced Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus; the native A. antipodeus, C. asteliae and C. pervigilans. The known avian malaria vector C. quinquefasciatus was only recorded in the forest edge (mostly at ground level). In contrast, the probable vector C. pervigilans was abundant and widespread in both edge and interior sites. Although frequently caught in ground traps, more C. pervigilans specimens were captured in the canopy. This study shows that avian malaria prevalence among silvereyes appeared to be unaffected by forest fragmentation, at least at the scale assessed. Introduced mosquito species were almost completely absent from the forest interior, and thus our study provides further circumstantial evidence that native mosquito species (in particular C. pervigilans) play an important role in avian malaria transmission in New Zealand.

  13. The effects of squatting with visual feedback on the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis in young adults with an increased quadriceps angle

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of performing squat exercises with visual feedback on the activation of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in young adults with an increased quadriceps angle (Q-angle). [Subjects] This study used a motion analysis program (Dartfish, Switzerland) to select 20 young adults with an increased Q-angle, who were then divided into a squat group that received visual feedback (VSG, n=10) and a squat group that received no visual feedback (SG, n=10). [Methods] The intensity of exercises was increased every two weeks over a six-week exercise period in both groups. A visual marker was attached to the patella of the subjects in the VSG, and they then performed squat exercises with a maximum of 90° of knee flexion within a route marked on a mirror. The SG performed squat exercises with a maximum 90° of knee flexion without attaching a visual feedback device. [Results] Analysis of the muscle activation due to 90° squat exercises indicated that both groups had statistically significant increases in activation of the VL. The VSG exhibited statistically significant increases in activation of the VMO. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that squat exercises with visual feedback are effective in activation of the VMO and VL muscles. The findings are meaningful in terms of preventing the occurrence of patellofemoral pain. PMID:26157251

  14. Quantitative MRI of Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis and Gluteus Medius Muscle Workload after Squat Exercise: Comparison Between Squatting with Hip Adduction and Hip Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Baffa, Augusto P.; Felicio, Lilian R.; Saad, Marcelo C.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Santos, Antonio C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use MRI to quantify the workload of gluteus medius (GM), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in different types of squat exercises. Fourteen female volunteers were evaluated, average age of 22 ± 2 years, sedentary, without clinical symptoms, and without history of previous lower limb injuries. Quantitative MRI was used to analyze VM, VL and GM muscles before and after squat exercise, squat associated with isometric hip adduction and squat associated with isometric hip abduction. Multi echo images were acquired to calculate the transversal relaxation times (T2) before and after exercise. Mixed Effects Model statistical analysis was used to compare images before and after the exercise (ΔT2) to normalize the variability between subjects. Imaging post processing was performed in Matlab software. GM muscle was the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip adduction and VM the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip abduction, while VL was the most active during squat associated with isometric hip adduction. Our data suggests that isometric hip adduction during the squat does not increase the workload of VM, but decreases the GM muscle workload. Squat associated with isometric hip abduction does not increase VL workload. PMID:23486653

  15. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  16. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Scott; Kerhervé, Hugo; Lovell, Geoff P.; Gorman, Adam D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts. Methods Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg−1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs) completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30) or 120 s recovery (REC-120). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) (using near infrared spectroscopy), heart rate (HR) and time motion descriptors (TMD) (speed and distance) were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE) was measured for each bout. Results During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE. Conclusions Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing), in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted. PMID:26919064

  17. Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber size and type in healthy subjects over 40 years old: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gouzi, Fares; Maury, Jonathan; Molinari, Nicolas; Pomiès, Pascal; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a major systemic impairment in chronic diseases. Yet its determinants have been hard to identify because a clear research definition has not been agreed upon. The reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) is a widely acknowledged marker of muscle atrophy, but no reference values for the muscle fiber CSA at the age of the onset of chronic disease have ever been published. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the studies providing data on fiber CSA and fiber type proportion in the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps of healthy subjects (age >40 yr) and then to pool and analyze the data from the selected studies to determine reference values for fiber CSA. We followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and identified 19 studies, including 423 subjects that matched the inclusion criteria. On the basis of fiber type and gender, the mean fiber CSA and the lower limits of normal (LLNs) were (%type I*60) + 1,743 μm(2) and (%type I*60) - 718 μm(2), respectively, for men; and (%type I*70) + 139 μm(2) and (%type I*70) - 1,485 μm(2), respectively, for women. There was no significant heterogeneity among subgroups of fiber type and gender. The pooled type I fiber proportion was 50.3% (LLN = 32.9%). In multivariate analysis, fiber CSA was significantly correlated with Vo2 peak (r = 190.92; P = 0.03), and type I fiber proportion was correlated with age (r = -0.024; P = 0.005), body mass index (r = 0.096; P = 0.005), and Vo2 peak (r = -0.053; P = 0.005). Our metaanalysis of a homogeneous set of studies is the first to provide valuable LLNs for fiber CSA according to fiber type and gender. This analysis will be improved by prospective assessment in well-characterized healthy subjects.

  18. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

    2014-02-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1μM) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

  19. Comparison of the Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Released in the Vastus Lateralis Muscle of Patients with Fibromyalgia and Healthy Controls during Contractions of the Quadriceps Muscle – A Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Löfgren, Monika; Bjersing, Jan; Kosek, Eva; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is associated with central hyperexcitability, but it is suggested that peripheral input is important to maintain central hyperexcitability. The primary aim was to investigate the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the vastus lateralis muscle during repetitive dynamic contractions of the quadriceps muscle in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Secondarily, to investigate if the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were correlated with pain or fatigue during these repetitive dynamic contractions. Material and Methods 32 women with fibromyalgia and 32 healthy women (controls) participated in a 4 hour microdialysis session, to sample IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF from the most painful point of the vastus lateralis muscle before, during and after 20 minutes of repeated dynamic contractions. Pain (visual analogue scale; 0–100) and fatigue Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale; 6–20) were assessed before and during the entire microdialysis session. Results The repetitive dynamic contractions increased pain in the patients with fibromyalgia (P < .001) and induced fatigue in both groups (P < .001). Perceived fatigue was significantly higher among patients with fibromyalgia than controls (P < .001). The levels of IL-1β did not change during contractions in either group. The levels of TNF did not change during contractions in patients with fibromyalgia, but increased in controls (P < .001) and were significantly higher compared to patients with fibromyalgia (P = .033). The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in both groups alike during and after contractions (P’s < .001). There were no correlations between pain or fatigue and cytokine levels after contractions. Conclusion There were no differences between patients with fibromyalgia and controls in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and no correlations between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pain or fatigue. Thus, this study indicates that IL-1β, IL-6, IL

  20. Expression of receptors of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and types I, III and IV collagen in the vastus lateralis muscle of men in early stages of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Serrão, Paula Regina M S; Vasilceac, Fernando A; Gramani-Say, Karina; Lessi, Giovanna C; Reiff, Rodrigo B M; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Cláudia; Mattiello, Stela M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the contractile and non-contractile proteins of the skeletal muscle may reduce muscle function in knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products, particularly in collagen, can influence the quality of these muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reactivity of types I, III and IV collagen and the expression and localization of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in early stages of knee OA. The hypothesis was that these patients present a higher expression of RAGE and increased immunoreactivity in the collagen. Thirty-five men were divided into two groups: the control group (CG; n = 17) and the osteoarthritis group (OAG; n = 18). All participants were submitted to a biopsy of the VL. The muscle samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for collagen and for RAGE and laminin. The expression of RAGE was counted (intracellular, extracellular and total). Student's t-test for independent samples and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the RAGE's intergroup analysis (α ≤ 0.05). A semiquantitative analysis was performed to assess the collagen reactivity. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular, extracellular or total localization of RAGE (p > 0.05). Higher immunoreactivity was observed in the OAG for all types of collagen, with more reactivity for collagen III and IV. We concluded that in the initial stages of knee OA, no differences were observed for RAGE levels between the groups. However, the OAG's higher collagen expression may represent adaptations for reducing muscle stiffness and avoiding injury.

  1. A Novel Method for Evaluating the Cardiotoxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compatibility by Using Support Vector Machine Model Combined with Metabonomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubo; Zhou, Haonan; Xie, Jiabin; Ally, Mayassa Salum; Hou, Zhiguo; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biochemical and histopathological tests have been used to evaluate the safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compatibility for a long time. But these methods lack high sensitivity and specificity. In the previous study, we have found ten biomarkers related to cardiotoxicity and established a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Results showed a good sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, in this study, we used SVM model combined with metabonomics UPLC/Q-TOF-MS technology to build a rapid and sensitivity and specificity method to predict the cardiotoxicity of TCM compatibility. This study firstly applied SVM model to the prediction of cardiotoxicity in TCM compatibility containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and further identified whether the cardiotoxicity increased after Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata combined with other TCM. This study provides a new idea for studying the evaluation of the cardiotoxicity caused by compatibility of TCM.

  2. A Novel Method for Evaluating the Cardiotoxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compatibility by Using Support Vector Machine Model Combined with Metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubo; Zhou, Haonan; Xie, Jiabin; Ally, Mayassa Salum; Hou, Zhiguo; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biochemical and histopathological tests have been used to evaluate the safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compatibility for a long time. But these methods lack high sensitivity and specificity. In the previous study, we have found ten biomarkers related to cardiotoxicity and established a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Results showed a good sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, in this study, we used SVM model combined with metabonomics UPLC/Q-TOF-MS technology to build a rapid and sensitivity and specificity method to predict the cardiotoxicity of TCM compatibility. This study firstly applied SVM model to the prediction of cardiotoxicity in TCM compatibility containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and further identified whether the cardiotoxicity increased after Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata combined with other TCM. This study provides a new idea for studying the evaluation of the cardiotoxicity caused by compatibility of TCM. PMID:27610185

  3. A Novel Method for Evaluating the Cardiotoxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compatibility by Using Support Vector Machine Model Combined with Metabonomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubo; Zhou, Haonan; Xie, Jiabin; Ally, Mayassa Salum; Hou, Zhiguo; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biochemical and histopathological tests have been used to evaluate the safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compatibility for a long time. But these methods lack high sensitivity and specificity. In the previous study, we have found ten biomarkers related to cardiotoxicity and established a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Results showed a good sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, in this study, we used SVM model combined with metabonomics UPLC/Q-TOF-MS technology to build a rapid and sensitivity and specificity method to predict the cardiotoxicity of TCM compatibility. This study firstly applied SVM model to the prediction of cardiotoxicity in TCM compatibility containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and further identified whether the cardiotoxicity increased after Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata combined with other TCM. This study provides a new idea for studying the evaluation of the cardiotoxicity caused by compatibility of TCM. PMID:27610185

  4. The Influence of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. on the Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Main Components in Rheum palmatum L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-xia; Gong, Xiao-hong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ruo-qi; Yuan, An; Zhao, Meng-jie; Zeng, Dai-wen; Peng, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, and the compatibility of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was the basic herb pair applied in many Chinese traditional prescription. Rhubarb anthraquinones were the main bioactive materials of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. To elucidate the compatibility of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, the pharmacokinetics of rhubarb anthraquinones as the main marker constituents were investigated. In the present study, pharmacokinetic differences of rhubarb anthraquinones were detected after oral administration of extract of Rheum palmatum L. and compatibility with Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. After oral administration, no difference of peak time can be found for anthraquinones between rhubarb group and compatibility group. But Cmax and area under the curve of aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol in compatibility group were significantly higher than that in rhubarb group. Although the Cmax of rhein in compatibility group was much lower than that in rhubarb group, the area under the curve value was similar in two groups. The clearance and t1/2 of rhubarb anthraquinone were also changed after compatibility. The change of pharmacokinetics characteristics of rhubarb anthraquinone after compatibility may be caused by the drug-drug interaction medicated by chemical reaction and cytochromes P450.

  5. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  6. Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Wolfe, C A; Bodt, A

    2013-08-01

    Biological shape can be defined as the boundary of a form in 2-space (R(2)). An earlier study (Lestrel et al., 2010, HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol.) of the cranial vault found that there were statistically significant differences between each of the three groups: H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis compared with H. sapiens. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference among the first three groups. These results suggest that these three groups may have formed single evolving lineage while H. sapiens represents a separate evolutionary development. The purpose of the current research was to discern if the mandible reflected a similar pattern as the cranial vault data. This study used lateral jpeg images of the mandible. Five fossil samples were used: A. robustus (n=7), H. erectus (n=12), H. heidelbergensis (n=4), H. neanderthalensis (n=22) and H. sapiens (n=61). Each mandible image was pre-processed with Photoshop Elements. Each image was then submitted to a specially written routine that digitized the 84 points along the mandible boundary. Each mandible was fitted with elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). Procrustes superimposition was imposed to insure minimum shape differences. The mandible results largely mirrored the earlier cranial vault study with one exception. Statistically significant results were obtained for the mandible between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples in contrast to the earlier cranial vault data. F-tests disclosed that the statistical significance was limited to the anterior symphysis of the mandible. This mosaic pattern may be explained by the reduction in prognathism with the concomitant if rudimentary development of the chin as seen in H. neanderthalensis compared to H. erectus. PMID:23769600

  7. Campylorrhinus lateralis, Bilateral microphthalmia and odontoma temporalis in an Oldenburg Foal.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Cornillie, P; Tüllmann, V; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2016-04-01

    An Oldenburg colt with wry nose was autopsied after having lived for only 30 min. It presented cyanotic oral mucosae, underdeveloped eyes and a right-sided temporal osseous mass. The applicable nomenclature for the defects is discussed, and the potential etiopathogenesis is explored by describing the normal embryonic development of the affected body parts.

  8. Systemic and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow and O2 extraction during ramp incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Murias, Juan M; Spencer, Matthew D; Keir, Daniel A; Paterson, Donald H

    2013-05-01

    During ramp incremental cycling exercise increases in pulmonary O2 uptake (Vo2p) are matched by a linear increase in systemic cardiac output (Q). However, it has been suggested that blood flow in the active muscle microvasculature does not display similar linearity in blood flow relative to metabolic demand. This study simultaneously examined both systemic and regional (microvascular) blood flow and O2 extraction during incremental cycling exercise. Ten young men (Vo2 peak = 4.2 ± 0.5 l/min) and 10 young women (Vo2 peak = 3.2 ± 0.5 l/min) were recruited to perform two maximal incremental cycling tests on separate days. The acetylene open-circuit technique and mass spectrometry and volume turbine were used to measure Q (every minute) and breath-by-breath Vo2p, respectively; systemic arterio-venous O2 difference (a-vO2diff) was calculated as Vo2p/Q on a minute-by-minute basis. Changes in near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation (Δ[HHb]) were used (in combination with Vo2p data) to estimate the profiles of peripheral O2 extraction and blood flow of the active muscle microvasculature. The systemic Q-to-Vo2p relationship was linear (~5.8 l/min increase in Q for a 1 l/min increase in Vo2p) with a-vO2diff displaying a hyperbolic response as exercise intensity increased toward Vo2 peak. The peripheral blood flow response profile was described by an inverted sigmoid curve, indicating nonlinear responses relative to metabolic demand. The Δ[HHb] profile increased linearly with absolute Vo2p until high-intensity exercise, thereafter displaying a "near-plateau". Results indicate that systemic blood flow and thus O2 delivery does not reflect the profile of blood flow changes at the level of the microvasculature. PMID:23515617

  9. SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT WITH THE BIVALVE MULINIA LATERALIS: MAXIMIZING TEST ORGANISM PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine and marine sediments are a major repository for many of the more persistent chemicals introduced into surface waters. Approaches used by USEPA to identify a national inventory of contaminated sediment sites include, among other tools, whole-sediment toxicity (presently ...

  10. A study on the effective substance of the Wu-tou formula based on the metabonomic method using UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tengfei; Liu, Shu; Zhao, Jiadi; Feng, Guifang; Pi, Zifeng; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    The Wu-tou formula (WTF) is a Chinese medicine formula which has been applied to treat rheumatic arthritis (RA) and pain of joints for more than a thousand years. In this study, a pharmacodynamics combined urinary metabonomic study using UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS was performed to assess the holistic efficacy of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wu-tou formula for treating RA in rats. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups, named as the healthy control group (HG), the model group (AIA), the WTF group and five single herb groups. The treatment groups and the model group were induced for treating rheumatoid arthritis by using complete Freund's adjuvant. Histological results assessed the joint damage and several biochemical parameters such as IL-1β, TNF-α, SOD and MDA were used to evaluate inflammation injury and oxidative stress. Based on the results, a metabonomic investigation was conducted to study the mechanism of the WTF and single herb treatment groups for treating RA. Multivariate statistical analyses such as PCA and OPLS-DA were used to identify potential biomarkers in urine. As a result, twenty-six potential biomarkers have been found by comparison with the model and the WTF treatment group. The potential biomarkers mainly affect the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathway and the taurine and hypotaurine metabolism pathway. Aconiti Radix Preparata and Ephedrae Herba showed better effects on treating RA from the integrated evaluation by histological results, biochemical parameters and pattern recognition analysis. A comprehensive evaluation of the different therapeutic effects and the mechanism of each herb in the WTF for treating RA was performed in this research. PMID:26338656

  11. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis

  12. Functional and structural changes in m. vastus lateralis and m. vastus medialis in cases of meniscopathy and chondropathia patellae.

    PubMed

    Pieper, K S; Bähr, B; Biskop, M; Paul, B; Gärtner, C; Förster, E

    1986-01-01

    The skeletal muscle undergoes selective cellular changes in the sense of the myopathic and neurogeneous tissue syndrome, in the case of degenerative joint diseases. The occurring FT-fibre atrophy is coupled with a decrease of the glycolytic activity and of the LDH isoenzyme pattern. A neurogeneous component is under discussion.

  13. COLONIZATION UNDER THREAT OF PREDATION: AVOIDANCE OF FISH BY AN AQUATIC BEETLE, TROPISTERNUS LATERALIS (COLEOPTERA : HYDROPHILIDAE). (R825795)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Histomorphology of the proventriculus of three species of Australian passerines: Lichmera indistincta, Zosterops lateralis and Poephila guttata.

    PubMed

    Ogunkoya, Y O; Cook, R D

    2009-08-01

    Histomorphology of the proventriculi of nectarivorous, granivorous and omnivorous passerines was studied. The proventriculus consisted of mucosal, submucosal, muscularis and serosal layers. Proventricular wall was thickest in omnivore, thinnest in granivore and intermediate in nectarivore. The openings of mucosal glands had a single spiral-like fold of mucosa in the omnivorous Silvereye, 2-3 spirals in the granivorous Zebra finch and 4-5 spirals in the nectarivorous Brown honeyeater. The mucosal glands were arranged in a uniform row in the wall of the organ and opened individually via a primary duct to the lumen of the proventriculus. The surface epithelial cells of the tunica mucosa contained secretory cells and the proventricular glands contained endocrine, neck and oxynticopeptic cells. The ultrastructural features of the oxynticopeptic cells changed from the oral to the aboral portion of the gland. In the oral region, the cytoplasm presented numerous, smaller (600-900 nm) homogenously dense zymogen secretory vesicles and larger (0.8-2.3 microm) pale floccular, tubular, mucin-like secretory granules, few small mitochondria and RER while in the aboral portion of the gland, the cytoplasm presented numerous, large mitochondria with closely packed cristae, secondary lysosome and infolding of the basal and apical cell membrane. The tunica sub mucosa was thin with occasional large blood vessels. The tunica muscularis consisted of inner longitudinal, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers. The external tunica serosa contained large bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons that were possibly branches of the intestinal nerve. The structural adaptations of the proventriculi of these three species to their various diets are discussed.

  15. Histomorphology of the proventriculus of three species of Australian passerines: Lichmera indistincta, Zosterops lateralis and Poephila guttata.

    PubMed

    Ogunkoya, Y O; Cook, R D

    2009-08-01

    Histomorphology of the proventriculi of nectarivorous, granivorous and omnivorous passerines was studied. The proventriculus consisted of mucosal, submucosal, muscularis and serosal layers. Proventricular wall was thickest in omnivore, thinnest in granivore and intermediate in nectarivore. The openings of mucosal glands had a single spiral-like fold of mucosa in the omnivorous Silvereye, 2-3 spirals in the granivorous Zebra finch and 4-5 spirals in the nectarivorous Brown honeyeater. The mucosal glands were arranged in a uniform row in the wall of the organ and opened individually via a primary duct to the lumen of the proventriculus. The surface epithelial cells of the tunica mucosa contained secretory cells and the proventricular glands contained endocrine, neck and oxynticopeptic cells. The ultrastructural features of the oxynticopeptic cells changed from the oral to the aboral portion of the gland. In the oral region, the cytoplasm presented numerous, smaller (600-900 nm) homogenously dense zymogen secretory vesicles and larger (0.8-2.3 microm) pale floccular, tubular, mucin-like secretory granules, few small mitochondria and RER while in the aboral portion of the gland, the cytoplasm presented numerous, large mitochondria with closely packed cristae, secondary lysosome and infolding of the basal and apical cell membrane. The tunica sub mucosa was thin with occasional large blood vessels. The tunica muscularis consisted of inner longitudinal, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers. The external tunica serosa contained large bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons that were possibly branches of the intestinal nerve. The structural adaptations of the proventriculi of these three species to their various diets are discussed. PMID:19476450

  16. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  17. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  18. cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling pathway is involved in aggravated cardiotoxicity during Fuzi and Beimu Combination Treatment of Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Pengwei; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Liman; Sun, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Duan, Jinao

    2016-01-01

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) and Fritillariae Thunbergii bulbus (Beimu) have been widely used clinically to treat cardiopulmonary related diseases in China. However, according to the classic rules of traditional Chinese medicine, Fuzi and Beimu should be prohibited to use as a combination for their incompatibility. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the paradox on the use of Fuzi and Beimu combination therapy. Monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rats were treated with either Fuzi, Beimu, or their combination at different stages of PH. We demonstrated that at the early stage of PH, Fuzi and Beimu combination significantly improved lung function and reduced pulmonary histopathology. However, as the disease progressed, when Fuzi and Beimu combination were used at the late stage of PH, right ventricular chamber dilation was histologically apparent and myocardial apoptosis was significantly increased compared with each drug alone. Western-blotting results indicated that the main chemical ingredient of Beimu could down-regulate the protein phosphorylation levels of Akt and PDE4D, whereas the combination of Fuzi and Beimu could up-regulate PKA and CaMKII signaling pathways. Therefore, we concluded that Fuzi and Beimu combination potentially aggravated the heart injury due to the inhibition of PDK1/Akt/PDE4D axis and subsequent synergistic activation of βAR-Gs-PKA/CaMKII signaling pathway. PMID:27739450

  19. Modulation of mitochondrial aconitase on the bioenergy of human prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, Horng-Heng

    2004-03-01

    A bioenergetic theory of prostate malignancy proposed that normal citrate-producing prostate epithelial cell become citrate-oxidizing cells, in which mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) is not limiting, providing the energy required for the onset and progression of malignancy and metastasis. However, no direct evidence has been approved to support the hypothesis. A full-length cDNA encoding human skeletal muscle mACON cDNA was cloned and sequenced. mACON cDNA contains 19-bp 5' untranslated region, a 2343-bp coding segment, and 376-bp 3' untranslated region. This precursor enzyme contains mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acid residues and mature enzyme of 753 amino acids residues. A human anti-mACON overexpression vector containing the 1171-bp mACON cDNA fragment in the reverse orientation was stable transfected into human prostate carcinoma cells, PC-3 and DU145 cells. Results showed that mACON antisense blocked 40-60% mACON expression and enzymatic activity which induced decrease in the intracellular ATP biosynthesis but increase citrate secretion in the human prostate carcinoma cells. mACON antisense-transfected cells have lower cell proliferation ratio than the mock of DNA-transfected cells. Our study demonstrated the key role of the mACON in the cellular bioenergy and cell proliferation of human prostate carcinoma cells. PMID:14972331

  20. Hypoxia upregulates the gene expression of mitochondrial aconitase in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia induces metabolic alteration in cancer cells by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α (HIF1A)), which regulates the bioenergetic genes of glycolysis and lipid metabolic pathways. However, the target genes of hypoxia-induced metabolic alterations in the prostate remain uncertain. Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) (ACONM) is an enzyme that is central to carbohydrate and energy metabolism and is responsible for the interconversion of citrate to isocitrate as part of the citric acid cycle in the human prostate. We evaluated the effects of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia on mACON gene expression in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. Immunoblotting assays revealed that hypoxia modulated mACON and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) protein expression, while these effects were attenuated when HIF-1α was knocked down. Hypoxia induced fatty acid synthase (FASN) in PC-3 cells while hypoxia blocked FASN gene expression in LNCaP cells after 24-h incubation. Results of real-time RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and transient gene expression assays revealed that hypoxia treatment or co-transfection with HIF-1α expression vector enhanced gene expression of mACON, implying that hypoxia modulated mACON at the transcriptional level. Hypoxia-induced mACON promoter activity is dependent on the DNA fragment located at -1013 to -842 upstream of the translation initiation site. l-mimosine, an iron chelator, stabilized HIF-1α but downregulated mACON gene expression, suggesting that iron chelation blocked the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression. These results suggest that hypoxia dysregulates the expressions of LDHA, FASN, and mACON genes, and the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression is via the HIF-1α-dependent and iron-dependent pathways in prostate carcinoma cells. PMID:23709747

  1. Cholesterol modulation of the expression of mitochondrial aconitase in human prostatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2005-06-30

    Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) is the key enzyme for the citrate oxidation in the mitochondrial Krebs cycle. Cholesterol treatment (10 microg/ml of cholesterol and 1 microg/ml of 25-hydroxycholesterol) for 24 h stimulates mACON enzymatic activity in human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3) and hepatoma cells (HepG2). Mevastatin, a cholesterol synthesis antagonist, blocked the effect of cholesterol treatment on mACON. The cholesterol treatment stimulated mACON enzymatic activity, which enhanced the citrate utility but decreased intracellular ATP levels in PC-3 cells. The immunoblotting and transient gene expression assays demonstrated that cholesterol treatment enhances the gene expression of mACON. Mutation of the putative sterol response element (SRE) from GACGCCCCACT to GACGCCCATAT abolished the stimulating effects of cholesterol on the promoter activity of mACON gene. The results suggest that cholesterol treatment induces the mACON gene expression through the SRE signal transduction pathway. Our study demonstrated the deregulation of cholesterol on the citrate metabolism. PMID:16201454

  2. Modulation of iron on mitochondrial aconitase expression in human prostatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, Horng-Heng

    2004-10-01

    The mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster is regarded as the key enzyme for citrate oxidation in the epithelial cells of human prostate. In vitro studies using the human prostatic carcinoma cells, PC-3 cells, found that both hemin and ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) significantly increased mACON enzymatic activity and gene expression. The effect of FAC on mACON was enhanced 2-fold by co-treating with ascorbic acid but blocked by co-treating with iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate. Hemin treatments blocked 30% of citrate secretion from PC-3 cells but upregualted 2-fold of intracellular ATP biosynthesis. Results from reporter assay by using a cytomegalovirus enhance/promoter driven luciferase mRNA ligated to the iron response element (IRE) of mACON as a reporter construct demonstrated that modulation of FAC on gene translation of mACON gene is dependent on the IRE. Transient gene expression assays indicated that upregulation of mACON gene transcription by FAC may through the putative antioxidant response element (ARE) signal pathway. This study provides the first evidence of the biologic mechanism of human mACON gene translation/transcription and suggests a regulatory link between the energy utilization and the iron metabolism in human prostatic carcinoma cells. PMID:15543948

  3. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monosphosphate mediate prolactin regulation of mitochondrial aconitase in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, Horng-Heng

    2004-04-30

    Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) is regarded as the key enzyme for citrate oxidation in human prostatic epithelial cells. The results of RT-PCR and immunoblot assays indicated that human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3 cells) express the long-form of the prolactin receptor. In vitro studies determined that prolactin upregulates mACON enzymatic activity and cell proliferation of PC-3 cells. Immunoblot assay revealed that prolactin treatments increase the gene expression of mACON. Transient gene expression assay indicated that the regulation by prolactin of mACON gene expression depends on the presence of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monosphosphate (cAMP) response element on the promoter of the mACON gene. Both prolactin and dibutyryl-cAMP doubled the promoter activity of the mACON gene; however, adding H-89, a specific protein kinase A inhibitor, suppressed the prolactin response. The intracellular cAMP levels, but not the cGMP levels, increased after treatment with prolactin. This study showed that prolactin regulates the expression of the mACON gene via the cAMP signal pathway in human prostatic carcinoma cells. PMID:15149735

  4. Zinc blocks gene expression of mitochondrial aconitase in human prostatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster as the key enzyme for citrate oxidation in the human prostatic epithelial cell. Although there is accumulating evidence indicating that accumulation of high levels of zinc in prostate epithelial cells causes reduced efficiency of citrate oxidation, zinc regulation on the mACON is still not well understood. From in vitro studies, zinc chloride treatment has been developed using humic acid as the carrier (Zn-HA) in human prostatic carcinoma cells, PC-3. Zn-HA treatment (0.1-10 microM) restricts mACON enzymatic activity, which attenuates citrate utility and decreases intracellular ATP levels in PC-3 cells, whereas the effect is blocked by adding the zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Immunoblot, ribonuclease-protection and transient gene-expression assays indicate that Zn-HA treatments inhibit mACON gene expression. Mutation of the putative metal response element (MRE) from CTCGCCTTCA to TGATCCTTCA abolishes Zn-HA inhibition of mACON promoter activity. Our results have demonstrated that zinc possesses a specific regulatory mechanism on the mACON gene, and a biologic function of the putative metal regulatory system in mACON gene transcription has been identified. PMID:16094633

  5. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are

  6. Upper-body resistance exercise augments vastus lateralis androgen receptor-DNA binding and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling compared to lower-body resistance exercise in resistance-trained men without an acute increase in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of single bouts of lower-body (LB) and upper- and lower-body (ULB) resistance exercise on serum testosterone concentrations and the effects on muscle testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androgen receptor (AR) protein content, and AR-DNA binding. A secondary purpose was to determine the effects on serum wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt4) levels and skeletal muscle β-catenin content. In a randomized cross-over design, exercise bouts consisted of a LB and ULB protocol, and each bout was separated by 1 week. Blood and muscle samples were obtained before exercise and 3 and 24h post-exercise; blood samples were also obtained at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise. Statistical analyses were performed by separate two-way factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No significant differences from baseline were observed in serum total and free testosterone and skeletal muscle testosterone and DHT with either protocol (p>0.05). AR protein was significantly increased at 3 h post-exercise and decreased at 24 h post-exercise for ULB, whereas AR-DNA binding was significantly increased at 3 and 24h post-exercise (p<0.05). In response to ULB, serum Wnt4 was significantly increased at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise (p<0.05) and β-catenin was significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-exercise (p<0.05). It was concluded that, despite a lack of increase in serum testosterone and muscle androgen concentrations from either mode of resistance exercise, ULB resistance exercise increased Wnt4/β-catenin signaling and AR-DNA binding.

  7. Testosterone modulates mitochondrial aconitase in the full-length human androgen receptor-transfected PC-3 prostatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, H-H; Hsieh, M-L; Tsui, K-H

    2004-08-01

    In vitro studies indicated that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulates the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) in androgen-sensitive prostatic carcinoma cells, LNCaP. Cell proliferation assay determined that DHT doubles the optimal proliferation response of LNCaP cells. The androgen-insensitive human prostatic carcinoma cells, PC-3, were overexpressed in the human androgen receptor to assess the involvement of the native androgen receptor in the regulation by DHT of mACON gene expression. A stable-transfected clone that expresses the full-length androgen receptor was selected and termed PCAR9. The results revealed that DHT-treated PCAR9 cells paradoxically not only reduced the enzymatic activity of mACON but also blocked the biosynthesis of intracellular ATP attenuating cell proliferation. Transient gene expression assay indicated that DHT divergently regulates the promoter activity of the mACON gene in LNCaP and PCAR9 cells. This study suggested that DHT regulates mACON gene expression and the proliferation of cells in a receptor-dependent model through modulation by unidentified non-receptor factors. PMID:15291747

  8. A study of speech emotion recognition based on hybrid algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ju-xia; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Zhao; Rao, Yao-quan; Wu, Xiao-pei

    2011-10-01

    To effectively improve the recognition accuracy of the speech emotion recognition system, a hybrid algorithm which combines Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM), All-Class-in-One Neural Network (ACON) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. In SVM and ACON methods, some global statistics are used as emotional features, while in CHMM method, instantaneous features are employed. The recognition rate by the proposed method is 92.25%, with the rejection rate to be 0.78%. Furthermore, it obtains the relative increasing of 8.53%, 4.69% and 0.78% compared with ACON, CHMM and SVM methods respectively. The experiment result confirms the efficiency of distinguishing anger, happiness, neutral and sadness emotional states.

  9. Distinct Signaling Pathways from the Circadian Clock Participate in Regulation of Rhythmic Conidiospore Development in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Alejandro; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Several different environmental signals can induce asexual spore development (conidiation) and expression of developmentally regulated genes in Neurospora crassa. However, under constant conditions, where no environmental cues for conidiation are present, the endogenous circadian clock in N. crassa promotes daily rhythms in expression of known developmental genes and of conidiation. We anticipated that the same pathway of gene regulation would be followed during clock-controlled conidiation and environmental induction of conidiation and that the circadian clock would need only to control the initial developmental switch. Previous experiments showed that high-level developmental induction of the clock-controlled genes eas (ccg-2) and ccg-1 requires the developmental regulatory proteins FL and ACON-2, respectively, and normal developmental induction of fl mRNA expression requires ACON-2. We demonstrate that the circadian clock regulates rhythmic fl gene expression and that fl rhythmicity requires ACON-2. However, we find that clock regulation of eas (ccg-2) is normal in an fl mutant strain and ccg-1 expression is rhythmic in an acon-2 mutant strain. Together, these data point to the endogenous clock and the environment following separate pathways to regulate conidiation-specific gene expression. PMID:12455961

  10. Selective inhibition of the citrate-to-isocitrate reaction of cytosolic aconitase by phosphomimetic mutation of serine-711

    PubMed Central

    Pitula, Joseph S.; Deck, Kathryn M.; Clarke, Stephen L.; Anderson, Sheila A.; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Eisenstein, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is a dual-function protein with mutually exclusive roles as a posttranscriptional regulator of animal-cell iron metabolism or as the cytosolic isoform of the iron–sulfur enzyme aconitase (c-acon). Much effort has focused on the role of IRP1 in posttranscriptional gene regulation and in factors that influence its interconversion with c-acon, but little is known about the metabolic function and regulation of c-acon. The role of PKC-dependent phosphorylation of S711 on IRP1/c-acon function was examined. Phosphorylation state-specific antibodies revealed that S711 is phosphorylated by PKC in vitro and in human embryonic kidney cells treated with a PKC activator. In aco1 yeast, the phosphomimetic mutants S711D and S711E exhibited severely impaired aconitase function, whereas S711A and S711T were unaffected relative to the WT protein. Aconitase activity in yeast extracts displayed a similar pattern when assayed for capacity to convert citrate to isocitrate: WT, S711A, and S711T were active, but S711D and S711E activity was undetectable. In contrast, when measured by the conversion of isocitrate to cis-aconitate, S711D and S711E displayed substantial activity, indicating that phosphorylation impairs the citrate but not isocitrate mode of aconitase function. This possibility was confirmed in vivo by demonstrating that S711D and S711E specifically antagonized the requirement for isocitrate in two metabolic scenarios. Iron-responsive element RNA-binding affinity was unaffected by S711 mutations. Our results show that S711 is a target of phosphorylation capable of conferring distinct effects on c-acon function potentially dictating changes in cytosolic citrate/isocitrate metabolism. PMID:15263083

  11. Mononeuropathy of a distal branch of the femoral nerve in a body building champion

    PubMed Central

    Padua, L; D'Aloya, E; LoMonaco, M; Padua, R; Gregori, B; Tonali, P

    1997-01-01

    A unique case of a body building champion with localised atrophy of the distal portion of the vastus lateralis muscle is reported; neurophysiological evaluation suggests a selective lesion of a distal branch of the vastus lateralis nerve (a motor branch of the femoral nerve). A necroscopic study in four cases was performed to better clarify the site and mechanism of nerve lesion. The data suggest that stretching and compression of the nerve has probably occurred during strenous exercise.

 PMID:9408112

  12. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  13. Goshajinkigan reduces bortezomib-induced mechanical allodynia in rats: Possible involvement of kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Shota; Ushio, Soichiro; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Egashira, Nobuaki

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a Kampo medicine Goshajinkigan (GJG) on the bortezomib-induced mechanical allodynia in von Frey test in rats. The single administration of tramadol (10 mg/kg), GJG (1.0 g/kg) and its component processed Aconiti tuber (0.1 g/kg) significantly reversed the reduction in withdrawal threshold by bortezomib. These effects were abolished by the intrathecal injection of nor-binaltorphimine (10 μg/body), kappa opioid receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that kappa opioid receptor is involved in the effect of GJG on the bortezomib-induced mechanical allodynia.

  14. Mother-to-Children Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Malaria Transmission at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Dao, Nangnéré Ginette Laure; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukédé; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Kafando, Jacques Gilbert; Sombie, Bavouma Charles; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouedraogo, Paul; Ghilat, Nadine; Colizzi, Vittorio; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission. PMID:25506464

  15. Effects of Resistance-Associated NS5A Mutations in Hepatitis C Virus on Viral Production and Susceptibility to Antiviral Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Sayuri; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Mami; Yamada, Norie; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Masaki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kato, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Mamoru; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have potent anti-HCV effects but may provoke resistance-associated variants (RAVs). In this study, we assessed the characteristics of these RAVs and explored efficacious anti-HCV reagents using recombinant HCV with NS5A from a genotype 1b strain. We replaced the NS5A of JFH1 with that of Con1 (JFH1/5ACon1) and introduced known NS5A inhibitor resistance mutations (L31M, L31V, L31I and Y93H) individually or in combination. Susceptibilities against anti-HCV reagents were also investigated. RAVs with Y93H exhibited high extracellular core antigen levels and infectivity titers. Variants with any single mutation showed mild to moderate resistance against NS5A inhibitors, whereas variants with double mutations at both L31 and Y93 showed severe resistance. The variants with mutations exhibited similar levels of susceptibility to interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ3 and Ribavirin. Variants with the Y93H mutation were more sensitive to protease inhibitors compared with JFH1/5ACon1. In conclusion, the in vitro analysis indicated that the Y93H mutation enhanced infectious virus production, suggesting advantages in the propagation of RAVs with this mutation. However, these RAVs were susceptible to protease inhibitors. Thus, a therapeutic regimen that includes these reagents is a promising means to eradicate these RAVs. PMID:27703205

  16. Diagnostic sensitivity of subjective and quantitative laryngeal ultrasonography for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in horses.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Heather J; Yeager, Amy E; Cheetham, Jonathan; Ducharme, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is the most common cause of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses and causes neurogenic atrophy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, including the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle. Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy results in paresis to paralysis of the vocal fold and arytenoid cartilage, which limits performance through respiratory compromise. Ultrasound has previously been reported to be a useful diagnostic technique in horses with RLN. In this report, the diagnostic sensitivity of subjective and quantitative laryngeal ultrasonography was evaluated in 154 horses presented for poor performance due to suspected upper airway disease. Ultrasonographic parameters recorded were: cricoarytenoideus lateralis echogenicity (subjective and quantitative), cricoarytenoideus lateralis thickness, vocal fold movement, and arytenoid cartilage movement. Ultrasonographic parameters were then compared with laryngeal grades based on resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy. Subjectively increased left cricoarytenoideus lateralis echogenicity yielded a sensitivity of 94.59% and specificity of 94.54% for detecting RLN, based on the reference standard of exercising laryngeal endoscopy. Quantitative left cricoarytenoideus lateralis echogenicity values differed among resting laryngeal grades I-IV. Findings from this study support previously published findings and the utility of subjective and quantitative laryngeal ultrasound as diagnostic tools for horses with poor performance.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

    1988-08-08

    We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by (125I)-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei.

  18. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  19. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes.

  20. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes. PMID:22344718

  1. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2005

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2006-01-26

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. This property is held in ownership by the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The 2005 Recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with only two species: Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (RLF). Note: the whipsnake subspecies existing at S300 shows taxonomic variation (generally 50% chaparral whipsnake [Masticophis lateralis] traits) when compared to the Alameda whipsnake (Riemer 1954) and therefore it will be referred to as ''California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis)'' (CWS) for classification purposes in this report (Swaim 2004).

  2. PubMed Central

    Pellini, R.; Mercante, G.; Pichi, B.; Manciocco, V.; Marchesi, P.; Ferreli, F.; Spriano, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. PMID:27734986

  3. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments. PMID:27676445

  4. Remediation of contaminated marine sediment using thin-layer capping with activated carbon--a field experiment in Trondheim harbor, Norway.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Kruså, Marie Elmquist; Breedveld, Gijs D; Eek, Espen; Oen, Amy M P; Arp, Hans Peter H; Raymond, Caroline; Samuelsson, Göran; Hedman, Jenny E; Stokland, Øystein; Gunnarsson, Jonas S

    2011-07-15

    In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers. Compared to the reference field, AC capping reduced fluxes by a factor of 2-10. Pore water PAH concentration profiles were measured in situ using a new passive sampler technique, and yielded a reduction factor of 2-3 compared to the reference field. The benthic macrofauna composition and biodiversity were affected by the AC amendments, AC + clay having a lower impact on the benthic taxa than AC-only or AC + sand. In addition, AC + clay gave the highest AC recoveries (60% vs 30% for AC-only and AC + sand) and strongest reductions in sediment-to-water PAH fluxes and porewater concentrations. Thus, application of an AC-clay mixture is recommended as the optimal choice of the currently tested thin-layer capping methods for PAHs, and more research on optimizing its implementation is needed. PMID:21671651

  5. Forced, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise suppresses apoptosis by increasing the level of NGF and stimulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in the hippocampus of induced aging rats.

    PubMed

    Chae, Chang-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Tae

    2009-09-01

    While nerve growth factor (NGF) activates various signaling cascades, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway plays a pivotal role in controlling the survival of neurons, although this activity declines during the aging process. We investigated the effect of forced moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on the level of NGF and the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of induced aging rats. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: (1) control group, in which aging was not induced (CON: n=15), (2) aging-control group, in which aging was induced but the rats were not subjected to exercise (ACON: n=15), and (3) the aging-exercise group, in which aging was induced and the rats were subjected to treadmill exercise (AEX: n=15). d-Galactose (50mg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavity for 8 weeks to induce aging. Rats were subjected to treadmill exercise 5 days a week for 8 weeks, and the speed of the treadmill was gradually increased. The protein levels of NGF, P-PI3-K, and P-Akt were significantly high in the AEX group (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively). Tyrosine kinase A (Trk A) receptor level was significantly higher in the CON and AEX groups than in the ACON group (p<0.01). TUNEL assay showed a significant reduction in apoptosis in the AEX group (p<0.001). Caspase-3 activation was significantly decreased in the AEX and CON groups (p<0.05). These results show that forced moderate-intensity treadmill exercise increases the level of NGF and activates P-PI3-K to induce P-Akt in order to suppress apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus of induced aging rats.

  6. An uncommon case of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in covered bladder exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Carlo; Vella, Marco; Fontana, Dario; Scalici Gesolfo, Cristina; Oieni, Sebastiano; Toia, Francesca; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a woman affected by covered exstrophy, uterus didelphys and external genital malformation presenting with advanced bladder cancer. After neoadjuvant therapy and anterior pelvic exenteration, the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a pedicled myocutaneous muscle-sparing vastus lateralis flap. PMID:27583267

  7. Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. Materials and Method Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets), Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20–90°). Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage. Results Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (p<0.05). There was no sex difference in isometric torque loss and muscle soreness post exercise induced muscle damage (p>0.05). Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (p<0.05), and remained higher when maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on isometric torque loss, there is no sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage. PMID:26986066

  8. Corazonin in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corazonin is a peptidergic neurohormone of insects which is expressed in neurosecretory neurons of the pars lateralis of the protocerebrum and transported via nervi corpus cardiaci in the storage lobes of the corpora cardiaca. This peptide occurs with a single isofomr in all insects studied so far,...

  9. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  10. An unusual congenital facial anomaly: erectile proboscis-like structure.

    PubMed

    Mutaf, Mehmet; Isik, Dağhan; Büyükgüral, Berker

    2006-07-01

    We report a 3-week-old male infant with an unusual congenital facial anomaly, which is characterized by a proboscis-like erectile structure arising from the right malar region. Although it is a tubular structure resembling the proboscis lateralis, this case was more likely to be a new congenital anomaly because of the following reasons: (1) in contrast with the proboscis lateralis, which originates from the medial portion of the orbital roof, the structure was located at the right malar region in our case; (2) although it was soft and freely dangling on the face, this proboscis-like structure was strongly erectile, with contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle when the infant cried; (3) histopathological examination revealed that the structure was composed by normal fibroadipose tissue and striated muscle covered with a healthy skin and subcutaneous tissue. In contrast with histopathological characteristics of a proboscis lateralis, there was neither osteocartilaginous tissue nor mucosa in the structure. Although it is a typical finding for a proboscis lateralis, no lumen was found in the presented anomaly. Because of these unique characteristics, which remarkably differ from previously reported facial anomalies, we thought this case worth reporting. A literature review revealed that no similar case has been reported in the literature. PMID:16799319

  11. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  12. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome during single leg triple hop test.

    PubMed

    Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-09-01

    Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group). Kinematic and EMG data ware collected through participants performed a single session of the SLTHT. The PFPS group exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the EMG activity of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles, when compared with the healthy group in pre-activity and during the stance phase. This same result was also found for the vastus lateralis muscle (p<0.05) when analyzing the EMG activity during the eccentric phase of the stance phase. In kinematic analysis, no significant differences were found between the groups. These results indicate that biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles mainly during the pre-activation phase and stance phases of the SLTHT are more active in PFPS group among healthy group.

  13. Using EMGs and kinematics data to study the take-off technique of experts and novices for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise.

    PubMed

    Bassement, Maud; Garnier, Cyril; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Watelain, Eric; Lepoutre, François-Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to characterise the electromyographic activity and kinematics exhibited during the performance of take-off for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise, for different expertise levels. Two groups (experts and novices) participated in this study. Both groups were asked to execute their take-off technique for that specific exercise. Among the kinematics variables studied, the knee, hip and ankle angles and the hip and knee angular velocities were significantly different. There were also significant differences in the EMG variables, especially in terms of (i) biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis activity at touchdown and (ii) vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis activity during take-off. During touchdown, the experts tended to increase the stiffness of the take-off leg to decrease braking. Novices exhibited less stiffness in the take-off leg due to their tendency to maintain a tighter knee angle. Novices also transferred less energy forward during take-off due to lack of contraction in the vastus lateralis, which is known to contribute to forward energy transfers. This study highlights the differences in both groups in terms of muscular and angular control according to the studied variables. Such studies of pole vaulting could be useful to help novices to learn expert's technique.

  14. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVLVE, MULINIA LATERLALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for utilizing the dwarf surf clam, Mulinia lateralis, to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A mult...

  15. High intensity running results in an impaired neuromuscular response in ACL reconstructed individuals.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kostas; Ziogas, Giorgos; Ristanis, Stavros; Tsepis, Elias; Stergiou, Nicholas; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2009-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction reestablishes electromyographic activity during moderate activities such as walking but is unclear if this is also the case in sports activities such as high intensity running that results in accumulation of metabolic fatigue. Nine bone-patella tendon-bone ACL reconstructed athletes were evaluated 19.2 (5.7) months post-operatively using a telemetric electromyographic system. The neuromuscular response of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles was tested bilaterally on separate occasions during 10 min running at moderate intensity (20% below the lactate threshold) and 10 min running at high intensity (40% above the lactate threshold). During moderate intensity running, electromyographic activity did not change for either leg. During high intensity running, electromyographic activity did not change for the vastus lateralis of the ACL reconstructed leg [267.8 (142.8)-263.8 (128.9) microV, P > 0.05] while it increased significantly [294.2 (120.6)-317.1 (140.5) microV, P = 0.03] for the vastus lateralis of the intact leg. High intensity exercise that is associated with accumulation of metabolic fatigue, results in an impaired neuromuscular response for the vastus lateralis muscle of the ACL reconstructed leg.

  16. Reliability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Determining Muscle Oxygen Saturation during Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Krista G.; Daigle, Karen A.; Patterson, Patricia; Cowman, Jason; Chelland, Sara; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is currently used to assess changes in the oxygen saturation of the muscle during exercise. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in determining muscle oxygen saturation (StO[subscript 2]) in the vastus lateralis during cycling and the gastrocnemius during running…

  17. Local muscle oxygen consumption related to external and joint specific power.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of external work rate on joint specific power and the relationship between knee extension power and vastus lateralis muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). We measured kinematics and pedal forces and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint power for the hip, knee and ankle joints during an incremental cycling protocol performed by 21 recreational cyclists. Vastus lateralis mVO2 was estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy with an arterial occlusion. The main finding was a non-linear relationship between vastus lateralis mVO2 and external work rate that was characterised by an increase followed by a tendency for a levelling off (R(2)=0.99 and 0.94 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). When comparing 100W and 225W, there was a ∼43W increase in knee extension but still a ∼9% decrease in relative contribution of knee extension to external work rate resulting from a ∼47W increase in hip extension. When vastus lateralis mVO2 was related to knee extension power, the relationship was still non-linear (R(2)=0.99 and 0.97 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). These results demonstrate a non-linear response in mVO2 relative to a change in external work rate. Relating vastus lateralis mVO2 to knee extension power showed a better fit to a linear equation compared to external work rate, but it is not a straight line.

  18. [Mining analysis on composition and medication of menstruation prescriptions in Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-qing; Che, Yu-xia

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, menstruation prescriptions were selected from "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" and analyzed by using GRI algorithm, correlation analysis, hierarchical clustering method through SPSS, Clementine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary systems, in order to screen out 15 menopathy prescriptions, which involve 45 traditional Chinese medicine herbs. In the study, blood-tonifying and qi-tonifying herbs were found to be frequent in the prescriptions. The most frequent single herb was white paeony root, accounting for 9.6% in the total number of prescriptions; The most frequent herb pairs were white paeony root-radix rehmanniae preparata and paeony root-angelica sinensis. Among Fu Shan's menopathy prescriptions, 61 herbal pairs showed a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.05, which evolved into 16 pairs of core combinations. The analysis showed that menopathy prescriptions in volume 1 of "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" focused on tonic traditional Chinese medicines involving liver, spleen and kidney and were adjusted according to changes in qi, blood, cold, hot and wet, which could provide a specific reference for further studies on Fu Shan's academic thoughts and traditional Chinese medicine clinical treatment of menopathy.

  19. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  20. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  1. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  2. Diabetic Osteoporosis: A Review of Its Traditional Chinese Medicinal Use and Clinical and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rufeng; Zhu, Ruyuan; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yubo; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Fengwei; Li, Hongjun; Li, Yu; Fu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The incidence of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is increasing due to lack of effective management over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) suitability in the pathogenesis and clinical and preclinical management of DOP. Methods. Literature sources used were from Medline (Pubmed), CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database), and CSTJ (China Science and Technology Journal Database) online databases. For the consultation, keywords such as diabetic osteoporosis (DOP), TCM, clinical study, animal experiment, toxicity, and research progress were used in various combinations. Around 100 research papers and reviews were visited. Results. Liver-spleen-kidney insufficiency may result in development of DOP. 18 clinical trials are identified to use TCM compound prescriptions for management of patients with DOP. TCM herbs and their active ingredients are effective in preventing the development of DOP in streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan as well as STZ combined with ovariectomy insulted rats. Among them, most frequently used TCM herbs in clinical trials are Radix Astragali, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, and Herba Epimedii. Some of TCM herbs also exhibit toxicities in clinical and preclinical research. Conclusions. TCM herbs may act as the novel sources of anti-DOP drugs by improving bone and glucolipid metabolisms. However, the pathogenesis of DOP and the material base of TCM herbs still merit further study.

  3. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying.

    PubMed

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  4. Diabetic Osteoporosis: A Review of Its Traditional Chinese Medicinal Use and Clinical and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rufeng; Zhu, Ruyuan; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yubo; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Fengwei; Li, Hongjun; Li, Yu; Fu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The incidence of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is increasing due to lack of effective management over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) suitability in the pathogenesis and clinical and preclinical management of DOP. Methods. Literature sources used were from Medline (Pubmed), CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database), and CSTJ (China Science and Technology Journal Database) online databases. For the consultation, keywords such as diabetic osteoporosis (DOP), TCM, clinical study, animal experiment, toxicity, and research progress were used in various combinations. Around 100 research papers and reviews were visited. Results. Liver-spleen-kidney insufficiency may result in development of DOP. 18 clinical trials are identified to use TCM compound prescriptions for management of patients with DOP. TCM herbs and their active ingredients are effective in preventing the development of DOP in streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan as well as STZ combined with ovariectomy insulted rats. Among them, most frequently used TCM herbs in clinical trials are Radix Astragali, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, and Herba Epimedii. Some of TCM herbs also exhibit toxicities in clinical and preclinical research. Conclusions. TCM herbs may act as the novel sources of anti-DOP drugs by improving bone and glucolipid metabolisms. However, the pathogenesis of DOP and the material base of TCM herbs still merit further study. PMID:27698674

  5. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  6. A microcalorimetric study of the sodium-potassium-pump and thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fagher, B; Sjögren, A; Monti, M

    1987-11-01

    Thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle was monitored by measurement of heat production using perfusion microcalorimetry. Heat production significantly correlated with relative body weight. The energy expenditure of the Na-K-pump (delta P), assessed after inhibition by ouabain in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and insulin, amounted to 6% of the total heat production in vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle potassium positively correlated with delta P (r = 0.84, P less than 0.005). For rectus abdominis muscle delta P was 8-15%; 95% confidence interval for the difference was 3-5% when comparison was made with vastus lateralis. The finding of a positive relationship between delta P and muscle magnesium (r = 0.68, P less than 0.04) is possibly explained by the dependence of ATP hydrolysis on internal magnesium. Our data on resting thermogenesis in small muscle samples agree to previous estimates of O2 consumption in human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  7. Genomic relationships among diploid and hexaploid species of Andropogon (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Norrmann, G; Hanson, L; Renvoize, S; Leitch, I J

    2004-12-01

    Andropogon is a pantropical grass genus comprising 100-120 species and found mainly in the grasslands of Africa and the Americas. While the genomic relationships between many Andropogon species have been resolved by studying chromosome behavior in interspecific hybrids, relationships between the North and South American diploids have remained elusive. Further, the genome composition of two hexaploid species (including the important forage grass Andropogon lateralis Nees) has been unclear because of the strong hybridization barriers that exist between species. Consequently, genomic in situ hybridization was applied to shed light on these issues. The results confirmed that (i) both the South American (Andropogon selloanus (Hack.) Hack., Andropogon macrothrix Trin.) and North American (Andropogon gyrans Michx.) diploid species shared a common S genome and (ii) the S genome comprises just one of the three genomes in the hexaploids A. lateralis Nees and Andropogon bicornis L. The evolutionary and taxonomic implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles.

  9. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. PMID:25766420

  10. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. PMID:27630416

  11. Potential pitfall of the EndoButton.

    PubMed

    Simonian, P T; Behr, C T; Stechschulte, D J; Wickiewicz, T L; Warren, R F

    1998-01-01

    A clinical and cadaveric example show the EndoButton (Acufex Microsurgical Inc, Mansfield, MA), used for anterior cruciate ligament endoscopic fixation, flipping outside the extensor mechanism or vastus lateralis rather than flipping directly outside the lateral femoral cortex. This pitfall was caused by overdrilling the femoral socket beyond the recommended 6 mm and overadvancing the EndoButton beyond the required depth to flip the EndoButton. Overdrilling the femoral socket to a depth of 10 mm still allows the EndoButton to rest properly on the cortex without soft tissue interposition. Increasing angles of knee flexion at the time of Endobutton placement decrease the safe distance beyond the lateral femoral cortex for flipping without soft tissue interposition. There is also potential to flip the EndoButton within the substance of the vastus lateralis, but the flipping action is blunted and not discrete.

  12. Muscle oxygen saturation heterogeneity among leg muscles during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether O(2) saturation in several leg muscles changes as exercise intensity increases. Twelve healthy young males performed 20 W/min ramp bicycle exercise until exhaustion. Pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was monitored continuously during the experiments to determine peak oxygen uptake. Muscle O(2) saturation (SmO(2)) was also monitored continuously at the belly of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Although the VL muscle mainly contributes during cycling exercise, deoxygenation was enhanced not only in the VL muscle but also in the other thigh muscles and lower leg muscles with increased exercise intensity. Furthermore, SmO(2) response during ramp cycling exercise differed considerably between leg muscles.

  13. Taxonomic review of the tree frog genus Rhacophorus from the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of ontogenetic colour changes and reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Biju, S D; Kamei, Rachunliu G; Mahony, Stephen; Thomas, Ashish; Garg, Sonali; Sircar, Gargi; Suyesh, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Western Ghats species from the genus Rhacophorus is presented. Based on museum studies and new collections from localities spanning the known range of Western Ghats Rhacophorus, we review the four known species of this genus, their type specimens, current taxonomic status and their geographic distribution on the basis of morphological and molecular data. The holotypes of Rhacophorus calcadensis, R. lateralis and R. nialabaricus are redescribed. The previously unidentified holotype of Rhacophorus inalabaricus is herein fixed. Descriptions of ontogenetic colour change (OCC) in the Western Ghats Rhacophorus are provided and we conjecture the taxonomic utility of OCC. Additionally we provide observations on nesting behaviour of each species, and report multiple male participation during amplexus, oviposition and foam nest construction in R. lateralis and R. malabaricus.

  14. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. PMID:27630416

  15. Effects of resistance training on force steadiness and common drive.

    PubMed

    Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S; Dillon, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an 8-week resistance training program on force steadiness and common drive for the vastus lateralis muscle. Eight untrained men performed a resistance training program. Before the program and at the end of each week, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis. The signals were decomposed into action potential trains that were cross-correlated to measure common drive. Force steadiness was quantified as the standard deviation of force during the constant-force portion of the trapezoid muscle action. The training program did not consistently affect force steadiness or common drive for any of the subjects. Although future studies are needed with different muscles and training programs, changes in the overall motor control scheme are not likely with resistance training.

  16. Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism of leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, T; Ara, I; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, B; Olmedillas, H; Santana, A; Helge, J W; Calbet, J A L; Guerra, B

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether obesity-associated leptin resistance could be due to down-regulation of leptin receptors (OB-Rs) and/or up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle, which blunt janus kinase 2-dependent leptin signalling and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and reduce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 men: 10 non-obese control subjects (mean +/- s.d. age, 31 +/- 5 years; height, 184 +/- 9 cm; weight, 91 +/- 13 kg; and percentage body fat, 24.8 +/- 5.8%) and 10 obese (age, 30 +/- 7 years; height, 184 +/- 8 cm; weight, 115 +/- 8 kg; and percentage body fat, 34.9 +/- 5.1%). Skeletal muscle OB-R170 (OB-R long isoform) protein expression was 28 and 25% lower (both P < 0.05) in arm and leg muscles, respectively, of obese men compared with control subjects. In normal-weight subjects, SOCS3 protein expression, and STAT3, AMPKalpha and ACCbeta phosphorylation, were similar in the deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles. In obese subjects, the deltoid muscle had a greater amount of leptin receptors than the vastus lateralis, whilst SOCS3 protein expression was increased and basal STAT3, AMPKalpha and ACCbeta phosphorylation levels were reduced in the vastus lateralis compared with the deltoid muscle (all P < 0.05). In summary, skeletal muscle leptin receptors and leptin signalling are reduced in obesity, particularly in the leg muscles.

  17. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae). PMID:27615933

  18. Wildlife studies of Site 300 emphasizing rare and endangered species: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, S.

    1986-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive wildlife species on Site 300 that might be affected by Site operations and developments. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 15 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

  19. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  20. Angiogenesis-related factors in skeletal muscles of COPD patients: roles of angiopoietin-2.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Sigala, Ioanna; Vassilokopoulos, Theodoros; Harel, Sharon; Guo, Yeting; Debigare, Richard; Maltais, Francois; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2013-05-01

    The role of angiogenesis factors in skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. The first objective of this study was to assess various pro- and antiangiogenic factor and receptor expressions in the vastus lateralis muscles of control subjects and COPD patients. Preliminary inquiries revealed that angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is overexpressed in limb muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 promotes skeletal satellite cell survival and differentiation. Factors that are involved in regulating muscle ANGPT2 production are unknown. The second objective of this study was to evaluate how oxidants and proinflammatory cytokines influence muscle-derived ANGPT2 expression. Angiogenic gene expressions in human vastus lateralis biopsies were quantified with low-density real-time PCR arrays. ANGPT2 mRNA expressions in cultured skeletal myoblasts were quantified in response to proinflammatory cytokine and H2O2 exposure. Ten proangiogenesis genes, including ANGPT2, were significantly upregulated in the vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 mRNA levels correlated negatively with forced expiratory volume in 1 s and positively with muscle wasting. Immunoblotting confirmed that ANGPT2 protein levels were significantly greater in muscles of COPD patients compared with control subjects. ANGPT2 expression was induced by interferon-γ and -β and by hydrogen peroxide, but not by tumor necrosis factor. We conclude that upregulation of ANGPT2 expression in vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients is likely due to oxidative stress and represents a positive adaptive response aimed at facilitating myogenesis and angiogenesis.

  1. A research on the effects of practicing Baduanjin on the lower extremities by using sEMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Li; Li, Ran; Chen, Jing; Tian, Ye

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of practicing Baduanjin exercises on the lower extremities of subjects, using electromyography analysis, and values of IEMG were calculated. [Subjects] Forty, healthy adults were randomly assigned as subjects to two groups: SG (Study Group, n=20) who received twelve weeks of Baduanjin training, and CG (Control Group, n=20), who received no training. [Methods] A sixteen-channel sEMG system (ME6000, Mega Electronics Ltd., Kuopio, Finland) was selected to record and measure activity changes in two muscles (vastus medialis and vastus lateralis). [Results] After twelve-week of Baduanjin training, the results of this study showed that the SG group had significant increases in values of IEMG in second, fifth and seventh section of the Baduanjin exercises. In second section, the values of IEMG had increased for 56.95% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and for 40.04% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). In fifth section, the values of IEMG had increased for 37.61% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and for 33.83% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). In seventh section, the increasement of IEMG values was 47.19% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and 49.31% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). [Conclusion] This study indicated that performing twelve-week of Baduanjin training can significantly increase the strength and the physical function of the lower extremities among healthy adults. With no adverse events from exercise were reported during the training procedure, the safety and low intensity of Baduanjin exercise was also proved, it could be widely taken as an appropriate no-risk treatment exercise for healthy adults.

  2. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  3. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles. PMID:26357447

  4. Muscle activity in the lower limbs during push-down movement with a new active-exercise apparatus for the leg

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Irie, Shun; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lower-limb deep vein thrombosis is a complication of orthopedic surgery. A leg-exercise apparatus named “LEX” was developed as a novel active-exercise apparatus for deep vein thrombosis prevention. Muscle activity was evaluated to assess the effectiveness of exercise with LEX in the prevention. [Subjects] Eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Muscle activities were determined through electromyography during exercise with LEX [LEX (+)] and during active ankle movements [LEX (−)]. The end points were peak % maximum voluntary contraction and % integrated electromyogram of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus. [Results] LEX (+) resulted in higher average values in all muscles except the tibialis anterior. Significant differences were noted in the peak of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius and in the integrated electromyogram of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. The LEX (+)/LEX (−) ratio of the peak was 2.2 for the biceps femoris and 2.0 for the gastrocnemius . The integrated electromyogram was 1.8 for the gastrocnemius, 1.5 for the rectus femoris, 1.4 for the vastus lateralis, and 1.2 for the soleus. [Conclusion] Higher muscle activity was observed with LEX (+). LEX might be a good tool for increasing lower-limb blood flow and deep vein thrombosis prevention. PMID:27134410

  5. Evidence of muscular adaptations within four weeks of barbell training in women.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Mota, Jacob A; Hernandez, Jennah M; Akalonu, Chibuzo C; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the time course of neuromuscular and hypertrophic adaptations associated with only four weeks of barbell squat and deadlift training. Forty-seven previously untrained women (mean±SD, age=21±3years) were randomly assigned to low volume training (n=15), moderate volume training (n=16), and control (n=16) groups. The low and moderate volume training groups performed two and four sets, respectively, of five repetitions per exercise, twice a week. Testing was performed weekly, and included dual X-ray absorptiometry and vastus lateralis and rectus femoris B-mode ultrasonography. Bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the leg extensors. Significant increases in lean mass for the combined gynoid and leg regions for the low (+0.68kg) and moderate volume (+0.47kg) groups were demonstrated within three weeks. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were shown for leg lean mass, vastus lateralis thickness and pennation angle, and peak torque, but EMG amplitude was unaffected. These findings demonstrated rapid muscular adaptations in response to only eight sessions of back squat and deadlift training in women despite the absence of changes in agonist-antagonist EMG amplitude. PMID:26583966

  6. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ≥25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (p<0.05), mean vastus lateralis activation during squatting and lunging (p<0.05), and knee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women.

  7. Comparative analysis of speed's impact on muscle demands during partial body weight support motor-assisted elliptical training.

    PubMed

    Burnfield, Judith M; Irons, Sonya L; Buster, Thad W; Taylor, Adam P; Hildner, Gretchen A; Shu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with walking limitations often experience challenges engaging in functionally relevant exercise. An adapted elliptical trainer (motor to assist pedal movement, integrated body weight harness, ramps/stairs, and grab rails) has been developed to help individuals with physical disabilities and chronic conditions regain/retain walking capacity and fitness. However, limited published studies are available to guide therapeutic interventions. This repeated measures study examined the influence of motor-assisted elliptical training speed on lower extremity muscle demands at four body weight support (BWS) levels commonly used therapeutically for walking. Electromyography (EMG) and pedal trajectory data were recorded as ten individuals without known disability used the motor-assisted elliptical trainer at three speeds [20,40, 60 revolutions per minute (RPM)] during each BWS level (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). Overall, the EMG activity (peak, mean, duration) in key stabilizer muscles (i.e., gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) recorded at 60 RPM exceeded those at 40 RPM, which were higher than values at 20 RPM in all but three situations (gluteus medius mean at 0% BWS, vastus lateralis mean at 20% BWS, soleus duration at 40% BWS); however, these differences did not always achieve statistical significance. Slower motor-assisted speeds can be used to accommodate weakness of gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus. As strength improves, training at faster motor-assisted speeds may provide a means to progressively challenge key lower extremity stabilizers.

  8. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the guinea pig. A mapping study.

    PubMed

    Triepel, J; Metz, J; Munroe, D; London, S; Sweriduk, S; Forssmann, W G

    1987-07-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) neurons in the lower medulla oblongata and the spinal cord has been analyzed in guinea pigs. This study includes results obtained by colchicine treatment and transection experiments. In the spinal cord, numerous VIP-IR varicosities were observed in the substantia gelatinosa of the columna dorsalis; some were also found in the substantia intermedia and the columna anterior. The spinal VIP-IR nerve fibers were mainly of intraspinal origin and oriented segmentally. VIP-IR nuclei in the spinal cord extended dorsally into corresponding regions of the caudal medulla oblongata, namely from the substantia intermedia medialis and lateralis into the vagus-solitarius complex and from the nucleus spinalis lateralis into the area of the nucleus reticularis lateralis. Additional VIP-IR perikarya were observed in the pars caudalis of the nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini. The VIP-IR nuclei within the caudal medulla oblongata probably form a continuous system with those localized within the spinal cord. They may be involved functionally in the modulation of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation in the guinea pig.

  10. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  11. The protective effects of the traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Binwu; He, Dalin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Xingfa; Nan, Xunyi

    2011-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal damage can occur as a result of multiple mechanisms. We have reported previously that Astragalus membranaceus, Salvia miltiorrhiza, a decoction of six drugs containing rhizoma Rehmanniae preparata and supplements of a few traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for invigorating the kidney and excreting calculus, have a protective effect on renal injury induced by high-energy shock waves (HESW) in rabbits. In this clinical study we further investigate the protective effects of these traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by ESWL. Sixty consenting patients with renal calculus who underwent ESWL treatment were included and randomly assigned to the medication group or control group. Post-ESWL plasma nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) increased significantly in the controls (P < 0.05), while in the medication group, slightly but not significantly elevated levels of plasma ET-1, NO, and serum TNF-α were found. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased gradually in the controls, reaching a trough 72 h after ESWL (P < 0.05), while in the treated group it was unchanged, and remained at a level higher versus the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma NO peaked twice by 72 h and at 1 week in the controls (P < 0.05). Urinary enzymes and β(2)-microglobulin increased significantly and peaked by 24 h and immediately after ESWL (P < 0.05). These values were greater in the controls, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the preparations of traditional Chinese medicines for invigorating the kidney and excreting calculus can reduce renal tubular damage induced by ESWL, and can shorten the recovery time of renal tubules in human subjects. PMID:20607528

  12. [Clinical features of Wei Yuheng].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-yuan

    2006-04-01

    Wei Yuheng held that the endogenous miscellaneous diseases are mostly caused by liver diseases, highly stressed the treating method of nourishing yin to generate liver. He claimed that liver deficiency is mostly caused by congenital factors, sexual strain or improper treatment. He criticized that the improper treatment by elder generations mainly was caused by their ignorance of tonifying the liver based on the saying of "no tonifying treatment for the liver". Wei Yuheng's medical theories and clinical experiences are scattered in his book Xu Mingyi Lei'an (Supplement to Classified Case Records of Celebrated Physicians). Wang Mengying collected part of his thoughts and experiences and wrote the book Liuzhou Yihua (Liuzhou Medical Talks). Although Wang Mengying's book could deduce part of the thoughts of Wei Yuheng, it didn't disclose his theories completely. It is known to all that the compound recipe Yiguan Jian is a representative formula of Wei Yuheng to tonify liver yin. Actually, it can be concluded from the analysis of Xu Mingyi Lei'an that he used Fructus Lycii (Gouqi) as a main herb to tonify liver yin in the method of nourishing yin to generate liver. Based on the idea that there are accept, restriction, generation and transformation relationship among the lung, kidney and liver yin, so he also always used Radix Glehniae (Beishashen), Radix Ophiopogonis (Maidong), Radix Rehmanniae Recens (Shengdihuang), and Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shudihuang) in his compound recipes. If the yin blood is insufficient, Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (Suanzaoren) should be added. In order to prepare a out way for phlegm-heat caused dy liver yin deficiency, a lubricative, Semen Trichosanthis (Gualouren) was always used and raw Semen Coicis Recens (Shengyiyiren) too. Sichuan Rhizoma Coptidis (Chuanhuanglian) can be used to clear fire-heat, and Fructus Meliae Toosendan (Chuanlianzi) for pain caused by fire-heat. PMID:17096983

  13. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  14. Updates in immunoassays: virology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Virus identification is a challenge to the clinical microbiologist since growing viruses in traditional cell culture is labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to contamination. The advent of rapid and automated immunoassays has eliminated this problem by generating positive results in minutes to hours. For example, testing for infectious mononucleosis can yield a positive result in 3-8 minutes as seen with the Beckman Coulter, Inc. ICON Mono test or in 5-15 minutes with the MONO Mononucleosis Rapid Test Device marketed by ACON Laboratories, Inc. Fully automated immunoassay analyzers provide fast, accurate, sensitive results that aid in a prompt and accurate diagnosis for the patient. Turnaround times are shortened, allowing for timely medical intervention and treatment. The priority in any hospital or medical facility is to treat the patient as quickly and appropriately as possible. By using immunoassays, clinical laboratory professionals are able to report out correct results in a timely manner, ensuring overall positive patient outcomes and improved quality of healthcare.

  15. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p < 0.05), and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket. PMID:23923426

  16. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  17. Combined ultrasound and Fenton (US-Fenton) process for the treatment of ammunition wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangang; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Mahmudov, Rovshan; Wei, Xiaomei; Huang, C P

    2013-01-15

    A wastewater collected from a regional ammunition process site was treated with combined US-Fenton process. Factors such as pH, temperature, reaction time, US energy intensity, initial TOC concentration, and the molar ratio of iron to hydrogen peroxide that might affect the treatment efficiency were investigated. The removal of TOC, COD, and color increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature and US intensity. Color was removed rapidly reaching 85% in 10 min; whereas TOC and COD were removed slowly, only about 20% for both in 10 min and approaching 65 and 92% removal in 120 min, respectively. The optimal molar ratio of Fe(II) to H(2)O(2) for TOC and COD removal was 500. The results showed that the change in the average carbon oxidation number (ACON) was parallel to that of the removal efficiency of TOC, COD, and color. The toxicity of treated wastewater was reduced as assessed by the respiration rate of Escherichia coli. PMID:23274940

  18. Cosmogenic 36Cl ages of Quaternary basalt flows in the Mojave Desert, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Fred M.

    2003-07-01

    Basalt flows provide excellent opportunities for calibration and intercomparison of Quaternary dating methods, remote sensing methods, and rates of geomorphic processes. The immediate motivation for this study was to provide chronology for a blind test of the utility of rock varnish microstratigraphy as an indicator of the age of flow emplacement. Five basaltic eruptive centers in the Mojave Desert of California were sampled for cosmogenic 36Cl analysis. Multiple samples were taken from most centers and, with one exception, produced good agreement. Assuming a surficial erosion rate of 1 mm/kyr -1, the flows yielded the following ages: Amboy Crater, 79±5 ka; Pisgah Crater, 22.5±1.3 ka; Cima field, I-Cone, 27±1.3 ka; Cima field, A-Cone, 21±1.6 ka and 11.5±1.5 ka; Cima field, flow of unidentified origin, 46±2 ka. The ages from the Cima I and A cones are in good agreement with previous cosmogenic 3He dating. Ages from the three previously undated flows are significantly older than previous estimates based on flow appearance. Tanzhou Liu performed varnish microstratigraphic analysis on samples collected from the same sites. His results were submitted for publication without knowledge of the 36Cl ages. His age estimates agree well with the 36Cl ages for the three previously undated flows, strongly supporting the validity of varnish microstratigraphy as a chronological correlation tool.

  19. Improving thrust by pulse-induced breakdown enhancement in AC surface dielectric barrier discharge actuators for airflow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huijie; Yang, Liang; Qi, Xiaohua; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a plate-to-plate AC surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator using the pulse-induced breakdown enhancing method are experimentally investigated. The encapsulated electrode is supplied with a sine high AC voltage, while the exposed electrode is feed by a synchronized pulse voltage. Based on the thrust force and power consumption measurements, a parametric study was performed using a positive pulse applied at the trough phase of the AC cycles in which the thrust force was observed to increase by about 100% to 300% and the efficiency up to about 100% compared with the AC-only supply conditions for different AC voltages within the tested range. The pulse-induced breakdown effect was analyzed from the electrical and light emission waveforms to reveal the underlying mechanism. The surface potential due to the charge deposition effect was also measured using a specially designed corona-like discharge potential probe. It is shown that the pulse-induced breakdown was able to cause a temporarily intensified local electric field to enhance the glow-like discharge and meanwhile increase the time-average surface potential in the region further downstream. The improvement in the force by the enhancement in the pulse-induced breakdown was mainly due to enhancements in the glow-like discharge and the surface potential increment, with the latter being more important when the AC voltage is higher.

  20. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  1. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál; Iuliano, Enzo; Krustrup, Peter; Saltin, Bengt; Mohr, Magni

    2015-07-15

    The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by "low-volume high-intensity" compared with "high-volume low-intensity" exercise training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 yr (± SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n = 21), soccer (SOC, n = 21) or a nontraining control group (CON, n = 20), the training groups completed three workouts per week for 15 wk. Resting muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and deltoideus muscle before and after the intervention. After the training intervention, a larger (P < 0.05) increase existed in deltoideus muscle of the HIS group compared with vastus lateralis muscle of the SOC group for citrate synthase maximal activity (95 ± 89 vs. 27 ± 34%), citrate synthase protein expression (100 ± 29 vs. 31 ± 44%), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity (35 ± 43 vs. 3 ± 25%), muscle glycogen content (63 ± 76 vs. 20 ± 51%), and expression of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV. Additionally, HIS caused higher (P < 0.05) increases than MOS in deltoideus muscle citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein expression, and muscle glycogen content. In conclusion, the deltoideus muscle has a higher adaptive potential than the vastus lateralis muscle in sedentary women, and "high-intensity low-volume" training is a more efficient regime than "low-intensity high-volume" training for increasing the aerobic capacity of the deltoideus muscle.

  2. Concurrent Exercise on a Gravity-Independent Device during Simulated Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Joshua A.; Yu, Alvin; Haddad, Fadia; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Baker, Michael J.; Tesch, Per A.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of a high-intensity concurrent training program utilizing a single gravity-independent device on maintaining skeletal muscle function and aerobic capacity during short-term unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Methods Nineteen subjects (10 male; 9 female; 21.0 ± 2.5 yr, 65.4 ± 12.2 kg) were separated into 2 groups: 1) 10 day unilateral lower limb suspension only (ULLS; n = 9) and 2) 10 day ULLS plus aerobic and resistance training (ULLS+EX; n = 10). Exercise was performed on a single gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) with alternating days of high-intensity interval aerobic training and maximal exertion resistance training. Results Aerobic capacity increased by 7% in ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor three repetition max increased in the ULLS+EX group (P < 0.05) but this change was only different than ULLS in the plantar flexors (P < 0.05). Peak torque levels decreased with ULLS but were increased for the knee extensors and attenuated for the ankle plantar flexors with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). A shift towards type IIx myosin heavy chain mRNA occurred with ULLS and was reversed with ULLS+EX in the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05) but not the soleus. Myostatin and atrogin increased with ULLS in both the vastus lateralis and soleus but this change was mitigated with ULLS+EX only in the vastus lateralis (P = 0.0551 for myostatin; P < 0.05 for atrogin). Citrate synthase was decreased in the soleus during ULLS but was increased with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that an M-MED class countermeasure device appears to be effective at mitigating the deconditioning effects of microgravity simulated during a modified-ULLS protocol. PMID:25160844

  3. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.3±0.5 to 14.8±0.86 L · min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.6 nM · s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 7.2±1.4 nM · s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM · s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ∼17.0±2.9 μM) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ∼5.3±2.7 μM) (Cohen's d: 4.17 μM). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles.

  4. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  5. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  6. Comparison of the Lumbosacral Plexus Nerves Formation in Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and Crab-Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) in Relationship to Plexus Model in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Lorenzão, Caio José; Zimpel, Aline Veiga; Novakoski, Eduardo; da Silva, Aline Alves; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) were dissected in two species of South American wild canids (pampas fox-Pseudalopex gymnocercus, and crab-eating fox-Cerdocyon thous). The nerves origin and distribution in the pelvic limb were examined and compared with the LSP model of the dog described in the literature. The LSP was formed by whole ventral branches of L5 at L7 and S1, and a contribution of a one branch from S2, divided in three trunks. The trunk formed by union from L5-6 and S1 was divided into the cranial (cutaneus femoris lateralis nerve) medial (femoralis nerve) and lateral branches (obturatorius nerve). At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadicus plexus, was formed by contributions from L6-7 and S1-2. This root gives rise to the nerve branches which was disseminated to the pelvic limb (nerves gluteus cranial and gluteus caudal, cutaneus femoris caudalis and ischiadicus). The ischiadicus nerve was divided into fibularis communis and tibialis nerves. The tibialis nerve emits the cutaneus surae caudalis. The fibularis communis emits the cutaneus surae lateralis, fibularis superficialis and fibularis profundus. The pudendus nerve arises from S2 with contributions of one branch L7-S1 and one ramus of the cutaneus femoris lateralis. Still, one branch of S2 joins with S3 to form the rectales caudales nerve. These data provides an important anatomical knowledge of a two canid species of South American fauna, besides providing the effective surgical and clinical care of these animals. PMID:26692361

  7. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  8. Prevention of quadriceps wasting after immobilization: an evaluation of the effect of electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, I; Arvidsson, H; Eriksson, E; Jansson, E

    1986-11-01

    Eighteen male and 20 female patients who underwent reconstruction of their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a flap from the patellar tendon were randomly assigned into either closed cast, isometric muscle training and electric stimulation (ES group), or closed cast and isometric training alone (control group). The degree of quadriceps wasting was determined from computerized tomographic scans (CT) before and 6 weeks after surgery. Electrical stimulation was given with a battery operated stimulator that produced a rectangular asymmetric balanced biphasic pulse shape. The pulse rate was 40 Hz and the pulse width 300 microseconds. Patients received 30 min of stimulation three times daily during 5.5 weeks. Female control patients showed a larger decrease in quadriceps area on CT than male control patients (P less than .001). No significant difference was found between male electrically stimulated patients and control patients. In female patients, there was on the contrary, a highly significant difference in favor of electrical stimulation (P less than .001) When the different parts of the quadriceps were studied, a significantly lower degree of atrophy of the vastus medialis was found after electrical stimulation. Vastus lateralis did not show any difference. Measurements of CT attenuation, pre- and post-operatively, showed a decrease in attenuation of 17% for the vastus medialis and lateralis of the operated leg after immobilization, indicating an increase in fat content. In the rectus femoris, however, there was an increase in attenuation of 14.6%. Percutaneous muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained before, one week after, and 6 weeks after surgery revealed that the cross-sectional area of the individual muscle fibers decreased less in the electrically stimulated than in controls, but the difference was not significant. There were no differences between the two groups in the activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, or a glycolytic enzyme

  9. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.3±0.5 to 14.8±0.86 L · min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.6 nM · s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 7.2±1.4 nM · s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM · s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ∼17.0±2.9 μM) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ∼5.3±2.7 μM) (Cohen's d: 4.17 μM). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles. PMID:21590577

  10. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  11. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  12. Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jules, Erik S.; Carroll, Allyson L.; Garcia, Andrea M.; Steenbock, Christopher M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pathogens are becoming increasingly important in forested ecosystems, yet they are often difficult to study because of their rapid transmission. The rate and extent of pathogen spread are thought to be partially controlled by variation in host characteristics, such as when host size and location influence susceptibility. Few host-pathogen systems, however, have been used to test this prediction. We used Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), a foundation tree species in riparian areas of California and Oregon (USA), and the invasive oomycete Phytophthora lateralis to assess pathogen impacts and the role of host characteristics on invasion. Across three streams that had been infected for 13–18 years by P. lateralis, we mapped 2241 trees and determined whether they had been infected using dendrochronology. The infection probability of trees was governed by host size (diameter at breast height [DBH]) and geomorphic position (e.g., active channel, stream bank, floodplain, etc.) similarly across streams. For instance, only 23% of trees <20 cm DBH were infected, while 69% of trees ≥20 cm DBH were infected. Presumably, because spores of P. lateralis are transported downstream in water, they are more likely to encounter well-developed root systems of larger trees. Also because of this water-transport of spores, differences in infection probability were found across the geomorphic positions: 59% of cedar in the active channel and the stream bank (combined) were infected, while 23% of trees found on higher geomorphic types were infected. Overall, 32% of cedar had been infected across the three streams. However, 63% of the total cedar basal area had been killed, because the greatest number of trees, and the largest trees, were found in the most susceptible positions. In the active channel and stream bank, 91% of the basal area was infected, while 46% was infected across higher geomorphic positions. The invasion of Port Orford cedar populations by

  13. TiLIA: a software package for image analysis of firefly flash patterns.

    PubMed

    Konno, Junsuke; Hatta-Ohashi, Yoko; Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Thancharoen, Anchana; Silalom, Somyot; Sakchoowong, Watana; Yiu, Vor; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2016-05-01

    As flash signaling patterns of fireflies are species specific, signal-pattern analysis is important for understanding this system of communication. Here, we present time-lapse image analysis (TiLIA), a free open-source software package for signal and flight pattern analyses of fireflies that uses video-recorded image data. TiLIA enables flight path tracing of individual fireflies and provides frame-by-frame coordinates and light intensity data. As an example of TiLIA capabilities, we demonstrate flash pattern analysis of the fireflies Luciola cruciata and L. lateralis during courtship behavior. PMID:27069594

  14. Bilateral Differences in Muscle Architecture and Increased Rate of Injury in National Basketball Association Players

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Context Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. Objective To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Main Outcome Measure(s) Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. Results The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W

  15. [Chondropathia patellae--a sequel of a primary neurogenic lesion?].

    PubMed

    Rüther, W; Vogel, P; Tackmann, W

    1987-01-01

    In twenty patients with a patellar pain syndrome (Chondropathia patellae) the quadriceps muscles were examined electromyographically. The study aimed for detection of neural lesions in the respective segments. According to Weh and Eickhoff (1983) nerve root lesions are the common cause for patellar pain syndrome. In their opinion malinnervation of the quadriceps leads to a muscular disbalance of the vastus medialis and lateralis and in consequence to an unphysiological traction of their patellar insertions that induces pain. Neither clinical data nor electromyographical findings gave any indication to believe that primary nerve root disturbances are a common cause for patellar pain syndrome.

  16. [About the problem of radial tunnel syndrome or "where does the tennis elbow end and where does the radial tunnel syndrome begin?"].

    PubMed

    Smola, C

    2004-08-01

    Tennis elbow or epicondylitis lateralis humeri is a commonly seen pain-syndrome. Radial tunnel syndrome is generally assumed to be a rare nerve compression syndrome. This study intents to demonstrate that tennis elbow is the most common manifestation of radial tunnel syndrome or in other words, tennis elbow is nothing else but radial tunnel syndrome. In patients with tennis elbow one will always find the ramus profundus n. radialis compressed by the arcade of Frohse. The author is convinced that following the carpal tunnel syndrome, the radial tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve compression in upper extremity.

  17. Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yongjiang; Ku, Geng; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2003-10-01

    Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography, also referred to as optoacoustic tomography, is developed to image animal brain structures noninvasively with the skin and skull intact. This imaging modality combines the advantages of optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The distribution of optical absorption in a mouse brain is imaged successfully. The intrinsic optical contrast reveals not only blood vessels but also other detailed brain structures, such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, and ventriculi lateralis. The spatial resolution is primarily diffraction limited by the received photoacoustic waves. Imaged structures of the brain at different depths match the corresponding histological pictures well.

  18. Diagnostics of Tree Diseases Caused by Phytophthora austrocedri Species.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Vincent; Elliot, Matthew; Green, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We present methods for the detection and quantification of four Phytophthora species which are pathogenic on trees; Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora kernoviae, Phytophthora lateralis, and Phytophthora austrocedri. Nucleic acid extraction methods are presented for phloem tissue from trees, soil, and pure cultures on agar plates. Real-time PCR methods are presented and include primer and probe sets for each species, general advice on real-time PCR setup and data analysis. A method for sequence-based identification, useful for pure cultures, is also included.

  19. [Resurfacing of a trochanteric pressure sore by a pedicled fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, J; Faghahati, S; Burin Des Roziers, B; Daoud, G; Cartier, S

    2013-06-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap is usually used as a free flap for various kinds of reconstruction and resurfacing of distant areas. Cover of a deep trochanteric pressure sore is commonly made by muscular or musculocutaneous flaps such as tensor of fascia lata or vastus lateralis. We report the case of a trochanteric pressure sore covered by a fasciocutaneous pedicled anterolateral thigh flap after negative pressure therapy in a 58-year-old paraplegic patient. After 6 months, a good quality of coverage was obtained with minimal morbidity of donor site. The pedicled fasciocutaneous anterolateral flap appears as a reliable option for the treatment of trochanteric pressure sore.

  20. Upper limb static-stretching protocol decreases maximal concentric jump performance.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Paulo H; Silva, Fernando H D de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico G; Serpa, Erica P; Nardi, Priscyla S M; Vilela, Guanis de B; Behm, David G

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS) protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10) in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) and surface electromyography (sEMG) of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD). ANOVA (2x2) (group x condition) was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001). A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control) for peak force for control group (p = 0.045). Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched) or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching) for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL). In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation. Key pointsThe jump performance can be affected negatively by an intense extensive static-stretching protocol.An intense acute extensive SS protocol can affect positively the shoulder ROM.The intense acute extensive SS protocol does not change

  1. Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Heminasal agenesis: a reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Zelken, Jonathan; Redett, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Heminasal agenesis is a rare congenital malformation often associated with deformities of the eyes and lacrimal system, midface, and proboscis lateralis. Reconstruction is especially challenging because of missing lining, cartilage, and skin. We present a case of heminasal agenesis in a 5-year-old girl with concomitant hypertelorism, coloboma of the eyelids, and maxillary hypoplasia. The patient underwent facial bipartition for hypertelorism correction and cantilever bone graft. A forehead flap was designed using an anaplastic model from the patient's twin sister. Cartilage harvested from the conchal bowl and rib provided alar and dorsal support. Reconstructive goals, timing, and options are discussed. PMID:24777004

  3. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  4. HABITAT EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC CREATURES USING HSI MODEL CONSIDERING THE RIVER WATER TEMPERATURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukazawa, Kei; Shiraiwa, Jun-Ichi; Kazama, So

    Habitats of aquatic creatures (fishes Oncorhynchus masou masou, Plecoglossus altivelis altivel and Cyprinus carpio, fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis, and frogs Anura sp) in the Natori River basin located at the middle of Miyagi prefecture were evaluated dynamically using the water temperature as one of the environmental indices. HSI (Habitat Suitability Index) and WUA (Weighted Useable Area) of aquatic creatures were quantitatively calculated from numerical map information and hydrological simulation with a heat budget model. As results, general HSI of fireflies increased but of frogs decreased by adding the factor water temperature. Migration of Plecoglossus altivelis altivel could be represented by the variation of WUA.

  5. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Paulo H.; Silva, Fernando H. D. de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico G.; Serpa, Érica P.; Nardi, Priscyla S. M.; Vilela, Guanis de B.; Behm, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS) protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10) in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) and surface electromyography (sEMG) of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD). ANOVA (2x2) (group x condition) was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001). A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control) for peak force for control group (p = 0.045). Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched) or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching) for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL). In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation. Key points The jump performance can be affected negatively by an intense extensive static-stretching protocol. An intense acute extensive SS protocol can affect positively the shoulder ROM. The intense acute extensive SS protocol does not

  6. Comparative ontogeny of behaviour in four species of squirrels (Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Ferron, J

    1981-01-01

    The development of behaviour in four species of Sciurid rodents, having terrestrial, arboreal and gliding way of life, is quantified and compared. The studied species are: Spermophilus columbianus, Spermophilus lateralis, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus and Glaucomys sabrinus. For each behaviour pattern the earliest and latest age of emergence is given along with a mean calculated for a series of young of each species. The development of locomotion, feeding, comfort, alertness, exploration, nest building and social behaviour and the principal events of physical development are analysed. The discussion shows that the specific differences in ontogenetic rate are controlled by a series of factors including predation pressure, hibernation and the specific complexity of locomotion. PMID:7282122

  7. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species

    PubMed Central

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B.; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R.; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Black-flanked rock-wallabies (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) can reach high numbers in fragmented populations in the West Australian wheat-belt, where they can damage crops and cause habitat degradation. As they are threatened, we wanted a non-permanent control method that did not adversely affect the body condition of treated females compared to untreated females, using body condition as an indicator of general health and fitness. We gave adult female rock-wallabies deslorelin contraceptive implants to suppress their fertility and monitored the impact for three years. Treated females did not conceive new young for over two years. We did not detect any negative effects on body condition, suggesting that deslorelin may be an effective tool for managing overabundant populations of marsupials. Abstract Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus ‘unwanted’ when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with

  8. TiLIA: a software package for image analysis of firefly flash patterns.

    PubMed

    Konno, Junsuke; Hatta-Ohashi, Yoko; Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Thancharoen, Anchana; Silalom, Somyot; Sakchoowong, Watana; Yiu, Vor; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2016-05-01

    As flash signaling patterns of fireflies are species specific, signal-pattern analysis is important for understanding this system of communication. Here, we present time-lapse image analysis (TiLIA), a free open-source software package for signal and flight pattern analyses of fireflies that uses video-recorded image data. TiLIA enables flight path tracing of individual fireflies and provides frame-by-frame coordinates and light intensity data. As an example of TiLIA capabilities, we demonstrate flash pattern analysis of the fireflies Luciola cruciata and L. lateralis during courtship behavior.

  9. Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

    2001-06-01

    The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

  10. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  11. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  12. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  13. Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Pizzi, Assunta; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; de Angelis, Marco; Ferrari, Marco

    1995-04-01

    Vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation was investigated on volunteers as well as muscular dystrophy patients during a walking test, and on volunteers during a free running by a continuous wave near infrared instrument. The data were analyzed using an oxygenation index independent on pathlength changes. Walking did not significantly affect the oxygenation of volunteers and patients. A relative deoxygenation was found only during free running indicating an unbalance between oxygen supply and tissue oxygen extraction. Preliminary measurements of exercising muscle oxygen saturation were performed by a 110 MHz frequency-domain, multisource instrument.

  14. Harmonic reduction in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers by gap feedback linearization.

    PubMed

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F Levent

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear relationship between the electrical input signal and electrostatic force acting on the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membrane limits its harmonic imaging performance. Several input shaping methods were proposed to compensate for the nonlinearity originating from the electrostatic force's dependence on the square of the applied voltage. Here, we analyze harmonic generation in CMUTs with a time-domain model. The model explains the basis of the input shaping methods and suggests that the nonlinearity resulting from gap dependence of the electrostatic force is also significant. It also suggests that the harmonic distortion in the output pressure can be eliminated by subharmonic ac-only excitation of the CMUT in addition to scaling the input voltage with the instantaneous gap. This gap feedback configuration can be approximated by the simple addition of a series impedance to the CMUT capacitance. We analyze several types of series impedance feedback topologies for gap feedback linearization. We show that for subharmonic ac excitation, although resistive and capacitive impedances result in a trade-off between input voltage and harmonic distortion for a desired pressure output, harmonic generation can be suppressed while increasing the Pa/V transmit sensitivity for proper series inductance and resistance feedback. We experimentally demonstrate the feedback method by reducing harmonic generation by 10 dB for the same output pressure at the fundamental frequency by using a simple series resistor feedback with a CMUT operating at a center frequency of 3 MHz. The proposed methods also allow for utilization of the full CMUT gap for transmit operation and, hence, should be useful in high-intensity ultrasonic applications in addition to harmonic imaging. PMID:22293735

  15. The trail from quantum electro dynamics to informative medicine.

    PubMed

    Foletti, Alberto; Ledda, Mario; Grimaldi, Settimio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Liboff, Abraham; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago just before Christmas, in a small meeting room at the Institute of Pharmacology at the University of Rome, we had the opportunity to attend a meeting on "The role of QED in medicine" by Emilio Del Giudice and Giuliano Preparata. Before that meeting, we were more oriented towards a mechanistic view of Biochemistry and Medicine, believing that chemical reactions could only take place when a random collision between molecules with a gain in energy takes place. We envisioned water as just a solvent in which was possible to dissolve a solute. After we listened to Giuliano's and Emilio's speech on the "New physics of water", and on "The possible origin of coherence in cell, tissues and the interaction of very weak and low frequency magnetic fields with the ions, systems of the cell", we realized that living organisms are complex electrochemical systems which evolved in a relatively narrow range of well-defined environmental parameters. Environmental natural electro-magnetic fields are an ubiquitous factor in nature. If nature gave certain organisms the ability to receive information about the environment via invisible electromagnetic signals, then there must also the capability to discriminate between significant and meaningless ones. Bearing in mind that electromagnetic fields can be perceived by living organisms by means a resonance effect, we should not be amazed if they can be able to induce different biological effects. The work that we will present in memory of Emilio is based on the hypotheses that an aqueous system a chemical differentiation agent such as retinoic acid (RA) were electronically captured and transferred to the culture medium of Neuroblastoma Cell Line (LAN-5) and the proliferation rate was assessed to assess cell responses to the electromagnetic information transfer through the aqueous system. Like those enfolded in living organisms could play a synergic role in modulating biological functions, generating dissipative structures

  16. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-hong; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and

  17. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    PubMed

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6 ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: P<0.001; peak occurrence: P=0.02) illustrating the specific role of each muscle during the push-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump.

  18. Similar changes of gene expression in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise and multiple fine needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Schwartz, Fides Regina; Eckhardt, Holger; Billeter, Rudolf; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Repeated biopsy sampling from one muscle is necessary to investigate muscular adaptation to different forms of exercise as adaptation is thought to be the result of cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression in response to single exercise bouts. In a crossover study, we obtained four fine needle biopsies from one vastus lateralis muscle of 11 male subjects (25.9 ± 3.8 yr, 179.2 ± 4.8 cm, 76.5 ± 7.0 kg), taken before (baseline), 1, 4, and 24 h after one bout of squatting exercise performed as conventional squatting or as whole body vibration exercise. To investigate if the repeated biopsy sampling has a confounding effect on the observed changes in gene expression, four fine needle biopsies from one vastus lateralis muscle were also taken from 8 male nonexercising control subjects (24.5 ± 3.7 yr, 180.6 ± 1.2 cm, 81.2 ± 1.6 kg) at the equivalent time points. Using RT-PCR, we observed similar patterns of change in the squatting as well as in the control group for the mRNAs of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1, p21, phosphofructokinase, and glucose transporter in relation to the baseline biopsy. In conclusion, multiple fine needle biopsies obtained from the same muscle region can per se influence the expression of marker genes induced by an acute bout of resistance exercise. PMID:22052872

  19. Activity of trunk muscles during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Schilling, Nadja

    2009-09-15

    The activity of seven trunk muscles was recorded at two sites along the trunk in adult spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, during swimming and during trotting in water and on land. Several muscles showed patterns of activation that are consistent with the muscles producing a traveling wave of lateral bending during swimming and a standing wave of bending during aquatic and terrestrial trotting: the dorsalis trunci, subvertebralis lateralis and medialis, rectus lateralis and obliquus internus. The interspinalis showed a divergent pattern and was active out of phase with the other muscles suggesting that it functions in vertebral stabilization rather than lateral bending. The obliquus internus and rectus abdominis showed bilateral activity indicating that they counteract sagittal extension of the trunk that is produced when the large dorsal muscles are active to produce lateral bending. Of the muscles examined, only the obliquus internus showed a clear shift in function from lateral bending during swimming to resistance of long-axis torsion during trotting. During terrestrial trotting, muscle recruitment was greater in several muscles than during aquatic trotting, despite similar temporal patterns of muscle activation, suggesting that the trunk is stiffened during terrestrial locomotion against greater gravitational forces whereas the basic functions of the trunk muscles in trotting are conserved across environments.

  20. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20-50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  1. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Singer, Barbara J; Silbert, Benjamin I; Silbert, Peter L; Singer, Kevin P

    2015-09-01

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional "denervation" which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief. PMID:26308056

  2. Creation of a contusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle using a drop-mass technique.

    PubMed

    Deane, Margaret N; Gregory, Michael; Mars, Maurice; Bester, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a 'drop-mass' method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH) and examined by light microscopy (LM). The 'optimal' injury was created after seven drops, where quite severe, mild and moderately severe trauma was caused to muscle in the juxta-bone, mid and sub-dermal regions respectively. In each region, the muscle exhibited features of healing six days after injury. The 'drop-mass' technique appears to cause a contusion within a single muscle of at least three degrees of severity. This previously unreported observation is of particular importance to other researchers wishing to investigate contusion injury in other animal models.

  3. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  4. Lipid storage changes in human skeletal muscle during detraining

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Wen, Caiyun; Li, Jiance; Harris, M. Brennan; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training is known to increase intramuscular triglyceride content in both trained and untrained legs. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) of both trained and untrained legs during detraining. We measured both IMCL and EMCL levels in previously trained vs. untrained legs during 4-weeks of detraining after 6-weeks of strength training. Eight young men (aged 21.4 ± 1.4 years) trained their vastus lateralis muscle in one leg using a dynamometer, whereas the contralateral leg served as untrained control. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), IMCL, EMCL, total creatine (creatine + phophocreatine) of extensor (vastus lateralis) muscles were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS) before training, 3 days after and 28 days after the last bout of training. CSA was increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, and was still high at Day 28 post-training; IMCL increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, then decreased at Day 28 post-training only in the untrained leg; EMCL shows no significant change by Day 3 after training, but at Day 28 post-training has increased in the trained leg and decreased in the untrained leg; total creatine did not change significantly. Conclusion: Decreases of IMCL and EMCL storages in previously untrained leg during detraining indicates an ectopic influence on tissue lipid storage by different metabolic demand among tissues in the same human body. PMID:26578981

  5. Adjustments of muscle capillarity but not mitochondrial protein with skiing in the elderly.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, S; Amami, M; Dela, F; Niederseer, D; Narici, M V; Niebauer, J; Scheiber, P; Müller, E; Flück, M

    2015-08-01

    Downhill skiing in the elderly increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and carbohydrate handling, and produces muscle hypertrophy. We hypothesized that adjustments of the cellular components of aerobic glucose combustion in knee extensor muscle, and cardiovascular adjustments, would increase in proportion to VO2max. Nineteen healthy elderly subjects (age 67.5 ± 2.9 years) who completed 28.5 days of guided downhill skiing over 3 months were assessed for anthropometric variables, cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, hematocrit), VO2max, and compared with controls (n = 20). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were analyzed for capillary density and expression of respiratory chain markers (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, ATP5A1) and the glucose transporter GLUT4. Statistical significance was assessed with a repeated analysis of variance and Fisher's post-hoc test at a P value of 5%. VO2max increased selectively with ski training (+7 ± 2%). Capillary density (+11 ± 5%) and capillary-to-fiber ratio (12 ± 5%), but not the concentration of metabolic proteins, in vastus lateralis were increased after skiing. Cardiovascular parameters did not change. Fold changes in VO2max and capillary-to-fiber ratio were correlated and were under genetic control by polymorphisms of the regulator of vascular tone, angiotensin converting enzyme. The observations indicate that increased VO2max after recreational downhill ski training is associated with improved capillarity in a mainly recruited muscle group.

  6. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species.

    PubMed

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby ( Petrogale lateralis lateralis ) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus 'unwanted' when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with deslorelin, conceivede a new young for at least 27 months. We did not observe adverse effects on body condition on treated females. We conclude that deslorelin implants are effective for the medium-term suppression of reproduction in female black-flanked rock-wallabies and for managing overabundant populations of some marsupials.

  7. Training, leptin receptors and SOCS3 in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Olmedillas, H; Guerra, B; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Santana, A; Fuentes, T; Dorado, C; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2011-05-01

    Endurance exercise induces SUPPRESSOR of CYTOKINE SIGNALING 3 (SOCS3) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle and endurance training overimposed on strength training blunts the hypertrophic response to strength training by an unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on fat mass, serum leptin concentration, muscle morphology, and muscle vastus lateralis leptin receptors (OB-Rb) and SOCS3 protein expression. 16 healthy young men were assigned to a control (C; n=7), and to a 12-week weightlifting (3 sessions/week)+endurance training program (T; n=9) group. Training enhanced maximal dynamic strength in lower and upper body exercises (18-54%), reduced fat mass by 1.8 kg and serum leptin concentration per kg of fat mass, and elicited muscle hypertrophy of type 2 (+18.5%, P<0.05) but not of type 1 muscle fibres (+4.6%, P=NS). No significant changes were observed in either OB-Rb or SOCS3 protein expression with training. In conclusion, concurrent strength and endurance training reduces fat mass and serum leptin and the ratio leptin/fat mass without significant effects on vastus lateralis OB-Rb protein expression. Training does not increase the basal expression of SOCS3 protein in humans.

  8. Isoinertial and isokinetic sprints: muscle signalling.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, T; Ponce-González, J G; Morales-Alamo, D; de Torres-Peralta, R; Santana, A; De Pablos-Velasco, P; Olmedillas, H; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Rodríguez-García, L; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Guerra, B; Calbet, J A L

    2013-04-01

    To determine if the muscle signalling response to a 30 s all-out sprint exercise is modulated by the exercise mode and the endocrine response, 27 healthy volunteers were divided in 2 groups that performed isokinetic (10 men and 5 women) and isoinertial (7 men and 5 women) Wingate tests. Blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before, immediately after, 30 and 120 min after the sprints. Groups were comparable in age, height, body weight, percentage of body fat, peak power per kg of lower extremities lean mass (Pmax) and muscle fibre types. However, the isoinertial group achieved a 25% greater mean power (Pmean). Sprint exercise elicited marked increases in the musculus vastus lateralis AMPKα, ACCβ, STAT3, STAT5 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (all P<0.05). The AMPKα, STAT3, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation responses were more marked after the isoinertial than isokinetic test (interaction: P<0.01). The differences in muscle signalling could not be accounted for by differences in Pmax, although Pmean could explain part of the difference in AMPKα phosphorylation. The leptin, insulin, glucose, GH, IL-6, and lactate response were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the muscle signalling response to sprint exercise differs between isoinertial and isokinetic sprints.

  9. Body Composition, Muscle Quality and Scoliosis in Female Collegiate Gymnasts: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Trexler, E T; Smith-Ryan, A E; Roelofs, E J; Hirsch, K R

    2015-11-01

    Research has demonstrated an elevated prevalence of body weight concerns and scoliosis among female gymnasts. The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as practical imaging modalities to measure body composition and spinal curvature variables that may correlate with performance in female collegiate gymnasts (n=15). DXA was used to evaluate body composition and lateral spinal curvature, utilizing a modified Ferguson method. Echo intensity (EI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis were determined from a panoramic cross-sectional ultrasound image. For returning athletes (n=9), performance scores from the previous season were averaged to quantify performance. The average performance score was correlated with lean mass of the arms (R=0.714; P=0.03) and right leg (R=0.680; P=0.04). Performance was not correlated with total mass, fat mass or body fat percentage (P>0.10). Scoliosis was identified in 3 of 15 scans (20%). Echo intensity and CSA of the vastus lateralis were inversely correlated with each other (R=-0.637, P=0.01), but not with other measures of body composition or performance. Results suggest that limb LBM may be a determinant of gymnastics performance, and DXA may provide important health and performance-related information for female collegiate gymnasts. PMID:26332905

  10. High oxidative capacity and type IIx fibre content in springbok and fallow deer skeletal muscle suggest fast sprinters with a resistance to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Curry, Jennifer Wendy; Hohl, Rodrigo; Noakes, Timothy David; Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2012-11-15

    Some wild antelopes are fast sprinters and more resistant to fatigue than others. This study therefore investigated two wild antelope species to better understand their reported performance capability. Muscle samples collected post mortem from the vastus lateralis and longissimus lumborum of fallow deer (Dama dama) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) were analysed for myosin heavy chain isoform content, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities. Cross-sectional areas, fibre type and oxidative capacities of each fibre type were determined in the vastus lateralis only. The predominant fibre type in both muscle groups and species were type IIX (>50%), with springbok having more type IIX fibres than fallow deer (P<0.05). Overall cross-sectional area was not different between the two species. The metabolic pathway analyses showed high glycolytic and oxidative capacities for both species, but springbok had significantly higher CS activities than fallow deer. Large variation and overlap in oxidative capacities existed within and between the fibre types. Some type IIX fibres presented with oxidative capacities similar to those from type I and IIA fibres. The data suggest that springbok and fallow deer are able sprint at >90 and 46 km h(-1), respectively, partly from having large type IIX fibre contents and high glycolytic capacities. The high oxidative capacities also suggest that these animals may be able to withstand fatigue for long periods of time.

  11. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors. PMID:27299474

  12. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors.

  13. Effect of vibration training on neuromuscular output with ballistic knee extensions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; McNamara, Brian; Moran, Kieran

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether vibration applied directly to a muscle-tendon could enhance neuromuscular output during and 1.5 and 10 min after a bout of ballistic resistance training. Fourteen participants were exposed to two training conditions in random order: exercise with vibration and exercise with sham vibration. The exercise comprised three sets of ballistic knee extensions with a load of 60-70% of one-repetition maximum. Vibration (1.2 mm amplitude, 65 Hz frequency) was applied with a portable vibrator strapped over the distal tendon of the quadriceps. Knee joint angular velocity, moment, and power, and rectus femoris and vastus lateralis electromyography root-mean-squared were measured during knee extension. During and after training, the vibration did not induce significant changes in peak angular velocity, time to peak angular velocity, peak moment, time to peak moment, peak power, time to peak power, or average EMG of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. We conclude that direct vibration, at the selected amplitude and frequency, does not enhance these neuromuscular variables in ballistic knee extensions during or immediately after training.

  14. Immunocytochemical study of parvalbumin fibers and cell bodies in the rat hipothalamus.

    PubMed

    Coveñas, R; Alonso, J R; Dios, M; Lara, J; Aijón, J

    1989-10-01

    The distribution of parvalbumin (PA) cell bodies and fibers in the hypothalamus of the rat was studied using a monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The densest clusters of immunoreactive perikarya were observed in the nuclei mamillare medialis, arcuatus and dorsomedialis hypothalami, whereas the corpus mamillare lateralis had the lowest density. The densest network of immunoreactive fibers was observed in the corpus mamillare lateralis and nucleus arcuatus. The corpus mamillare medialis contained a moderate number of PA fibers, whereas the nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami had the lowest density of immunoreactive fibers. In addition, a large number of immunoreactive fibers was found in the tractus opticus and the tractus mamillo-thalamicus. Essentially, the distribution of PA in the rat hypothalamus after using a monoclonal antibody seems to be broader in comparison with previous studies carried out in the same diencephalic region of the rat. The presence of PA in several nuclei of the rat hypothalamus suggests that this protein could be directly or indirectly involved in neuroendocrine, limbic and visual functions.

  15. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  16. ACL repair might induce further abnormality of gamma loop in the intact side of the quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y U

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surgery on the gamma-loop in the quadriceps of patients with ACL injuries. We compared the response to vibration stimulation in subjects with ACL repair, subjects with ACL rupture, and normal subjects, by measuring the maximal strength and integrated electromyography (I-EMG) of the quadriceps. Pre-vibration data were obtained from each subject by measuring the MVC of the knee extension and the I-EMG from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris. Vibration stimulation was applied to the infrapatellar tendon, followed immediately by repeating maximal strength and I-EMG recording. The results of this study indicated that alpha motor neuron activity of the intact side of the vastus lateralis in response to prolonged vibration stimulation was altered by surgery, but no effect was detected in the injured side. The results could suggest that abnormality of the gamma-loop existed even in the quadriceps of patients with ACL rupture since the vibration stimulus failed to elicit changes in ACL-rupture group as compared with those of normal subjects. In comparison, abnormality of the gamma-loop in the intact side of the QF was probably induced by the rupture, and further abnormality of gamma-loop was induced by surgery.

  17. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  18. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.

  19. Histologic evaluation of nerve muscle pedicle graft used as a treatment for left laryngeal hemiplegia in standardbreds.

    PubMed

    Fulton, I C; Derksen, F J; Stick, J A; Robinson, N E; Duncan, I D

    1992-04-01

    A nerve muscle pedicle (NMP) graft was placed in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) muscle of 6 horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia. The NMP graft was created by use of the first cervical nerve and omohyoideus muscle. In 1 horse (control), the first cervical nerve was transected after placement of the NMP graft. One year after the surgical procedure, horses were examined endoscopically and then anesthetized. While the larynx was observed endoscopically, the first cervical nerve was stimulated. Horses were subsequently euthanatized, and the larynx was harvested. Prior to anesthesia, the endoscopic appearance of the larynx of all horses was typical of laryngeal hemiplegia. During anesthesia, stimulation of the first cervical nerve produced vigorous abduction of the left arytenoid in principal horses but not in the control horse. The right cricoarytenoideus lateralis and CAD muscles were grossly and histologically normal. Also, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis was atrophic in all horses as was the left CAD muscle of the control horse. In contrast, the left CAD muscle harvested from principal horses had evidence of reinnervation with type 1 or type 2 fiber grouping. One year after the NMP graft procedure, horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia had reinnervation of the left CAD muscle. In another study, reinnervation was sufficient to allow normal laryngeal function during exercise. Combined, these data suggest that the NMP graft procedure is a viable technique for the treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.

  20. A modified direct lateral approach for neck-preserving total hip arthroplasty: tips and technical notes.

    PubMed

    Pipino, F; Cimmino, M; Palermo, A

    2013-06-01

    Tissue-sparing surgery for hip replacement aims to minimize muscle damage and conserve the femoral neck through the use of mini-prostheses. We propose a modification of the classical direct lateral access procedure that preserves the gluteus medius. Further advantages during the surgical phase include limited blood loss, visualization of the entire acetabulum, and sparing of the transverse ligament. Precise implantation is facilitated and normal biomechanics are preserved. The gluteus medius is divided longitudinally between the anterior third and posterior two-thirds to provide access to the gluteus minimus, which is detached from the femoral insertion together with a small portion of the vastus lateralis, forming a flap that exposes the underlying articular capsule. When the femoral head is revealed, a decision is made to either continue with its dislocation directly or to resect it and remove it separately to avoid damaging the gluteus medius during dislocation. Upon removal of the femoral head, with the limb flexed and slightly over-rotated, the acetabulum is completely visible. Limb length is maintained through the use of reference stitches on the gluteus minimus tendon and the proximal insertion of the vastus lateralis. In keeping with the minimally invasive philosophy, only pathological tissue is removed (marginal osteophytes, geodes, joint capsule, cartilage to the point of bleeding and pulvinar). We have performed more than 2,000 implants with this procedure since 1990. Advantages and potential critical points are discussed.

  1. Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in Optimist sailors.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Margot; Boone, Jan; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Bourgois, Jan G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (m. vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high-level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8-14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and re-oxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO₂), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40% VO₂peak, 30% VEpeak and 70% HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF decrease, RMS increase, and deoxy[Hb+Mb] increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.

  2. A decline in PABPN1 induces progressive muscle weakness in oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy and in muscle aging.

    PubMed

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Raz, Yotam; Verway, Nisha; van der Sluijs, Barbara; Venema, Andrea; Goeman, Jelle J; Vissing, John; van der Maarel, Silvère M; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Raz, Vered

    2013-06-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations in Poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABPN1). PABPN1 is a regulator of mRNA stability and is ubiquitously expressed. Here we investigated how symptoms in OPMD initiate only at midlife and why a subset of skeletal muscles is predominantly affected. Genome-wide RNA expression profiles from Vastus lateralis muscles human carriers of expanded-PABPN1 at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages were compared with healthy controls. Major expression changes were found to be associated with age rather than with expression of expanded-PABPN1, instead transcriptomes of OPMD and elderly muscles were significantly similar (P<0.05). Using k-means clustering we identified age-dependent trends in both OPMD and controls, but trends were often accelerated in OPMD. We report an age-regulated decline in PABPN1 levels in Vastus lateralis muscles from the fifth decade. In concurrence with severe muscle degeneration in OPMD, the decline in PABPN1 accelerated in OPMD and was specific to skeletal muscles. Reduced PABPN1 levels (30% to 60%) in muscle cells induced myogenic defects and morphological signatures of cellular aging in proportion to PABPN1 expression levels. We suggest that PABPN1 levels regulate muscle cell aging and OPMD represents an accelerated muscle aging disorder.

  3. Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in Optimist sailors.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Margot; Boone, Jan; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Bourgois, Jan G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (m. vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high-level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8-14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and re-oxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO₂), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40% VO₂peak, 30% VEpeak and 70% HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF decrease, RMS increase, and deoxy[Hb+Mb] increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue. PMID:24018866

  4. The relative roles of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation in shaping syllable repertoires of island bird populations change with time since colonization.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Clegg, Sonya M

    2015-02-01

    In birds, song divergence often precedes and facilitates divergence of other traits. We assessed the relative roles of cultural drift, innovation, and acoustic adaptation in divergence of island bird dialects, using silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). In recently colonized populations, syllable diversity was not significantly lower than source populations, shared syllables between populations decreased with increasing number of founder events, and dialect variation displayed contributions from both habitat features and drift. The breadth of multivariate space occupied by recently colonized Z. l. lateralis populations was comparable to evolutionarily old forms that have diverged over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. In evolutionarily old subspecies, syllable diversity was comparable to the mainland and the amount of variation in syllable composition explained by habitat features increased by two- to threefold compared to recently colonized populations. Together these results suggest that cultural drift influences syllable repertoires in recently colonized populations, but innovation likely counters syllable loss from colonization. In evolutionarily older populations, the influence of acoustic adaptation increases, possibly favoring a high diversity of syllables. These results suggest that the relative importance of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation changes with time since colonization in island bird populations, highlighting the value of considering multiple mechanisms and timescale of divergence when investigating island song divergence. PMID:25496402

  5. Inertial loading during gait evokes unique neuromuscular adaptations in old adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas; DeVita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the neuromuscular adaptations of young and old adults in response to a challenge to balance during gait. 12 young (22.2 +/- 2.0 yr.) and 10 old adults (78.8 +/- 6.3 yr.) performed five level walking trials with and without a challenge to balance which consisted of adding a load bilaterally to the participants' ankles and increasing gait speed (1.5 m/sec. and 1.7 m/sec.). Onset, duration, and amplitude of muscle activity in the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus were calculated. Old adults responded to the added load by increasing the activation intensity of their vastus lateralis and semimembranosus disproportionately when compared with young adults. Also, old adults activated their knee flexors earlier and all muscles for a longer period of time than young adults. These findings suggest old adults alter both magnitude of activation and duration of lower extremity musculature in response to increased inertial and velocity demands, and these response characteristics differ from those of young adults.

  6. On the organization of the retino-tecto-thalamo-telencephalic pathways in a Chilean rodent; the Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Kuljis, R O; Fernandez, V

    1982-02-25

    After performing eye enucleations or restricted lesions in the superior colliculus or the pulvinar nucleus, the degeneration patterns provoked by these procedures were analyzed by means of the Nissl and the Fink-Heimer methods in 30 specimens of Octodon degus. The pulvinar or lateroposterior nucleus can be subdivided into 3 regions (rostrolateral, rostromedial and caudal), on the basis of cytoarchitecture, tectofugal afferent and efferent connections to the cerebral cortex. In addition, this nucleus projects to the ipsilateral tail of the caudate nucleus and the nucleus lateralis dorsalis of the thalamus, which has been shown to project over the cingulate cortex in this animal 43. These findings support the possibility that the pulvinar may have an important role visuo-limbic interactions, by way of its connections with the nucleus lateralis dorsalis. Another highly interesting finding from the phylogenetic point of view is that the organization of the pulvinar in the Octodon degus is remarkably similar to that of the inferior pulvinar described for the owl monkey 46. Furthermore, the fact that the organization of the retino-tecto-thalamo-cortical pathways described in the grey squirrel 54 and in the tree shrew 33 is strikingly similar to those found in the Octodon degus, a semi-fossorial South American rodent that has evolved in isolation from the two former species for about 40 million years, makes it impossible to explain the organization of this pathway by advocating convergent evolution, due to environmental pressures determined by arboreal life, as postulated by kaas et al 39.

  7. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species.

    PubMed

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby ( Petrogale lateralis lateralis ) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus 'unwanted' when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with deslorelin, conceivede a new young for at least 27 months. We did not observe adverse effects on body condition on treated females. We conclude that deslorelin implants are effective for the medium-term suppression of reproduction in female black-flanked rock-wallabies and for managing overabundant populations of some marsupials. PMID:26694471

  8. The hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango (Polyborinae, Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Mosto, María Clelia; Carril, Julieta; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2013-10-01

    We describe the hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango. This member of the Falconidae: Polyborinae is a generalist and opportunist that can jump and run down prey on the ground, unlike Falconinae that hunt birds in flight and kill them by striking with its talons. Due to differences in the locomotion habits between the subfamilies, we hypothesized differences in their hindlimb myology. Gross dissections showed that the myology of M. chimango is concordant with that described of other falconids, except for the following differences: the m. flexor cruris medialis has one belly with a longitudinal division; the m. iliotibialis lateralis does not have a connection with the m. iliofibularis; the m. fibularis longus is strongly aponeurotic; the m. tibialis cranialis lacks an accessory tendons and the m. flexor hallucis longus has one place of origin, instead of two. The presence of the m. flexor cruris lateralis can be distinguished as it has been described absent for the Falconidae. We associated its presence with the predominant terrestrial habit of the M. chimango. Each muscle dissected was weighed and the relationship between flexors and extensors at each joint was assessed. The extensor muscles predominated in all joints in M. chimango. Among the flexors, the m. flexor hallucis longus was the heaviest, which could be related to the importance of the use of its talons to obtain food.

  9. Projections of nucleus angularis and nucleus laminaris to the lateral lemniscal nuclear complex of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-01

    Interaural phase and intensity are cues by which the barn owl determines, respectively, the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Physiological studies indicate that phase and intensity are processed independently in the auditory brainstem of the barn owl. The phases of spectral components of a sound are encoded in nucleus magnocellularis (NM), one of the two cochlear nuclei. NM projects solely and bilaterally to nucleus laminaris (NL), wherein interaural phase difference is computed. The other cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA), encodes the amplitudes of spectral components of sounds. We report here the projections of NA and NL to the lateral lemniscal nuclei of the barn owl. The lateral lemniscal complex comprises nucleus olivaris superior (SO); nucleus lemnisci lateralis, pars ventralis (LLv); and nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis (VLV). At caudal levels, VLV may be divided into a posterior (VLVp) and an anterior (VLVa) subdivision on cytoarchitectonic grounds. At rostral levels, the cytoarchitectural differences diminish and the boundaries between the two subdivisions become obscured. Likewise, our data from anterograde tracing studies suggest that at caudal levels the terminal fields of NA and NL remain confined to VLVp and VLVa, respectively. They merge, however, at rostral levels. The data also suggest that NL projects to the medial portion of the ipsilateral SO and that NA projects bilaterally to all parts of SO and LLv. Studies with the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase confirm these projections. PMID:2463287

  10. Immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on the functional activity level after rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young subjects (8 males and 2 females) who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, namely, knee joint extension muscle strength training (MST) group and knee joint extension outside rotation pattern of NJF group. Extension strength was measured in both groups before and after the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles and joint position error (JPE) test of the knee joint were also conducted. [Results] JPE test results and extension strength measurements in the NJF group were improved compared with those in the MST group. Moreover, the average discharge of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles on sEMG in the NJF group was significantly increased after MST and NJF treatments. [Conclusion] The obtained results suggest that NJF training in patients with ACL reconstruction can improve knee proprioception ability and muscle strength. PMID:27512270

  11. Acute changes in kinematic and muscle activity patterns in habitually shod rearfoot strikers while running barefoot.

    PubMed

    Strauts, Janina; Vanicek, Natalie; Halaki, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe changes in the kinematics and muscle activities when barefoot running was initially adopted by six habitually shod, recreational rearfoot striking runners. Participants ran on a treadmill shod for 5 min, completed 3 × 10-min intervals of barefoot running and then completed a final minute of shod running at a self-selected pace. Dependent variables (speed, joint angles at foot-contact, joint range of motion (ROM), mean and peak electromyography (EMG) activity) were compared across conditions using repeated measures ANOVAs. Anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion significantly decreased during barefoot conditions at foot contact. The ROM for the trunk, pelvis, knee and ankle angles decreased during the barefoot conditions. Mean EMG activity was reduced for biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. The peak activity across the running cycle decreased in biceps femoris, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. During barefoot running, tibialis anterior activity significantly decreased during the pre-activation and initial contact phases; gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis activity significantly decreased during the push-off phase. Barefoot running caused immediate biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations at the hip and pelvis, which persisted when the runners donned their shoes, indicating that some learning had occurred during an initial short bout of barefoot running.

  12. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club. PMID:26197882

  13. Lower extremity muscles activity in standing and sitting position with use of sEMG in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Natalia Maria; Konieczny, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Oleksy, Łukasz; Wrzosek, Zdzisława

    2016-01-01

    There is very limited, evidenced data about movement possibilities in patients with high level of lower limb muscles atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Patient (age 46) suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease for 30 years with multiple movement restrictions and muscles atrophy above knees took part into the study. Tests were performed for 8 muscles of the lower limb and pelvis. Muscles electrical activity was tested in sitting and standing position (for knees extended and hyperextended). In the right leg rectus femoris, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and semitendinosus muscles activated at first and were working the longest time. The highest activity was observed in standing position with knees extended. In the left leg rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles activated at first and biceps femoris was working the longest time. Activity level in left lower limb is much lower than in the right one. Muscles weakness is asymmetric. Left leg is much weaker and engages antagonists and synergists muscles to compensate weaker rectus femoris, vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis obliquus.

  14. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus®. [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23–29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47–62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35–12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  15. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus(®). [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23-29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47-62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35-12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback.

  16. Immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on the functional activity level after rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young subjects (8 males and 2 females) who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, namely, knee joint extension muscle strength training (MST) group and knee joint extension outside rotation pattern of NJF group. Extension strength was measured in both groups before and after the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles and joint position error (JPE) test of the knee joint were also conducted. [Results] JPE test results and extension strength measurements in the NJF group were improved compared with those in the MST group. Moreover, the average discharge of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles on sEMG in the NJF group was significantly increased after MST and NJF treatments. [Conclusion] The obtained results suggest that NJF training in patients with ACL reconstruction can improve knee proprioception ability and muscle strength. PMID:27512270

  17. The Regenerative Potential of Female Skeletal Muscle upon Hypobaric Hypoxic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, Rosa; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Verratti, Vittore; Fulle, Stefania; Toniolo, Luana; Reggiani, Carlo; Pietrangelo, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells) in young women. Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia) and after (POST-Hypoxia) the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid damage), mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF, and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin), and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non-oxidized cells. Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the V. Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects. PMID:27471475

  18. Comparison of the electrophysiological pattern of fatigue between athletes required to perform explosive and endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Vatine, J J; Blank, A; Shochina, M; Swissa, A; Mahler, Y; Gonen, B; Magora, A

    1990-01-01

    The electrophysiological behavior of an isometric contraction sustained to fatigue, was examined in 6 long distance runners and 9 athletes involved in explosive (burst) sports, by on line computer analysis of the electrical activity of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. The experiments were carried out with a counterload of 50% of the maximal strength of the muscle. The duration of spike increased and the frequency decreased in the 3 examined muscles, in both types of sport. In the burst sports the changes of value of both parameters were statistically significant in the 3 muscles. In endurance sports the variations of duration were not significant and the changes of frequency were statistically significant only in the vastus lateralis. These results could be explained by the gradual activation of motor units of more strikingly different sizes in burst sports. Thus it may be speculated that prolonged training in burst sports may result in the automatic mobilization of higher number of small motor units, for the initiation of contraction while in endurance sports the onset of contraction is more gradual and carried out by large motor units.

  19. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  20. Organization of the histaminergic system in the brain of the turtle Chinemys reevesii.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, N; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Wada, H

    1990-07-01

    To accumulate phylogenetic information on the central histaminergic system, we investigated the histaminergic system in the brain of the Reeves turtle, Chinemys reevesii, using the indirect immunofluorescent method with antiserum against histamine. Histaminergic neuronal cell bodies were found exclusively in the posterior part of the ventral hypothalamus. Histaminergic varicose fibers innervated almost all parts of the turtle brain, but tended to be concentrated in several areas. Very dense innervation was observed in the medial part of the telencephalon, ventrolateral part of the hypothalamus, nucleus habenularis lateralis, and ventromedial part of the tegmentum. Medium density of innervation was seen in the olfactory bulb, nucleus medialis amygdalae, and tectum. Only a few fibers were detected in the lateral part of the telencephalon, dorsal part of the hypothalamus, thalamus, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. The main ascending fibers were observed in the lateral part of the hypothalamus, sending dense fiber bundles to the cortices dorsomedialis and medialis and nucleus habenularis lateralis. Descending fibers appeared to run in the ventral tegmental area, passing through the dorsal and ventral parts of the midline of the brain stem to the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the general morphological features of the histaminergic system in the turtle brain are similar to those in the mammalian and frog brains.

  1. Physiological and biological factors associated with a 24 h treadmill ultra-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, G Y; Banfi, J C; Kerherve, H; Morin, J B; Vincent, L; Estrade, C; Geyssant, A; Feasson, L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. Fourteen male runners volunteered to run on a treadmill as many kilometers as possible over a 24-h period (24TR). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), velocity associated with VO(2max)(VO(2max)) and running economy (RE) at 8 km/h were measured. A muscle biopsy was also performed in the vastus lateralis muscle. The subjects ran 149.2 ± 15.7 km in 18 h 39 ± 41 min of effective attendance on the treadmill, corresponding to 39.4 ± 4.2% of . Standard multiple-regression analysis showed that performance was significantly (R(2) = 0.82; P = 0.005) related to VO(2max) and specific endurance, i.e. the average speed sustained over the 24TR expressed in . VO(2max) was associated with a high capillary tortuosity (R(2) = 0.66; P = 0.01). Specific endurance was significantly related to RE and citrate synthase activity. It is concluded that a high VO(2max) and an associated developed capillary network are essential for ultra-endurance running performance. The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE and high mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the vastus lateralis. PMID:19883385

  2. Muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction during stair ambulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Stevermer, Catherine A; Gillette, Jason C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction in those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to healthy controls during stair negotiation. Eighteen participants with unilateral ACL reconstruction and 17 healthy controls performed stair ascent and descent while surface electromyography was recorded from knee and hip musculature. During stair ascent, the ACL group displayed higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.02), higher vastus lateralis:biceps femoris co-contraction (51-100% stance, p = 0.01), and higher vastus lateralis:vastus medialis co-contraction (51-100% stance, p = 0.05). During stair descent, the ACL group demonstrated higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.01; 51-100% stance, p < 0.01), lower rectus femoris activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.04), higher semimembranosus activity (1-50% stance, p=0.01), higher gluteus medius activity (51-100% stance, p = 0.01), and higher vastus medialis:semimembranosus co-contraction (1-50% stance, p = 0.02). While the altered muscle activity strategies observed in the ACL group may act to increase joint stability, these strategies may alter joint loading and contribute to post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis often observed in this population. Our results warrant further investigation to determine the longterm effects of altered muscle activity on the knee joint following ACL reconstruction.

  3. Cylinder or mobile cast brace after knee ligament surgery. A clinical analysis and morphologic and enzymatic studies of changes in the quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    Häggmark, T; Eriksson, E

    1979-01-01

    Sixteen patients participated in a prospective randomized trial in which a standard cylinder cast was compared with a mobile cast brace. Both were worn for 4 weeks, beginning at 1 week after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The athletes that had used a cast brace could return to sports activities in about one-half the time it took for the athletes with a standard cast. The patients with a standard cast showed a significant atrophy of Type I (slow twitch) muscle fibers in the vastus lateralis. The cast brace patients did not show any significant changes in cross-sectional areas of Type I or Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers. The standard cast patients had a significant reduction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the vastus lateralis whereas the patients with the cast brace did not show any significant changes. No difference in surgical end result was found. A cast brace with a limited range of motion between 20 and 60 degrees of flexion is recommended as the standard postoperative treatment after knee ligament surgery.

  4. Immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on the functional activity level after rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young subjects (8 males and 2 females) who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, namely, knee joint extension muscle strength training (MST) group and knee joint extension outside rotation pattern of NJF group. Extension strength was measured in both groups before and after the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles and joint position error (JPE) test of the knee joint were also conducted. [Results] JPE test results and extension strength measurements in the NJF group were improved compared with those in the MST group. Moreover, the average discharge of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles on sEMG in the NJF group was significantly increased after MST and NJF treatments. [Conclusion] The obtained results suggest that NJF training in patients with ACL reconstruction can improve knee proprioception ability and muscle strength.

  5. An electromyographic analysis of the knee during functional activities. II. The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and -reconstructed profiles.

    PubMed

    Ciccotti, M G; Kerlan, R K; Perry, J; Pink, M

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the electromyographic activity of normal (N = 22), rehabilitated anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (N = 8), and -reconstructed knees (N = 10) while subjects performed activities. Each subject had evaluation of 8 muscles during 7 functional activities. Sixty-seven percent of the differences in the quadriceps muscle reflected increased activity in the vastus lateralis muscle of the rehabilitated group; 75% of the differences in the hamstrings muscles noted increased biceps femoris muscle activity in the rehabilitated group; 56% of the differences in the lower leg musculature showed increased tibialis anterior muscle activity in the rehabilitated group. Eighty-six percent of the statistically different intervals involved rehabilitated subjects demonstrating increased activity over reconstructed or normal subjects or both. The presence of a quadriceps-hamstrings muscles coordinated response was identified consistently in all 3 groups in each activity. This study supports surgical reconstruction for the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. It also demonstrates the importance of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior musculature in the rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patient. The presence of a quadriceps-hamstrings muscles coordinated response indicates that mechanoreceptors mediating this reflex arc exist in structures other than the cruciate ligament.

  6. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period.

  7. Electromyographic activity of knee stabilizer muscles during six different balance board stimuli after anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H M; Nowotny, A H; Santos, A B A N; Cardoso, J R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electrical activity of the knee stabilizers, in patients with ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstructed and uninjured individuals during different balance board stimuli. Eleven post-surgery individuals and eleven uninjured controls participated in the study. The muscular activity of the vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medial were analyzed by surface electromyography during the execution of six different balance board activities. All electromyographic data were reported as percentage of RMS mean values obtained in maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) for each muscle. When comparing the individuals with ACL reconstructed and uninjured controls, minor electromyographic activity was observed (MVIC %) for all the muscles in the surgery group (P < 0.05), however, when comparing each exercise between the groups, a statistically significant difference for vastus lateralis was demonstrated in the floor exercise (P = 0.02) and for gastrocnemius on the round board (P = 0.04). Individuals ACL reconstructed presented a decrease in muscular activity during different balance board stimuli, which suggests that compensatory alterations after ACL may still exist even after a surgery to repair an ACL rupture.

  8. EMG profiles of knee joint musculature during walking: changes induced by anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Limbird, T J; Shiavi, R; Frazer, M; Borra, H

    1988-01-01

    A tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disrupts the delicate balance of static stabilizers of the knee, leading to significant alterations in joint kinematics. Little is known about the dynamic compensatory responses of the patient to these kinematic alterations. This lack of quantitative information on the muscle synergy patterns has limited the surgeon's ability to evaluate various operative and rehabilitative techniques. Twelve subjects with documented ACL deficiency for at least 1 year and 15 normal participants were studied. Each subject was asked to walk at free and fast speeds on a 12 m walkway. The right and left foot contact patterns and the linear envelopes from the surface electromyogram (EMG) patterns of the gastrocnemius, medial and lateral hamstrings, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis were measured. Significant differences were found in the muscle synergy patterns during walking. During the swing-to-stance transition, the ACL-deficient subjects showed significantly less activity in the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles and more activity in the biceps femoris than in the normal group. During early swing, the vastus lateralis is more active than normal, and during midstance and terminal stance, the hamstrings appear to be less active than normal subjects. These dynamic compensatory mechanisms suggest that use of the hamstring tendons in reconstructive procedures may alter important compensatory mechanisms about the knee joint. Application of dynamic EMG techniques to the study of reconstructive procedures should provide additional information that will assist the clinician in the rational choice of a surgical procedure.

  9. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique

    PubMed Central

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20–50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  10. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Barbara J.; Silbert, Benjamin I.; Silbert, Peter L.; Singer, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional “denervation” which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief. PMID:26308056

  11. Activity of lower limb muscles during treadmill running at different velocities

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Keiichi; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Oba, Kaori; Ueki, Tsutomu; Fujihashi, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine changes in muscle activity while moving on a treadmill at various speeds. [Subjects] The activities of the left vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior of 10 healthy male university students were analyzed. [Methods] University students walked, jogged, and ran for 10 minutes each in random order, and then myogenic potentials were measured 10 minutes later for 30 seconds. The flexion angle of the lower limb upon initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] The average walking, jogging, and running speeds were 3.6 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 10.4 ± 1.3 km/h, respectively. The average electromyographic activities of the vastus medial, tibialis anterior, medial head of gastrocnemius, and lateral head of gastrocnemius significantly differed. All muscles were more active during jogging and running than walking. Only the soleus was more active during running than walking, and the activities of the hip adductors and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] Velocity is faster and the angles of the lower limbs and ground reaction force (GRF) are larger during running than walking. The vastus medialis and soleus worked more easily according to the angle of the knee joint, whereas the tibialis anterior worked more easily at faster velocities and the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius worked more easily with an increased GRF. PMID:25729166

  12. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  14. Teager–Kaiser energy operator signal conditioning improves EMG onset detection

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Patrick; Steinweg, Ken; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Accurate identification of the onset of muscle activity is an important element in the biomechanical analysis of human movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if inclusion of the Teager–Kaiser energy operator (TKEO) in signal conditioning would increase the accuracy of popular electromyography (EMG) onset detection methods. Three methods, visual determination, threshold-based method, and approximated generalized likelihood ratio were used to estimate the onset of EMG burst with and without TKEO conditioning. Reference signals, with known onset times, were constructed from EMG signals collected during isometric contraction of the vastus lateralis (n = 17). Additionally, vastus lateralis EMG signals (n = 255) recorded during gait were used to evaluate a clinical application of the TKEO conditioning. Inclusion of TKEO in signal conditioning significantly reduced mean detection error of all three methods compared with signal conditioning without TKEO, using artificially generated reference data (13 vs. 98 ms, p < 0.001) and also compared with experimental data collected during gait (55 vs. 124 ms, p < 0.001). In conclusion, addition of TKEO as a step in conditioning surface EMG signals increases the detection accuracy of EMG burst boundaries. PMID:20526612

  15. Inertial loading during gait evokes unique neuromuscular adaptations in old adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas; DeVita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the neuromuscular adaptations of young and old adults in response to a challenge to balance during gait. 12 young (22.2 +/- 2.0 yr.) and 10 old adults (78.8 +/- 6.3 yr.) performed five level walking trials with and without a challenge to balance which consisted of adding a load bilaterally to the participants' ankles and increasing gait speed (1.5 m/sec. and 1.7 m/sec.). Onset, duration, and amplitude of muscle activity in the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus were calculated. Old adults responded to the added load by increasing the activation intensity of their vastus lateralis and semimembranosus disproportionately when compared with young adults. Also, old adults activated their knee flexors earlier and all muscles for a longer period of time than young adults. These findings suggest old adults alter both magnitude of activation and duration of lower extremity musculature in response to increased inertial and velocity demands, and these response characteristics differ from those of young adults. PMID:19235417

  16. Food habits of diving ducks in the Carolinas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits analyses were conducted on 264 diving ducks (7 species) from North and South Carolina during the 1970'S. The Baltic clam (Macoma balthica) was the predominant food among canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from the Pamlico River area, whereas sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) predominated in birds from impoundments in North and South Carolina. Shoalgrass (Halodule beaudettei) formed 100% of the gullet food and 99% of the gizzard food in redheads (Aythya americana) from Pamlico Sound. Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in North Carolina had fed predominantly on mollusks (Mulinia lateralis and Rangia cuneata), whereas widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) was the predominant food in birds from South Carolina. In North Carolina, ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) fed mainly on vegetation, and greater scaup (Aythya marila), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) fed mainly on Mulinia lateralis. Food habits data from this study when compared with historical food habits of these species indicate that most diving duck species were feeding more on invertebrates and less on submerged aquatic vegetation than in the past. North and South Carolina have a diverse food supply and appear to offer waterfowl adequate wintering habitat based on these food habits studies. Present trends in wintering habitat, however, could adversely affect diving duck populations in the future.

  17. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  18. The relative roles of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation in shaping syllable repertoires of island bird populations change with time since colonization.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Clegg, Sonya M

    2015-02-01

    In birds, song divergence often precedes and facilitates divergence of other traits. We assessed the relative roles of cultural drift, innovation, and acoustic adaptation in divergence of island bird dialects, using silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). In recently colonized populations, syllable diversity was not significantly lower than source populations, shared syllables between populations decreased with increasing number of founder events, and dialect variation displayed contributions from both habitat features and drift. The breadth of multivariate space occupied by recently colonized Z. l. lateralis populations was comparable to evolutionarily old forms that have diverged over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. In evolutionarily old subspecies, syllable diversity was comparable to the mainland and the amount of variation in syllable composition explained by habitat features increased by two- to threefold compared to recently colonized populations. Together these results suggest that cultural drift influences syllable repertoires in recently colonized populations, but innovation likely counters syllable loss from colonization. In evolutionarily older populations, the influence of acoustic adaptation increases, possibly favoring a high diversity of syllables. These results suggest that the relative importance of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation changes with time since colonization in island bird populations, highlighting the value of considering multiple mechanisms and timescale of divergence when investigating island song divergence.

  19. Heterogeneity of vocal sac inflation patterns in Odorrana tormota plays a role in call diversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Pan; Chen, Zhuqing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Albert S

    2016-03-01

    Male concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) can emit at least eight distinct call-types. However, the mechanisms by which they are produced are not fully understood. Anatomical analysis revealed that the vocal sacs of male O. tormota comprise two physically distinct compartments (pars lateralis and pars ventralis), residing on two sides of the vocal slits. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the two compartments play a role in the production of the diverse call-types. For this, audio and video recordings of male vocalizations were made, and sounds were analyzed afterwards. Results showed that the vocal sac inflation pattern was heterogeneous, and the call duration was a major factor determining the differential inflation patterns. Short call-types (duration <200 ms) involved inflation of one of the compartments only; those having a fundamental frequency (F0) of >5000 Hz involved inflation of pars lateralis only, whereas those with an F0 of <4000 Hz (tone-pips and "infant" calls) involved inflation of pars ventralis only. Long call-types (duration >200 ms), e.g., shallow frequency modulation calls, staccato calls, and long calls, involved inflation of both compartments of the vocal sacs. These results give support to the working hypothesis.

  20. Skeletal muscle oxidative function in vivo and ex vivo in athletes with marked hypertrophy from resistance training.

    PubMed

    Salvadego, Desy; Domenis, Rossana; Lazzer, Stefano; Porcelli, Simone; Rittweger, Jörn; Rizzo, Giovanna; Mavelli, Irene; Simunic, Bostjan; Pisot, Rado; Grassi, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Oxidative function during exercise was evaluated in 11 young athletes with marked skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by long-term resistance training (RTA; body mass 102.6 ± 7.3 kg, mean ± SD) and 11 controls (CTRL; body mass 77.8 ± 6.0 kg). Pulmonary O2 uptake (Vo2) and vastus lateralis muscle fractional O2 extraction (by near-infrared spectroscopy) were determined during an incremental cycle ergometer (CE) and one-leg knee-extension (KE) exercise. Mitochondrial respiration was evaluated ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized vastus lateralis fibers obtained by biopsy. Quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area, volume (determined by magnetic resonance imaging), and strength were greater in RTA vs. CTRL (by ∼40%, ∼33%, and ∼20%, respectively). Vo2peak during CE was higher in RTA vs. CTRL (4.05 ± 0.64 vs. 3.56 ± 0.30 l/min); no difference between groups was observed during KE. The O2 cost of CE exercise was not different between groups. When divided per muscle mass (for CE) or quadriceps muscle mass (for KE), Vo2 peak was lower (by 15-20%) in RTA vs. CTRL. Vastus lateralis fractional O2 extraction was lower in RTA vs. CTRL at all work rates, during both CE and KE. RTA had higher ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration (56.7 ± 23.7 pmol O2·s(-1)·mg(-1) ww) vs. CTRL (35.7 ± 10.2 pmol O2·s(-1)·mg(-1) ww) and a tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. In RTA, the greater muscle mass and maximal force and the enhanced mitochondrial respiration seem to compensate for the hypertrophy-induced impaired peripheral O2 diffusion. The net results are an enhanced whole body oxidative function at peak exercise and unchanged efficiency and O2 cost at submaximal exercise, despite a much greater body mass.

  1. The contribution of "resting" body muscles to the slow component of pulmonary oxygen uptake during high-intensity cycling.

    PubMed

    Ozyener, Fadil; Whipp, Brian J; Ward, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during moderate constant-workrate (WR) exercise (>lactate-threshold (θL)) are well described as exponential. AboveθL, these kinetics are more complex, consequent to the development of a delayed slow component (VO2sc), whose aetiology remains controversial. To assess the extent of the contribution to the VO2sc from arm muscles involved in postural stability during cycling, six healthy subjects completed an incremental cycle-ergometer test to the tolerable limit for estimation of θL and determination of peak VO2. They then completed two constant-WR tests at 90% of θL and two at 80% of ∆ (difference between θL and VO2peak). Gas exchange variables were derived breath-by-breath. Local oxygenation profiles of the vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscles were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the relevant muscles being performed post-exercise to provide a frame of reference for normalising the exercise-related oxygenation responses across subjects. Above supra-θL, VO2 rose in an exponential-like fashion ("phase 2), with a delayed VO2sc subsequently developing. This was accompanied by an increase in [reduced haemoglobin] relative to baseline (∆[Hb]), which attained 79 ± 13 % (mean, SD) of MVC maximum in vastus lateralis at end-exercise and 52 ± 27 % in biceps brachii. Biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was significantly correlated with VO2 throughout the slow phase. In contrast, for sub- L exercise, VO2 rose exponentially to reach a steady state with a more modest increase in vastus lateralis ∆[Hb] (30 ± 11 %); biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was minimally affected (8 ± 2 %). That the intramuscular O2 desaturation profile in biceps brachii was proportional to that for VO2sc during supra-θL cycle ergometry is consistent with additional stabilizing arm work contributing to the VO2sc.

  2. Effect of moderate altitude on peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise in young males.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuo; Du, Na; Kato, Yoshihiro; Miyamoto, Kei; Masuda, Takahiro; Shimizu, Katsuji; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    Training at moderate altitude (~1800m) is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr) performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL). They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws) and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (%) from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001) lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 %) than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %). SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001) lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 %) than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %). Differences (SL - 1800AL) in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660). These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore, that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles. Key PointsThe change in muscle oxygenation during the parallel squat at 1800 altitude and near sea level was investigated using near infrared

  3. Analysis of the aerobic-anaerobic transition in elite cyclists during incremental exercise with the use of electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, A.; Sanchez, O.; Carvajal, A.; Chicharro, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) as a new non-invasive determinant of the metabolic response to incremental exercise in elite cyclists. The relation between EMG activity and other more conventional methods for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition such as blood lactate measurements (lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)) and ventilatory parameters (ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (VT1 and VT2)) was studied. METHODS: Twenty eight elite road cyclists (age 24 (4) years; VO2MAX 69.9 (6.4) ml/kg/min; values mean (SD)) were selected as subjects. Each of them performed a ramp protocol (starting at 0 W, with increases of 5 W every 12 seconds) on a cycle ergometer (validity study). In addition, 15 of them performed the same test twice (reliability study). During the tests, data on gas exchange and blood lactate levels were collected to determine VT1, VT2, LT, and OBLA. The root mean squares of EMG signals (rms-EMG) were recorded from both the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris at each intensity using surface electrodes. RESULTS: A two threshold response was detected in the rms-EMG recordings from both muscles in 90% of subjects, with two breakpoints, EMGT1 and EMGT2, at around 60-70% and 80-90% of VO2MAX respectively. The results of the reliability study showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between mean values of EMGT1 and EMGT2 obtained in both tests. Furthermore, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between mean values of EMGT1, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT1 and LT (62.8 (14.5) and 69.0 (6.2) and 64.6 (6.4) and 68.7 (8.2)% of VO2MAX respectively), or between mean values of EMGT2, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT2 and OBLA (86.9 (9.0) and 88.0 (6.2) and 84.6 (6.5) and 87.7 (6.4)% of VO2MAX respectively). CONCLUSION: rms-EMG may be a useful complementary non-invasive method for analysing the aerobic- anaerobic transition

  4. Results of Surveys for Special Status Reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J J

    2008-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).

  5. Neurons sensitive to narrow ranges of repetitive acoustic transients in the medial geniculate body of the cat.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, E; de Ribaupierre, F

    1982-01-01

    Neuronal activity was recorded in the medial geniculate body (MGB) of nitrous oxide anaesthetized, paralysed cats in response to click trains. For most cells responding to these stimuli the spike discharges are precisely time locked to individual clicks within the train. The present study has revealed that, apart from the normal "locker" response being characterized by a monotonic decrease in the entrainment as the frequency of the clicks within the train increases, there is a small population of "lockers" which show a non-monotonic response to increasing click frequency. 41% of these non-monotonic cells were not at all entrained by the lowest click rates and had time-locked responses for very restricted frequency ranges. These particular non-monotonic "lockers" were more commonly-found in the posterior part of the pars lateralis and in the suprageniculate nucleus. These cells might be involved in the temporal coding of natural sounds such as animal vocalizations and the cat's purr.

  6. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

  7. [Reinnervation of larynx in surgical treatment of invasive thyroidal gland cancer].

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, V A

    2013-10-01

    The possibilities and efficacy of performance of simultant operations for invasive thyroid gland cancer in initial neuropathic laryngeal stenosis and dysphonic syndrome, aimed at minimization of the residual volume of thyroid gland tissue and surgical laryngeal reinnervation, were studied. The results of laryngeal surgical reinnervation, in accordance to data of videolaryngoscopy, aerodynamical and spectral analysis of the voice, self estimation of the vocal disorders impact on the patients quality of life were analyzed. Postoperatively in all the patients the improvement of phonation and quality of life was noted. Primary neurorhaphia of recurrent laryngeal nerve secures restoration of normal or nearly normal talkative voice due to restoration of the tone and volume of m. cricoarytenoideus lateralis and m. thyroarytenoideus on the side of affection and may be effectively applied for correction of consequences of laryngeal neuropathic paralysis in surgical treatment of the thyroid gland cancer.

  8. Preparation and respirometric assessment of mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle tissue obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Manish S; Tyrrell, Daniel J; Lyles, Mary F; Demons, Jamehl L; Rogers, George W; Molina, Anthony J A

    2015-01-01

    Respirometric profiling of isolated mitochondria is commonly used to investigate electron transport chain function. We describe a method for obtaining samples of human Vastus lateralis, isolating mitochondria from minimal amounts of skeletal muscle tissue, and plate based respirometric profiling using an extracellular flux (XF) analyzer. Comparison of respirometric profiles obtained using 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg of mitochondria indicate that 1.0 μg is sufficient to measure respiration and that 5.0 μg provides most consistent results based on comparison of standard errors. Western blot analysis of isolated mitochondria for mitochondrial marker COX IV and non-mitochondrial tissue marker GAPDH indicate that there is limited non-mitochondrial contamination using this protocol. The ability to study mitochondrial respirometry in as little as 20 mg of muscle tissue allows users to utilize individual biopsies for multiple study endpoints in clinical research projects. PMID:25741892

  9. Role of calcium-dependent proteinase in molt-induced claw muscle atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each intermolt cycle. Muscle protein decreases 40% during proecdysis and is restored following ecdysis. Amino acid incorporation into protein of postecdysial muscle is five times greater than that in anecdysial muscle. Since the rates of protein synthesis in anecdysial and proecdysial muscle are the same it appears that proecdysial muscle atrophy is caused primarily by an increase in protein degradation. A calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) active at neutral pH has been implicated in the nonlysosomal hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. We have examined the role of a CDP in atrophy of the claw closer muscle. The many similarities between crustacean and vertebrate CDPs have established this crustacean system as a simple and convenient model for the role of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent proteolysis in myofibrillar protein turnover and its manifestation in the structure of the sarcomere. 16 references, 8 figures. (ACR)

  10. Crustaceans as a model for microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mykles, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscles is a serious problem in a microgravity environment. It is hypothesized that the unloading of postural muscles, which no longer must resist gravity force, causes an accelerated breakdown of contractile proteins, resulting in reduction in muscle mass and strength. A crustacean model using the land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, to assess the effects of spaceflight on protein meatabolism is presented. The model is compared to a developmentally-regulated atrophy in which a premolt reduction in muscle mass allows the withdrawal of the large claws at molt. The biochemical mechanisms underlying protein breakdown involves both Ca2(+) -dependent and multicatalytic proteolytic enzymes. Crustacean claw muscle can be used to determine the interactions between shortening and unloading at the molecular level.

  11. Microscopic structure of the brain of Barbus meridionalis Risso. I. Telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Diez, C; Lara, J; Alonso, J R; Miguel, J J; Aijon, J

    1987-01-01

    The telencephalon of Barbus meridionalis is composed of two oval telencephalic lobes separated by a medial ventricle and joined exclusively by the anterior commissure. Histologically, the dorsal and ventral telencephalic areas are well defined, the limiting plane between them being a cell free zone. In the ventral area it is possible to distinguish the following parts: dorsal, supracommissural, postcommissural, lateral, intermedia and the nucleus entopenduncularis. In the dorsal area there are three peripheral longitudinal zones--medialis, dorsalis and lateralis--together with a central zone; caudally situated is a posterior dorsolateral region which is the main receptor site for olfactory fibers and closely associated to this is the nucleus tenia. The olfactory projections to the telencephalon course along two bundles: the medial and the lateral olfactory tracts. The telencephalon projects to diencephalic regions via three large bundles: the lateral and medial telencephalic bundles and the strio-medullary system.

  12. Leg ulcers and abscesses caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Langrock, Marie-Luise; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Landthaler, Michael; Karrer, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous infections caused by S. marcescens, a gram-negative bacillus belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are uncommon but may be predisposed by immunocompromised conditions or pre-damaged skin. A 73-year-old man presented with multiple ulcers and painful nodules on the lower right leg as well as abscesses on the right malleolus lateralis. He had been treated with oral penicillin without success. Due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, he was receiving a systemic therapy with corticosteroids. In addition, he had a post-thrombotic syndrome of the lower right leg. Serratia marcescens was the only microorganism isolated from all cultures performed. After a microbial sensitivity test, ertapenem 1 g/day was given intravenously for 10 days, followed by oral administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg 1-0-1 for a further 7 days. This therapy resulted in the resolution of all lesions. This rare skin infection with S. marcescens needs specific microbiological diagnosis and adapted antibiosis.

  13. Adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Adams, Gregory R.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Belew, Anne H.; Buchanan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The effect of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on neuromuscular function in humans is analyzed. All ambulatory activity on crutches was performed by eight subjects for 6 weeks who wear a shoe with a 10 cm sole on the right foot to unweight the left lower limb. Results show that average muscle cross sectional area (CSA) of the left knee extensor (KE) decreased 16 percent whereas the KE of the nonsuspended right limb showed no changes. Maximal integrated electromyography of vastus lateralis and overall mean power frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus for submaximal isometric actions were both decreased post-ULLS. It is concluded that six weeks of ULLS induces adaptations in the neuromuscular system of humans which are comparable to those induced by bed rest and spaceflight.

  14. A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Elif Seda; Keskin, Ekrem; Atik, Bekir; Koçer, Abdülkadir

    2015-01-01

    Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis muscle. In case of their paralysis, diplopia and restriction in the eye movements while looking sideways, are seen. Since the same signs are seen due to the muscle entrapment in blowout fractures, its differential diagnosis has importance in terms of the treatment protocol and avoiding unnecessary operations. In this article, we present a 22-year-old male patient who was referred to our department due to the prediagnosis of blowout fracture following maxillofacial trauma. However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement was resolved via systemic steroid treatment instead of unnecessary operation. PMID:26981484

  15. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part I. A light microscopic study of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-10-01

    This light microscopic investigation of 15 Thoroughbred horses provided substantial evidence for the classification of equine laryngeal hemiplegia as a distal axonopathy. Morphologic and morphometric examinations were performed on resin embedded recurrent laryngeal nerves from control, subclinical and clinical laryngeal hemiplegic animals. In the latter group of animals some distal hindlimb nerves were also examined. A distally graded loss of myelinated fibres selectively affecting those of large diameter was demonstrated in both left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves. Morphologic evidence of similar pathological changes in long hindlimb nerves was also present. An explanation for the early involvement of the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle in the course of laryngeal hemiplegia, was offered by the demonstration of more large diameter fibres in the branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervating it, thus making it more susceptible to the disease process.

  16. Morphological variation in vanishing Mexican desert fishes of the genus Characodon (Goodeidae).

    PubMed

    Tobler, M; Bertrand, N

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated a rapidly vanishing group of fishes in the genus Characodon (including Characodon lateralis and Characodon audax) from the upper Rio Mezquital drainage in Mexico. Using specimens from museum collections, morphological variation was assessed to quantify body shape differentiation among historic (i.e. extirpated and extant) collection sites. In both sexes, body shape (particularly head shape, the proportion of the caudal peduncle and the position and size of dorsal and anal fins) varied significantly among populations and species. Variation among collection sites could at least partially be attributed to geography, as the presence of distinct hydrographic units and a major waterfall coincided with major body shape differences. These results are discussed in the light of previously published molecular genetic analyses, as they have direct implications for taxonomic problems and the need for conservation measures for these endangered fishes.

  17. Biomechanical bases of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.

  18. [The Development of Clinical and Morphological Manifestations of Chronic Alcoholic Myopathy in Men with Prolonged Alcohol Intoxication].

    PubMed

    Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S; Zinovyeva, o E; Kazantseva, Iu V; Samkhaeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy occurs in 40-60% of patients who abuse alcohol, and is accompanied by decreased performance, proximal paresis and atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, it is unknown what is important in the development of the disease: duration of alcohol abuse, or the dose of ethanol consumed. Unknown dynamics of the pathological process in skeletal muscle. We examined male patients identified with alcoholic myopathy and without it, evaluated the duration of alcohol abuse, intake of ethanol, morphological characteristics m.quadriceps vastus lateralis and the content of IGF-1 in plasma. It has been shown that chronic alcoholic myopathy develops after 10 years of alcohol abuse; proximal paresis is observed only in patients with atrophy of muscle fibers, thus there is a transformation of myosin phenotype from slow to fast. The decrease IGF-1 in plasma detected at the early stages of the Church, including in patients without clinical manifestations of proximal paresis and morphological signs of atrophy of muscle fibers.

  19. Susceptibility of Various Species of Rodents to the Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Borrelia hermsii.

    PubMed

    Burgdorfer, W; Mavros, A J

    1970-09-01

    In a study to determine susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii of various rodents commonly found in or near places where human cases of relapsing fever occurred, chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus), pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus richardsoni), flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus columbianus), golden-mantled ground squirrels (S. lateralis tescorum), wood rats (Neotoma cinerea cinerea), white-footed deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were exposed to spirochetes either by bites of infected Ornithodoros hermsi or by injection of infectious tick suspensions. Daily microscopic examination of blood samples revealed that pine squirrels, chipmunks, and meadow voles responded with spirochetemias of various degrees and length. Pine squirrels were most susceptible and experienced long-lasting and severe spirochetemias accompanied by typical signs of illness. Flying squirrels, Columbian ground squirrels, golden-mantled ground squirrels, wood rats, and white-footed deer mice did not develop demonstrable spirochetal infection. PMID:16557828

  20. Susceptibility of Various Species of Rodents to the Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorfer, Willy; Mavros, Anthony J.

    1970-01-01

    In a study to determine susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii of various rodents commonly found in or near places where human cases of relapsing fever occurred, chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus), pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus richardsoni), flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus columbianus), golden-mantled ground squirrels (S. lateralis tescorum), wood rats (Neotoma cinerea cinerea), white-footed deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were exposed to spirochetes either by bites of infected Ornithodoros hermsi or by injection of infectious tick suspensions. Daily microscopic examination of blood samples revealed that pine squirrels, chipmunks, and meadow voles responded with spirochetemias of various degrees and length. Pine squirrels were most susceptible and experienced long-lasting and severe spirochetemias accompanied by typical signs of illness. Flying squirrels, Columbian ground squirrels, golden-mantled ground squirrels, wood rats, and white-footed deer mice did not develop demonstrable spirochetal infection. Images PMID:16557828

  1. Muscle protein synthesis in response to testosterone administration in wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Lobley, G E; Connell, A; Milne, E; Buchan, V; Calder, A G; Anderson, S E; Vint, H

    1990-11-01

    A method has been developed based on stable isotopes and biopsy procedures which allows the large-dose procedure for measurement of protein synthesis to be applied in serial studies to farm species. Measurements of total nitrogen retention and protein synthesis in m. longissimus dorsi and m. vastus lateralis were made in five wether lambs (40-44 kg) infused intravenously, successively, with vehicle (10 d); testosterone (15 d; 9 mg/d); vehicle (15 d). N retention was improved by testosterone infusion (+2.9 g N/d; a 96% improvement total over control periods). Muscle protein synthesis was not significantly altered by exogenous hormone administration, nor were RNA:protein, RNA:DNA or protein:DNA. The implication of the developed procedure for dynamic studies in accessible tissues of large animals is discussed.

  2. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  3. Biarticular leg muscles and links to running economy.

    PubMed

    Heise, G; Shinohara, M; Binks, L

    2008-08-01

    Relationships between an index of running economy (VO2 per distance) and the temporal electromyographic characteristics of leg muscles were quantified in female runners. Sixteen women performed a 30-min treadmill run at a speed designed to elicit a hard rating of perceived of exertion. Near the end of the run, oxygen uptake, video, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously. Measures of muscle on-time durations, and on-time coactivation durations were calculated from the following muscles: gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris. Nonparametric correlations between VO2 per distance and temporal electromyographic data were evaluated. Greater on-time duration of rectus femoris during stance, and greater on-time coactivation duration of rectus femoris-gastrocnemius during stance were significantly associated with more economical runners (i.e., lower VO2 per distance). The coactivation of biarticular leg muscles during stance is clearly linked to running economy and this control strategy may elicit greater elastic energy return.

  4. Multicenter survey analysis of satisfaction according to actual utilization of rehabilitation services

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byoung-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Jong-Won; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Most such studies have been limited to evaluating the muscle activity patterns of lower extremity muscles using surface electromyograms, but studies of muscle activity patterns according to chair types are lacking. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 52 university students in their 20s (26 males, 26 females) were selected in order to analyze the activity of five lower extremity muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius). The selected subjects had sufficient muscle strength for the experiment and normal joint range of motion. [Results] To examine the sociodemographic variables of the study subjects, the frequencies and percentages of individual items were presented as follows Table 3. [Conclusion] Differences in lower extremity muscle activity levels during standing and sitting were identified, and differences between genders were also seen. There was no significant difference in lower extremity muscle activity levels between use of fixed and wheeled chairs. PMID:27065547

  5. Developmental and architectural principles of the lateral-line neural map

    PubMed Central

    Pujol-Martí, Jesús; López-Schier, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    The transmission and central representation of sensory cues through the accurate construction of neural maps is essential for animals to react to environmental stimuli. Structural diversity of sensorineural maps along a continuum between discrete- and continuous-map architectures can influence behavior. The mechanosensory lateral line of fishes and amphibians, for example, detects complex hydrodynamics occurring around the animal body. It triggers innate fast escape reactions but also modulates complex navigation behaviors that require constant knowledge about the environment. The aim of this article is to summarize recent work in the zebrafish that has shed light on the development and structure of the lateralis neural map, which is helping to understand how individual sensory modalities generate appropriate behavioral responses to the sensory context. PMID:23532704

  6. Elevated Skin Blood Flow Influences Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements During Supine Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation/blood flow based on spectrophotometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin present within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a means of detecting and quantifying changes in tissue blood flow due to physiological perturbation, such as that which is elicited in skeletal muscle during exercise. Since the NIRS technique requires light to penetrate the skin and subcutaneous fat in order to reach the muscle of interest, changes in skin blood flow may alter the NIRS signal in a fashion unrelated to blood flow in the muscle of interest. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of skin blood flow to the NIRS signal obtained from resting vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh.

  7. Arterial vascularization of the uropygial glands (Gl. uropygialis) in the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, S; Aslan, K; Aksoy, G; Kürtül, I

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics of the uropygial gland (Glandula uropygialis), specifically the arterial vascularization, in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey. Coloured-latex-injected animals were dissected and the gland and related arteries were observed. Mostly, the fourth paired caudal segmental arteries (Aa. segmentales caudales) arising from the median caudal artery (A. mediana caudae) were specified as the uropygial gland arteries. These arteries, in turn, gave the following rami: the muscular ramus (Ramus muscularis) to the levator coccygeus and lateral caudal muscles, the lateral ramus (Ramus lateralis) to the lateral coccygeus muscle and a small ventro-lateral division of the caudal component of the gland, and the medial rami (Ramus medialis) to the dorsal surface of the gland. PMID:15144283

  8. Adaptive response of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the monkey to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medical gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These experiments will be performed as part of the BION mission. The original project proposed to assess the effects of weightlessness in adult Rhesus monkeys which were to be flown on the Space Shuttle as part of SLS-3. Feasibility studies were carried out and a series of experiments were performed at NASA/Ames Research Center to assess the effects of a 21-day restraint period in the ESOP on muscle properties. The results of these studies are summarized.

  9. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  10. Plasma corticosterone responses to lesions and stimulations of the limbic thalami nuclei, medial mammillary nucleus and cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Perassi, N I

    1988-06-01

    The influence of extrahypothalamic limbic structures on adrenocortical activity was investigated in female adult rats. Bilateral lesions on the anteromedial thalami nucleus (AMTN), anteroventral thalami nucleus (AVTN) or the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) all elicited a significant decrease on plasma corticosterone, while their electrochemical stimulation produced a significant increase with respect to animals with sham lesions or sham stimulation. In contrast, after lesions of the dorsomedial thalami nucleus (DMTN), medial mammillary nucleus (pars lateralis) (MMN) or retrosplenial cortex (RC), values of plasma corticosterone were significantly higher than those found in controls, whereas following their stimulation plasma corticosterone levels were lower than in controls. Bilateral lesions or stimulations of anterior cingulate cortex had no significant effect upon corticosterone secretion. These findings may be interpreted as indicative of the existence of excitatory (AMTN, AVTN, and PCC) and inhibitory (DMTN, MMN and RC) central nervous structures for the control of corticoadrenal secretion besides those already known.

  11. Adrenal response to acute stress in mammillary medial nuclei lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Perassi, N I

    1993-01-01

    In view of the inhibitory influence of Mammillary Medial Nuclei, pars lateralis (MMN) on corticoadrenal activity, experiments were conducted in order to determine whether these nuclei are involved in the control of adrenal response to ether stress. In bilateral MMN lesioned rats, prestress plasma corticosterone concentration (C) is significantly higher than that in sham lesioned animals. Acute stress produced a significant C increase in both, sham and lesioned rats, being this increase lower in lesioned animals. After exposure to ether vapors. adrenal concentration of norepinephrine was similar in lesioned and control animals. Whereas, adrenal epinephrine concentration was significantly higher in lesioned rats than that found in the sham lesioned ones. This study demonstrates that the integrity of MMN is not essential for adrenal response to acute stress.

  12. Human impact on fish sensory systems in the long term: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Harold H

    2015-01-01

    Humans have severely impacted global ecosystems and this shows few signs of abating. Many aspects of an animal's biology, including its sensory systems, may be adversely influenced by pollutants and environmental noise. This review focuses on whether and/or how various environmental disturbances disrupt the sensory systems of fishes. As critical as it is to document and understand the current effects of the human footprint, it is also important to consider how organisms might adapt to these impacts over the long term. The present paper outlines the sources of genetic and genomic variation upon which natural selection can act and then reviews examples of known genetic contributions of variation in fish chemosensory, visual and acoustico-lateralis systems. PMID:24919803

  13. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  14. The name of the father: conflict between Louis and Alexander Agassiz and the Embiotoca surfperch radiation.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, G

    2009-04-01

    The surfperch genus Embiotoca currently comprises two species, Embiotoca jacksoni, the black surfperch, and Embiotoca lateralis, the striped surfperch. Originally, however, Louis Agassiz described a third species in the genus Embiotoca, the rainbow surfperch, Embiotoca caryi. This latter name was changed by Louis' son, Alexander, to Hypsurus caryi, a name that remains valid. In this study, new molecular data (3545 bp of DNA from four mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA regions) indicated that the rainbow surfperch should be retained within the genus Embiotoca, a result consistent with recent morphological data. Adaptive radiation combined with sexual selection resulting in rapid morphological changes in the rainbow surfperch may have contributed to the conflicting position of this species.

  15. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention.

  16. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training.

  17. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention.

  18. Compression garments to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; Til, Lluís; Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio; Montoro, José Bruno; Valero, Oliver; Artells, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a compression garment as DOMS prevention. This was accomplished by provoking a DOMS in 15 athletes, running on a treadmill at 73% of their maximal aerobic velocity, during 40 minutes with a 10% negative slope; wearing the compression garments on one thigh, protected thigh (PT), and not in the contralateral thigh, control thigh (CT). A clinical and MRI diagnosis of DOMS was performed. Biopsies in both vastus lateralis were done, and the amount and severity of the DOMS was estimated by measuring intracellular albumin, and lymphocytes CD3+ and neutrophils intra/interfibrilar infiltrates, 48h after the induced damaging exercise. There was less total injury in the PT than in the CT, a 26.7% average. These data indicate that this compression garment is an effective method to reduce the histological injury in DOMS. PMID:24596693

  19. Distribution of prosaposin mRNA in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Abdullah, J M; Atoji, Y

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay and immunohistochemical studies have detected the presence of prosaposin in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Here, first time, we have determined the partial cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin and mapped the distribution of its mRNA in the pigeon CNS. The predicted amino acid sequence of pigeon prosaposin showed 93 and 60% identity to chicken and human prosaposin, respectively. In situ hybridization, autoradiograms showed that the prosaposin mRNA expression was found in the olfactory bulb, prepiriform cortex, Wulst, mesopallium, nidopallium, hippocampal formation, thalamus, tuberis nucleus, pre-tectal nucleus, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis and magnocellularis, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, optic tectum, cerebellar cortex and nuclei, vestibular nuclei and gray matter of the spinal cord. These results suggest that the cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin is comparable to other vertebrates, and the general distribution pattern of prosaposin mRNA resembles those are found in mammals.

  20. Crustaceans as a model for microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykles, D. L.

    Atrophy of skeletal muscles is a serious problem in a microgravity environment. It is hypothesized that the unloading of postural muscles, which no longer must resist gravity force, causes an accelerated breakdown of contractile proteins, resulting in a reduction in muscle mass and strength. A crustacean model using the land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, to assess the effects of spaceflight on protein metabolism is presented. The model is compared to a developmentally-regulated atrophy in which a premolt reduction in muscle mass allows the withdrawal of the large claws at molt. The biochemical mechanisms underlying protein breakdown involves both Ca^2+-dependent and multicatalytic proteolytic enzymes. Crustacean claw muscle can be used to determine the interactions between shortening and unloading at the molecular level.

  1. Comparison between the changes in muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration in finswimmers during incremental exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangde; Tian, Qingping; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-08-01

    For the purpose of comparing the response in local skeletal muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration during incremental exercise, 8 female finswimmers were recruited to take an incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Muscle oxygenation in right vastus lateralis (VL) were monitored by continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW NIRS), respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were simultaneously measured by a metabolic system and a portable blood lactate analyzer respectively. NIRS measurements showed a muscle oxygenation index inflection point (OIip), from which the muscle oxygenation started to decrease dramatically. Significant correlations have been found between OIip and blood lactate threshold identified at the lowest [La]b value which was >0.5 mmol/L lower than that obtained at the following workload. These results might suggest that the CW NIRS measurement could be applied to monitor lactate threshold noninvasively.

  2. Morphological variation in vanishing Mexican desert fishes of the genus Characodon (Goodeidae).

    PubMed

    Tobler, M; Bertrand, N

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated a rapidly vanishing group of fishes in the genus Characodon (including Characodon lateralis and Characodon audax) from the upper Rio Mezquital drainage in Mexico. Using specimens from museum collections, morphological variation was assessed to quantify body shape differentiation among historic (i.e. extirpated and extant) collection sites. In both sexes, body shape (particularly head shape, the proportion of the caudal peduncle and the position and size of dorsal and anal fins) varied significantly among populations and species. Variation among collection sites could at least partially be attributed to geography, as the presence of distinct hydrographic units and a major waterfall coincided with major body shape differences. These results are discussed in the light of previously published molecular genetic analyses, as they have direct implications for taxonomic problems and the need for conservation measures for these endangered fishes. PMID:24405441

  3. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  4. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers.

  5. Evidence of imbalanced adaptation between muscle and tendon in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence may be regarded as a critical phase of tissue plasticity in young growing athletes, as the adaptation process of muscle-tendon unit is affected by both environmental mechanical stimuli and maturation. The present study investigated potential imbalances of knee extensor muscle strength and patellar tendon properties in adolescent compared with middle-aged athletes featuring long-term musculotendinous adaptations. Nineteen adolescent elite volleyball athletes [(A), 15.9 ± 0.6 years] and 18 middle-aged competitively active former elite volleyball athletes [(MA), 46.9 ± 0.6 years] participated in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-dynamometry sessions to determine quadriceps femoris muscle strength, vastus lateralis morphology and patellar tendon mechanical and morphological properties. There was no significant age effect on the physiological cross-sectional area of the vastus lateralis and maximum knee extension moment (P > 0.05) during voluntary isometric contractions. However, the patellar tendon cross-sectional area was significantly smaller (A: 107.4 ± 27.5 mm(2) ; MA: 121.7 ± 39.8 mm(2) ) and the tendon stress during the maximal contractions was significantly higher in adolescent compared with the middle-aged athletes (A: 50.0 ± 10.1 MPa; MA: 40.0 ± 9.5 MPa). These findings provide evidence of an imbalanced development of muscle strength and tendon mechanical and morphological properties in adolescent athletes, which may have implications for the risk of tendon overuse injuries.

  6. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  7. Muscle activation characteristics of the front leg during baseball swings with timing correction for sudden velocity decrease.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings.

  8. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity, from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; de Ruiter, Jo C; Noordhof, Dionne A; Sterrenburg, Renske; Bloemers, Frank W; de Koning, Jos J; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2016-09-01

    V̇o2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max). However, ex vivo quantification of mitochondrial overcapacity is complicated by isolation or permeabilization procedures. An alternative method for estimating mitochondrial oxidative capacity is via enzyme histochemical quantification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. We determined to what extent V̇o2 max attained during cycling exercise differs from mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity of vastus lateralis muscle in chronic heart failure patients, healthy controls, and cyclists. V̇o2 max was assessed in 20 healthy subjects and 28 cyclists, and SDH activity was determined from biopsy cryosections of vastus lateralis using quantitative histochemistry. Similar data from our laboratory of 14 chronic heart failure patients and 6 controls were included. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was predicted from SDH activity using estimated skeletal muscle mass and the relationship between ex vivo fiber V̇o2 max and SDH activity of isolated single muscle fibers and myocardial trabecula under hyperoxic conditions. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity was related (r(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001) to V̇o2 max measured during cycling in subjects with V̇o2 max ranging from 9.8 to 79.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) V̇o2 max measured during cycling was on average 90 ± 14% of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. We conclude that human V̇o2 max is related to mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from skeletal muscle SDH activity. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity is likely marginally limited by oxygen supply to mitochondria. PMID:27445298

  9. Accessory muscle activation during the superimposed burst technique.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Devin; Kuenze, Christopher; Saliba, Susan; Hart, Joseph M

    2012-08-01

    Quadriceps muscle activation is assessed using the superimposed burst technique. This technique involves percutaneous muscle stimulation superimposed during maximal isometric volitional knee extension. It is unknown whether accessory muscle activation during maximal knee extension influences estimates of quadriceps muscle activation. Our aim was to compare accessory muscle activation while performing the superimposed burst technique using investigator delivered verbal instruction to constrain the system (CS) and a participant preferred (PP) technique. Twenty five healthy, active individuals (13M/12F, age=23.8 ± 3.35, height=72.73 ± 14.51 cm, and weight=175.29 ± 9.59 kg) were recruited for this study. All participants performed superimposed burst testing with (CS) and without (PP) verbal instruction to encourage isolated quadriceps activation during maximal isometric knee extension. The main outcome variables measured were knee extension torque, quadriceps central activation ratio and mean EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and lumbar paraspinal muscles. There were significant differences in knee extension torque (CS=2.87 ± 0.93 Nm/kg, PP=3.40 ± 1.12 Nm/kg, p<0.001), superimposed burst torque (CS=3.40 ±0.98 Nm/kg, PP=3.75 ± 1.11 Nm/kg, p=0.002) and quadriceps CAR (CS=84.1 ± 12.0%, PP=90.2 ± 9.9%, p<0.001) between the techniques. There was also a significant difference in lumbar paraspinal EMG (CS=6.40 ± 8.52%, PP=11.86 ± 14.89%, p=0.043) between the techniques however vastus lateralis EMG was not significantly different. Patient instruction via verbal instruction to constrain proximal structures may help patient minimize confounders to knee extension torque generation while maximizing quadriceps activation.

  10. Knee angle-dependent oxygen consumption during isometric contractions of the knee extensors determined with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, C J; de Boer, M D; Spanjaard, M; de Haan, A

    2005-08-01

    Fatigue resistance of knee extensor muscles is higher during voluntary isometric contractions at short compared with longer muscle lengths. In the present study we hypothesized that this would be due to lower energy consumption at short muscle lengths. Ten healthy male subjects performed isometric contractions with the knee extensor muscles at a 30, 60, and 90 degrees knee angle (full extension = 0 degrees ). At each angle, muscle oxygen consumption (m.VO2) of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscle was obtained with near-infrared spectroscopy. m.VO2 was measured during maximal isometric contractions and during contractions at 10, 30, and 50% of maximal torque capacity. During all contractions, blood flow to the muscle was occluded with a pressure cuff (450 mmHg). m.VO2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased with torque and at all torque levels, and for each of the three muscles. m.VO2 was significantly lower at 30 degrees compared with 60 degrees and 90 degrees and m.VO2 was similar (P > 0.05) at 60 degrees and 90 degrees . Across all torque levels, average (+/- SD) m.VO2 at the 30 degrees angle for vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis, respectively, was 70.0 +/- 10.4, 72.2 +/- 12.7, and 75.9 +/- 8.0% of the average m.VO2 obtained for each torque at 60 and 90 degrees . In conclusion, oxygen consumption of the knee extensors was significantly lower during isometric contractions at the 30 degrees than at the 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee angle, which probably contributes to the previously reported longer duration of sustained isometric contractions at relatively short muscle lengths.

  11. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex

  12. Effects of step exercise on muscle damage and muscle Ca2+ content in men and women.

    PubMed

    Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben; Overgaard, Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Eccentric exercise often produces severe muscle damage, whereas concentric exercise of a similar load elicits a minor degree of muscle damage. The cellular events initiating muscle damage are thought to include an increase in cytosolic Ca. It was hypothesized that eccentric muscle activity in humans would lead to a larger degree of cell damage and increased intracellular Ca accumulation in skeletal muscle than concentric activity would. Furthermore, possible differences between men and women in muscle damage were investigated following step exercise. Thirty-three healthy subjects (18 men and 15 women) participated in a 30-minute step exercise protocol involving concentric contractions with 1 leg and eccentric contractions with the other leg. Muscle Ca content, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and muscle enzymes in the plasma were measured. In a subgroup of the subjects, T2 relaxation time was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. No significant changes were found in muscle Ca content in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens in women or in men. Following step exercise, MVC decreased in both legs of both genders. The women had a significantly larger strength decrease in the eccentric leg than the men had on postexercise day 2 (p < 0.01). Plasma creatine kinase increased following step exercise, with a sevenfold higher response in women than in men on day 3 (p < 0.001). The women, but not the men, had an increase in T2 relaxation time in the eccentrically working adductor magnus muscle, peaking on day 3 (75%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, step exercise does not lead to Ca accumulation in the vastus lateralis but does induce muscle damage preferentially in the eccentrically working muscles, considerably more in women than in men. This indicates that gender-specific step training programs may be warranted to avoid excessive muscle damage. PMID:18545196

  13. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, L; Pernus, F; Erzen, I

    1995-01-01

    The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles were studied and compared with data on vastus lateralis. Cross-sections of autopsied muscles from 9 healthy men, aged 18-44 y, who had died suddenly were analysed. Data were obtained on proportions, cross-sectional diameter, and on atrophy and hypertrophy factors, of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres. The analysis showed that the anatomical differences and the different functional demands placed on vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus are also expressed in different proportions and sizes of fibre types in the two muscles. The proportion of type 1 fibres was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the proportion of 2b fibres was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus. The diameters of type 1 and type 2a fibres were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus, although the differences were small. Within muscles a nonrandom arrangement of fibre types existed with the deeper portions of the muscles having more type 1 fibres than the more superficial portions. The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus show great similarity, reflecting the common function of both muscles which is taking part in transverse knee stability. Estimates of the limits of normality of the proportion, diameter, atrophy and hypertrophy factors of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres might be useful in obtaining information on how different physiological and pathological conditions influence the proportion and size of different fibre types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592003

  14. Kinematic, Dynamic and EMG Analysis of Drop Jumps in Female Elite Triple Jump Athletes.

    PubMed

    Čoh, Milan; Matjačić, Zlatko; Peharec, Stanislav; Bačić, Petar; Rausavjević, Nikola; Maćkala, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was a biodynamic analysis of the kinematic, dynamic and EMG parameters of two types of drop jumps (heights of 25 cm and 45 cm). The sample of measured subjects included four female elite triple jump athletes, with their best results varying from 13.33 to 15.06 meters. The kinematic and dynamic parameters were calculated with the use of a bipedal tensiometric force plate, which was synchronized with nine CCD cameras. A 16-channel electromyography (BTS Pocket, Myolab) was used to analyze the EMG activation of the following muscles: m. erector spinae, m. gluteus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius medialis. In the drop jump from a 25 cm height, the measured subjects achieved the following results: height of jump 43.37 ± 5.39 cm and ground reaction force 2770 ± 411 N. In comparison, results for the drop jump from a 45 cm height were: height of jump 45.22 ± 4.65 cm and ground reaction force 2947 ± 366 N. Vertical velocity of the take-off in the 25 cm drop jump was 2.77 ± 0.19 ms(-1) and in the 45 cm drop jump it was 2.86 ± 0.15 ms(-1). Observation of the EMG activation revealed the proximal to distal principle of muscle activation at work in both types of drop jumps. In the first phase of the concentric phase the most active muscles were m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris. The greatest activity of m. gastrocnemius medialis and m. soleus was noticed in the last third of the take-off action. Significantly high EMG activation of m. vastus medialis and m. vastus lateralis was already shown in the flight phase prior to the feet making contact with the ground. PMID:26434025

  15. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day(-1) and 235 mg day(-1), respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants' training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training.

  16. Sugar preferences of avian nectarivores are correlated with intestinal sucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Napier, Kathryn R; McWhorter, Todd J; Nicolson, Susan W; Fleming, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Nectar-feeding birds generally demonstrate preference for hexose solutions at low sugar concentrations, switching to sucrose/no preference at higher concentrations. Species vary in the concentration at which the switch from hexose preference occurs; this could reflect physiological constraints that would also influence nectar selection when foraging. We recorded concentration-dependent sugar type preferences in three opportunistic/generalist Australian nectarivorous species: Dicaeum hirundinaceum, Zosterops lateralis, and Lichenostomus virescens. All three preferred hexoses up to sugar concentrations of 0.25 mol L(-1) and switched to sucrose/no preference for higher concentrations. Using these and literature records, we investigated physiological mechanisms that may explain the concentration dependence of sugar type preferences and compared diet preference data with foraging records. We measured sucrase activity in Z. lateralis and L. virescens as well as three specialized nectarivorous species (Anthochaera carunculata, Phylidonyris novaehollandiae, and Trichoglossus haematodus) for comparison with published concentration-dependent sugar preference data. Sucrase activity varied between these species ([Formula: see text]). The minimum diet concentration at which birds show no sugar preference was significantly correlated with sucrase activity for the 11 species analyzed ([Formula: see text]). Birds with the lowest sucrase activity showed hexose preference at higher diet concentrations, and birds with the greatest sucrase activity showed either no hexose preference or hexose preference on only the most dilute diets. Foraging data compiled from the literature also support the laboratory analyses; for example, T. haematodus (preference for hexose over a wide range of diet concentrations, low sucrase activity) also feed primarily on hexose nectars in the wild. Intestinal sucrase activity is likely to contribute to diet selectivity in nectarivorous bird species.

  17. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  18. Muscle morphological and strength adaptations to endurance vs. resistance training.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Kjølhede, Tue; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik; Møller, Andreas B; Vestergaard, Poul F; Ringgaard, Steffen; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Vissing, Kristian

    2012-02-01

    Fascicle angle (FA) is suggested to increase as a result of fiber hypertrophy and furthermore to serve as the explanatory link in the discrepancy in the relative adaptations in the anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber CSA after resistance training (RT). In contrast to RT, the effects of endurance training on FA are unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the longitudinal effects of either progressive endurance training (END, n = 7) or RT (n = 7) in young untrained men on FA, anatomical CSA, and fiber CSA. Muscle morphological measures included the assessment of vastus lateralis FA obtained by ultrasonography and anatomical CSA by magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh and fiber CSA deduced from histochemical analyses of biopsy samples from m. vastus lateralis. Functional performance measures included VO2max and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The RT produced increases in FA by 23 ± 8% (p < 0.01), anatomical CSA of the knee extensor muscles by 9 ± 3% (p = 0.001), and fiber CSA by 19 ± 7% (p < 0.05). RT increased knee extensor MVC by 20 ± 5% (p < 0.001). END increased VO2max by 10 ± 2% but did not evoke changes in FA, anatomical CSA, or in fiber CSA. In conclusion, the morphological changes induced by 10 weeks of RT support that FA does indeed serve as the explanatory link in the observed discrepancy between the changes in anatomical and fiber CSA. Contrarily, 10 weeks of endurance training did not induce changes in FA, but the lack of morphological changes from END indirectly support the fact that fiber hypertrophy and FA are interrelated.

  19. The Effect of Three Different (-135°C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T.; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. Purpose To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. Method This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at −135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. Results No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Conclusion Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of −135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies. PMID:24489726

  20. Modifications in activation of lower limb muscles as a function of initial foot position in cycling.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas W; Ardigò, Luca P; Viggiano, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic movements, such as walking/cycling, require the activity of spinal-circuits, the central-pattern-generators (CPG). To our knowledge little work has been done to investigate the activation of these circuits, e.g., the muscular and kinematic activity during cycling initiation. This study aims to detail the muscle output properties as a function of the initial lower limb-position using a simple cycling paradigm. Therefore, subjects were required to pedal on a cycle-ergometer in seated position starting at different-crank-angles (0-150°). Surface-electromyography was recorded from the gluteus major (GL), vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM), while crank position was recorded using a linear-encoder. Gluteus major peak-activity (PA) occurred at 65.0±12.4° when starting with 0° initial crank position (ICP), while occurred maximally at 110.5±2.9 when starting with 70° ICP. Vastus lateralis PA occurred at 40.7±8.8° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 103.4±4.0°. Similarly, GM PA occurred at 112.0±10.7° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 142.5±4.2° PA. Gluteus major and gastrocnemius medialis showed similar PA phase shifts, which may suggest they are controlled by same local circuitry, in agreement with their common spinal origin, i.e., motoneurons pool in S1-S2.

  1. Effects of sprint training combined with vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine content and buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; De Naeyer, Hélène; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Stegen, Sanne; Beeckman, Sam; Achten, Eric; Vanhee, Lander; Volkaert, Anneke; Petrovic, Mirko; Taes, Youri; Derave, Wim

    2011-10-01

    Carnosine is an abundant dipeptide in human skeletal muscle with proton buffering capacity. There is controversy as to whether training can increase muscle carnosine and thereby provide a mechanism for increased buffering capacity. This study investigated the effects of 5 weeks sprint training combined with a vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine, carnosine synthase mRNA expression and muscle buffering capacity. Twenty omnivorous subjects participated in a 5 week sprint training intervention (2-3 times per week). They were randomized into a vegetarian and mixed diet group. Measurements (before and after the intervention period) included carnosine content in soleus, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), true-cut biopsy of the gastrocnemius lateralis to determine in vitro non-bicarbonate muscle buffering capacity, carnosine content (HPLC method) and carnosine synthase (CARNS) mRNA expression and 6 × 6 s repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. There was a significant diet × training interaction in soleus carnosine content, which was non-significantly increased (+11%) with mixed diet and non-significantly decreased (-9%) with vegetarian diet. Carnosine content in other muscles and gastrocnemius buffer capacity were not influenced by training. CARNS mRNA expression was independent of training, but decreased significantly in the vegetarian group. The performance during the RSA test improved by training, without difference between groups. We found a positive correlation (r = 0.517; p = 0.002) between an invasive and non-invasive method for muscle carnosine quantification. In conclusion, this study shows that 5 weeks sprint training has no effect on the muscle carnosine content and carnosine synthase mRNA.

  2. Muscle activation characteristics of the front leg during baseball swings with timing correction for sudden velocity decrease.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  3. Muscle Activation Characteristics of the Front Leg During Baseball Swings with Timing Correction for Sudden Velocity Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  4. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations and body mass in ground squirrels: seasonal variation and circannual organization.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Scott; Pelz, Kimberly M; Muecke, Eva-Maria; Holekamp, Kay E; Zucker, Irving

    2006-04-01

    We examined variation in plasma glucocorticoid concentrations of free-living Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) and captive golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) housed in constant environmental conditions. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were not significantly correlated with time held captive in traps prior to collection of blood samples in males or non-breeding females, but these variables were significantly correlated in breeding females during the pre-mating, lactation, and post-lactation periods. Among male S. beldingi, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased over the course of the active season, and were significantly higher in non-breeding than breeding individuals. Corticosterone concentrations also increased in non-breeding females throughout the active period. In breeding females, baseline (non-stress) corticosterone concentrations, determined from blood samples collected within 3 min of capture, increased during gestation and declined during lactation, whereas stress values of corticosterone, determined from blood samples collected within 4-11 min of capture, increased during gestation and then again during the period after young emerged from the natal burrow. Changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations of S. beldingi paralleled changes in body mass. Among S. lateralis, plasma concentrations of cortisol were elevated when males and females were in reproductive condition and lower in reproductively quiescent squirrels. The annual peak in plasma cortisol concentrations occurred just prior to increases in body mass associated with pre-hibernation fattening. Collectively, these results suggest that concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids fluctuate with circannual rhythmicity in conjunction with annual cycles of change in body mass and activity; within these circannual cycles glucocorticoid concentrations are influenced by stress and breeding status. PMID:16360155

  5. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Facultative and Spontaneous Torpor in Apline Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, C. L.; Hood, W. R.; Stevens, M.; Gary, G.

    2007-12-01

    Mean annual air temperatures have increased in North America by 1.0°C during the past 100 years, and are predicted to increase by 4-8 °C further within the next 70 years. Hibernating mammals may be particularly sensitive to climate change since body temperatures during torpor are strongly influence by ambient temperature. We conducted 3-7 year studies on the relationship between ambient (air/soil) temperature and the torpor patterns of free-ranging facultative and spontaneous hibernators. The facultative hibernation of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in New York State and the spontaneous hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in the mountains of California were continuously monitored using temperature sensitive radiocollars during winters of 2000-01 through 2006-07. Mean air/soil temperatures during the winter 2001-02 were much greater than those observed during the same periods of 2000-1 and 2002-3 winters at both sites, and the winter of 2001-2 was one of the warmest measured in both New York State and California since 1895. Consequently T. striatus during the winter 2001-2 had: a) fewer individuals using torpor, b) reduced the time spent in torpor by 96%, and, c) increased energy expenditure by 100% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the colder winters of 2000-1/2002-3. Likewise, S. lateralis during the winter of 2001-2 had: a) delayed the entrance into hibernation by a mean of 12.2 days, b) increased mean body temperatures by an average of 5.4 C during torpor, and, c) increased metabolic rate during torpor by 75% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the winters of 2000-1/2002-3.

  6. Adjustments of muscle capillarity but not mitochondrial protein with skiing in the elderly.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, S; Amami, M; Dela, F; Niederseer, D; Narici, M V; Niebauer, J; Scheiber, P; Müller, E; Flück, M

    2015-08-01

    Downhill skiing in the elderly increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and carbohydrate handling, and produces muscle hypertrophy. We hypothesized that adjustments of the cellular components of aerobic glucose combustion in knee extensor muscle, and cardiovascular adjustments, would increase in proportion to VO2max. Nineteen healthy elderly subjects (age 67.5 ± 2.9 years) who completed 28.5 days of guided downhill skiing over 3 months were assessed for anthropometric variables, cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, hematocrit), VO2max, and compared with controls (n = 20). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were analyzed for capillary density and expression of respiratory chain markers (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, ATP5A1) and the glucose transporter GLUT4. Statistical significance was assessed with a repeated analysis of variance and Fisher's post-hoc test at a P value of 5%. VO2max increased selectively with ski training (+7 ± 2%). Capillary density (+11 ± 5%) and capillary-to-fiber ratio (12 ± 5%), but not the concentration of metabolic proteins, in vastus lateralis were increased after skiing. Cardiovascular parameters did not change. Fold changes in VO2max and capillary-to-fiber ratio were correlated and were under genetic control by polymorphisms of the regulator of vascular tone, angiotensin converting enzyme. The observations indicate that increased VO2max after recreational downhill ski training is associated with improved capillarity in a mainly recruited muscle group. PMID:25262765

  7. The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Deane, Margaret N; Gregory, Michael; Mars, Maurice

    2014-08-26

    The effect that compressed air massage (CAM) has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the 'severity' of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control) right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, 'in-house' morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone - observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models.

  8. Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers.

    PubMed

    Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; de Almeida Neto, Antônio Francisco; Cardozo, Adalgiso Coscrato; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the motor response time and ability to develop joint torque at the knee and ankle in older women with and without a history of falls, in addition to investigating the effect of aging on these capacities. We assessed 18 young females, 21 older female fallers and 22 older female non-fallers. The peak torque, rate of torque development, rate of electromyography (EMG) rise, reaction time, premotor time and motor time were obtained through a dynamometric assessment and simultaneous electromyography. Surface EMGs of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Knee extension and flexion peak torques were lower in older fallers than in non-fallers. Knee extension and flexion and ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion peak torques were lower in both older groups than in the younger group. The rate of EMG rise of the BF and the motor time of the TA were lower and higher, respectively, in older fallers than in the younger adults. The time to reach peak torque in knee extension/flexion and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and the motor times of the RF, VL, BF and GL were higher in both older groups than in the younger groups. The motor time of the TA during ankle dorsiflexion and the knee extension peak torque were the major predictors of falls in older women, accounting for approximately 28% of the number of falls. Thus, these results further reveal the biomechanical parameters that affect the risk of falls and provide initial findings to support the prescription of exercises in fall prevention programs.

  9. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl A; Chetlin, Robert D; Gutmann, Laurie; Yeater, Rachel A; Alway, Stephen E

    2006-11-01

    It is not known whether myosin heavy chain (MHC) content changes in response to exercise training or creatine supplementation in subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Based on previous data, we hypothesized that resistance exercise and creatine would increase the percentage of type I MHC composition in the vastus lateralis muscle and that myosin isoform changes would correlate with improved chair rise-time in CMT subjects. To test this hypothesis, 18 CMT subjects were randomly assigned to either a placebo or creatine group. All subjects performed a 12-week, home-based, moderate-intensity resistance training program. Chair rise-time was measured before and after the training program. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after the 12-week program. Gel electrophoresis showed a significant decrease (approximately 30%) in MHC type I in CMT subjects given creatine supplementation when compared with placebo. There was a nonsignificant increase in both MHC type IIa (approximately 23%) and MHC type IIx (approximately 7%) in CMT subjects given creatine. Reduced MHC type I content and increased MHC type IIa content correlated with faster chair rise-times (i.e., improved muscle performance). The training-induced change in MHC IIa content was inversely correlated with chair rise-time in CMT subjects given creatine. When the two subject groups were combined, there was a linear, negative relationship between the change in MHC type IIa content and chair rise-time after training and a positive relationship between the training-induced change in MHC type I content and chair rise-time. These data suggest that improved function (chair rise-time) was associated with a lower level of MHC type I and increased MHC type IIa composition. Furthermore, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that creatine supplementation alters MHC composition in CMT patients undergoing resistance training and that MHC changes associated with creatine

  10. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible.

  11. POST-EXERCISE LACTATE PRODUCTION AND METABOLISM IN THREE SPECIES OF AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    PubMed

    Walsh

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans are dependent on both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for energy production during exercise. Anaerobic energy production is marked by an accumulation of lactate in both muscle tissue and haemolymph, but the metabolic fate of lactate is not clear. Lactate recycling via gluconeogenesis and the potential role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in supplying bicarbonate for the carboxylation of pyruvate were investigated in three species of decapod crustaceans: Callinectes sapidus (aquatic), Cardisoma guanhumi (semi-terrestrial) and Gecarcinus lateralis (terrestrial). CA activity was found in mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of all three species. Significant activities of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose bisphosphatase), however, could not be detected. Exercise to exhaustion produced a species-specific pattern of accumulation and clearance of lactate in tissue and haemolymph, indicating a differential degree of reliance on anaerobic energy production. Treatment with acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, did not significantly alter the pattern of lactate dynamics in animals given repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise interspersed with periods of recovery. Injection of [U-14C]lactate resulted in the appearance of label in both muscle glycogen and excreted carbon dioxide, suggesting multiple metabolic fates for lactate. Lactate turnover rates for G. lateralis were similar to those reported for fish. In these animals, gluconeogenesis possibly proceeds via the reversal of pyruvate kinase, or via the typical Cori cycle but so slowly that the uncatalysed supply of bicarbonate is sufficient to keep pace with the low activities of pyruvate carboxylase and the subsequent low rates of pyruvate carboxylation.

  12. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity, from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; de Ruiter, C Jo; Noordhof, Dionne A; Sterrenburg, Renske; Bloemers, Frank W; de Koning, Jos J; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2016-09-01

    V̇o2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max). However, ex vivo quantification of mitochondrial overcapacity is complicated by isolation or permeabilization procedures. An alternative method for estimating mitochondrial oxidative capacity is via enzyme histochemical quantification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. We determined to what extent V̇o2 max attained during cycling exercise differs from mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity of vastus lateralis muscle in chronic heart failure patients, healthy controls, and cyclists. V̇o2 max was assessed in 20 healthy subjects and 28 cyclists, and SDH activity was determined from biopsy cryosections of vastus lateralis using quantitative histochemistry. Similar data from our laboratory of 14 chronic heart failure patients and 6 controls were included. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was predicted from SDH activity using estimated skeletal muscle mass and the relationship between ex vivo fiber V̇o2 max and SDH activity of isolated single muscle fibers and myocardial trabecula under hyperoxic conditions. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity was related (r(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001) to V̇o2 max measured during cycling in subjects with V̇o2 max ranging from 9.8 to 79.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) V̇o2 max measured during cycling was on average 90 ± 14% of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. We conclude that human V̇o2 max is related to mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from skeletal muscle SDH activity. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity is likely marginally limited by oxygen supply to mitochondria.

  13. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  14. The reliability of surface electromyography to assess quadriceps fatigue during multi joint tasks in healthy and painful knees.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael J; McCarthy, Christopher J; Oldham, Jacqueline A

    2009-02-01

    This study's aim was to determine the between days reliability of surface EMG recordings from the superficial quadriceps during a multi joint sub-maximal fatiguing protocol. Three subject groups (healthy n=29; patellofemoral pain syndrome n=74; knee osteoarthritis n=55) performed the task at 60 maximum voluntary isometric contraction on three separate days. Spectral and amplitude EMG parameters were recorded from vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris and were analysed for between days reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC((2,1))), the standard errors of measure and smallest detectable differences. For frequency results, initial and final frequency values had 'good' or 'excellent' reliability in all groups for all muscles. ICCs for median frequency slopes for vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris respectively, in the osteoarthritis group were 0.04, 0.55, and 0.72; in the patellofemoral pain group were 0.41, 0.17, and 0.33; in the healthy group were 0.68, 0.64, and 0.31. The standard errors of measurement and smallest detectable differences for all groups and for all muscles were unacceptably high. For amplitude results, ICC root mean squared initial and final values were 'good' to 'excellent' for all groups and all muscles, albeit with high measurement error. The ICCs for root mean squared slopes in all tests were 'poor' with extremely high measurement error. The poor between days reliability and high measurement error suggests that surface EMG should not be adopted to assess fatigue during multi joint sub-maximal isometric quadriceps testing.

  15. Pathology of Haplosporidium patagon affecting siphonariid gastropods in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Gisele; Gilardoni, Carmen; Ituarte, Cristián

    2014-11-13

    Haplosporidium patagon was found parasitizing Siphonaria lessonii and S. lateralis, 2 siphonariid gastropods co-occurring on the littoral rocky shore at Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Gastropods from 2 habitats representing 2 different levels of environmental harshness were studied. In both cases, S. lessonii showed a higher prevalence of infection (3.78%) over the entire 14 mo study period than S. lateralis (0.13%). Very different values of prevalence of infection were observed at the different sampling sites: Site 1, the more restrictive habitat (exposed for long periods to desiccation during low tides, higher ultraviolet exposure, and high ranges of temperature variation) showed a higher prevalence value (5.99%) than Site 2 (1.46%). Statistical differences in prevalence were also found between values corresponding to the austral spring (3.35% at Site 1 and 0.74% at Site 2) and winter (13.79% at Site 1 and 2.13% at Site 2). The presence/absence of H. patagon did not vary significantly with gastropod shell length. Infection affected the digestive gland, whose normal histology was greatly modified. The hermaphroditic gonads were also affected; the female germinal cells disappeared or only a few primary or previtellogenic oocytes were present, and vitellogenesis was inhibited. The function of the male germinal epithelium, as well as spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes and associated organs (seminal vesicles and seminal receptacles), were not affected. However, the glandular pallial complex of the reproductive systemwas affected, and we observed a significant reduction in development in parasitized gastropods. H. patagon sporocysts also invaded the supporting connective tissues of both the kidney and pseudobranch.

  16. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this

  17. External loading does not change energy cost and mechanics of rollerski skating.

    PubMed

    Millet, G; Perrey, S; Candau, R; Belli, A; Borrani, F; Rouillon, J D

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external loading on the energy cost and mechanics of roller ski skating. A group of 13 highly skilled male cross-country skiers roller skied at 19.0 ( SD 0.1) km x h(-1) without additional load and with loads of 6% and 12% body mass (mb). Oxygen uptake (VO2), knee and ankle joint kinematics, roller-ski electromyogram (EMG) of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles, and roller ski velocity were recorded during the last 40 s of each 4-min period of roller skiing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the VO2 expressed relative to total mass (mtot), joint kinetics, eccentric-to-concentric ratio of the integrated EMG, velocity changes within a cycle, and cycle rate did not change significantly with load. The subsequent analysis of the effect of load on each resistance opposing motion suggested that the power to sustain changes in translational kinetic energy, potential energy, and overcoming rolling resistance increased proportionately with the load. The lack of a significant change in VO2/mtot with external loading was associated with a lack of marked change in external mechanical power relative to mtot. The existence of an EMG signal during the eccentric phase prior to the thrust (concentric phase), as well as the lack of significant delay between the two phases, showed that a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) occurs in roller ski skating. Taken together, the present results would suggest that external loading up to 12% mb does not increase storage and release of elastic energy of lower limb muscles during SSC in roller ski skating.

  18. Individual-specific muscle maximum force estimation using ultrasound for ankle joint torque prediction using an EMG-driven Hill-type model.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2010-10-19

    EMG-driven models can be used to estimate muscle force in biomechanical systems. Collected and processed EMG readings are used as the input of a dynamic system, which is integrated numerically. This approach requires the definition of a reasonably large set of parameters. Some of these vary widely among subjects, and slight inaccuracies in such parameters can lead to large model output errors. One of these parameters is the maximum voluntary contraction force (F(om)). This paper proposes an approach to find F(om) by estimating muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) using ultrasound (US), which is multiplied by a realistic value of maximum muscle specific tension. Ultrasound is used to measure muscle thickness, which allows for the determination of muscle volume through regression equations. Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis PCSAs are estimated using published volume proportions among leg muscles, which also requires measurements of muscle fiber length and pennation angle by US. F(om) obtained by this approach and from data widely cited in the literature was used to comparatively test a Hill-type EMG-driven model of the ankle joint. The model uses 3 EMGs (Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis) as inputs with joint torque as the output. The EMG signals were obtained in a series of experiments carried out with 8 adult male subjects, who performed an isometric contraction protocol consisting of 10s step contractions at 20% and 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction level. Isometric torque was simultaneously collected using a dynamometer. A statistically significant reduction in the root mean square error was observed when US-obtained F(om) was used, as compared to F(om) from the literature.

  19. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day−1 and 235 mg day−1, respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants’ training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. PMID:25384788

  20. Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes among Persons Aged 35 to 60 Years in Eastern Uganda: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mayega, Roy William; Guwatudde, David; Makumbi, Fredrick; Nakwagala, Frederick Nelson; Peterson, Stefan; Tomson, Goran; Ostenson, Claes-Goran

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) (i.e. diabetes and pre-diabetes) and its associated factors among people aged 35-60 years so as to clarify the relevance of targeted screening in rural Africa. Methods A population-based survey of 1,497 people (786 women and 711 men) aged 35-60 years was conducted in a predominantly rural Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. Participants responded to a lifestyle questionnaire, following which their Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured from capillary blood using On-Call® Plus (Acon) rapid glucose meters, following overnight fasting. AGR was defined as FPG ≥6.1mmol L-1 (World Health Organization (WHO) criteria or ≥5.6mmol L-1 (American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Diabetes was defined as FPG >6.9mmol L-1, or being on diabetes treatment. Results The mean age of participants was 45 years for men and 44 for women. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.4% (95%CI 6.1-8.8), while prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.6% (95%CI 7.3-10.2) using WHO criteria and 20.2% (95%CI 17.5-22.9) with ADA criteria. Using WHO cut-offs, the prevalence of AGR was 2 times higher among obese persons compared with normal BMI persons (Adjusted Prevalence Rate Ratio (APRR) 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8). Occupation as a mechanic, achieving the WHO recommended physical activity threshold, and higher dietary diversity were associated with lower likelihood of AGR (APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; APRR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9 respectively). The direct medical cost of detecting one person with AGR was two US dollars with ADA and three point seven dollars with WHO cut-offs. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of AGR among people aged 35-60 years in this setting. Screening for high risk persons and targeted health education to address obesity, insufficient physical activity and non-diverse diets are necessary. PMID:23967317

  1. [Studies on the cell-mediated immunity in experimental Naegleria spp. infections].

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Shin, H J; Im, K I

    1989-09-01

    Observations were made on the differences in cell-mediated immune responses in the mice infected with strongly pathogenic Naegleria fowleri ITMAP 359, weakly pathogenic Naegleria jadini 0400, or non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi EGB, respectively. Variations in cell-mediated responses and changes in antibody titers according to the duration after infection were noted. Infections were done by dropping 5 microliters saline suspension containing 10 x 10(4) trophozoites cultured axenically in the CGVS medium into the right nasal cavity of ICR mice aging about 6-7 weeks, under the anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of secobarbital. Following infection, delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) responses in the footpad and blastogenic responses of the mouse spleen cells using [3H]-thymidine were observed on the day 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 after infection. For the preparation of amoeba lysates, each of cultured trophozoites were homogenized with an ultrasonicator, and centrifugated at 20,000 g. The supernatants of amoeba lysates were used as the mitogen and antigen for ELISA. Concanavalin A(Con. A) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) were also used as mitogens in the blastogenic response. 1. The mice infected with N. fowleri showed the mortality rate of 75.7%. The rate was 6.2% for the N. jadini infected group, while no dead mouse was observed for N. gruberi infections. 2. In regard to DTH responses in the N. fowleri infected mice, the level increased in comparison to the control group but declined after 7 days. An increase was also noted for the N. jadini group after 1 day, but gradual decreases were observed through the infection period. In addition, no difference was noted between the N. gruberi infected and control groups. 3. Concerning the blastogenic response of the splenocytes, it increased after 10 days in the experimental group of N. fowleri infection, but the differences were not statistically significant compared with control group. It was evident that N. jadini group was not

  2. Dynamic Neuromuscular Control of the Lower Limbs in Response to Unexpected Single-Planar versus Multi-Planar Support Perturbations in Young, Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Staes, Filip; de Vries, Aijse; Smeets, Annemie; Hawken, Malcolm; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury involves a multi-planar injury mechanism. Nevertheless, unexpected multi-planar perturbations have not been used to screen athletes in the context of ACL injury prevention yet could reveal those more at risk. The objective of this study was to compare neuromuscular responses to multi-planar (MPP) and single-planar perturbations (SPP) during a stepping-down task. These results might serve as a basis for future implementation of external perturbations in ACL injury screening programs. Methods Thirteen young adults performed a single leg stepping-down task in eight conditions (four MPP and four SPP with a specified amplitude and velocity). The amplitudes of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), hamstrings lateralis (HL), hamstrings medialis (HM) EMG activity, medio-lateral and anterior-posterior centre of mass (COM) displacements, the peak knee flexion and abduction angles were compared between conditions using an one-way ANOVA. Number of stepping responses were monitored during all conditions. Results Significantly greater muscle activity levels were found in response to the more challenging MPP and SPP compared to the less challenging conditions (p < 0.05). No differences in neuromuscular activity were found between the MPP conditions and their equivalents in the SPP. Eighteen stepping responses were monitored in the SPP versus nine in the MPP indicating that the overall neuromuscular control was even more challenged during the SPP which was supported by greater COM displacements in the SPP. Conclusion The more intense MPP and SPP evoked different neuromuscular responses resulting in greater muscle activity levels compared to small perturbations. Based on the results of COM displacements and based on the amount of stepping responses, dynamic neuromuscular control of the knee joint appeared less challenged during the MPP. Therefore, future work should investigate extensively if other neuromuscular differences

  3. Afferent projections to the mammillary complex of the rat, with special reference to those from surrounding hypothalamic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalo-Ruiz, A.; Alonso, A.; Sanz, J. M.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the functional organization of the mammillary nuclei, we investigated the afferents to this nuclear complex in the rat with iontophoretically injected wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Particular attention was paid to tracing local hypothalamic afferents to these nuclei. Injections into the medial mammillary nucleus (MMN) revealed strong projections from the subicular region, and weaker projections from the prefrontal cortex, medial septum, and the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. Other descending subcortical projections to the MMN arise from the anterior and the lateral hypothalamic area, the medial preoptic area, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Ascending afferents to the MMN were found to originate in the raphe and various tegmental nuclei. Following all injections into the MMN, labelled neurons were found in nuclei surrounding the mammillary body. The lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus projected mainly to the pars medianus and pars medialis of the MMN. The dorsal and ventral premammillary nuclei projected to the pars lateralis of the MMN. The supramammillary nucleus at rostral level had a small projection to the pars medialis and lateralis of the MMN. However, the most obvious projection from this nucleus was to the pars posterior of the MMN, chiefly from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. Injections into the lateral mammillary nucleus revealed inputs from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, septal region, dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. In addition, the lateral mammillary nucleus was found to receive a moderate projection from the medial part of the supramammillary nucleus and stronger projections from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. A very light projection was also seen from the lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus. These findings add to our knowledge

  4. Muscle activation and blood flow do not explain the muscle length-dependent variation in quadriceps isometric endurance.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, R D; de Ruiter, C J; de Haan, A

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of central activation in muscle length-dependent endurance. Central activation ratio (CAR) and rectified surface electromyogram (EMG) were studied during fatigue of isometric contractions of the knee extensors at 30 and 90 degrees knee angles (full extension = 0 degree). Subjects (n = 8) were tested on a custom-built ergometer. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension with supramaximal superimposed burst stimulation (three 100-mus pulses; 300 Hz) was performed to assess CAR and maximal torque capacity (MTC). Surface EMG signals were obtained from vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. At each angle, intermittent (15 s on 6 s off) isometric exercise at 50% MTC with superimposed stimulation was performed to exhaustion. During the fatigue task, a sphygmomanometer cuff around the upper thigh ensured full occlusion (400 mmHg) of the blood supply to the knee extensors. At least 2 days separated fatigue tests. MTC was not different between knee angles (30 degrees : 229.6 +/- 39.3 N.m vs. 90 degrees: 215.7 +/- 13.2 N.m). Endurance times, however, were significantly longer (P < 0.05) at 30 vs. 90 degrees (87.8 +/- 18.7 vs. 54.9 +/- 12.1 s, respectively) despite the CAR not differing between angles at torque failure (30 degrees: 0.95 +/- 0.05 vs. 90 degrees: 0.96 +/- 0.03) and full occlusion of blood supply to the knee extensors. Furthermore, rectified surface EMG values of the vastus lateralis (normalized to prefatigue maximum) were also similar at torque failure (30 degrees : 56.5 +/- 12.5% vs. 90 degrees : 58.3 +/- 15.2%), whereas rectus femoris EMG activity was lower at 30 degrees (44.3 +/- 12.4%) vs. 90 degrees (69.5 +/- 25.3%). We conclude that differences in endurance at different knee angles do not find their origin in differences in central activation and blood flow but may be a consequence of muscle length-related differences in metabolic cost.

  5. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David; Brogioli, Michael; Maier, Thomas; White, Andy; Waldron, Sarah; Rittweger, Jörn; Toigo, Marco; Wettstein, Jessica; Laczko, Endre; Flück, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A silencer region (I-allele) within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle. Methods Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc. Results Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09). The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and –3%, respectively). Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione) were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon. Conclusion The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of

  6. Muscle adaptation and disability in late poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, G

    1991-01-01

    Persons who suffered poliomyelitis 3 or more decades ago now report functional decline and symptoms designated as "post-polio syndrome". The objects of this investigation were to identify subjects fulfilling the criteria of this syndrome, to describe their motor impairment and resulting disabilities/handicaps, to study the adaptive changes in the muscle structure and effects of a resistance exercise program. Forty-one late-polio subjects, 40-65 years old, volunteered for the studies of motor impairment, subgroups of those volunteered to further studies of long-term and short-term adaptations. Seventy-five per cent of the subjects met the criteria for the post-polio syndrome. Complete manual muscle tests and dynamometer measurements of knee muscle strength revealed severe motor impairment predominantly in the lower extremities, the strength of the latter correlating to the degree of mobility handicap. In biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, type grouping was frequent. Half of the subjects demonstrated over 70% occurrence of type I fibers with negative significant correlation to strength in the female subjects. Cross-section areas of muscle fibers were on average twice the normal, with negative significant correlation to strength values in male subjects. Muscle enzymatic activity values showed large individual variations; oxidative activities (citrate synthase) were low or very low, while average glycolytic activities were nearly normal. Macro EMG and single-fiber EMG measurements in the vastus lateralis muscle demonstrated large macro motor unit potentials and increased fiber density. Neuromuscular transmission was disturbed as identified by jitter and blockings in most subjects regardless of the occurrence of new muscular symptoms. A statistically significant increase in strength (25-30%) resulted from a 6 weeks' heavy resistance exercise program, utilizing a dynamometer, without any obvious side-effects. Strength improvement was maintained for 6-12 months

  7. TU-C-12A-01: Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Lipids in Type 2 Diabetes Using in Vivo Proton MR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Valaparla, S; Boone, G; Ripley, E; Abdul-Ghani, M; Duong, T; Clarke, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify and compare the intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular (EMCL) lipids and total fat fraction in human vastus lateralis (VL) muscle between lean controls and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects using long echo time in vivo proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) Methods: {sup 1}H-MRS single voxel (15 × 15 × 15 mm{sup 3}) stimulated acquisition mode (STEAM) was performed in right vastus lateralis m. on 10 lean controls (age: 28.3±3.94 yrs, BMI: 24.25±3.20 kg/m{sup 2}) and 7 type 2 diabetic (age: 54.28±6.42 yrs, BMI: 31.34±3.13 kg/m{sup 2}) subjects with Siemens 3T MRI and four-channel flex coil. Unsuppressed water spectra (NSA = 16) with TR/TE = 3000/30 msec, TM = 10 msec, BW = 2000 Hz, and water-suppressed spectra (NSA = 128) with TR/TE = 3000/270 msec, TM = 10 msec, and fixed water suppression BW = 50 Hz were acquired. Spectral intensity ratios of IMCL-CH{sub 2}, EMCL-CH{sub 2} and total lipid (IMCL {sub +} EMCL) with unsuppressed water signal (W) were converted into absolute concentrations expressed in mmol/kg. Fat fraction (100 × F/(W+F)) was calculated, where F includes the signal intensities of IMCL and EMCL methylene (CH{sub 2})n, peaks only. Results: Comparison of IMCL (controls: 11.70 ± 6.7, T2DM: 21.74 ± 10.2, p ≤ 0.01), EMCL (controls: 22.89 ± 18.42, T2DM: 77.21 ± 33.4, p ≤ 0.001) and total lipid (64.35 mmol/kg less in controls, p ≤ 0.001) showed statistical significance using two-tailed student t-test. Fat fraction (%) exhibited considerable inter-individual variability for controls (3.14 ± 2.09; range: 1.34 - 7.04) and T2DM (9.34 ± 2.88; range: 4.15 - 13.67) and deemed significant (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusion: Single voxel STEAM {sup 1}H-MRS at long TE provides a robust non-invasive method for characterizing lipids within localized muscle regions, with well-resolved IMCL/EMCL peak separation. Regional lipid estimate and fat fraction in VL m. was significantly different in T2DM compared to lean controls. American Heart

  8. Increased thermogenic responsiveness to intravenous beta-adrenergic stimulation in habitually exercising humans is not related to skeletal muscle beta2-adrenergic receptor density.

    PubMed

    Stob, Nicole R; Seals, Douglas R; Jørgen, Jensen; van Baak, Marleen A; Steig, Amy J; Lindstrom, Rachel C; Bikman, Benjamin T; Bell, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Habitually exercising adults demonstrate greater thermogenic responsiveness to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation compared with their sedentary peers, but the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. To determine the possible role of increased beta-AR density, we studied 32 healthy adults: 17 habitual aerobic exercisers (age 45 +/- 5 years, 11 males) and 15 sedentary (49 +/- 5 years, 7 males). Maximal oxygen uptake (43.7 +/- 2.5 versus 31.6 +/- 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P = 0.002, mean +/- S.E.M.) and vastus lateralis muscle maximal citrate synthase activity (1.70 +/- 0.36 versus 0.58 +/- 0.11 micromol min(-1) g(-1), P = 0.008) were higher in the habitually exercising subjects. Resting energy expenditure (EE) adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) was similar in the habitually exercising (5903 +/- 280 kJ day(-1)) and sedentary adults (6054 +/- 289 kJ day(-1), P = 0.43). The percentage increase in EE (DeltaEE%; indirect calorimetry, ventilated hood) above resting EE in response to beta-AR stimulation (intravenous isoproterenol at 6, 12 and 24 ng (kg FFM)(-1) min(-1)) was greater (7.1 +/- 1.2, 13.7 +/- 1.0, 20.7 +/- 1.3 versus 5.9 +/- 0.9, 9.9 +/- 1.4, 15.9 +/- 1.70%, respectively, P = 0.04), and the dose of isoproterenol required to increase EE by 10% above resting EE was lower (8.2 +/- 1.5 versus 17.1 +/- 4.1 ng (kg FFM)(-1) min(-1), P = 0.03) in the habitually exercising adults. In contrast, vastus lateralis muscle beta(2)-AR density was similar in the habitually exercising and sedentary subjects (7.46 +/- 0.29 versus 7.44 +/- 0.60 fmol (mg dry weight muscle)(-1), P = 0.98), and was not related to DeltaEE% (r = 0.02, P = 0.94) or to the isoproterenol dose required to increase EE by 10% above resting EE (r = -0.06, P = 0.76). These findings indicate that increased beta(2)-AR density is not a mechanism contributing to the greater thermogenic responsiveness to beta-AR stimulation in adult humans who regularly perform aerobic exercise.

  9. Influence of Gender and Muscle Architecture Asymmetry on Jump and Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = –0.73; FL: r = –0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = –0.76; FL: r = –0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key points The manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender. In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture. In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance. To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised. PMID

  10. Influence of gender and muscle architecture asymmetry on jump and sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Fukuda, David H; LaMonica, Michael B; Gonzalez, Adam M; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-12-01

    Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = -0.73; FL: r = -0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = -0.76; FL: r = -0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key pointsThe manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender.In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture.In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance.To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised.

  11. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-12-01

    Forty USDA Select and 40 upper two-thirds USDA Choice beef carcasses were used to determine the effects of postmortem aging on tenderness of 17 individual beef muscles. Biceps femoris-long head, complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, serratus ventralis, spinalis dorsi, supraspinatus, tensor fasciae latae, teres major, triceps brachii-long head, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles were removed from each carcass. Seven steaks (2.54-cm thick) were cut from every muscle, and each steak was assigned to one of the following postmortem aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. After completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage (2 degrees C, never frozen), cooked to a peak internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Analysis of WBSF revealed a 3-way interaction (P = 0.004) among individual muscle, USDA quality grade, and postmortem aging period. With the exception of the Select teres major, WBSF of all muscles (both quality grades) decreased with increasing time of postmortem storage. Nonlinear regression was used to characterize the extent (aging response) and rate of decrease in WBSF from 2 through 28 d postmortem for each muscle within each quality grade. In general, WBSF of upper two-thirds Choice muscles decreased more rapidly from 2 to 10 d postmortem than did corresponding Select muscles. Muscles that had greater aging responses generally had greater 2-d WBSF values. The upper two-thirds Choice psoas major, serratus ventralis, and vastus lateralis muscles required similar aging times to complete a majority of the aging response (< or =0.1 kg of aging response remaining) compared with analogous Select muscles. The upper two-thirds Choice complexus, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, triceps brachii-long head, and vastus medialis muscles required 4 to 6 d less time to complete a

  12. An Examination of Muscle Activation and Power Characteristics While Performing the Deadlift Exercise With Straight and Hexagonal Barbells.

    PubMed

    Camara, Kevin D; Coburn, Jared W; Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Galpin, Andrew J; Costa, Pablo B

    2016-05-01

    The deadlift exercise is commonly performed to develop strength and power, and to train the lower-body and erector spinae muscle groups. However, little is known about the acute training effects of a hexagonal barbell vs. a straight barbell when performing deadlifts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the hexagonal barbell in comparison with the straight barbell by analyzing electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and erector spinae, as well as peak force, peak power, and peak velocity using a force plate. Twenty men with deadlifting experience volunteered to participate in the study. All participants completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test with each barbell on 2 separate occasions. Three repetitions at 65 and 85% 1RM were performed with each barbell on a third visit. The results revealed that there was no significant difference for 1RM values between the straight and hexagonal barbells (mean ± SD in kg = 181.4 ± 27.3 vs. 181.1 ± 27.6, respectively) (p > 0.05). Significantly greater normalized EMG values were found from the vastus lateralis for both the concentric (1.199 ± 0.22) and eccentric (0.879 ± 0.31) phases of the hexagonal-barbell deadlift than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (0.968 ± 0.22 and 0.559 ± 1.26), whereas the straight-barbell deadlift led to significantly greater EMG values from the bicep femoris during the concentric phase (0.835 ± 0.19) and the erector spinae (0.753 ± 0.28) during the eccentric phase than the corresponding values for the hexagonal-barbell deadlift (0.723 ± 0.20 and 0.614 ± 0.21) (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the hexagonal-barbell deadlift demonstrated significantly greater peak force (2,553.20 ± 371.52 N), peak power (1,871.15 ± 451.61 W), and peak velocity (0.805 ± 0.165) values than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (2,509.90 ± 364.95 N, 1,639.70 ± 361.94 W, and 0.725 ± 0.138 m·s, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that the barbells led

  13. Evolution of electromyographic signal, running economy, and perceived exertion during different prolonged exercises.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J; Vallier, J M; Smith, D; Lepers, R

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during a run section of a triathlon and at the end of a prolonged run performed at the same running velocity. Seven subjects were studied on three occasions: a 2 h 15 min triathlon (30 min swimming, 60 min cycling, and 45 min treadmill running at 75% of the maximal aerobic speed), a 2 h 15 min run, where the last 45 min (Prolonged Run, PR) were run at the same speed as the Triathlon Run (TR) on a motorized treadmill, and a 45 min Isolated Run (IR) performed at the same TR and PR velocity. The three experimental trials were randomised. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and EMG data were recorded during the three run sections. The results confirm a greater VO2 and HR during PR compared with IR (P<0.01) and TR (P<0.05). Also the VO2 values obtained during TR were significantly greater compared to IR (P < 0.05). EMG signal, obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle during 4 sec of isometric contraction at 35 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), showed that after PR the mean power frequency (MPF) shifted significantly to lower frequencies (P<0.01) compared with MPF recorded before the prolonged run. Moreover, the signal amplitude (RMS) was increased significantly after PR in comparison to pre-trial (P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained for the TR at P < 0.05. The integrated EMG flow, QIEMG (iEMG/burst duration), recorded during all run sections, was significantly increased near the end of PR (i.e. 2 h 10 min of running) compared with QiEMG recorded after 1 h 30 min of running. No significant increase in QiEMG was observed with TR and IR situations. The results suggest that a long exercise bout of running led to a greater increase in muscle fatigue compared with a triathlon or an isolated run performed at the same running speed. In addition it is suggested that the rating of perceived exertion recorded during isometric contractions is a good

  14. Procedural and Physical Interventions for Vaccine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vibhuti; McMurtry, C. Meghan; MacDonald, Noni E.; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination. Design/Methods: Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. Results: A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD −0.69 (95% CI: −0.98, −0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD −0.56 (95% CI: −0.87, −0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD −0.70 (95% CI: −1.00, −0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.05, −0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD −1.25 (95% CI: −2.05, −0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.08, −0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD −0.39 (95% CI: −0.77, −0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD −1.88 (95% CI: −2.57, −1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD −1.23 (95% CI: −1.58, −0

  15. Relationship Between Sprint Performance of Front Crawl Swimming and Muscle Fascicle Length in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Ehsanbakhsh, Alireza; Ilbeygi, Saeed; Sobhkhiz, Azadeh; Argavani, Hamed; Aliakbari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-m sprint front crawl swimming performance and muscle fascicle length in young male swimmers. 23 swimmers were selected and divided into two groups according to their best records of 25-m sprint performance: 14.6-15.7 sec (S1, n = 11) and 15.8-17 sec (S2, n = 12). Muscle thickness and pennation angle of Biceps Brachii (BB; only muscle thickness), Triceps Brachii (TB), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) and Lateralis (GL) muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Although, there was no significant differences between groups in anthropometrical parameter as standing height, body mass, arm length, thigh length and leg length (p < 0.001), however, S1 significantly had a greater muscle thickness in VL, GL, and TB muscles (p < 0.05). Pennation angle only in TB was significantly smaller in S1 (p < 0.05). S1 in VL, GL, and TB muscles significantly had greater absolute fascicle length and in VL and TB muscles had relatively (relative to limb length) greater fascicle length (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between sprint swimming time and absolute and relative fascicle length in VL (absolute: r = -0.49 and relative: r = -0.43, both p < 0.05) and GL (absolute: r = -0.47 and relative: r = -0.42, both p < 0.05). Potentially, it seems that fascicle geometry developed in muscles of faster young swimmers to help them to perform their high speed movement. Key Points This study investigated the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint front crawl performance in young male swimmers. It seems that young swimmers with faster front crawl sprint swimming performance trend to have smaller pennation angle and greater absolute and relative fascicle length (relative to limb length) in their locomotor muscles. Potentially, fascicle geometry developed in faster swimmers to help them to perform higher speed movement via higher

  16. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  17. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Júlio C.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G.; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L. Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P.; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length) performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application. Key points Researchers involved in collecting data in this study have no financial or personal interest in the outcome of results or the sponsor. The perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesiology taping application. Kinesiology taping application may not alter the magnitude of EMG activity of vastuslateralis, vastusmedialis, and biceps femoris during the barbell back squat exercise. Electromyographic activity of

  18. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  19. (.)VO(2) and EMG activity kinetics during moderate and severe constant work rate exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cleuziou, Christophe; Perrey, Stephane; Borrani, Fabio; Lecoq, Anne Marie; Courteix, Daniel; Germain, Philippe; Obert, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare O(2) uptake ((.)VO(2)) and muscle electromyography activity kinetics during moderate and severe exercise to test the hypothesis of progressive recruitment of fast-twitch fibers in the explanation of the VO(2) slow component. After an incremental test to exhaustion, 7 trained cyclists (mean +/- SD, 61.4 +/- 4.2 ml x min(-1) x kg(- 1)) performed several square-wave transitions for 6 min at moderate and severe intensities on a bicycle ergometer. The (.)VO(2) response and the electrical activity (i.e., median power frequency, MDF) of the quadriceps vastus lateralis and vastus medialis of both lower limbs were measured continuously during exercise. After 2 to 3 min of exercise onset, MDF values increased similarly during moderate and severe exercise for almost all muscles whereas a (.)VO(2) slow component occurred during severe exercise. There was no relationship between the increase of MDF values and the magnitude of the (.)VO(2) slow component during the severe exercise. These results suggest that the origin of the slow component may not be due to the progressive recruitment of fast-twitch fibers.

  20. Oxygen uptake kinetics during severe exercise: a comparison between young and older men.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, Surendran; Schneider, Donald A; Comadira, Greg; Johnston, Iain; Morris, Norman R

    2004-01-15

    This study examined the relationship between the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and muscle electromyography (EMG) during severe exercise in nine young (21.7+/-0.9 yr) and nine older (71.6+/-0.8 yr) men. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and surface EMG activity of the left vastus lateralis muscle were measured during a 7-min square-wave bout of severe exercise on a cycle ergometer. The absolute amplitude of the VO2 slow component was greater and occurred approximately 60 s earlier in the young compared to older subjects. However, the rate of increase in the slow component, expressed as a percentage of the total VO2 response per unit time, was not different between young and older subjects (young: 4.8+/-0.5%.min(-1); older: 4.9+/-0.6%.min(-1)). The mean power frequency (MPF) of the EMG increased significantly during the slow component phase of exercise by 6.4+/-1.0% in the young and by 5.4+/-0.7% in the older group and this rise was not significantly different between the two groups. These results indicate that normal ageing may not alter the VO2 slow component (measured as the rate of increase in VO2) and that this finding may be related to similar muscle fibre recruitment patterns in the two groups during severe-intensity exercise.

  1. Anthropometric characteristics account for time to exhaustion in cycling.

    PubMed

    Basset, F A; Billaut, F; Joanisse, D R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between the phenotypic and anthropometric characteristics and the cycling time to exhaustion (Tlim) at the maximal aerobic power output (Pmax). 12 (7 men, 5 women) physically-active participants performed a square-wave test at Pmax to determine the maximal time limit. Muscle histochemistry, enzymatic activities and buffer capacity were determined from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, lean body mass (LBM) by hydrostatic weighing, and total (TV) and lean (LV) volumes of the thigh by anthropometric measurements. The mean (±SD) Tlim was 235±84 s (score range: 108-425 s). No relationship was found between Tlim and any muscle phenotypes. However, we observed a strong, linear relationship between Tlim and LBM (r=0.84, P<0.05). Thigh TV and LV displayed weaker correlation coefficients with Tlim (r=0.66 and r=0.73, respectively; P<0.05). We further estimated the femur length and found this measure to correlate with Tlim (r=0.81, P<0.05). This study suggests that muscle phenotypes may not be representative of Tlim. Rather, anthropometric characteristics account for such performance by conferring a biomechanical advantage in cycling. We conclude that, in addition to metabolic factors, anthropometric characteristics with reasonable accuracy predict Tlim in cycling, and may account for the large inter-subject variability observed in previous studies.

  2. Immediate increases in quadriceps corticomotor excitability during an electromyography biofeedback intervention.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Brian; McLeod, Michelle M; Florea, David; Gribble, Phillip A; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EMG-BF on vastus lateralis corticomotor excitability, measured via motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes elicited using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). We also determined the effect of EMG-BF on isometric knee extensor strength. Fifteen healthy participants volunteered for this crossover study with two sessions held one-week apart. Participants were randomly assigned to condition order, during which five intervention MVICs were performed with or without EMG-BF. MEP amplitudes were collected with TMS during five knee extension contractions (5% of MVIC) at baseline and again during intervention MVICs within each session. During the control condition, participants were instructed to perform the same number of MVICs without any EMG-BF. Percent change scores were used to calculate the change in peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes that occurred during EMG-BF and Control MVICs compared to the baseline MEPs. Peak knee extension torque was recorded during MVICs prior to TMS for each condition. EMG-BF produced significantly increased MEP change scores and significantly greater torque than the control condition. The results of the current study suggest that EMG-BF may be a viable clinical method for targeting corticomotor excitability.

  3. Evidence for ACTN3 as a Speed Gene in Isolated Human Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Broos, Siacia; Malisoux, Laurent; Theisen, Daniel; van Thienen, Ruud; Ramaekers, Monique; Jamart, Cécile; Deldicque, Louise; Thomis, Martine A.; Francaux, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency due to homozygosity for the ACTN3 577X-allele on contractile and morphological properties of fast muscle fibers in non-athletic young men. Methods A biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis of 4 RR and 4 XX individuals to test for differences in morphologic and contractile properties of single muscle fibers. The cross-sectional area of the fiber and muscle fiber composition was determined using standard immunohistochemistry analyses. Skinned single muscle fibers were subjected to active tests to determine peak normalized force (P0), maximal unloading velocity (V0) and peak power. A passive stretch test was performed to calculate Young’s Modulus and hysteresis to assess fiber visco-elasticity. Results No differences were found in muscle fiber composition. The cross-sectional area of type IIa and IIx fibers was larger in RR compared to XX individuals (P<0.001). P0 was similar in both groups over all fiber types. A higher V0 was observed in type IIa fibers of RR genotypes (P<0.001) but not in type I fibers. The visco-elasticity as determined by Young’s Modulus and hysteresis was unaffected by fiber type or genotype. Conclusion The greater V0 and the larger fast fiber CSA in RR compared to XX genotypes likely contribute to enhanced whole muscle performance during high velocity contractions. PMID:26930663

  4. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Hannah C; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Haynes, Robin L; Rognum, Ingvar J; Paterson, David S

    2011-07-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary "homeostatic network" that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term "developmental serotonopathies" of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain.

  5. Anti-Hypotensive Treatment and Endothelin Blockade Synergistically Antagonize Exercise Fatigue in Rats under Simulated High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Radiloff, Daniel; Zhao, Yulin; Boico, Alina; Blueschke, Gert; Palmer, Gregory; Fontanella, Andrew; Dewhirst, Mark; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Noveck, Robert; Irwin, David; Hamilton, Karyn; Klitzman, Bruce; Schroeder, Thies

    2014-01-01

    Rapid ascent to high altitude causes illness and fatigue, and there is a demand for effective acute treatments to alleviate such effects. We hypothesized that increased oxygen delivery to the tissue using a combination of a hypertensive agent and an endothelin receptor A antagonist drugs would limit exercise-induced fatigue at simulated high altitude. Our data showed that the combination of 0.1 mg/kg ambrisentan with either 20 mg/kg ephedrine or 10 mg/kg methylphenidate significantly improved exercise duration in rats at simulated altitude of 4,267 m, whereas the individual compounds did not. In normoxic, anesthetized rats, ephedrine alone and in combination with ambrisentan increased heart rate, peripheral blood flow, carotid and pulmonary arterial pressures, breathing rate, and vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation, but under inspired hypoxia, only the combination treatment significantly enhanced muscle oxygenation. Our results suggest that sympathomimetic agents combined with endothelin-A receptor blockers offset altitude-induced fatigue in rats by synergistically increasing the delivery rate of oxygen to hypoxic muscle by concomitantly augmenting perfusion pressure and improving capillary conductance in the skeletal muscle. Our findings might therefore serve as a basis to develop an effective treatment to prevent high-altitude illness and fatigue in humans. PMID:24960187

  6. Effects of different half-time strategies on second half soccer-specific speed, power and dynamic strength.

    PubMed

    Lovell, R; Midgley, A; Barrett, S; Carter, D; Small, K

    2013-02-01

    This study compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) and a field-based re-warm-up during half-time (HT) on subsequent physical performance measures during a simulated soccer game. Ten semi-professional male soccer players performed 90-min fixed-intensity soccer simulations (SAFT(90)), using a multi-directional course. During the HT period players either remained seated (CON), or performed intermittent agility exercise (IAE), or WBV. At regular intervals during SAFT(90), vastus lateralis temperature (T(m)) was recorded, and players also performed maximal counter-movement jumps (CMJ), 10-m sprints, and knee flexion and extension contractions. At the start of the second half, sprint and CMJ performance and eccentric hamstring peak torque were significantly reduced compared with the end of the first half in CON (P≤0.05). There was no significant change in these parameters over the HT period in the WBV and IAE interventions (P>0.05). The decrease in T(m) over the HT period was significantly greater for CON and WBV compared with IAE (P≤0.01). A passive HT interval reduced sprint, jump and dynamic strength performance. Alternatively, IAE and WBV at HT attenuated these performance decrements, with limited performance differences between interventions.

  7. Genotypic effects of the Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Richardson, R I; Macfarlane, J M; Nevison, I; Haresign, W; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2011-10-01

    Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) increases loin muscling in lambs inheriting it from their sire only. This study investigated TM-QTL effects on meat quality in 209 Texel lambs that were CT-scanned then slaughtered at 20weeks (carcasses aged for ~1week). Loin meat quality traits included: CT-measured muscle density (predicting intramuscular fat); mechanical tenderness using Volodkevich-type jaws or MIRINZ tenderometer; intramuscular fat; sensory eating quality (sub-sample of 40 lambs). Volodkevich tenderness was also measured in the leg (Vastis lateralis). TM-QTL genotypes were determined, giving 40 non-carriers (+/+), 70 heterozygotes-53 inheriting TM-QTL from the sire (TM/+) and 17 from the dam (+/TM), 34 homozygote TM-QTL lambs (TM/TM) and 65 uncertain. Multiple regression identified no genotype effects on meat quality. For MIRINZ-measured loin tenderness only, contrasts revealed a significant additive effect of TM-QTL (1.27kgF difference between homozygotes). However, the taste panel identified no significant differences between +/+ and TM/TM lambs. Results show little evidence of TM-QTL affecting meat quality.

  8. Neural control of leg stiffness during hopping in boys and men.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J L; Smith, P M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether boys and men utilise different control strategies whilst hopping. Eleven boys (11-12yr old) and ten men completed hopping at 1.5Hz, 3.0Hz and at their preferred frequency. A footswitch measured contact and flight times, from which leg stiffness was calculated. Simultaneously, surface electromyograms (EMGs) of selected lower limb muscles were recorded and quantified for each 30ms period during the first 120ms post-ground contact. At 1.5Hz there were no differences between the groups in relative stiffness or muscle activity. At 3.0Hz men had significantly shorter contact times (P=0.013), longer flight times (P=0.002), greater relative stiffness (P=0.01) and significantly greater soleus (P=0.012) and vastus lateralis (P<0.001) activity during the initial 30ms post-ground contact. At the preferred frequency men hopped significantly faster than the boys (P=0.007), with greater leg stiffness (P<0.01) and with more extensor activity in most time periods. Boys and men demonstrated similar control strategies when hopping at a slow frequency, but when hopping frequency increased men were able to better increase feedforward and reflex muscle activity to hop with greater relative stiffness.

  9. Effect of a 5-week static stretching program on hardness of the gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, R; Takahashi, H

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a static stretching (SS) program on muscle hardnesses of the gastrocnemius medialis (MG) and gastrocnemius lateralis (LG). Nineteen young men participated in this study. Either the right or left leg was randomly selected to conduct three bouts of 2-min SS of the plantar flexors 6 days a week for 5 weeks in each subject (the SS group), and the other leg was assigned to a control group. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) conducting the SS program, MG and LG hardnesses were measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography. The SS program was found to decrease muscle hardnesses, but not to change the ratio of MG hardness to LG hardness. There were no significant differences between the relative changes in the MG and LG hardnesses from pretest to posttest in both the SS and control groups. Significant correlations between the muscle hardness ratios at pretest and posttest were found in both groups. The results of this study suggest that the current SS program is useful for improving muscle condition in the plantar flexors, and that its long-term effects on the MG and LG hardnesses are of the same degree.

  10. Statistical mapping of the effect of knee extension on thigh muscle viscoelastic properties using magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Eric; Kennedy, Paul; Hammer, Steven; van Beek, Edwin J R; Brown, Colin; Roberts, Neil

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties reflect muscle microstructure and neuromuscular activation. Elastographic methods, including magnetic resonance elastography, have been used to characterize muscle viscoelastic properties in terms of region of interest (ROI) measurements. The present study extended this approach to create thresholded pixel-by-pixel maps of viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle during rest and knee extension in eleven subjects. ROI measurements were taken for individual quadricep muscles and the quadriceps region as a whole, and the viscoelastic parameter map pixels were statistically tested at positive false discovery rate q ≤ 0.25. ROI measurements showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″), with G″ increasing more than G', in agreement with previous findings. The q-value maps further identified the vastus intermedius as the primary driver of this change, with greater G″/G' increase than surrounding regions. Additionally, a cluster of significant decrease in G″/G' was found in the region of vastus lateralis below the fulcrum point of the lift. Viscoelastic parameter mapping of contracted muscle allows new insight into the relationship between physiology, neuromuscular activation, and human performance.

  11. Aging of running shoes and its effect on mechanical and biomechanical variables: implications for runners.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Nicolas; Sevrez, Violaine; Ly, Quoc Hung; Guéguen, Nils; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of running shoes' aging on mechanical and biomechanical parameters as a function of midsole materials (viscous, intermediate, elastic) and ground inclination. To this aim, heel area of the shoe (under calcaneal tuberosity) was first mechanically aged at realistic frequency and impact magnitudes based on a 660 km training plan. Stiffness (ST) and viscosity were then measured on both aged and matching new shoes, and repercussions on biomechanical variables (joint kinematics, muscular pre-activation, vertical ground reaction force and tibial acceleration) were assessed during a leg-extended stepping-down task designed to mimic the characteristics of running impacts. Shoes' aging led to increased ST (means: from 127 to 154 N ∙ mm(-1)) and decreased energy dissipation (viscosity) (means: from 2.19 to 1.88 J). The effects induced by mechanical changes on body kinematics were very small. However, they led with the elastic shoe to increased vastus lateralis pre-activation, tibial acceleration peak (means: from 4.5 g to 5.2 g) and rate. Among the three shoes tested, the shoe with intermediate midsole foam provided the best compromise between viscosity and elasticity. The optimum balance remains to be found for the design of shoes regarding at once cushioning, durability and injury prevention.

  12. Advances in quantitative muscle ultrasonography using texture analysis of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Caresio, Cristina; Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging can be used to investigate the skeletal muscle structure in terms of architecture (thickness, cross-sectional area, fascicle length and fascicle pennation angle) and texture. Gray-scale analysis is commonly used to characterize transverse scans of the muscle. Gray mean value is used to distinguish between normal and pathologic muscles, but it depends on the image acquisition system and its settings. In this study, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on five muscles (biceps brachii, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior) of 20 healthy patients (10 women, 10 men) to assess the characterization performance of higher-order texture descriptors to differentiate genders and muscle types. A total of 53 features (7 first-order descriptors, 24 Haralick features, 20 Galloway features and 2 local binary pattern features) were extracted from each muscle region of interest (ROI) and were used to perform the multivariate linear regression analysis (MANOVA). Our results show that first-order descriptors, Haralick features (energy, entropy and correlation measured along different angles) and local binary pattern (LBP) energy and entropy were highly linked to the gender, whereas Haralick entropy and symmetry, Galloway texture descriptors and LBP entropy helped to distinguish muscle types. Hence, the combination of first-order and higher-order texture descriptors (Haralick, Galloway and LBP) can be used to discriminate gender and muscle types. Therefore, multi-texture analysis may be useful to investigate muscle damage and myopathic disorders.

  13. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  14. Crossed reflex reversal during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Gervasio, Sabata; Farina, Dario; Sinkjær, Thomas; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2013-05-01

    During human walking, precise coordination between the two legs is required in order to react promptly to any sudden hazard that could threaten stability. The networks involved in this coordination are not yet completely known, but a direct spinal connection between soleus (SOL) muscles has recently been revealed. For this response to be functional, as previously suggested, we hypothesize that it will be accompanied by a reaction in synergistic muscles, such as gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and that a reversal of the response would occur when an opposite reaction is required. In the present study, surface EMGs of contralateral SOL and GL were analyzed after tibial nerve (TN), sural nerve (SuN), and medial plantar nerve (MpN) stimulation during two tasks in which opposite reactions are functionally expected: normal walking (NW), just before ipsilateral heel strike, and hybrid walking (HW) (legs walking in opposite directions), at ipsilateral push off and contralateral touchdown. Early crossed facilitations were observed in the contralateral GL after TN stimulation during NW, and a reversal of such responses occurred during HW. These results underline the functional significance of short-latency crossed responses and represent the first evidence for short-latency reflex reversal in the contralateral limb for humans. Muscle afferents seem to mediate the response during NW, while during HW cutaneous afferents are likely involved. It is thus possible that different afferents mediate the crossed response during different tasks.

  15. Influence of dual-task on postexercise facilitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Abagyan, Anaida; Cao, Yisheng; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2016-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The cognitive task consisted of a 30-sec backward calculation. In the DT condition, motor and cognitive tasks were performed concurrently. Resting motor threshold and 10 MEPs were collected before and immediately after each task. TMS was delivered to the motor hot spot of the right vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results showed that exercise induced a significant PEF in both VL and TA muscles while calculation was not associated with significant PEF. Furthermore, DT was associated with lack of significant PEF in both muscles (VL, 116.1%±9.6%; TA, 115.7%±9%). Our data indicates DT interference on corticospinal excitability after a nonfatiguing exercise. Our experimental paradigm may be used to address postexercise motor cortex plastic adaptations induced by motor and cognitive tasks of different complexity in sport, aging and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27419111

  16. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display.

  17. Isokinetic and Electromyographic Properties of Muscular Endurance in Short and Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Boshra; Ghanjal, Ali; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are subject to progressive reduction of muscle mass and strength. The aim of this study was to assess muscle forces and electromyography (EMG) indices in short and long-term diabetes during an isokinetic exercise. Methods: The peak torque, work, mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS) of knee flexors and extensors during 40 isokinetic knee extension-flexion repetitions with a velocity of 150 degree/s were recorded. 18 patients with less than 10 years with T2DM and 12 patients with equal and more than 10 years of disease were compared with 20 gender, body mass index, physical activity and peripheral circulation matched healthy controls. Results: The fatigue index and slope of line across the peak torque values of the knee flexor indicate that patients with long-term T2DM were significantly more resistant to fatigue in comparison with the two other groups (p<0.009). Whereas the MPF decrease during isokinetic protocol interact with grouping in the medial hamstring (p<0.042), but it was independent to groups in other muscles (p<0.0001). The increase of RMS after fatigue protocol interacted with sex for the medial hamstring and vastus lateralis (p<0.039) and interacted with group for the extensor muscles (p<0.045). Discussion & Conclusion: It seems that long-term T2DM cause some neuromuscular adaptations to maintain knee flexor muscle performance during functional activity especially postural control.

  18. Immunolabelling, histochemistry and in situ hybridisation in human skeletal muscle fibres to detect myosin heavy chain expression at the protein and mRNA level

    PubMed Central

    SERRANO, A. L.; PÉREZ, MARGARITA; LUCÍA, A.; CHICHARRO, J. L.; QUIROZ-ROTHE, E.; RIVERO, J. L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of muscle fibres classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analysed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 15 young men (with an average age of 22 y) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry and in situ hybridisation with probes specific for MHC β-slow, MHC-IIA and MHC-IIX. The characterisation of a large number of individual fibres was compared and correlated on a fibre-to-fibre basis. The panel of monoclonal antibodies used in the study allowed classification of human skeletal muscle fibres into 5 categories according to the MHC isoform they express at the protein level, types I, I+IIA, IIA, IIAX and IIX. Hybrid fibres coexpressing two isoforms represented a considerable proportion of the fibre composition (about 14%) and were clearly underestimated by mATPase histochemistry. For a very high percentage of fibres there was a precise correspondence between the MHC protein isoforms and mRNA transcripts. The integrated methods used demonstrate a high degree of precision of the immunohistochemical procedure used for the identification and quantification of human skeletal muscle fibre types. The monoclonal antibody S5-8H2 is particularly useful for identifying hybrid IIAX fibres. This protocol offers new prospects for muscle fibre classification in human experimental studies. PMID:11554510

  19. Hair cells in non-vertebrate models: lower chordates and molluscs.

    PubMed

    Burighel, P; Caicci, F; Manni, L

    2011-03-01

    The study of hair cells in invertebrates is important, because it can shed light on the debated question about the evolutionary origin of vertebrate hair cells. Here, we review the morphology and significance of hair cells in two groups of invertebrates, the lower chordates (tunicates and cephalochordates) and the molluscs. These taxa possess complex mechanoreceptor organs based on both primary (sensory neurons) and/or secondary, axonless, sensory cells, bearing various apical specializations. Compared with vertebrates, these taxa show interesting examples of convergent evolution and possible homologies of sensory systems. For example, the "lateral line organ" of Octopoda and Decapoda, composed of primary sensory cells aligned on the arms and the head, is considered a classic example of convergent evolution to mechanoreception. Similarly, in ascidians, the cupular organ, formed of primary sensory cells embedded in a gelatinous cupula, is seen as an analog of neuromasts in vertebrates. However, the coronal organ of the oral siphon of ascidians, represented by a line of secondary sensory cells with a hair bundle also comprising graded stereovilli, is currently the best candidate for tracing the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate octavo-lateralis system. Several features, such as embryological origin, position, gene expression and morphology, support this hypothesis.

  20. Limb and back muscle activity adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Aniela; Anders, Alexandra; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2015-10-01

    Alterations in muscle recruitment are key to the functional plasticity of the mammalian locomotor system. One particularly challenging situation quadrupeds may face is when the functionality of a limb is reduced or lost. To better understand how mammals manage in such situations and which muscular adaptations they exhibit when locomoting on three legs, we recorded the activity patterns of two limb and one back extensor muscle in nine dogs using surface electromyography. We compared the timing and the level of recruitment before and after the loss of a hindlimb was simulated. Both the intensity and the timing of the activity changed significantly in the m. vastus lateralis of the remaining hindlimb, consistent with this limb bearing a greater proportion of the body weight as well as with previously reported kinematic changes. In accordance with the greater body weight supported by the forelimbs, the m. triceps brachii showed first and foremost an increased level of excitation. The very asymmetrical changes in the timing and the level of activity in the m. longissimus dorsi reflects the highly asymmetrical functional requirements imposed on the trunk and the pelvis when one hindlimb is no longer involved in the production of locomotor work while the other hindlimb partially compensates the loss. Integration of our electromyographical findings with kinetic and kinematic results illustrates that dogs exhibited a well-coordinated response to the functional requirements of tripedalism and underlines the importance of moment-to-moment modulation in muscular recruitment for the functional plasticity of the mammalian locomotor system.

  1. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  2. Hip and knee muscle function following aerobic exercise in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ott, Brittany; Cosby, Nicole L; Grindstaff, Terry L; Hart, Joseph M

    2011-08-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a commonly experienced knee disorder that can result in altered muscle activation of the surrounding musculature. There is little evidence on effects of aerobic exercise on quadriceps torque and EMG activation of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and gluteus medius (GM). In this study 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with PFPS had measures of torque and muscle activation taken following aerobic exercise. A modified Balke-Ware protocol was used for the exercise intervention. Baseline and post-aerobic measurements of knee extension torque and VMO, VL, and GM activation during a single leg anterior reaching task. These measurements were only taken on the injured limb. Following exercise, knee extension torque was lower in PFPS patients when compared to controls (p=0.03). Patients reporting no pain after exercise experienced decreases (p=0.021) in GM activation following exercise. There was a decrease in VMO (p=0.010) and VL (p=0.021) activation in PFPS patients with elevated knee pain. Recreationally active individuals with PFPS may experience different responses in the quadriceps and GM after exercise. Responses may be confounded by whether or not pain is exacerbated by exercise.

  3. Insights into the skeletal muscle characteristics of three southern African antelope species.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibre type, cross-sectional area (CSA), maximum enzyme capacities and fibre oxidative capacities were investigated in three southern African antelope species. Muscle samples from blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), mountain reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) were collected post mortem from the Vastus lateralis and analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content, citrate synthase (CS), 3-hydroxyacyl Co A dehydrogenase (3-HAD), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine relative fibre oxidative capacity, fibre type and cross-sectional area (CSA). Type IIX fibres were the most abundant fibre type in all three species, ranging from 43 to 57%. Kudu had less type IIX fibres than mountain reedbuck and blesbok (P<0.05), values confirmed by their respective MHC isoform content. Blesbok had the smallest fibres, followed by mountain reedbuck and finally kudu (P<0.001). Overall, all three species had high oxidative and glycolytic capacities, but species differences were found. Kudu had the lowest CS activity, followed by blesbok and mountain reedbuck, but the highest PFK, LDH and CK activities. This study confirmed large variation in oxidative capacities within a single fibre type, as well as overlap between the fibre types with no distinct differences between the three species. The fibre type profile of each species is discussed and confirms some of their physical attributes and capabilities. PMID:25326514

  4. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham; Noakes, Timothy David; Rae, Dale Elizabeth; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Pinós, Tomas; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquin; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease) were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB) (n = 9) or Vastus lateralis (VL) (n = 8) were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10). All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%). Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%). In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients. PMID:25432515

  5. Elevated hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity and abnormal sulfate levels in liver and muscle tissue may explain abnormal cysteine and glutathione levels in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Hack, V; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1996-11-20

    To establish whether the low cysteine and glutathione levels in HIV-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques may be consequences of an abnormal cysteine catabolism, we analyzed sulfate and glutathione levels in macaques. Muscle tissue (m. vastus lateralis and m. gastrocnemius) of SIV-infected macaques (n = 25) had higher sulfate and lower glutathione and glutamate levels than that of uninfected controls (n =9). Hepatic tissue, in contrast, showed decreased sulfate and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels, and increased gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activity. These findings suggest drainage of the cysteine pool by increased cysteine catabolism in skeletal muscle tissue, and by increased hepatic glutathione biosynthesis. Cachectic macaques also showed increased urea levels and decreased glutamine/urea ratios in the liver, which are obviously related to the abnormal urea excretion and negative nitrogen balance commonly observed in cachexia. As urea production and net glutamine synthesis in the liver are strongly influenced by proton-generating processes, the abnormal hepatic urea production may be the direct consequence of the cysteine deficiency and the decreased catabolic conversion of cysteine into sulfate and protons in the liver.

  6. Influence of dual-task on postexercise facilitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Abagyan, Anaida; Cao, Yisheng; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2016-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The cognitive task consisted of a 30-sec backward calculation. In the DT condition, motor and cognitive tasks were performed concurrently. Resting motor threshold and 10 MEPs were collected before and immediately after each task. TMS was delivered to the motor hot spot of the right vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results showed that exercise induced a significant PEF in both VL and TA muscles while calculation was not associated with significant PEF. Furthermore, DT was associated with lack of significant PEF in both muscles (VL, 116.1%±9.6%; TA, 115.7%±9%). Our data indicates DT interference on corticospinal excitability after a nonfatiguing exercise. Our experimental paradigm may be used to address postexercise motor cortex plastic adaptations induced by motor and cognitive tasks of different complexity in sport, aging and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  7. In Vivo Skeletal Muscle Biocompatibility of Composite, Coaxial Electrospun, and Microfibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    McKeon-Fischer, Kristin D.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Whittington, Abby R.

    2014-01-01

    One weakness with currently researched skeletal muscle tissue replacement is the lack of contraction and relaxation during the regenerative process. A biocompatible scaffold that can act similar to the muscle would be a pivotal innovation. Coaxial electrospun scaffolds, capable of movement with electrical stimulation, were created using poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and a (83/17 or 40/60) poly(acrylic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PAA/PVA) hydrogel. The two scaffolds were implanted into Sprague-Dawley rat vastus lateralis muscle and compared with a phosphate-buffered saline injection sham surgery and an unoperated control. No complications or adverse effects were observed. Rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 postimplantation and biocompatibility assessed using enzymatic activity, fibrosis formation, inflammation, scaffold cellular infiltration, and neovascularization. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in scaffold-implanted rats compared with the control on day 7, but returned to baseline by day 14. Day 7 scaffolds showed significant inflammation and fibrosis that decreased over time. Fibroblasts infiltrated the scaffolds early, but decreased with time, while myogenic cell numbers increased. Neovascularization of both scaffolds occurred as early as day 7. We conclude that the PCL-MWCNT-PAA/PVA scaffolds are biocompatible and suitable for muscle regeneration as myogenic cell growth was supported. PMID:24471815

  8. In vivo skeletal muscle biocompatibility of composite, coaxial electrospun, and microfibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    McKeon-Fischer, Kristin D; Rossmeisl, John H; Whittington, Abby R; Freeman, Joseph W

    2014-07-01

    One weakness with currently researched skeletal muscle tissue replacement is the lack of contraction and relaxation during the regenerative process. A biocompatible scaffold that can act similar to the muscle would be a pivotal innovation. Coaxial electrospun scaffolds, capable of movement with electrical stimulation, were created using poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and a (83/17 or 40/60) poly(acrylic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PAA/PVA) hydrogel. The two scaffolds were implanted into Sprague-Dawley rat vastus lateralis muscle and compared with a phosphate-buffered saline injection sham surgery and an unoperated control. No complications or adverse effects were observed. Rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 postimplantation and biocompatibility assessed using enzymatic activity, fibrosis formation, inflammation, scaffold cellular infiltration, and neovascularization. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in scaffold-implanted rats compared with the control on day 7, but returned to baseline by day 14. Day 7 scaffolds showed significant inflammation and fibrosis that decreased over time. Fibroblasts infiltrated the scaffolds early, but decreased with time, while myogenic cell numbers increased. Neovascularization of both scaffolds occurred as early as day 7. We conclude that the PCL-MWCNT-PAA/PVA scaffolds are biocompatible and suitable for muscle regeneration as myogenic cell growth was supported. PMID:24471815

  9. Night-Migratory Songbirds Possess a Magnetic Compass in Both Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lefeldt, Nele; Prior, Helmut; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on European robins, Erithacus rubecula, and Australian silvereyes, Zosterops lateralis, had suggested that magnetic compass information is being processed only in the right eye and left brain hemisphere of migratory birds. However, recently it was demonstrated that both garden warblers, Sylvia borin, and European robins have a magnetic compass in both eyes. These results raise the question if the strong lateralization effect observed in earlier experiments might have arisen from artifacts or from differences in experimental conditions rather than reflecting a true all-or-none lateralization of the magnetic compass in European robins. Here we show that (1) European robins having only their left eye open can orient in their seasonally appropriate direction both during autumn and spring, i.e. there are no strong lateralization differences between the outward journey and the way home, that (2) their directional choices are based on the standard inclination compass as they are turned 180° when the inclination is reversed, and that (3) the capability to use the magnetic compass does not depend on monocular learning or intraocular transfer as it is already present in the first tests of the birds with only one eye open. PMID:22984416

  10. Novel Catalytically-Inactive PII Metalloproteinases from a Viperid Snake Venom with Substitutions in the Canonical Zinc-Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Erika; Sanz, Libia; Escalante, Teresa; Pérez, Alicia; Villalta, Fabián; Lomonte, Bruno; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C.; Feoli, Andrés; Calvete, Juan J.; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play key biological roles in prey immobilization and digestion. The majority of these activities depend on the hydrolysis of relevant protein substrates in the tissues. Hereby, we describe several isoforms and a cDNA clone sequence, corresponding to PII SVMP homologues from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothriechis lateralis, which have modifications in the residues of the canonical sequence of the zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH. As a consequence, the proteolytic activity of the isolated proteins was undetectable when tested on azocasein and gelatin. These PII isoforms comprise metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains in the mature protein, thus belonging to the subclass PIIb of SVMPs. PII SVMP homologues were devoid of hemorrhagic and in vitro coagulant activities, effects attributed to the enzymatic activity of SVMPs, but induced a mild edema. One of the isoforms presents the characteristic RGD sequence in the disintegrin domain and inhibits ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Catalytically-inactive SVMP homologues may have been hitherto missed in the characterization of snake venoms. The presence of such enzymatically-inactive homologues in snake venoms and their possible toxic and adaptive roles deserve further investigation. PMID:27754342

  11. Proteome Profile of Functional Mitochondria from Human Skeletal Muscle Using One-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Natalie; Yi, Zhengping; Bowen, Benjamin; Glancy, Brian; De Filippis, Eleanna A.; Mapes, Rebekka; Hwang, Hyonson; Flynn, Charles R.; Willis, Wayne T.; Civitarese, Anthony; Højlund, Kurt; Mandarino, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria can be isolated from skeletal muscle in a manner that preserves tightly coupled bioenergetic function in vitro. The purpose of this study was to characterize the composition of such preparations using a proteomics approach. Mitochondria isolated from human vastus lateralis biopsies were functional as evidenced by their response to carbohydrate and fat-derived fuels. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, 823 unique proteins were detected, and 487 of these were assigned to the mitochondrion, including the newly characterized SIRT5, MitoNEET and RDH13. Proteins detected included 9 of the 13 mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins and 86 of 104 electron transport chain (ETC) and ETC-related proteins. In addition, 59 of 78 proteins of the 55S mitoribosome, several TIM and TOM proteins and cell death proteins were present. This study presents an efficient method for future qualitative assessments of proteins from functional isolated mitochondria from small samples of healthy and diseased skeletal muscle. PMID:19567276

  12. Changes in amino acid concentration in plasma and type I and type II fibres during resistance exercise and recovery in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Blomstrand, Eva; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2009-10-01

    Eight male subjects performed leg press exercise, 4 x 10 repetitions at 80% of their maximum. Venous blood samples were taken before, during exercise and repeatedly during 2 h of recovery. From four subjects, biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to, immediately after and following one and 2 h of recovery. Samples were freeze-dried, individual muscle fibres were dissected out and identified as type I or type II. Resistance exercise led to pronounced reductions in the glutamate concentration in both type I (32%) and type II fibres (70%). Alanine concentration was elevated 60-75% in both fibre types and 29% in plasma. Glutamine concentration remained unchanged after exercise; although 2 h later the concentrations in both types of fibres were reduced 30-35%. Two hours after exercise, the plasma levels of glutamate and six of the essential amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids were reduced 5-30%. The data suggest that glutamate acts as an important intermediate in muscle energy metabolism during resistance exercise, especially in type II fibres. PMID:18931969

  13. Age-related muscle activation profiles and joint stiffness regulation in repetitive hopping.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, Merja; Ishikawa, Masaki; Rantalainen, Timo; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2011-06-01

    It is well documented that increasing effort during exercise is characterized by an increase in electromyographic activity of the relevant muscles. How aging influences this relationship is a matter of great interest. In the present study, nine young and 24 elderly subjects did repetitive hopping with maximal effort as well as with 50%, 65%, 75% and 90% intensities. During hopping joint kinematics were measured together with electromyographic activity (EMG) from the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed that agonist activation increased in both age groups with increasing intensity. The highest jumping efficiency (EMG ratio of the braking phase to the push off-phase activation) was achieved with moderate hopping intensities (65-75%) in both the young and in the elderly. Age-comparison showed that elderly subjects had high agonist preactivation but thereafter lower activation during the braking phase. Antagonist coactivation was minimal and did not show age- or intensity-specificity. The elderly had more flexed knees at the instant of ground contact. When intensity increased, the elderly also plantarflexed their ankles more before ground contact. Ankle joint stiffness was lower in elderly subjects only in high hopping intensities (90% and Max). These results confirm that age-specific agonist muscle activation profiles exist during hopping even when exercise intensities are matched on the relative scale. The results suggest further that the elderly can adjust their reduced neuromuscular capacity to match the demands set by different exercise intensities.

  14. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  15. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis.

  16. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz`s EPAH model was not applicable to the authors` results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed.

  17. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  18. Myomir dysregulation and reactive oxygen species in aged human satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Mancinelli, Rosa; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2016-04-29

    Satellite cells that reside on the myofibre surface are crucial for the muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Aging goes along with a less effective regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue mainly due to the decreased myogenic capability of satellite cells. This phenomenon impedes proper maintenance and contributes to the age-associated decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia. The myogenic potential impairment does not depend on a reduced myogenic cell number, but mainly on their difficulty to complete a differentiation program. The unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species in elderly people could be responsible for skeletal muscle impairments. microRNAs are conserved post-transcriptional regulators implicated in numerous biological processes including adult myogenesis. Here, we measure the ROS level and analyze myomiR (miR-1, miR-133b and miR-206) expression in human myogenic precursors obtained from Vastus lateralis of elderly and young subjects to provide the molecular signature responsible for the differentiation impairment of elderly activated satellite cells.

  19. Surface electromyography as a tool to assess the responses of car passengers to lateral accelerations. Part II: Objective comparison of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Farah, G; Petit-Boulanger, C; Hewson, D J; Duchêne, J

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the response of car passengers to lateral accelerations. Surface EMG signals were collected bilaterally from the cervical erector spinae (CES), latissimus dorsi (LD), erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of 10 subjects. Lateral acceleration was also recorded. Three chassis-seat configurations AA, BA and BB were tested, with the first letter denoting the chassis and the second the seat. SEMG signals were often contaminated by noise, and were, therefore, denoised using the methods explained in part I. Reciprocal phasic activity was observed for all muscles except for the EO, and the reaction of passengers to lateral accelerations was interpreted as a bust torsion. The RMS of EMG segments was used as an indication of muscle activity. Muscle activation of VL and ES were significantly affected by the configuration tested (p<0.05), with greater activation levels observed for the chassis A than for the chassis B. Such a finding implies that greater roll requires greater muscle activity, thus resulting in less comfortable vehicles. Therefore, SEMG can be used to provide an objective measure of discomfort in passengers subjected to lateral accelerations in a car seat.

  20. Heterogeneity shapes invasion: host size and environment influence susceptibility to a nonnative pathogen.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Jules, Erik S

    2006-02-01

    Theoretical study of invasion dynamics has suggested that spatial heterogeneity should strongly influence the rate and extent of spreading organisms. However, empirical support for this prediction is scant, and the importance of understanding heterogeneity for real-world systems has remained ambiguous. This study quantified the influence of host and environmental heterogeneity on the dynamics of a 19-year disease invasion by the exotic and fatal pathogen, Phytophthora lateralis, within a stream population of its host tree, Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana). Using dendrochronology, we reconstructed the invasion history along a 1350-m length of infected stream, which serves as the only route of pathogen dispersal. Contrary to theoretical predictions, the temporal progression of the disease invasion was not related to a host's downstream spatial position, but instead was determined by two sources of heterogeneity: host size and proximity to the stream channel. These sources of heterogeneity influenced both the epidemic and endemic dynamics of this pathogen invasion. This analysis provides empirical support for the influence of heterogeneity on the invasion dynamics of a commercially important forest pathogen and highlights the need to incorporate such natural variability into both invasion theory and methods aimed at controlling future spread.

  1. Control of sleep by a network of cell cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Dinis J S; Machado, Daniel R; Koh, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for health and cognition, but the molecular and neural mechanisms of sleep regulation are not well understood. We recently reported the identification of TARANIS (TARA) as a sleep-promoting factor that acts in a previously unknown arousal center in Drosophila. tara mutants exhibit a dose-dependent reduction in sleep amount of up to ∼60%. TARA and its mammalian homologs, the Trip-Br (Transcriptional Regulators Interacting with PHD zinc fingers and/or Bromodomains) family of proteins, are primarily known as transcriptional coregulators involved in cell cycle progression, and contain a conserved Cyclin-A (CycA) binding homology domain. We found that tara and CycA synergistically promote sleep, and CycA levels are reduced in tara mutants. Additional data demonstrated that Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) antagonizes tara and CycA to promote wakefulness. Moreover, we identified a subset of CycA expressing neurons in the pars lateralis, a brain region proposed to be analogous to the mammalian hypothalamus, as an arousal center. In this Extra View article, we report further characterization of tara mutants and provide an extended discussion of our findings and future directions within the framework of a working model, in which a network of cell cycle genes, tara, CycA, and Cdk1, interact in an arousal center to regulate sleep. PMID:26925838

  2. Computation of fractal features based on the fractal analysis of surface electromyogram to estimate force of contraction of different muscles.

    PubMed

    Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) to estimate the force levels of contraction of three muscles with different cross-sectional areas (CSA): m. quadriceps--vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, andm. flexor digitorum superficialis. The fractal features were computed based on the fractal analysis of sEMG, signal recorded while performing sustained muscle contraction at different force levels. A comparison was performed between the fractal features and five other features reported in the literature. Linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the force of contraction (20-100%) and features of sEMG. The results from the coefficients of regression r² show that the new fractal feature, maximum fractal length of the signal has highest correlation (range 0.88-0.90) when compared with other features which ranges from 0.34 to 0.74 for the three different muscles. This study suggests that the estimation of various levels of sustained contraction of muscles with varied CSA will provide a better insight into the biomechanics model that involves muscle properties and muscle activation.

  3. Electromechanical delay components during skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabio; Cè, Emiliano; Rampichini, Susanna; Limonta, Eloisa; Venturelli, Massimo; Monti, Elena; Bet, Luciano; Fossati, Barbara; Meola, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation can be partitioned into mainly electrochemical and mainly mechanical components by an EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach. Component duration and measurement reliability were investigated during contraction and relaxation in a group of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, n = 13) and in healthy controls (n = 13). EMG, mechanomyogram, and force were recorded in DM1 and in age- and body-matched controls from tibialis anterior (distal muscle) and vastus lateralis (proximal muscle) muscles during maximum voluntary and electrically-evoked isometric contractions. The electrochemical and mechanical components of the electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation were calculated off-line. Maximum strength was significantly lower in DM1 than in controls under both experimental conditions. All electrochemical and mechanical components were significantly longer in DM1 in both muscles. Measurement reliability was very high in both DM1 and controls. The high reliability of the measurements and the differences between DM1 patients and controls suggest that the EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach could be utilized as a valid tool to assess the level of neuromuscular dysfunction in this pathology, and to follow the efficacy of pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.

  4. The influence of gene flow and drift on genetic and phenotypic divergence in two species of Zosterops in Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Sonya M.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of an archipelago sets the stage for adaptive radiation. However, some archipelagos are home to spectacular radiations, while others have much lower levels of diversification. The amount of gene flow among allopatric populations is one factor proposed to contribute to this variation. In island colonizing birds, selection for reduced dispersal ability is predicted to produce changing patterns of regional population genetic structure as gene flow-dominated systems give way to drift-mediated divergence. If this transition is important in facilitating phenotypic divergence, levels of genetic and phenotypic divergence should be associated. We consider population genetic structure and phenotypic divergence among two co-distributed, congeneric (Genus: Zosterops) bird species inhabiting the Vanuatu archipelago. The more recent colonist, Z. lateralis, exhibits genetic patterns consistent with a strong influence of distance-mediated gene flow. However, complex patterns of asymmetrical gene flow indicate variation in dispersal ability or inclination among populations. The endemic species, Z. flavifrons, shows only a partial transition towards a drift-mediated system, despite a long evolutionary history on the archipelago. We find no strong evidence that gene flow constrains phenotypic divergence in either species, suggesting that levels of inter-island gene flow do not explain the absence of a radiation across this archipelago. PMID:20194170

  5. An annotated catalogue of the types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, with brief historical notes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Vårdal, Hege

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 72 types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) belonging to 53 species and subspecies housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History is given. The lectotypes of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845 and Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845 are designated. The previous lectotype of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845 is set aside. Five new synonymies are proposed: Chrysis elegans var. smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 (currently Chrysis elegans ssp. interrogata Linsenmaier, 1959 repl. name for smaragdula Trautmann, nec Fabricius, 1775), syn. n. of Chrysis confluens (Dahlbom, 1845); Chrysis eximia Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis poecila Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis separata Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877, syn. n. of Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845. Chrysis serena Radoszkowski, 1891 is the first available name for Chrysis pyrrhina sensu auctorum. Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845 is revaluated as valid species. The neotype of Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845 is designated in the Linsenmaier collection (NMLS). Illustrations of 34 types are given. PMID:25901123

  6. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits.

  7. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.

  8. Acute Effects of Different Methods of Stretching and Specific Warm-ups on Muscle Architecture and Strength Performance.

    PubMed

    Sá, Marcos A; Matta, Thiago T; Carneiro, Simone P; Araujo, Carolina O; Novaes, Jefferson S; Oliveira, Liliam F

    2016-08-01

    Sá, MA, Matta, TT, Carneiro, SP, Araujo, CO, Novaes, JS, and Oliveira, LF. Acute effects of different methods of stretching and specific warm-ups on muscle architecture and strength performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2324-2329, 2016-The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of 2 stretching interventions, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and passive static stretching (PSS), and a specific warm-up (SW) on the strength and architecture of the vastus laterallis and biceps femoris muscles in a subsequent performance on a strength training session (STS). Musculoskeletal ultrasound images were acquired from 9 men before and immediately after stretchings or a SW, and 10 minutes after a STS. The STS consisted of the following exercises: leg extension, leg curl, leg press, and hack machine squat. The PNF resulted in lower performance for all situations. The PSS and SW improved performance for the leg press compared with the PNF and controls (CSs). For the hack machine squat, SWs resulted in higher performance than stretching conditions. The vastus lateralis muscle fascicle length (FL) increases after a STS for PNF. The biceps femoris muscle showed a higher pennation angle 10 minutes after the STS for PSS; the FL increases immediately after PSS and then decreases 10 minutes after the STS for PSS. As per our results, the SWs should be performed before STSs, whereas PNF stretching should not be prescribed because this condition impairs subsequent performance. These results may assist health professionals in prescribing resistance training.

  9. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity. PMID:27622734

  10. Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity and Content Are Normal in Young Insulin-Resistant Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Weber, Todd M.; Cathey, Brook L.; Brophy, Patricia M.; Gilliam, Laura A.A.; Kane, Constance L.; Maples, Jill M.; Gavin, Timothy P.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Considerable debate exists about whether alterations in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and/or content play a causal role in the development of insulin resistance during obesity. The current study was undertaken to determine whether such alterations are present during the initial stages of insulin resistance in humans. Young (∼23 years) insulin-sensitive lean and insulin-resistant obese men and women were studied. Insulin resistance was confirmed through an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Measures of mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content as well as H2O2 emitting potential and the cellular redox environment were performed in permeabilized myofibers and primary myotubes prepared from vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens. No differences in mitochondrial respiratory function or content were observed between lean and obese subjects, despite elevations in H2O2 emission rates and reductions in cellular glutathione. These findings were apparent in permeabilized myofibers as well as in primary myotubes. The results suggest that reductions in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content are not required for the initial manifestation of peripheral insulin resistance. PMID:23974920

  11. Muscle shape consistency and muscle volume prediction of thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of a muscle volume prediction method using only the muscle length (L(M)), the maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA(max)), and a muscle-specific shape factor (p) on the quadriceps vastii. L(M), ACSA(max), muscle volume, and p were obtained from magnetic resonance images of the vastus intermedius (VI), lateralis (VL), and medialis (VM) of female (n = 20) and male (n = 17) volleyball athletes. The average p was used to predict muscle volumes (V(p)) using the equation V(p)  = p × ACSA(max)  × L(M). Although there were significant differences in the muscle dimensions between male and female athletes, p was similar and on average 0.582, 0.658, 0.543 for the VI, VL, and VM, respectively. The position of ACSA(max) showed low variability and was at 57%, 60%, and 81% of the thigh length for VI, VL, and VM. Further, there were no significant differences between measured and predicted muscle volumes with root mean square differences of 5-8%. These results suggest that the muscle shape of the quadriceps vastii is independent of muscle dimensions or sex and that the prediction method could be sensitive enough to detect changes in muscle volume related to degeneration, atrophy, or hypertrophy.

  12. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making.

  13. Exercise and Weight Loss Improve Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration, Lipid Partitioning, and Insulin Sensitivity After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Paul M.; Menshikova, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Giovanna; Zheng, Donghai; Tanner, Charles J.; Standley, Robert A.; Helbling, Nicole L.; Dubis, Gabriel S.; Ritov, Vladimir B.; Xie, Hui; Desimone, Marisa E.; Smith, Steven R.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (n = 101) who underwent RYGB surgery and completed either a 6-month moderate exercise (EX) or a health education control (CON) intervention. SI was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Mitochondrial respiration and intramyocellular triglyceride, sphingolipid, and diacylglycerol content were measured in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens. We found that EX provided additional improvements in SI and that only EX improved cardiorespiratory fitness, mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities, and cardiolipin profile with no change in mitochondrial content. Muscle triglycerides were reduced in type I fibers in CON, and sphingolipids decreased in both groups, with EX showing a further reduction in a number of ceramide species. In conclusion, exercise superimposed on bariatric surgery–induced weight loss enhances mitochondrial respiration, induces cardiolipin remodeling, reduces specific sphingolipids, and provides additional improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:26293505

  14. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie A.; Syed, Emilie C. J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Magill, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson’s disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  15. Muscle fiber conduction velocity in different gait phases of early and late-stage diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Suda, Eneida Yuri; Gomes, Aline A; Butugan, Marco Kenji; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during gait phases of the lower limb muscles in individuals with various degrees of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Forty-five patients were classified into severity degrees of DPN by a fuzzy model. The stages were absent (n=11), mild (n=14), moderate (n=11) and severe (n=9), with 10 matched healthy controls. While walking, all subjects had their sEMG (4 linear electrode arrays) recorded for tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). MFCV was calculated using a maximum likelihood algorithm with 30ms standard deviation Gaussian windows. In general, individuals in the earlier stages of DPN showed lower MFCV of TA, GM and BF, whilst individuals with severe DPN presented higher MFCV of the same muscles. We observed that mild patients already showed lower MFCV of TA at early stance and swing, and lower MFCV of BF at swing. All diabetic groups showed a markedly reduction in MFCV of VL, irrespective of DPN. Severe patients presented higher MFCV mainly in distal muscles, TA at early and swing phases and GM at propulsion and midstance. The absent group already showed MFCV of VL and GM reductions at the propulsion phase and of VL at early stance. Although MFCV changes were not as progressive as the DPN was, we clearly distinguished diabetic patients from controls, and severe patients from all others.

  16. Ankle muscle strength influence on muscle activation during dynamic and static ankle training modalities.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Baltich, Jennifer; Enders, Hendrik; Nigg, Sandro; Nigg, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness is considered a risk factor for ankle injury. Balance training and barefoot running have been used in an attempt to strengthen the muscles crossing the ankle. It is expected that training tasks that successfully strengthen the ankle would elicit increased muscular activity. However, it is unknown how an individual's ankle strength will influence the muscle activity used during a given task. Twenty-six participants performed dynamic (shod, barefoot running) and static tasks (squat on ground, squat on ®Bosu Ball) believed to strengthen the muscles surrounding the ankle. Electromyographic signals of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were recorded and analysed using a non-linearly scaled wavelet analysis. Participants were divided into a strong group and a weak group according to their isometric plantar-flexion torque. The weak group required more relative GL and GM muscle activity during each training task compared to the strong group. No difference was observed between shod and barefoot running. There was a significant effect of training task on muscle activation level for the weak group. Differences in ankle strength had a significant impact on muscle activation.

  17. Local architecture of the vastus intermedius is a better predictor of knee extension force than that of the other quadriceps femoris muscle heads.

    PubMed

    Ando, Ryosuke; Saito, Akira; Umemura, Yoshihisa; Akima, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle architecture of each head of the quadriceps femoris (QF) at multiple regions can be used to predict knee extension force. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were measured using sonographic images from multiple regions on each muscle of the QF with the knee flexed to 90°. The fascicle lengths of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were estimated based on sonographic images taken along the length of the thigh. The muscle architecture of the vastus intermedius was determined in two separate locations using sonographic images of the anterior (ant-VI) and lateral portions (lat-VI). The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured during isometric knee extension at a knee joint angle of 90°. The relationship between MVC force and muscle architecture was examined using a stepwise linear regression analysis with MVC force as the dependent variable. The muscle thickness of the ant-VI was selected as an independent variable in the first step of the linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.66, P<0.01). In the second step, pennation angle of the lat-VI was added to the model (R(2) = 0.91, P<0.01). These results suggest that among the four muscles that make up the QF, the muscle architecture of the VI is the best predictor of knee extension force.

  18. Interaction of various mechanical activity models in regulation of myosin heavy chain isoform expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diffee, Gary M.; Mccue, Samuel; Larosa, Angela; Herrick, Robert E.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a novel combination of mechanical activity paradigms on the isomyosin distribution in rat hindlimb muscles. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five experimental groups as follows: normal control, functional overload (OV) of the plantaris, OV in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (OV-S), and a combination of OV-S and either static standing weight-bearing activity (OV-SS) or high-incline treadmill exercise (OV-SE). OV of the plantaris resulted in significant hypertrophy and significant fast-to-slow isomyosin shifts. These changes were completely inhibited by the addition of hindlimb suspension (OV-S). Also, neither of the two weight-bearing regimes (OV-SS and OV-SE) was able to attenuate the suspension-induced atrophy. In the vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis, however, OV-SS was able to partially retard the atrophy associated with suspension. In both the plantaris and vastus intermedius, only OV-SS was able to partially reverse the slow-to-fast isomyosin transitions associated with suspension. These results suggest that the type of mechanical activity is important in determining adaptation to altered loading conditions, with OV-SS appearing more effective than OV-SE in reversing the effects of unweighting.

  19. Effects of strength training on muscle cellular outcomes in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, T S; Thorsen, L; Fosså, S D; Wiig, M; Kirkegaard, C; Skovlund, E; Benestad, H B; Raastad, T

    2016-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves life expectancy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, but is associated with adverse effects on muscle mass. Here, we investigated the effects of strength training during ADT on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and regulators of muscle mass. PCa patients on ADT were randomized to 16 weeks of strength training (STG) (n = 12) or a control group (CG; n = 11). Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Muscle fiber CSA increased with strength training (898 μm(2) , P = 0.04), with the only significant increase observed in type II fibers (1076 μm(2) , P = 0.03). There was a trend toward a difference in mean change between groups myonuclei number (0.33 nuclei/fiber, P = 0.06), with the only significant increase observed in type I fibers, which decreased the myonuclear domain size of type I fibers (P = 0.05). Satellite cell numbers and the content of androgen receptor and myostatin remained unchanged. Sixteen weeks of strength training during ADT increased type II fiber CSA and reduced myonuclear domain in type I fibers in PCa patients. The increased number of satellite cells normally seen following strength training was not observed. PMID:26282343

  20. Enhanced human tissue microdialysis using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin as molecular carrier.

    PubMed

    May, Marcus; Batkai, Sandor; Zoerner, Alexander A; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Microdialysis sampling of lipophilic molecules in human tissues is challenging because protein binding and adhesion to the membrane limit recovery. Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) forms complexes with hydrophobic molecules thereby improving microdialysis recovery of lipophilic molecules in vitro and in rodents. We tested the approach in human subjects. First, we determined HP-ß-CD influences on metabolite stability, delivery, and recovery in vitro. Then, we evaluated HP-ß-CD as microdialysis perfusion fluid supplement in 20 healthy volunteers. We placed 20 kDa microdialysis catheters in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and in the vastus lateralis muscle. We perfused catheters with lactate free Ringer solution with or without 10% HP-ß-CD at flow rates of 0.3-2.0 µl/min. We assessed tissue metabolites, ultrafiltration effects, and blood flow. In both tissues, metabolite concentrations with Ringer+HP-ß-CD perfusate were equal or higher compared to Ringer alone. Addition of HP-ß-CD increased dialysate volume by 10%. Adverse local or systemic reactions to HP-ß-CD did not occur and analytical methods were not disturbed. HP-ß-CD addition allowed to measure interstitial anandamide concentrations, a highly lipophilic endogenous molecule. Our findings suggest that HP-ß-CD is a suitable supplement in clinical microdialysis to enhance recovery of lipophilic molecules from human interstitial fluid.

  1. The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Many strength trainers believe that varying the stance width during the back squat can target specific muscles of the thigh. The aim of the present work was to test this theory measuring the activation of 8 thigh muscles while performing back squats at 3 stance widths and with 3 different bar loads. Six experienced lifters performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of squats, each one with a different stance width, using 3 resistances: no load, 30% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 70% 1RM. Sets were separated by 6 minutes of rest. Electromyographic (EMG) surface electrodes were placed on the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medium, and adductor maior. Analysis of variance and Scheffè post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in EMG activity only for the gluteus maximus; in particular, there was a higher electrical activity of this muscle when back squats were performed at the maximum stance widths at 0 and 70% 1RM. There were no significant differences concerning the EMG activity of the other analyzed muscles. These findings suggest that a large width is necessary for a greater activation of the gluteus maximus during back squats. PMID:19130646

  2. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  3. Combined Anterior and Anterolateral Stabilization of the Knee With the Iliotibial Band.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Christian; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Imbert, Pierre; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Jaeger, Jean-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Interest and knowledge on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for a combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and anterolateral reconstruction, using an Iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. The graft is detached from the vastus lateralis from proximal to distal, at the center portion from ITB, preserving its distal insertion on the Gerdy tubercle. Its width is 1 cm for the distal part, used for the anterolateral ligament reconstruction, and 3 cm for the proximal part. An outside-in femoral tunnel is drilled respecting both the preferred favorable isometric femoral insertion site and the femoral ACL footprint. An ACL reconstruction combined with a lateral tenodesis with a continuous ITB graft respects the anatomical and isometric rules providing superior internal rotational control of the knee in comparison with a stand-alone ACL reconstruction.

  4. Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament femoral fixation: the trans-iliotibial band endoscopic portal for direct visualization of ideal button placement.

    PubMed

    Mistovich, R Justin; O'Toole, Patrick O J; Ganley, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    Pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a commonly performed procedure that has been increasing in incidence. Multiple techniques for graft fixation have been described. Button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament graft allows for fast, secure fixation with strong load-to-failure biomechanical properties. The biomechanical properties of button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation are especially beneficial with soft-tissue grafts such as hamstring autografts. Confirmation of a successfully flipped button can be achieved with intraoperative fluoroscopy or indirect viewing; however, these techniques do not provide direct visualization of the flipped button. Our trans-iliotibial band endoscopic portal allows the surgeon to safely and directly visualize the flipped button on the lateral femoral cortex and ensure that there is no malpositioning in the form of an incompletely flipped button or from soft-tissue interposition between the button and the lateral femoral cortex. This portal therefore allows for direct visual confirmation that the button is fully flipped and resting flush against the femoral cortex, deep to the iliotibial band and vastus lateralis.

  5. Light-dependent development of asymmetry in the ipsilateral and contralateral thalamofugal visual projections of the chick.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Deng, Chao; Rogers, Lesley J

    2003-01-16

    Light-exposure of the chick embryo induces development of asymmetry in the thalamofugal visual projections to the Wulst regions of the forebrain since the embryo is turned so that it occludes its left and not its right eye. This asymmetry can be reversed by occluding the embryo's right eye and exposing its left eye to light. Here we show that three sub-regions of the thalamus (two in the dorsolateral anterior thalami (DLA) and one more caudal) have differing asymmetries of contralateral and/or ipsilateral projections. Hence the effect of asymmetrical light stimulation is regionally specific within the thalamus. Lateralised light stimulation appears to promote the development of ipsilateral projections from DLA pars dorsolateralis pars anterioris and contralateral projections from the caudal regions (the nucleus superficialis parvocellularis especially) but it may suppress the development of contralateral projections from the nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami pars lateralis rostralis. We also show that the light stimulation causes lateralised expression of c-fos and receptors for neurotransmitters. PMID:12499045

  6. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  7. Muscle histology changes after short term vibration training in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schoser, Benedikt

    2015-12-01

    In search for additional counter measures of muscle atrophy vibration exercise training may have substantial effort for patients with neuromuscular disorders. To cover safety aspects and obtain muscle morphology data, a pilot study was performed in eleven healthy men. Countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump and one repetition maximum test (1RM) were performed on a force platform before and after a 6 week training period. No severe side effects were found. Repeated needle muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed a selective pre- to post-training type-2 myofiber hypertrophy of up to 50 %. The hypertrophy factors were 160 and 310, for type-2 myofibers. The mechanography system showed a significant increase in the 1RM maximum weight lifted (pre: 111,8 kg ± 11,5; post: 140,9 kg ± 13,00; p < 0,001). Vibration exercise is a safe and effective technique which desires further approval as counter measure in different types of neuromuscular atrophy. PMID:27199541

  8. Human patellar articular proportions: recent and Pleistocene patterns

    PubMed Central

    TRINKAUS, ERIK

    2000-01-01

    The degrees of mediolateral asymmetry of the patellar articular facet, as well as the median and lateral articular angles of the facet, were compared across samples of recent humans and of Pleistocene archaic and modern fossil humans. All samples exhibit considerable variability in these patellar proportions. The articular angles are similar across the different samples, but there is a trend towards decreasing lateral angles with decreasing robusticity. The archaic humans exhibit significantly more symmetry of the medial and lateral facets than do any of the recent human samples. However, given the variability in medial versus lateral patellofemoral contact forces documented for extant humans and the roles of the distal oblique portions of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in patellar stabilisation, it is unclear to what extent this variation in patellar articular proportions may affect knee kinesiology. The contrasts may be related to different levels of patellar stability and/or musculoskeletal hypertrophy, but they appear unlikely to have affected primary knee function. PMID:10853969

  9. The Effect of Skinfold on the Assessment of the Mean Power Frequency at the Fatigue Threshold

    PubMed Central

    BANIQUED, ALYSSANDRA N.; ZUNIGA, JORGE M.; STRUNC, THOMAS C.; KEENAN, KATIE M.; BOKEN, AGRINI K.; ANDERSON, JEFFREY J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of subcutaneous tissue over the quadriceps affects the assessment of mean power frequency at the fatigue threshold (MPFFT). It was hypothesized that greater skinfold values will result in lower power outputs associated to the MPFFT. Fourteen adults (Mean ± SD age = 20.7 ± 0.99; body weight = 72.8 ± 12.6 kg) performed an incremental cycle ergometry test to exhaustion while surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were measured from the vastus lateralis. The skinfold thickness of each leg was taken prior to the test, and skinfold thicknesses were separated into a larger and a smaller groups. The independent t-test showed a significant difference (p = 0.01) between the power outputs associated to the MPFFT of groups with high (Mean ± SD 130.4 ± 34.5 W) versus low skinfold (212.5 ± 61.2 W) values. The results suggested that higher subcutaneous fat may have affected the assessment of MPFFT during cycle ergometry. PMID:27766128

  10. Subcortical afferent connections of the amygdala in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The cells of origin of the afferent connections of the amygdala in the rhesus and squirrel monkeys are determined according to the retrograde axonal transport of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase injected into various quadrants of the amygdala. Analysis of the distribution of enzyme-labeled cells reveals afferent amygdalar connections with the ipsilateral halves of the midline nucleus paraventricularis thalami and both the parvo- and magnocellular parts of the nucleus subparafascicularis in the dorsal thalamus, all the subdivisions of the midline nucleus centralis complex, the nucleus reuniens ventralis and the nucleus interventralis. The largest populations of enzyme-labeled cells in the hypothalamus are found to lie in the middle and posterior parts of the ipsilateral, lateral hypothalamus and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, with scattered cells in the supramammillary and dorsomedial nuclei and the posterior hypothalamic area, Tsai's ventral tegmental area, the rostral and caudal subdivisions of the nucleus linearis in the midbrain and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The most conspicuous subdiencephalic source of amygdalar afferent connections is observed to be the pars lateralis of the nucleus parabrachialis in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, with a few labeled cells differentiated from pigmented cells in the locus coeruleus.

  11. Neuronal morphology in subdivisions of the inferior colliculus of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Niederleitner, Bertram; Luksch, Harald

    2012-05-01

    The avian inferior colliculus (IC), also referred to as the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), is an auditory midbrain nucleus that converges auditory cues from tonotopically organized brainstem nuclei. This information is relayed onto the optic tectum on the one hand and to nucleus ovoidalis on the other hand. Morphologically, there has been considerable debate about the number and nomenclature of the subnuclei within the IC. Here, we provide morphological characteristics of single cells in five IC subnuclei in chicken. The cellular structure within the IC was studied by whole-cell patch technique and biocytin iontophoresis. In addition, histological staining was performed, to delineate the borders between subnuclei of the IC. We were able to discriminate between 5 subnuclei: the core of the central nucleus (ICCc), the medial and lateral shell of the central nucleus (ICCms and ICCls), the external nucleus (ICX) and the superficial nucleus (ICS) of the IC. Our findings suggest the existence of at least two different morphologies of neurons with two subtypes each. The IC in chicken is a largely homogenous nucleus in terms of neuronal anatomy on a cellular level. However, its compartmentation into diversified subnuclei with different neurophysiological characteristics suggests a complex system to process auditory information. The auditory system in chicken is not as hypertrophied as in specialists such as the barn owl, but appears to have comparable connectivity and cellular morphology. PMID:22525356

  12. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response.

  13. Muscle-related differences in mechanomyography frequency-force relationships are model dependent.

    PubMed

    Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the surface mechanomyographic mean power frequency (MMG MPF)-force relationships with linear regression models applied to the absolute and log-transformed values for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Thirteen healthy males performed isometric ramp contractions of the leg extensors and index finger from 10 to 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction with MMG sensors positioned on the VL, RF, and FDI. Simple linear regression models were fit to the absolute and log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken at each sensor site. There were significant differences for the slopes from the log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships between the FDI and the leg extensors (P < 0.001) but not the absolute model (P = 0.168). The Y-intercepts were greater for the FDI than the leg extensors for the absolute (P < 0.001) and log-transformed models (P < 0.001), which reflected similar muscle-related differences (P < 0.001) for skinfold thickness. However, there were no significant correlations between Y-intercepts and skinfold thicknesses. Differences in the patterns of response between the FDI and leg extensors were only quantified with the log-transformed model.

  14. Biomechanical analysis of knee and trunk in badminton players with and without knee pain during backhand diagonal lunges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hua, Shiang-Hua; Huang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Hsing-Hsan; Liao, Jen-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of core neuromuscular control to the dynamic stability of badminton players with and without knee pain during backhand lunges has not been investigated. Accordingly, this study compared the kinematics of the lower extremity, the trunk movement, the muscle activation and the balance performance of knee-injured and knee-uninjured badminton players when performing backhand stroke diagonal lunges. Seventeen participants with chronic knee pain (injured group) and 17 healthy participants (control group) randomly performed two diagonal backhand lunges in the forward and backward directions, respectively. This study showed that the injured group had lower frontal and horizontal motions of the knee joint, a smaller hip-shoulder separation angle and a reduced trunk tilt angle. In addition, the injured group exhibited a greater left paraspinal muscle activity, while the control group demonstrated a greater activation of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups. Finally, the injured group showed a smaller distance between centre of mass (COM) and centre of pressure, and a lower peak COM velocity when performing the backhand backward lunge tasks. In conclusion, the injured group used reduced knee and trunk motions to complete the backhand lunge tasks. Furthermore, the paraspinal muscles contributed to the lunge performance of the individuals with knee pain, whereas the knee extensors and ankle plantar flexor played a greater role for those without knee pain.

  15. Predator cues magnify effects of the pesticide endosulfan in water bugs in a multi-species test in outdoor containers.

    PubMed

    Trekels, Hendrik; Van de Meutter, Frank; Stoks, Robby

    2013-08-15

    Pesticides have become major stressors in many aquatic communities. Laboratory studies suggest their impact may be further magnified in the presence of cues from predators. Despite their importance for ecological risk assessment, synergisms between pesticides and predator cues have not been confirmed under semi-natural outdoor conditions. We evaluated how the presence of predator cues and the presence of a non-corixid community affect the pesticide sensitivity of five water bug (Corixidae) species in an outdoor, multi-species container experiment. The experiment employed a full factorial design with two pesticide treatments, two predator cue treatments and two (non-corixid) community treatments (absence versus presence of Cloeon dipterum mayfly larvae, Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae and Physa acuta snails). The pesticide treatment negatively affected survival in Cymatia coleoptrata, and to a lesser extent, Sigara lateralis, but not in the other three Corixidae species (Hesperocorixa linnaei, Sigara iactans and Sigara striata). The addition of pesticides did not significantly affect body mass in the latter four species, unless combined with predator cues. To our knowledge this is the first report of this synergism under semi-natural, outdoor conditions. Neither lethal nor sublethal pesticide effects in the Corixidae depended on the community context, yet the presence of the non-corixid community when combined with predator cues reduced survival and body mass. Our results suggest that the here documented synergism between pesticides and predator cues may occur in nature.

  16. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week−1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  17. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  18. Training intensity modulates changes in PGC-1α and p53 protein content and mitochondrial respiration, but not markers of mitochondrial content in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Little, Jonathan P; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J

    2016-02-01

    Exercise training has been associated with increased mitochondrial content and respiration. However, no study to date has compared in parallel how training at different intensities affects mitochondrial respiration and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Twenty-nine healthy men performed 4 wk (12 cycling sessions) of either sprint interval training [SIT; 4-10 × 30-s all-out bouts at ∼200% of peak power output (WPeak)], high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 4-7 × 4-min intervals at ∼90% WPeak), or sublactate threshold continuous training (STCT; 20-36 min at ∼65% WPeak). The STCT and HIIT groups were matched for total work. Resting biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained before and after training. The maximal mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers increased significantly only after SIT (25%). Similarly, the protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, p53, and plant homeodomain finger-containing protein 20 (PHF20) increased only after SIT (60-90%). Conversely, citrate synthase activity, and the protein content of TFAM and subunits of the electron transport system complexes remained unchanged throughout. Our findings suggest that training intensity is an important factor that regulates training-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration and that there is an apparent dissociation between training-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial content. Moreover, changes in the protein content of PGC-1α, p53, and PHF20 are more strongly associated with training-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration than mitochondrial content.

  19. Muscle Oxygen Dynamics During Cycling Exercise in Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Muscle O2 dynamics during ramp cycling exercise were compared between angina pectoris patients (AP; n = 7, age: 73 ± 6 years) after coronary artery bypass grafting and age-, height-, and body weight-matched elderly control subjects (CON; n = 7, age: 74 ± 8 years). Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative change in deoxygenated (∆deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆total-Hb) were measured continuously during exercise in the vastus lateralis (VL) by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) was also monitored throughout exercise to determine peak VO2. In AP, SmO2 was significantly higher, and ∆deoxy-Hb was significantly lower during exercise, compared to CON. In all subjects, ∆SmO2 (values at peak exercise minus values at resting) was negatively correlated to peak VO2 (r = -0.52, p < 0.05), and ∆deoxy-Hb at peak exercise tended to be negatively associated with peak VO2 (r = 0.48, p = 0.07). Blunted skeletal muscle deoxygenation response was observed in AP patients, which may be related to lower aerobic capacity in AP patients. PMID:27526156

  20. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low. PMID:27526151

  1. Reserve capacity for ATP consumption during isometric contraction in human skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Han, Y S; Proctor, D N; Geiger, P C; Sieck, G C

    2001-02-01

    Maximum velocity of the actomyosin ATPase reaction (V(max) ATPase) and ATP consumption rate during maximum isometric activation (ATP(iso)) were determined in human vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fibers expressing different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We hypothesized that the reserve capacity for ATP consumption [1 -- (ratio of ATP(iso) to V(max) ATPase)] varies across VL muscle fibers expressing different MHC isoforms. Biopsies were obtained from 12 subjects (10 men and 2 women; age 21--66 yr). A quantitative histochemical procedure was used to measure V(max) ATPase. In permeabilized fibers, ATP(iso) was measured using an NADH-linked fluorometric procedure. The reserve capacity for ATP consumption was lower for fibers coexpressing MHC(2X) and MHC(2A) compared with fibers singularly expressing MHC(2A) and MHC(slow) (39 vs. 52 and 56%, respectively). Tension cost (ratio of ATP(iso) to generated force) also varied with fiber type, being highest in fibers coexpressing MHC(2X) and MHC(2A). We conclude that fiber-type differences in the reserve capacity for ATP consumption and tension cost reflect functional differences such as susceptibility to fatigue.

  2. Expression of elongation factor-1 alpha and S1 in young and old human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Welle, S; Thornton, C; Bhatt, K; Krym, M

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that reduced expression of elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) may be an important determinant of the reduced rate of protein synthesis in senescent animals and cultured cells. The present study examined whether expression of EF-1 alpha or S1, a homologous protein found exclusively in postmitotic tissues, is reduced in senescent human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscles of healthy young (22-31 yr old) and old (61-74 yr old) subjects. As reported previously, myofibrillar protein synthesis was approximately 40% slower in the older muscle (p < .001) as determined by incorporation of a stable isotope. Immunoblotting revealed no difference in the concentration of EF-1 alpha + S1 between younger and older muscle. RT-PCR assays indicated that S1 mRNA was much more abundant than EF-1 alpha mRNA in muscles of both age groups, with no reduction in either EF-1 alpha or S1 mRNA abundance in older muscles. We conclude that expression of EF-1 alpha and S1 is not diminished in older muscles and does not explain the age-related slowing of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the activity of these proteins declines during senescence due to post-translational modifications. PMID:9310071

  3. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

  4. Effects of temperature on the maximal instantaneous muscle power of humans.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Ishii, M; Moia, C; Cerretelli, P

    1992-01-01

    The maximal instantaneous muscle power (wi,max) probably reflects the maximal rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis (ATPmax), a temperature-dependent variable, which gives rise to the hypothesis that temperature, by affecting ATPmax, may also influence wi,max. This hypothesis was tested on six subjects, whose vastus lateralis muscle temperature (Tmuscle) was monitored by a thermocouple inserted approximately 3 cm below the skin surface. The Wi,max was determined during a series of high jumps off both feet on a force platform before and after immersion up to the abdomen for 90 min in a temperature controlled (T = 20 +/- 0.1 degrees C) water bath. Control Tmuscle was 35.8 +/- 0.7 degrees C, with control Wi,max being 51.6 (SD 8.7) W.kg-1. After cold exposure, Tmuscle decreased by about 8 degrees C, whereas wi,max 27% lower. The temperature dependence of Wi,max was found to be less (Q10 less than 1.5, where Q10 is the temperature coefficient as calculated in other studies) than reported in the literature for ATPmax. Such a low Q10 may reflect an increase in the mechanical equivalent of ATP splitting, as a consequence of the reduced velocity of muscle contraction occurring at low Tmuscle.

  5. Calorie restriction limits the generation but not the progression of mitochondrial abnormalities in aging skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bua, Entela; McKiernan, Susan H; Aiken, Judd M

    2004-03-01

    The effect of early-onset calorie restriction and aging on the accumulation of electron transport system (ETS) abnormalities was studied in rat skeletal muscle. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscle fibers were analyzed for cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme activities. Fibers displaying COX negative and SDH hyper reactive (COX-/SDH++) phenotype were followed through 1000-2000 micrometers to determine the frequency and length of these abnormalities as well as the physiological impact on fiber structure. Calorie restricted rats had fewer ETS abnormal muscle fibers. The mean length of ETS abnormal regions in ad libitum rat muscle fibers was similar to calorie restricted rat muscles. ETS abnormal fibers from both diet groups exhibited intra-fiber atrophy. A negative correlation between ETS abnormality length and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) ratio was observed in both ad libitum and calorie- restricted rats. Although calorie restriction reduced the number of ETS abnormalities, it did not affect the length or associated fiber atrophy of ETS abnormal regions once the abnormality was established. Thus, calorie restriction affects the onset but not the progression of electron transport system abnormalities, thereby, limiting a process that ultimately results in fiber breakage and fiber loss.

  6. Specificity of leg power changes to velocities used in bicycle endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rösler, K; Conley, K E; Howald, H; Gerber, C; Hoppeler, H

    1986-07-01

    Increases in leg power production resulting from 8 wk of bicycle endurance training (30 min/day, 5 times/wk) were studied using an isokinetic dynamometer. In addition, biopsies of vastus lateralis were analyzed to characterize muscle ultrastructural changes. Performance increased on the dynamometer specifically near the estimated average knee angular velocity used during the bicycle training (200 degrees/s). Power measurements were made during the first 5 contractions (maximal power: Pmax) and last 5 contractions (final power: Pend) of 25 and 50 consecutive contractions (at 60 and 240 degrees/s, respectively). Pmax and Pend increased only at 240 degrees/s but not at 60 degrees/s. These increases in Pmax (86 W) and Pend (78 W) resulted primarily from longer torque maintenance but also from increased peak torque during each contraction and were close to the increase in mechanical power output maintained on the bicycle (Pb; 78 W) during the training sessions. The specificity of these changes to the angular velocities used in the bicycle training indicates a neural basis to these adaptations. We suggest that these neural adaptations, coupled with the observed enhancement of muscle mitochondrial and capillary density (+41 and +15%, respectively) underlie the increased ability to maintain power production on a bicycle after endurance training.

  7. Effects of experimental weight perturbation on skeletal muscle work efficiency, fuel utilization, and biochemistry in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rochelle; Joanisse, Denis R; Gallagher, Dympna; Pavlovich, Katherine; Shamoon, Elisabeth; Leibel, Rudolph L; Rosenbaum, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of a body weight 10% above or below that "customary" for lean or obese individuals results in respective increases or decreases in the energy expended in low levels of physical activity (nonresting energy expenditure, NREE). These changes are greater than can be accounted for by the altered body weight or composition and are due mainly to altered skeletal muscle work efficiency at low levels of power generation. We performed biochemical analysis of vastus lateralis muscle needle biopsy samples to determine whether maintenance of an altered body weight was associated with changes in skeletal muscle histomorphology. We found that the maintenance of a 10% reduced body weight was associated with significant declines in glycolytic (phosphofructokinase, PFK) enzyme activity and, in particular, in the ratio of glycolytic to oxidative (cytochrome c oxidase, COX) enzyme activity without significant changes in the activities of enzymes relevant to mitochondrial density, respiratory chain activity, or fuel transport; or in skeletal muscle fiber type or glycogen stores. The fractional change in the ratio of PFK/COX activity in subjects following weight loss was significantly correlated with changes in the systemic respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and measures of mechanical efficiency of skeletal muscle at low workloads (pedaling a bicycle to generate 10 or 25 W of power). Thus, predictable changes in systemic skeletal muscle biochemistry accompany the maintenance of an altered body weight and account for a significant portion of the variance in skeletal muscle work efficiency and fuel utilization at reduced body weight.

  8. Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Rossini, Katia; Carraro, Ugo; Mayr, Winfried; Vogelauer, Michael; Hoellwarth, Ursula; Hofer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents biopsy analyses in support of the clinical evidence of muscle recovery induced by a new system of life-long functional-electrical-stimulation (FES) training in permanent spinal-motoneuron-denervated human muscle. Not earlier than 1 year after subjects experienced complete conus cauda lesion, their thigh muscles were electrically stimulated at home for several years with large skin surface electrodes and an expressly designed stimulator that delivered much longer impulses than those presently available for clinical use. The poor excitability of long-term denervated muscles was first improved by several months of twitch-contraction training. Then, the muscles were tetanically stimulated against progressively increased loads. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis from long-term denervated subjects showed severe myofiber atrophy or lipodystrophy beginning 2 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Muscle biopsies from a group of 3.6- to 13.5-year denervated subjects, who underwent 2.4 to 9.3 years of FES, show that this progressive training almost reverted long-term muscle atrophy/degeneration.

  9. Human muscle power output during upper- and lower-body exercises.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Judith A; Gilders, Roger M; Staron, Robert S; Hagerman, Frederick C

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of traditional resistance training equipment in the measurement of muscular power. This was accomplished by measuring the velocity of movement through a measured distance during maximal effort lifts using a Smith rack. The reliability of the method was established using 10 male volunteers who performed both bench press and squat exercises in a Smith rack. Maximal power output was determined at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Test-retest power values were not statistically different. Another 15 male volunteers who had previous muscle biopsy data from the vastus lateralis muscle performed the same maximal power output evaluation. There were no significant relationships between peak power outputs and fiber-type expressions when linear regressions were performed. The power curve produced by graphing power output vs. the percentage of 1RM indicates that peak power output occurs between 50 and 70% of 1RM for the squat and between 40 and 60% of 1RM for the bench press. These data indicate that this method of evaluation of muscle power is reliable, although it is not predictive of muscle fiber-type percentages. PMID:11991767

  10. Combined Anterior and Anterolateral Stabilization of the Knee With the Iliotibial Band.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Christian; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Imbert, Pierre; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Jaeger, Jean-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Interest and knowledge on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for a combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and anterolateral reconstruction, using an Iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. The graft is detached from the vastus lateralis from proximal to distal, at the center portion from ITB, preserving its distal insertion on the Gerdy tubercle. Its width is 1 cm for the distal part, used for the anterolateral ligament reconstruction, and 3 cm for the proximal part. An outside-in femoral tunnel is drilled respecting both the preferred favorable isometric femoral insertion site and the femoral ACL footprint. An ACL reconstruction combined with a lateral tenodesis with a continuous ITB graft respects the anatomical and isometric rules providing superior internal rotational control of the knee in comparison with a stand-alone ACL reconstruction. PMID:27354943

  11. Comparison of Twice Refocused Spin Echo versus Stimulated Echo Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Tracking Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Noehren, Brian; Andersen, Anders; Feiweier, Thorsten; Damon, Bruce; Hardy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the precision of measuring the pennation angle and fiber length in the Vastus Lateralis (VL) using two distinctly different diffusion tensor imaging sequences. Materials and Methods We imaged the thigh of ten normal subjects on a 3T MR imager with twice refocused spin echo (TRSE) and stimulated echo (STEAM) DTI-MRI techniques. Both techniques took the same total acquisition time, employed the same diffusion weighting and gradient directions. Using the diffusion tensor images produced by each sequence muscle fiber bundles were tracked from the aponeurosis by following the first eigenvector of the diffusion tensor. From these tracks we calculated the pennation angle and fiber length. Results The STEAM acquisition resulted in significantly higher SNR, lower ADC, higher FA values and longer fibers than the TRSE. Although no difference in the pennation angle between the two acquisitions was found, the TRSE sequence had a significantly greater within subject dispersion in the pennation angle of tracked fibers which may indicate a reduction in the coherence of fiber bundles. Conclusion Diffusion tensor imaging of muscle using a STEAM acquisition resulted in significant improvements in the SNR and FA, resulting in tracking a larger number of muscle fiber bundles over longer distances and with less within subject dispersion. PMID:24554376

  12. High-intensity sprint training inhibits mitochondrial respiration through aconitase inactivation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ørtenblad, Niels; Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Willis, Sarah J; Calbet, Jose A; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Boushel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Intense exercise training is a powerful stimulus that activates mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and thus increases mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity. Moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during exercise are considered vital in the adaptive response, but high ROS production is a serious threat to cellular homeostasis. Although biochemical markers of the transition from adaptive to maladaptive ROS stress are lacking, it is likely mediated by redox sensitive enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. One potential enzyme mediating such redox sensitivity is the citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase. In this study, we examined biopsy specimens of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii in healthy volunteers, together with primary human myotubes. An intense exercise regimen inactivated aconitase by 55-72%, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by 50-65%. In the vastus, the mitochondrial dysfunction was compensated for by a 15-72% increase in mitochondrial proteins, whereas H2O2 emission was unchanged. In parallel with the inactivation of aconitase, the intermediary metabolite citrate accumulated and played an integral part in cellular protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, the triceps failed to increase mitochondrial density, and citrate did not accumulate. Instead, mitochondrial H2O2 emission was decreased to 40% of the pretraining levels, together with a 6-fold increase in protein abundance of catalase. In this study, a novel mitochondrial stress response was highlighted where accumulation of citrate acted to preserve the redox status of the cell during periods of intense exercise.

  13. Exercise and Weight Loss Improve Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration, Lipid Partitioning, and Insulin Sensitivity After Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Coen, Paul M; Menshikova, Elizabeth V; Distefano, Giovanna; Zheng, Donghai; Tanner, Charles J; Standley, Robert A; Helbling, Nicole L; Dubis, Gabriel S; Ritov, Vladimir B; Xie, Hui; Desimone, Marisa E; Smith, Steven R; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G S; Houmard, Joseph A; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2015-11-01

    Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (n = 101) who underwent RYGB surgery and completed either a 6-month moderate exercise (EX) or a health education control (CON) intervention. SI was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Mitochondrial respiration and intramyocellular triglyceride, sphingolipid, and diacylglycerol content were measured in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens. We found that EX provided additional improvements in SI and that only EX improved cardiorespiratory fitness, mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities, and cardiolipin profile with no change in mitochondrial content. Muscle triglycerides were reduced in type I fibers in CON, and sphingolipids decreased in both groups, with EX showing a further reduction in a number of ceramide species. In conclusion, exercise superimposed on bariatric surgery-induced weight loss enhances mitochondrial respiration, induces cardiolipin remodeling, reduces specific sphingolipids, and provides additional improvements in insulin sensitivity.

  14. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (P<0.05) between the three muscles (IL>OM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles.

  15. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  16. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak