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Sample records for aconiti lateralis preparata

  1. [Investigating mechanism of toxicity reduction by combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata on terms of proteins self-assembly].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-jie; Shen, Yong; Liao, Ri-tao; Gao, Guan-zhen; Ke, Li-jing; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-02-01

    The combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata can increase efficacy and decrease toxicity. This study started from the phenomena of protein self-assembly in the mixed decoction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. The attenuated mechanism was explored between the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by using the protein of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and aconitine which was the major toxic component of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein with aconitine could form stable particles which particle mean diameter was (206.2 ± 2.02) nm and (238.20 ± 1.23) nm at pH 5.0 in normal temperature. Through the mouse acute toxicity experiment found that injection of aconitine monomer all mice were killed, and injection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine particles with the same content of aconitine all mice survived. Survey the stability of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine shows that the colloid particles is stable at room temperature, and it has the possibility to candidate drug carrier. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein can reduce the toxicity of aconitine through self-assembly.

  2. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  3. [Identification of aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and study of their cardiac effects].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Tang, Ming-Hai; Chao, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2014-12-01

    In order to affirm the cardioactive components in Fuzi, we identified a group of aminoalcohol- diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-MS) method. Among a total of forty-one isolated ingredients, thirteen major aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids were identified by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of the reference substances. Moreover, Fuzi samples from different places of origin and with different processing methods were examined and their components displayed a pattern of high similarity, though the relative abundance varies probably due to their different processing methods. Furthermore, the cardiac effect of each identified alkaloid was individually evaluated using the isolated bullfrog heart perfusion experiment. Among the thirteen aminoalcohol diterpenoid alkaloids tested, six of them significantly enhanced the amplitude rates. Taken together, we affirm that the cardioactive components in Fuzi are aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids, shedding light on future studies of the mechanisms and development of these cardioactive compounds.

  4. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides extract from Radix Rehmanniae Preparata.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Yu, Ke-qiang; Liu, Yan-yan; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Yan, Mei-hua; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

    2012-01-01

    The anti-fatigue effects of the Radix Rehmanniae Preparata polysaccharides (RRPP) were studied in mice. The RRPP were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid (BLA) contents. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the body weight of mice in the three RRPP groups compared with the negative control group during initial, intermediate and terminal stages in the experiment (p>0.05). The ratio of exhausting swimming time was obviously increased 31.48% (p<0.05) and 61.51% (p<0.01) in the middle-dose group and the high-dose RRPP group, respectively. The BLA and SUN levels were decreased in middle-dose and high-dose RRPP groups (p<0.01). Hepatic glycogen level was increased in three RRPP treated groups (p<0.01). Therefore, RRPP may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata. The mechanism was related to the increase of the storage of hepatic glycogen and the decrease of the accumulation of SUN and BLA.

  5. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Hong, Bo; Wang, Jia; Wang, Xi; Niu, Sijia; Zhao, Chunjie

    2012-11-01

    Based upon the regulations stipulated by the State Food and Drug Administration of China, only the processed, detoxified tubers and roots of Aconitum are allowed to be administered orally, used in clinical decoctions and adopted as raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing, so the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti is important for ensuring the Radix Aconiti praeparata quality. A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata. To compare their fingerprints, the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti was developed. Twenty-nine compounds and 26 compounds were assigned to aconitine alkaloids and tentatively identified by comparing accurate mass and fragments information with that of the authentic standards or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literature. The nonester alkaloids were almost the same. The diester diterpene alkaloids were decreased, the monoester-diterpene alkaloids were increased and lipo-alkaloids decreased obviously in the processing of the preparation. These transformed components could be regarded as potential chemical markers that can be used to distinguish between raw and processed herbs.

  6. Bayesian inferences on the recent island colonization history by the bird Zosterops lateralis lateralis.

    PubMed

    Estoup, A; Clegg, S M

    2003-03-01

    The founding of new populations by small numbers of colonists has been considered a potentially important mechanism promoting evolutionary change in island populations. Colonizing species, such as members of the avian species complex Zosterops lateralis, have been used to support this idea. A large amount of background information on recent colonization history is available for one Zosterops subspecies, Z. lateralis lateralis, providing the opportunity to reconstruct the population dynamics of its colonization sequence. We used a Bayesian approach to combine historical and demographic information available on Z. l. lateralis with genotypic data from six microsatellite loci, and a rejection algorithm to make simultaneous inferences on the demographic parameters describing the recent colonization history of this subspecies in four southwest Pacific islands. Demographic models assuming mutation-drift equilibrium or a large number of founders were better supported than models assuming founder events for three of four recently colonized island populations. Posterior distributions of demographic parameters supported (i) a large stable effective population size of several thousands individuals with point estimates around 4000-5000; (ii) a founder event of very low intensity with a large effective number of founders around 150-200 individuals for each island in three of four islands, suggesting the colonization of those islands by one flock of large size or several flocks of average size; and (iii) a founder event of higher intensity on Norfolk Island with an effective number of founders around 20 individuals, suggesting colonization by a single flock of moderate size. Our inferences on demographic parameters, especially those on the number of founders, were relatively insensitive to the precise choice of prior distributions for microsatellite mutation processes and demographic parameters, suggesting that our analysis provides a robust description of the recent

  7. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  8. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy.

  9. Four phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct lineages in Phytophthora lateralis.

    PubMed

    Brasier, Clive M; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Webber, Joan F; Vannini, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Until recently Phytophthora lateralis was known only as the cause of dieback and mortality of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in its native range in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Since the 1990s however disease outbreaks have occurred increasingly on ornamental C. lawsoniana in Europe; and in 2007 the pathogen was discovered in soil around old growth Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, where it may be endemic. When the phenotypes of over 150 isolates of P. lateralis from Taiwan, across the PNW (British Columbia to California) and from France, the Netherlands and the UK were compared three growth rate groups were resolved: one slow growing from Taiwan, one fast growing from the PNW and Europe, and one of intermediate growth from a small area of the UK. Within these growth groups distinct subtypes were identified based on colony patterns and spore metrics and further discriminated in a multivariate analysis. The assumption that the three main growth groups represented phylogenetic units was tested by comparative sequencing of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. This assumption was confirmed. In addition two phenotype clusters within the Taiwan growth group were also shown to be phylogenetically distinct. These four phenotypically and genotypically unique populations are informally designated as the PNW lineage, the UK lineage, the Taiwan J lineage, and the Taiwan K lineage. Their characteristics and distribution are described and their evolution, taxonomic, and plant health significance is discussed.

  10. The study of vitelline gland of Haploporus lateralis (Digenea: Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Sampour, Majid

    2008-01-01

    The study of vitelline glands of digenean Haploporus lateralis, indicates that the glands consist of vitelocytes in various stages of maturation. The cytoplasmic process of nurse cells which surrounded the vitelline lobes, intrude between vitelocytes and surround them. Immature vitelline cells are undifferentiated, they possess small amount of cytoplasm and large nucleus. The synthesis of shell globules begin in the maturing vitelline cells. Increasing numbers of vitellocytes reach develop of mature vitelline cells. The cytoplasm of mature vitelline cells is filled with shell globules. Mature vitelline cells usually found in the center of vitelline lobe. They release into the vitelline duct and vitelline reservoir. The vitelline reservoir and duct are lined with a syncytial epithelium. Basement membrane is present between nurse cells and vitelline cells.

  11. Age‐related neuromuscular changes affecting human vastus lateralis

    PubMed Central

    Piasecki, M.; Ireland, A.; Stashuk, D.; Hamilton‐Wright, A.; Jones, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Skeletal muscle size and strength decline in older age.The vastus lateralis, a large thigh muscle, undergoes extensive neuromuscular remodelling in healthy ageing, as characterized by a loss of motor neurons, enlargement of surviving motor units and instability of neuromuscular junction transmission.The loss of motor axons and changes to motor unit potential transmission precede a clinically‐relevant loss of muscle mass and function. Abstract The anterior thigh muscles are particularly susceptible to muscle loss and weakness during ageing, although how this is associated with changes to neuromuscular structure and function in terms of motor unit (MU) number, size and MU potential (MUP) stability remains unclear. Intramuscular (I.M.) and surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) during voluntary contractions held at 25% maximal knee extensor strength in 22 young (mean ± SD, 25.3 ± 4.8 years) and 20 physically active older men (71.4 ± 6.2 years). MUP size, firing rates, phases, turns and near fibre (NF) jiggle were determined and MU number estimates (MUNEs) were made by comparing average surface MUP with maximal electrically‐evoked compound muscle action potentials. Quadriceps cross‐sectional area was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. In total, 379 individual MUs were sampled in younger men and 346 in older men. Compared to the MU in younger participants, those in older participants had 8% lower firing rates and larger MUP size (+25%), as well as increased complexity, as indicated by phases (+13%), turns (+20%) and NF jiggle (+11%) (all P < 0.0005). The MUNE values (derived from the area of muscle in range of the surface‐electrode) in older participants were ∼70% of those in the young (P < 0.05). Taking into consideration the 30% smaller cross‐sectional area of the VL, the total number of MUs in the older muscles was between 50% and 60% lower compared to in young muscles (P < 0

  12. Contrasting microsatellite diversity in the evolutionary lineages of Phytophthora lateralis.

    PubMed

    Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Brasier, Clive M; Webber, Joan F; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vannini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Following recent discovery of Phytophthora lateralis on native Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, four phenotypically distinct lineages were discriminated: the Taiwan J (TWJ) and Taiwan K (TWK) in Taiwan, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in North America and Europe and the UK in west Scotland. Across the four lineages, we analysed 88 isolates from multiple sites for microsatellite diversity. Twenty-one multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were resolved with high levels of diversity of the TWK and PNW lineages. No alleles were shared between the PNW and the Taiwanese lineages. TWK was heterozygous at three loci, whereas TWJ isolates were homozygous apart from one isolate, which exhibited a unique allele also present in the TWK lineage. PNW lineage was heterozygous at three loci. The evidence suggests its origin may be a yet unknown Asian source. North American and European PNW isolates shared all their alleles and also a dominant MLG, consistent with a previous proposal that this lineage is a recent introduction into Europe from North America. The UK lineage was monomorphic and homozygous at all loci. It shared its alleles with the PNW and the TWJ and TWK lineages, hence a possible origin in a recent hybridisation event between a Taiwan lineage and PNW cannot be ruled out.

  13. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  14. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  15. Redescription Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and Phylogeny of the Prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael B; O'connell, Kyle A; Wostl, Elijah; Riyanto, Awal; Kurniawan, Nia; Smith, Eric N; Grismer, L Lee

    2016-05-04

    We redescribe Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) on the basis of new specimens. Cyrtodactylus lateralis is a prehensile-tailed species, known from scattered lowland to mid-elevation localities in northern Sumatra. The prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus are more speciose and have a wider distribution than previously thought. This group includes a mainland SE Asian clade consisting of C. elok, C. interdigitalis, and C. brevipalmatus and an insular clade containing C. durio, C. lateralis, C. nuaulu, C. serratus, C. spinosus, and C. stresemanni. However, a distinctive color pattern in the Wallacean and Papuan species and uncertainty surrounding the type locality of C. stresemanni raise unresolved questions about the inclusiveness of the insular clade. DNA sequence data supports a close relationship between C. elok and C. interdigitalis, but also reveals that C. lateralis and C. durio are not closely related to these species.

  16. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVALVE, MULINA LATERALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for using the dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis) to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A multilab...

  17. Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Florio, A M; Ingram, C M; Rakotondravony, H A; Louis, E E; Raxworthy, C J

    2012-07-01

    Species delimitation within recently evolved groups can be challenging because species may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. Following the General Lineage Concept, we apply a multiple evidence approach to assess species limits within the carpet chameleon Furcifer lateralis, which is endemic to Madagascar and exported in large numbers for the pet trade. Cryptic speciation within F. lateralis was considered likely because this species (1) has a vast distribution, (2) occupies exceptionally diverse habitats and (3) exhibits subtle regional differences in morphology. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes recovered three well-supported clades corresponding with geography. Morphological results based on canonical variates analysis show that these clades exhibit subtle differences in head casque morphology. Ecological niche modelling results found that these phylogenetic groups also occupy unique environmental space and exhibit patterns of regional endemism typical of other endemic reptiles. Combined, our findings provide diverse yet consistent evidence for the existence of three species. Consequently, we elevate the subspecies F. lateralis major to species rank and name a new species distributed in northern and western Madagascar. Initial ecological divergence, associated with speciation of F. lateralis in humid eastern habitat, fits the Ecographic Constraint model for species diversification in Madagascar. By contrast, the second speciation event provides some support for the Riverine Barrier model, with the Mangoky River possibly causing initial isolation between species. These findings thus support two contrasting models of speciation within closely related species and demonstrate the utility of applying a combined-evidence approach for detecting cryptic speciation.

  18. Characteristic of changes in the structure and metabolism of the vastus lateralis muscles in monkeys after space flight.

    PubMed

    Belozerova, I N; Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2003-09-01

    Monkeys subjected to space flight were found to have significant decreases in the sizes of slow and rapid fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle, due not only to weightlessness but also, to some extent, to restriction of movement activity within the capsule. The quantity of total protein in muscle fibers did not decrease. The respiratory peak in the pool of vastus lateralis muscle fibers decreased after space flight, as did the activity of oxidative enzymes (particularly in rapid fibers of the vastus lateralis muscle).

  19. [Vertical superposition on distance radiography in norma lateralis: normal or asymmetrical?].

    PubMed

    Durand, A S; Durand, J; Deblock, L

    2003-12-01

    Cephalometric analysis, together with clinical examination and study of models, is an essential tool in practitioners' preparations of orthodontic diagnoses for their patients. However, despite the use of standardized techniques, cephalograms in norma lateralis still inescapably superimpose patients' right and left sides on each other. This study attempts to demonstrate the significance of these superimpositions particularly when serial cephalograms are themselves superimposed on each other to discern growth or treatment changes.

  20. Human soleus and vastus lateralis muscle protein metabolism with an amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Chad C; Fluckey, James D; Williams, Rick H; Sullivan, Dennis H; Trappe, Todd A

    2005-03-01

    The calf muscles, compared with the thigh, are less responsive to resistance exercise in ambulatory and bed-rested individuals, apparently due to muscle-specific differences in protein metabolism. We chose to evaluate the efficacy of using amino acids to elevate protein synthesis in the soleus, because amino acids have been shown to have a potent anabolic effect in the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle protein synthesis in the soleus and vastus lateralis was measured before and after infusion of mixed amino acids in 10 individuals (28 +/- 1 yr). Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K; Thr389) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1; Thr37/46) was also evaluated at rest and after 3 h of amino acid infusion. Basal protein synthesis was similar (P = 0.126), and amino acids stimulated protein synthesis to a similar extent (P = 0.004) in the vastus lateralis (0.043 +/- 0.011%/h) and soleus (0.032 +/- 0.017%/h). Phosphorylation of p70S6K (P = 0.443) and 4E-BP1 (P = 0.192) was not increased in either muscle; however, the soleus contained more total (P = 0.002) and phosphorylated (P = 0.013) 4E-BP1 than the vastus lateralis. These data support the need for further study of amino acid supplementation as a means to compensate for the reduced effectiveness of calf resistance exercise in ambulatory individuals and those exposed to extended periods of unloading. The greater 4E-BP1 in the soleus suggests that there is a muscle-specific distribution of general translational initiation machinery in human skeletal muscle.

  1. Quadriceps Muscle Mechanical Simulator for Training of Vastus Medialis Obliquus and Vastus Lateralis Obliquus Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Irmak, Rafet; Irmak, Ahsen; Biçer, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In classical anatomy quadriceps muscle has four heads. Clinical studies have demostrated 6 heads of this muscle. These heads were demostrated seperately not only by their functional properties,but also by innervation and kinesiological properties. In our previous study we have developed and demostrated electrophysiological properties of vastus medialis obliquus by an electronic patient simulator. The purpose of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator which can be used to demostrate mechanical properties of 6 heads of quadriceps muscle and the screw home mechanism. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscle has 6 heads: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis obliquus, vastus medialis longus, vastus lateralis obliquus and vastus lateralis longus. The fundamental mechanical properties of each head is seperated by insersio and angle of pull. Main design principle was to demostrate all heads with insersio and angle of pull properties. Second design principle was to demostrate the screw-home mechanism which is the result of difference in articular surfaces of medial and lateral of condyles of femur. Results: Final design of the simulator consists of three planes for demostration of angle of pull and pulling forces (patellar plane, proximal and distal planes) of each heads. On each plane channels were graved as origo and insersio for demostration of angle of pull. Distal plane was movable for demostration of pulling forces in different angels of knee flexion and extention. Also proximal plane was adjustable to demostrate different sitting and standing positions. Srew home mechanism was demostrated by specially designed hingle mechanism. Left and right side hingle mechanisms have different radii as femoral condyles and this difference can cause rotation in terminal extension as in the screw home mechanism. Conclusion: Vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis obliquus and screw-home mechanism have clinical significance. We were not able to find

  2. Exploring processing adjuvants’ influence on traditional Chinese medicine compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuming; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Xu, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that when crude Pinelliae rhizome and Pinelliae rhizoma preparatum are combined with Aconiti Radix Cocta respectively, the toxicity of the combination varies. However, the component's transformation between different compatibility have remained unclear. Objective: In this paper, a novel approach using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was established for exploring the influence of processing adjuvants (PAs) on the compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome. Materials and Methods: In order to obtain information about the representative markers between different groups, an exhaustive study of different protocols based on adding or removing different PAs step by step was carried out and the influence of PAs on compatibility was investigated. Results: It was found that lime can facilitate diester diterpenoid alkaloids with high toxicity in Aconiti Radix Cocta to be converted into low-toxic or non-toxic derivatives. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma had no remarkable effect on the process. Conclusion: The established method in this study will be of great significance to process research mechanism and study on traditional Chinese Medicine compatibility and clinical application. PMID:25422550

  3. Ambient echolalia in a patient with germinoma around the bilateral ventriculus lateralis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Itoh, Shouichi; Arai, Noritoshi; Kouno, Masako; Noguchi, Makoto; Takatsu, Masami; Takeda, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ambient echolalia is a rare condition with few reported cases. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a germinoma around the bilateral ventriculus lateralis who exhibited ambient echolalia. Clinical features included instinctive grasp reaction and compulsive manipulation of tools in his right hand. Speech or mental deterioration has been cited as a cause of ambient echolalia, but neither dementia nor aphasia was present. We propose that ambient echolalia in our case could be interpreted as a disinhibition of pre-existing essentially intact motor subroutines due to damage of the medial frontal lobe.

  4. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Arakaki, Juliano Coelho; Bérzin, Fausto

    2006-01-01

    Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d) whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis longus (VLL) and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with) based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9). The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p < 0.0007) and MVIC hip abduction at 0° of abduction for female subjects (p < 0.02196). There were no statistically significant differences in the VLL EMG activity among the three sets of exercises tested. Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity

  5. Genome-wide sequencing of Phytophthora lateralis reveals genetic variation among isolates from Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Lisa; O'Neill, Paul A; Harrison, James; Paskiewicz, Konrad H; McCracken, Alistair R; Cooke, Louise R; Grant, Murray R; Studholme, David J

    2013-07-01

    Phytophthora lateralis is a fungus-like (oomycete) pathogen of trees in the family Cupressaceae, including Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Lawson cypress or Port Orford cedar). Known in North America since the 1920s, presumably having been accidentally introduced from its assumed East Asian centre of origin, until recently, this pathogen has not been identified causing disease in Europe except for a few isolated outbreaks. However, since 2010, there have been several reports of infection of C. lawsoniana by P. lateralis in the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland. We sequenced the genomes of four isolates of P. lateralis from two sites in Northern Ireland in 2011. Comparison with the closely related tree and shrub pathogen P. ramorum (cause of ramorum disease of larch and other species in the UK) shows that P. lateralis shares 91.47% nucleotide sequence identity over the core conserved compartments of the genome. The genomes of the four Northern Ireland isolates are almost identical, but we identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish between isolates, thereby presenting potential molecular markers of use for tracking routes of spread and in epidemiological studies. Our data reveal very low rates of heterozygosity (compared with P. ramorum), consistent with inbreeding within this P. lateralis population.

  6. Assessing phototoxicity of petroleum using the bivalve Mulinia lateralis and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.; Champlin, D.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn-Hines, A.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major inputs of PAHs in the marine environment is petroleum products. A large and often catastrophic source of petroleum is an oil spill, which releases concentrated quantities of PAHs into the water column. Intermediate molecular weight compounds remain in the water column for a relatively extended length of time. These compounds include phototoxic PAHs such as anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and their substituted derivatives. Assessments of the environmental impact of marine oil spills have not included phototoxicity tests using pelagic larvae of benthic invertebrates. In this study, the photoreactive toxicity of individual PAHs, including anthracene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, were determined using the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. Ultraviolet light exposures increased toxicity relative to fluorescent light for both species but a particularly dramatic response was seen using M. lateralis embryos. This species was relatively insensitive when exposed under fluorescent lights, but exhibited up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity under ultraviolet lights. Exposures with different types of petroleum (e.g., fuel oil {number_sign}2 and crude oil) under fluorescent and ultraviolet light will demonstrate the utility of this bivalve and mysid for assessing oil spill-related acute and sublethal toxicity in the marine environment.

  7. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Morgan, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  9. The effect of a vastus lateralis tape on muscle activity during stair climbing.

    PubMed

    McCarthy Persson, U; Fleming, H F; Caulfield, B

    2009-06-01

    Recently taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity have become a part of clinical physiotherapy practice. A firmly applied tape across the fibres of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle has been proposed to decrease the VL muscle activity. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of an inhibitory muscle tape applied over the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during stair climbing. Twenty five subjects without lower limb pathology were recruited. Normalised integrated EMG (IEMG) was analysed from VL, vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), biceps femoris (BF) and soleus muscles during stair climbing. The subjects were assessed during three conditions: no tape (untaped), (no tension) control tape and (tensioned tape) VL inhibitory taping application. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the VL IEMG during the initial stance phase during both stair ascent and descent. The inhibition if the VL muscle occurred with both control and VL inhibitory tape applied. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted in any of the other muscles assessed. The results demonstrated that there was a significant decrease in the IEMG of the VL both during stair ascent and descent with VL inhibitory tape and control tape applied in normal subjects.

  10. Relationship between EMG signals and force in human vastus lateralis muscle using multiple bipolar wire electrodes.

    PubMed

    Onishi, H; Yagi, R; Akasaka, K; Momose, K; Ihashi, K; Handa, Y

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the relationship between knee extension force and EMG signals detected by multiple bipolar wire electrodes inserted into the human vastus lateralis muscle under isometric conditions. Six healthy male volunteers participated in this study. Eight pairs of bipolar wire electrodes were inserted into the right vastus lateralis muscle and the EMG data were simultaneously detected and analyzed. The EMG raw data and individual force-IEMG relations were influenced by the location of the electrode inserted into the muscle. The force and IEMG relationship averaged across subjects detected from the eight electrodes, however, showed almost the same linear correlation in spite of different electrode locations. No linear correlation was observed between MdF and the knee extension force. This result suggests that, if all of the muscle fibers participate in the same action at the same time, the averaged normalized IEMG from any places using wire electrodes could reflect the total activities of that muscle even if the muscle is large.

  11. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the Japanese fireflies Luciola lateralis and Luciola cruciata.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hajime; Yokoyama, Jun; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Kawata, Masakado

    2008-12-01

    Species-specific flash patterns in firefly species are important for the investigation of the evolution of Lampyridae. Since nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is one of the key enzymes controlling flash patterns, we determined the cDNA sequences of NOS in the Japanese fireflies Luciola lateralis and L. cruciata. The identity of the NOS sequences was very high between these 2 species. Firefly NOS also exhibited a high identity with those of other insect species, and the cofactor-binding domains were particularly well conserved. Many negatively selected sites were detected throughout the NOS sequences; however, no positive selection was detected. The phylogenetic relationship of insect NOS was different from that of the general classification system, although the lineages corresponded to the major recognized taxonomic groups.

  12. [Nucleus motorius lateralis in the lumbosacral segment of the spinal cord in horses].

    PubMed

    Flieger, S; Sławomirski, J; Boratyński, Z; Jastrzebski, M

    1984-01-01

    Two medullae oblongatae of horses were cut into 15 microns cross-sections and stained according to the modified method of Nissel. The lateral motor nucleus lies in the lateral and median part of the ventral column of spinal cord grey matter. It adjoins medially nucleus motorius medialis of the spinal ventral column. Cells of this nucleus occur both along the whole lumbar and sacral segment of the spinal cord. In the lateral motor nucleus three cell groups are distinguished-median, basal and lateral. The latter is divided in some segments into subgroups-dorsal and ventral. Along the nucleus quite numerous constrictions and intervals are found, which are caused by various numbers of cells in particular cross-sections. Nucleus motorius lateralis is formed mainly of large and medium multipolar or single spindle cells.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the molting gland (Y-organ) from the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sunetra; Pitts, Natalie L; Mudron, Megan R; Durica, David S; Mykles, Donald L

    2016-03-01

    In decapod crustaceans, arthropod steroid hormones or ecdysteroids regulate molting. These hormones are synthesized and released from a pair of molting glands called the Y-organs (YO). Cyclic nucleotide, mTOR, and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways mediate molt cycle-dependent phase transitions in the YO. To further identify the genes involved in the regulation of molting, a YO transcriptome was generated from three biological replicates of intermolt blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries generated 227,811,829 100-base pair (bp) paired-end reads; following trimming, 90% of the reads were used for further analyses. The trimmed reads were assembled de novo using Trinity software to generate 288,673 contigs with a mean length of 872 bp and a median length of 1842 bp. Redundancy among contig sequences was reduced by CD-HIT-EST, and the output constituted the baseline transcriptome database. Using Bowtie2, 92% to 93% of the reads were mapped back to the transcriptome. Individual contigs were annotated using BLAST, HMMER, TMHMM, SignalP, and Trinotate, resulting in assignments of 20% of the contigs. Functional and pathway annotations were carried out via gene ontology (GO) and KEGG orthology (KO) analyses; 58% and 44% of the contigs with BLASTx hits were assigned to GO and KO terms, respectively. The gene expression profile was similar to a crayfish YO transcriptome database, and the relative abundance of each contig was highly correlated among the three G. lateralis replicates. Signal transduction pathway orthologs were well represented, including those in the mTOR, TGFβ, cyclic nucleotide, MAP kinase, calcium, VEGF, phosphatidylinositol, ErbB, Wnt, Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, and Notch pathways.

  14. Changes in sarcomere lengths of the human vastus lateralis muscle with knee flexion measured using in vivo microendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuefeng; Sanchez, Gabriel N; Schnitzer, Mark J; Delp, Scott L

    2016-09-06

    Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units of muscle, and their lengths influence muscle force-generating capacity. Despite their importance, in vivo sarcomere lengths remain unknown for many human muscles. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique for imaging sarcomeres in vivo and measuring their lengths. In this study, we used SHG microendoscopy to visualize sarcomeres of the human vastus lateralis, a large knee extensor muscle important for mobility, to examine how sarcomere lengths change with knee flexion and thus affect the muscle׳s force-generating capacity. We acquired in vivo sarcomere images of several muscle fibers of the resting vastus lateralis in six healthy individuals. Mean sarcomere lengths increased (p=0.031) from 2.84±0.16μm at 50° of knee flexion to 3.17±0.13μm at 110° of knee flexion. The standard deviation of sarcomere lengths among different fibers within a muscle was 0.21±0.09μm. Our results suggest that the sarcomeres of the resting vastus lateralis at 50° of knee flexion are near optimal length. At a knee flexion angle of 110° the resting sarcomeres of vastus lateralis are longer than optimal length. These results show a smaller sarcomere length change and greater conservation of force-generating capacity with knee flexion than estimated in previous studies.

  15. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  16. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  17. Comparison of oscillations of skin blood flow and deoxygenation in vastus lateralis in light exercise.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Lian, C-S; Afroundeh, R; Shirakawa, K; Yunoki, T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare oscillation of skin blood flow with that of deoxygenation in muscle during light exercise in order to determine the physiological significance of oscillations in deoxygenation. Prolonged exercise with 50% of peak oxygen uptake was performed for 60 min. Skin blood flow (SBF) was measured using a laser blood flow meter on the right vastus lateralis muscle. Deoxygenated haemoglobin/myoglobin (DHb/Mb) concentration in the left vastus lateralis were measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. SBF and DHb/Mb during exercise were analysed by fast Fourier transform. We classified frequency bands according to previous studies (Kvernmo et al. 1999, Kvandal et al. 2006) into phase I (0.005-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz), phase II (0.02-0.06 Hz: phase II) and phase III (0.06-0.16 Hz). The first peak of power spectra density (PSD) in SBF appeared at 0.0078 Hz in phase I. The second peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.035 Hz. The third peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.078 Hz. The first peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.0039 Hz, which was out of phase I. The second peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.016 Hz. The third peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.035 Hz. The coefficient of cross correlation was very low. Cross power spectra density showed peaks of 0.0039, 0.016 and 0.035 Hz. It is concluded that a peak of 0.016 Hz in oscillations of DHb/Mb observed in muscle during exercise is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation (phase I) and that a peak of 0.035 Hz in DHb/Mb is associated with sympathetic nerve activity (phase II). It is also confirmed that each peak of SBF oscillations is observed in each phase.

  18. Respiratory muscle endurance, oxygen saturation index in vastus lateralis and performance during heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ferid; Boone, Jan; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between respiratory muscle endurance, tissue oxygen saturation index dynamics of leg muscle (TSI) and the time to exhaustion (TTE) during high intensity exercise. Eleven males performed a respiratory muscle endurance test, a maximal incremental running field test (8 km h(-1)+0.5 km h(-1) each 60s) and a high-intensity constant speed field test at 90% VO2max. The TSI in vastus lateralis was monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. The TSI remained steady between 20 and 80% of TTE. Between 80 and 100% of TTE (7.5 ± 6.1%, p<0.05), a significant drop in TSI concomitant with a minute ventilation increase (16 ± 10 l min(-1)) was observed. Moreover, the increase of ventilation was correlated to the drop in TSI (r=0.70, p<0.05). Additionally, respiratory muscle endurance was significantly correlated to TSI time plateau (20-80% TTE) (r=0.83, p<0.05) and to TTE (r=0.95, p<0.001). The results of the present study show that the tissue oxygen saturation plateau might be affected by ventilatory work and that respiratory muscle endurance could be considered as a determinant of performance during heavy exercise.

  19. Limitations of respiratory muscle and vastus lateralis blood flow during continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William R; Guenette, Jordan A; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald E G; Querido, Jordan S; Boushel, Robert; Sheel, A William

    2012-05-31

    Measurement of regional blood flow to the respiratory muscles has traditionally been invasive. The blood flow index (BFI), a minimally invasive method using indocyanine green dye (ICG) and near infrared spectroscopy, allows assessment of within subject changes in regional blood flow. This study assessed regional BFI to the vastus lateralis muscle (QBFI) and the superficial respiratory muscles in the seventh intercostal space (RMBFI). Eight healthy subjects cycled continuously at incrementally more difficulty stages to exhaustion. In our subjects, QBFI declined between 83% and 100% of maximal exertion (p=0.002) and no statistically significant changes in RMBFI were seen despite steadily increasing ventilatory workloads. Post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrated that QBFI at 83% work (0.015μmoless(-1)±0.005) was significantly higher than at maximum work output (0.011μmoless(-1)±0.004, p=0.007). There were no other significant differences of QBFI between maximum work output and different levels of work. The current study suggests that respiratory and locomotor muscle blood flow during sub-maximal and maximal exertion is unable to match increasing workloads.

  20. Leaf Barriers to Fungal Colonization and Shredders (Tipula lateralis) Consumption of Decomposing Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Canhoto; Graça

    1999-04-01

    > Abstract Herein we assess the importance of leaf cuticle, polyphenolic, and essential oils contents of Eucalyptus globulus leaves to hyphomycete colonization and shredder consumption. Optical and electron microscopy revealed that, at least during the first 5 weeks of conditioning, the cuticle remains virtually intact. Stomata provide the main access for hyphae to internal leaf tissues and, eventually, for spore release. We suggest that in E. globulus leaves, fungal decomposition progresses predominantly in and from the eucalyptus leaf mesophyll to the outside. Malt extract agar media supplemented with either eucalyptus essential oils or tannic acid completely inhibited (Articulospora tetracladia, Lemonniera aquatica, and Tricladium gracile) or depressed (Heliscus lugdunensis, Lunulospora curvula, and Tricladium angulatum) aquatic hyphomycetes growth. The transference of both secondary compounds to alder leaves induced similar and significant reduction in Tipula lateralis larval consumption. Results consistently indicate that eucalyptus oils are stronger deterrents than polyphenols. The waxy cuticle of E. globulus appears to be a key physical factor delaying fungal colonization during decomposition. We hypothesize that the relative influence of leaf phenols and essential oils to aquatic hyphomycetes and shredders may be related to three main factors: (a) initial distribution of such compounds in the leaves; (b) possibility of their decrease through decomposition; and (c) consumption strategies of detritivores.

  1. Histochemical and morphometric study of the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle in the horse.

    PubMed

    López-Plana, C; Sautet, J Y; Ruberte, J; Sabaté, D

    1994-01-01

    Histochemical and morphometric parameters of the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle of the horse are presented. Using myosin ATPase staining after acid preincubation, 3 fibre types (I, IIA and IIC) were identified. Using NADH-TR staining, type I fibres showed high oxidative capacity, whereas type II fibres had high or low oxidative capacity. The type I to type II ratio was of 35:65. This ratio remained constant in the age range examined. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) differences were found in values for fibre size between groups of horses weighing more than 500 kg and less than 400 kg. Mean area of type II fibres was greater (p < 0.001) than that of type I fibres. There were no significant differences in mean area between left and right muscles in the group of animals with less weight. In contrast, significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean area between left and right muscles were found for type I fibres in the group of animals exhibiting a higher weight. The histographical distribution of fibre type areas was unimodal. Most adult horses showed muscle fibre type grouping in the left muscle.

  2. Proteomic investigation of changes in human vastus lateralis muscle in response to interval-exercise training.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kathryn V; O'Gorman, Martin; Woods, Paul; Morton, James P; Evans, Louise; Cable, Nigel T; Goldspink, David F; Burniston, Jatin G

    2009-11-01

    No previous study has used proteomics to investigate the effects of exercise training on human skeletal muscle. Five recreationally active men completed a 6-wk training programme involving three sessions per week, utilising six 1-min bouts at maximum oxygen uptake (V O(2)max) interspersed with 4 min at 50% V O(2)max. Vastus lateralis was biopsied at standardised times before and after the training intervention. Protein expression profiling was performed using differential analysis of 2-DE gels; complemented with quantitative analysis (iTRAQ) of tryptic peptides from 1-DE gel lane-segments using LC-MALDI MS/MS. Interval training increased average V O(2)max (7%; p<0.001) and was associated with greater expression of mitochondrial components, including succinate dehydrogenase, trifunctional protein-alpha and ATP synthase alpha- and beta-chains. 2-DE resolved 256 spots, and paired t-tests identified 20 significant differences in expression (false discovery rate <10%). Each differentially expressed gene product was present as multiple isoelectric species. Therefore, the differences in spot expression represent changes in post-transcriptional or post-translational processing. In particular, modulation of muscle creatine kinase and troponin T were prominent. Pro-Q Diamond staining revealed these changes in expression were associated with phosphorylated protein species, which provides novel information regarding muscle adaptation to interval training.

  3. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  4. Influence of angular velocity on vastus lateralis and rectus femoris oxygenation dynamics during knee extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Denis, Romain; Wilkinson, Jennifer; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in angular velocity would alter vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) oxygenation status during maximal isokinetic knee extension exercises. Eleven recreationally active male participants randomly performed ten maximal knee extensions at 30, 60, 120 and 240° s(-1). Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) were acquired from the VL and RF muscles by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) was recorded throughout the tests. Peak torque and VO(2p) significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). Interestingly, RF and VL TOI significantly increased as a function of velocity (P<0·05), whereas [tHb] significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). A greater number of muscle fibre recruited at slow velocity, where the torque and VO(2p) were the highest, might explain the lower VL and RF TOI observed herein. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [tHb] changes) during isokinetic knee extension exercises performed at slow angular velocity might have been induced by a higher intramuscular pressure during the contraction phases as well as a greater microcirculatory vasodilatation during relaxation phases. Implementing slow-velocity isokinetic exercises in rehabilitation or other training programmes could delay the short-term anoxia generated by such exercises and result in muscle metabolism enhancement.

  5. Effect of eccentric contraction on satellite cell activation in human vastus lateralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Yoko; Kawai, Minako; Mori, Futoshi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    We compared the time-course of satellite cell (SC) activation between eccentric and concentric contractions in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle after step exercise. Young adults participated in a 30-min step up/down exercise which mainly involved concentric contractions with the right VL muscle and eccentric contractions with the left VL muscle. The concentric and eccentric contraction phases of the VL muscles were identified by changes in the electromyogram (EMG) and knee joint angle. Biopsy samples were taken from both VL muscles at three time periods: before the exercise and 2 and 5 days after the exercise. We found that the numbers of SCs were significantly increased in the type IIa fibers of the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise. The expression of both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) mRNA had significantly increased in the left VL at 2 and 5 days after the exercise and in the right VL at 5 days after the exercise. The expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1 mRNA also increased in the left VL at 2 days after exercise. These results indicate that eccentric contraction can effectively activate SC proliferation for up to 5 days after exercise. Similar changes in HGF, MyoD and TRPC1 mRNA expression suggest that HGF/c-Met signal activation through cation influx has a major impact on skeletal muscle SC activation in response to eccentric exercise.

  6. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture.

  7. Regional Surface Electromyography of the Vastus Lateralis During Strength and Power Exercises.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Stucchi, Diana T; DeMartini, Julie K; Roti, Melissa W

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular activation during and chronic adaptation from exercise are innately linked and both can vary along a muscle's length. During high-force and high-speed exercise, intramuscular hypertrophy follows set patterns that provide the greatest biomechanical advantages. However, it is unknown if muscle activity as recorded by surface electromyography (sEMG) will follow these patterns. The purpose of the present study was to compare vastus lateralis intramuscular sEMG during the heavy squat (HS) and unloaded jump squat (JS) exercises. Ten subjects performed HS with 80% of maximum load and unloaded JS to parallel-depth, while intramuscular peak sEMG and mean sEMG were measured at 33% (proximal), 50% (middle), and 67% (distal) thigh length. Muscle activity was compared between regions and exercises using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferoni post hoc corrections. Peak sEMG was greater proximally in JS than HS (p = 0.033), but similar in the middle and distal regions (p = 0.521, 0.594, respectively), whereas mean sEMG was similar between all regions (p = 0.150-0.979). In addition, a main effect was found in which peak and mean sEMG were greater proximally than the middle and distal regions (p = 0.001, 0.006). Muscle activity measured using sEMG displayed dissimilar patterns to previously observed regional hypertrophy. Specifically, although previous research found greater proximal hypertrophy in JS than HS, in the present study peak sEMG was greater in HS than JS. Furthermore, distally where HS elicited greater hypertrophy than JS, no differences in sEMG were present. Thus, regional sEMG appears not to be a viable tool for predicting differences in regional hypertrophy, most likely due to technological constraints and intramuscular differences in muscle structure.

  8. [Expression of thermostable recombiant Luciola lateralis luciferase and development of heat-stable pyrosequencing system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Zou, Bingjie; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Guohua

    2012-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a tool based on bioluminescence reaction for real-time analyzing DNA sequences. The sensitivity of pyrosequencing mainly depends on luciferase in reaction mixture. However, the instability of pyrosequencing reagents caused by fragile wild Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL) in conventional pyrosequencing usually leads to unsatisfied results, which limits the application of pyrosequencing. In order to improve the stability of pyrosequencing reagents, the coding sequences of mutant thermostable Luciola lateralis luciferase (rt-LlL) was synthesized, and inserted into the plasmid of pET28a(+) to express the thermostable rt-LlL with a 6 x His-tag in the N terminal. The purified rt-LlL with the molecular mass of 60 kDa was obtained by Ni-affinity chromatography. The specific activity of rt-LlL was determined as 4.29 x 10(10) RLU/mg. Moreover, the thermostability of rt-LlL was investigated, and the results showed that rt-LlL had activity at 50 degrees C, and remained 90% of activity after incubated at 40 degrees C for 25 min. Finally, rt-LlL was used to substitute commercial Photinus pyralis luciferase in conventional pyrosequencing reagent to get thermostable pyrosequencing reagent. Comparing with conventional pyrosequencing reagent, the thermostable pyrosequencing reagent is more stable, and it's activity would not lose when incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. This study laid foundation of establishing reliable and stable pyrosequencing system which would be applied in Point-of-Care Testing.

  9. Measuring mechanical properties of the vastus lateralis tendon-aponeurosis complex in vivo by ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Hansen, P; Aagaard, P; Kjaer, M; Magnusson, S P

    2003-08-01

    The mechanical properties of the human vastus lateralis (VL) tendon-aponeurosis complex were investigated in eight male subjects. Knee extensor force, knee joint angle, and corresponding longitudinal VL aponeurosis displacement were monitored synchronously during graded (10-s) maximal isometric knee extension contractions. Displacement observed during isometric conditions may be regarded as an expression of deformation in the tissues distal to the measurement site. Furthermore, aponeurosis displacement was measured during passive knee extension (90-75 degrees degrees ), and used to correct displacement values obtained during active contraction for joint angular motion. The passive trial yielded a highly linear relationship between aponeurosis displacement and joint angular motion (r2 = 0.998 +/- 0.002) with a mean correction factor of 0.41 +/- 0.10 mm/degree. Maximal knee extensor force was 5834 +/- 1341 N with a corresponding VL aponeurosis displacement of 12.7 +/- 2.5 mm, while correcting for joint angular motion reduced maximal displacement approximately 9% (to 11.6 +/- 2.5 mm, P < 0.005) (data presented as means +/- SD). Two separate graded contraction trials were performed, and no between-trial differences were observed in either maximal force or maximal displacement. Between trial coefficient of determination and CV for maximal force and maximal displacement were r2 = 0.97, CV = 2.9% and r2 = 0.92, CV = 4.6%, respectively, indicating intra-day reproducibility of measurements. These data demonstrate that when applying the newly established ultrasound-based method of investigating quadriceps connective tissue mechanical properties, maximal isometric contraction is inevitably associated with some joint angular motion that significantly influences the calculations.

  10. Strain and elongation of the vastus lateralis aponeurosis and tendon in vivo during maximal isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Stafilidis, Savvas; Karamanidis, Kiros; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Demonte, Gianpiero; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2005-06-01

    The strain and elongation of the vastus lateralis (VL) tendon, tendon plus aponeurosis, and aponeurosis were examined during maximal voluntary contractions on a Biodex-dynamometer (knee angle 115 degrees , hip angle 140 degrees ) in 12 sprinters. Following a warm-up phase, the subjects were instructed to perform a gradual maximal knee extension and hold it for about 3 s. The kinematics of the leg were recorded using a Vicon 512 system with eight cameras operating at 120 Hz. Ultrasonography images were taken simultaneously from the VL myotendinous junction and the mid lateral part of the VL muscle belly. During the maximal isometric knee extensions, the knee joint rotated (13.6+/-5.9 degrees ), leading to an overestimation of the elongation of the tendinous tissues. After correcting for this, the maximal elongation of the VL tendon examined at the myotendinous junction was lower (P<0.05) than the maximal elongation of the VL tendon plus aponeurosis examined at the muscle belly (15 vs. 27 mm, respectively). The maximal estimated strains of the tendon, tendon plus aponeurosis, and aponeurosis showed no statistical differences (8+/-2%, 8+/-1%, and 7+/-2%, respectively, P>0.05). It is concluded that the strains of the human VL tendon, VL tendon plus aponeurosis, and VL aponeurosis, as estimated in vivo by two dimensional ultrasound during maximal isometric contractions, do not differ from each other. The displacement measured at a cross point in the VL muscle belly is significantly greater than that measured at the VL myotendinous junction.

  11. The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects.

    PubMed

    Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P

    2005-12-01

    Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal

  12. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in firing rates among motor units with different recruitment thresholds at each force level in the young (p < 0.05) but not in the elderly (p > 0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at <20 % of MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p < 0.0001) but not in the young (r = 0.127, p > 0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  13. A refined technique for sciatic denervation in a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) model of disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sarukhanov, Valeri; Van Andel, Roger; Treat, Michael D; Utz, Jenifer C; van Breukelen, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of both muscle and bone can occur rapidly during periods of inactivity. In several rodent models developed for the study of disuse atrophy, immobilization is induced by prolonged cage restraint, hind limb unloading, tenotomy, sciatic nerve block or sciatic denervation. In less tractable species such as wild-caught hibernating rodents, the sciatic denervation model is superior in terms of both animal welfare and applicability to the characteristics of natural cases of disuse atrophy. The authors describe a refined surgical approach to sciatic denervation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), a hibernating species, that improves animal welfare and reduces the incidence of post-operative complications such as autotomy.

  14. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Defects Using a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap including the Vastus Lateralis Muscle: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Masaki; Ishiyama, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of abdominal wall reconstruction is to prevent hernias and protect the abdominal viscera. In cases involving full-thickness defects of the rectus abdominis muscle, the muscle layer should be repaired. We present 2 cases in which full-thickness lower rectus abdominis muscle defects were reconstructed using vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flaps. The pedicled vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flap provides skin, fascia, and muscle tissue. Furthermore, it has a long neurovascular pedicle and can reach up to the periumbilical area and cover large defects. We consider that this muscle flap is a good option for repairing full-thickness lower abdominal defects. PMID:28074168

  15. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. VI. Lesions of the nucleus lateralis anterior.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral lesions of the nucleus lateralis anterior thalami (LA) did not change sensory or motor functions of hooded rats. Postoperative retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) preoperatively learnt in a jumping test, was decreased insignificantly, relearning slowed somewhat down, the variance of individual reaction times (CAR latencies) increased. Postoperative acquisition of CAR revealed some uncertainty and delay, but criterion was reached. Preoperative experience influenced the type of errors in a discrimination task (go/no go): After preoperative acquisition of CAR go-responses, after postoperative acquisition of CAR no-go-responses dominated. In these experiments the memory processes may be influenced by changes of some limbic regulatory processes in which LA plays a role.

  16. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  17. Bioluminescence of a firefly pupa: involvement of a luciferase isotype in the dim glow of pupae and eggs in the Japanese firefly, Luciola lateralis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Furuhashi, Mana; Bessho, Manabu; Sagawa, Shingo; Ikeya, Haruyoshi; Inouye, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    We isolated cDNA for a luciferase isotype, LlLuc2, from the ovary of the Japanese firefly, Luciola lateralis. The gene product LlLuc2 showed 59% amino acid identity with LlLuc1, which had been isolated from the adult L. lateralis lantern. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that LlLuc2 is an orthologue of LcLuc2 from Luciola cruciata. The spectral maxima of the luminescence by recombinant LlLuc1 and LlLuc2 were 550 and 539 nm, respectively. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LlLuc1 was expressed predominantly in larvae and adults, and LlLuc2 was expressed in eggs and pupae, which glow dimly, and we found that the in vivo luminescence spectra of the egg and pupa in L. lateralis were in good agreement with the in vitro luminescence spectrum by LlLuc2. These results suggest that, in L. lateralis, LlLuc1 is responsible for the yellowish luminescence of larval and adult lanterns, and LlLuc2 is responsible for the dim, greenish glow of eggs and whole pupae. Similar results were obtained in L. cruciata.

  18. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  19. Does Ecophysiology Determine Invasion Success? A Comparison between the Invasive Boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis and the Native Sigara lateralis (Hemiptera, Corixidae) in South-West Spain

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, Cristina; Calosi, Piero; Boyero, Luz; Green, Andy J.; Bilton, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis, a native of North America, is the only alien corixid identified in Europe. First detected in 1997 in southern Portugal, it has spread into south-west Spain including Doñana National Park. Its impact on native taxa in the same area is unclear, but it is the dominant species in several permanent, saline wetlands. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated whether the ecophysiology of this alien species favours its spread in the Iberian Peninsula and its relative success in saline areas. We compared physiological responses to heating (Critical Thermal maximum), cooling (Critical Thermal minimum) and freezing (Super Cooling Point) in the native Sigara lateralis and introduced T. v. verticalis acclimated to different temperatures and salinities. The larger S. lateralis generally outperformed T. v. verticalis and appeared to possess a broader thermal tolerance range. In both taxa, CTmax was highest in animals exposed to a combination of high conductivities and relatively low acclimation temperatures. However, CTmax was generally higher in T. v. verticalis and lower in S. lateralis when acclimated at higher temperatures. CTmin were lower (greater tolerance to cold) after acclimation to high conductivities in T. v. verticalis, and following acclimation to low conductivities in S. lateralis. Both acclimation temperature and conductivity influenced corixids' freezing tolerance; however, only in T. v. verticalis did SCP decrease after exposure to both high temperature and conductivity. T. v. verticalis showed a higher range of mean responses over all treatments. Conclusions Whilst the native S. lateralis may have a broader thermal range, the alien species performs particularly well at higher salinities and temperatures and this ability may facilitate its invasion in Mediterranean areas. The greater plasticity of T. v. verticalis may further facilitate its spread in the future, as it may be more able to respond to climate

  20. Subdivisions of the Auditory Midbrain (N. Mesencephalicus Lateralis, pars dorsalis) in Zebra Finches Using Calcium-Binding Protein Immunocytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Logerot, Priscilla; Krützfeldt, Nils O. E.; Wild, J. Martin; Kubke, M. Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I) and outer (MLd.O). MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches. PMID:21701681

  1. Geographically pervasive effects of urban noise on frequency and syllable rate of songs and calls in silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A.; Parris, Kirsten M.; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in the Northern Hemisphere have shown that songbirds living in noisy urban environments sing at higher frequencies than their rural counterparts. However, several aspects of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. These include the geographical scale over which such patterns occur (most studies have compared local populations), and whether they involve phenotypic plasticity or microevolutionary change. We conducted a field study of silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) vocalizations over more than 1 million km2 of urban and rural south-eastern Australia, and compared possible effects of urban noise on songs (which are learned) and contact calls (which are innate). Across 14 paired urban and rural populations, silvereyes consistently sang both songs and contact calls at higher frequencies in urban environments. Syllable rate (syllables per second) decreased in urban environments, consistent with the hypothesis that reflective structures degrade song and encourage longer intervals between syllables. This comprehensive study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate varied adaptations of urban bird vocalizations over a vast geographical area, and to provide insight into the mechanism responsible for these changes. PMID:21208948

  2. Temporal germ cell development strategy during spermatogenesis within the testis of the Ground Skink, Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Rheubert, J L; McHugh, H H; Collier, M H; Sever, D M; Gribbins, K M

    2009-07-01

    Ground Skink (Scincella lateralis) testes were examined histologically to determine the testicular organization and germ cell development strategy employed during spermatogenesis. Testicular tissues were collected from 19 ground skinks from Aiken County, South Carolina during the months of March-June, August, and October. The testes consisted of seminiferous tubules lined with germinal epithelia in which germ cells matured in close association with Sertoli cells. As germ cells matured, they migrated away from the basal lamina of the epithelia towards the lumina of the seminiferous tubules. The testes were spermatogenically active during the months of March, April, May, June, and October (largest seminiferous tubule diameters and epithelial heights), but entered a quiescent period in August (smallest seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height) where only spermatogonia type A and B and early spermatocytes were present in low numbers within the seminiferous epithelium. Although the testicular organization was similar to other amniotes, a temporal germ cell development strategy was employed during spermatogenesis within Ground Skinks, similar to that of anamniotes. Thus, this skink's germ cell development strategy, which also has been recently reported in all other major reptilian clades, may represent an evolutionary intermediate in terms of testicular organization between anamniotes and birds and mammals.

  3. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injuries☆

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Schäfer, Gabriel Santo; de Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo; Vituri, Rogério Fonseca; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze strength and integrated electromyography (IEMG) data in order to determine the neuromuscular efficiency (NME) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, during the preoperative and postoperative periods; and to compare the injured limb at these two times, using the non-operated limb as a control. Methods EMG data and BF and VL strength data were collected during three maximum isometric contractions in knee flexion and extension movements. The assessment protocol was applied before the operation and two months after the operation, and the NME of the BF and VL muscles was obtained. Results There was no difference in the NME of the VL muscle from before to after the operation. On the other hand, the NME of the BF in the non-operated limb was found to have increased, two months after the surgery. Conclusions The NME provides a good estimate of muscle function because it is directly related to muscle strength and capacity for activation. However, the results indicated that two months after the ACL reconstruction procedure, at the time when loading in the open kinetic chain within rehabilitation protocols is usually started, the neuromuscular efficiency of the VL and BF had still not been reestablished. PMID:26229914

  4. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of vastus medialis obliquus relative to vastus lateralis in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, L; Merlo, A; Orlandi, F; Campanini, I

    2010-07-01

    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal complaint. The presence of a delay between vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle onset has been suggested in the literature as a possible cause of PFPS, with poor agreement amongst authors on the value of the delay. In this study we computed the delay in the activation of VMO and VL in 15 PFPS patients and 20 age-matched controls (Ctrls) during the following tasks: sit to stand, stand to sit, squat, step up and step down. Activation instants were detected from surface EMG data by a double-threshold statistical detector. In order to compare the muscle activity throughout the task, we computed the delay between the instants in which the VMO and VL normalised envelopes reached subsequent normalised amplitude levels, until the envelope peak. In all investigated tasks but sit to stand, the onset delay was lower or equal then 0.02s, without group differences. Similarly, no differences between Ctrls and PFPS timing were found throughout all tasks, until the peak. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an onset delay between VMO and VL can be one of the causes of PFPS.

  5. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  6. Effects of submaximal and maximal long-lasting contractions on the compliance of vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Anne Charlotte; Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2009-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of submaximal sustained and maximal repetitive contractions on the compliance of human vastus lateralis (VL) tendon and aponeurosis in vivo using two different fatiguing protocols. Twelve male subjects performed three maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors before and after two fatiguing protocols on a dynamometer. The first fatiguing protocol consisted of a long-lasting sustained isometric knee extension contraction at 25% MVC until failure (inability to hold the defined load). The second fatiguing protocol included long-lasting isokinetic (90 degrees/s) knee extension contractions, where maximum moment was exerted and failure was proclaimed when this value fell below 70% of unfatigued maximum isokinetic moment. Ultrasonography was used to determine the elongation and strain of the VL tendon and aponeurosis. Muscle fatigue was indicated by a significant decrease in maximum resultant knee extension moment (p<0.05) observed during the MVCs after both long-lasting contractions. No significant (p>0.05) differences in elongation and strain of the VL tendon and aponeurosis were found, when compared every 300 N (tendon force) before and after the fatiguing protocols. The present data indicate, that the VL tendon and aponeurosis in vivo do not suffer from changes in the compliance neither after long-lasting static mechanical loading (strain approximately 3.2%) nor after long-lasting cyclic mechanical loading (strain 6.2-5.5%).

  7. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-kyung; Park, So-mi; Yun, Sae-bom; Lee, Ae-ran; Lee, Yun-seob; Yong, Min-sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  8. Fibre Size and Capillary Supply in Human M.vastus Lateralis after Long-Duration Spaceflight: Effects of Countermeasure Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenkman, Boris S.; Stepantsov, Victor I.; Cheglova, Irina A.; Kulev, Alexander P.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana L.

    1996-01-01

    Muscle fiber atrophy is shown to be induced in human m.vastus lateralis even during short duration spaceflight. A study carried out to evaluate the effects of long duration spaceflight on human skeletal muscle fiber characteristics is reported on. Muscle fiber size and capillary supply were measured in samples obtained from the m.vastus lateralis of astronauts before and after a long duration flight. Most of the astronauts performed more than 80 percent of the recommended exercise training loads in terms of volume and intensity. Very slight fiber changes were found in fiber size and muscle capillary supply indices. It is concluded that the main factor which maintained fiber characteristics in the astronauts was the exercise measures taken by them.

  9. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Park, So-Mi; Yun, Sae-Bom; Lee, Ae-Ran; Lee, Yun-Seob; Yong, Min-Sik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  10. [The involvement of thalamic nuclei in the formation of conditional avoidance reflexes in rats. I. Lesions in the anterior part of the nucleus ventralis lateralis].

    PubMed

    Hohrein, D; Klingberg, F

    1978-01-01

    Hooded rats (Long-Evans-strain) were not able to elaborate conditioned avoidance responses in a simple runway respectively in a jumping test after bilateral lesions of the anterior part of the nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami. When the number of the CS-US-combinations was increased from 10 to 25 per session, then during the last ten combinations the punishing electrical foot shocks were correctly avoided, but the animals showed no retention in their long-term memory.

  11. Pyrotag Sequencing of the Gut Microbiota of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis Reveals a Highly Dynamic Core but Only Limited Effects of Diet on Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Although blattid cockroaches and termites share a common ancestor, their diets are distinctly different. While termites consume a highly specialized diet of lignocellulose, cockroaches are omnivorous and opportunistic feeders. The role of the termite gut microbiota has been studied intensively, but little is known about the cockroach gut microbiota and its function in digestion and nutrition, particularly the adaptation to different diets. Our analyses of the bacterial gut microbiota of the blattid cockroach Shelfordella lateralis combining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of their 16S rRNA genes with physiological parameters (microbial metabolites, hydrogen and methane emission) indicated substantial variation between individuals but failed to identify any diet-related response. Subsequent deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the colonic gut microbiota of S. lateralis fed either a high- or a low-fiber diet confirmed the absence of bacterial taxa that responded to diet. Instead, we found a small number of abundant phylotypes that were consistently present in all samples and made up half of the community in both diet groups. They varied strongly in abundance between individual samples at the genus but not at the family level. The remaining phylotypes were inconsistently present among replicate batches. Our findings suggest that S. lateralis harbors a highly dynamic core gut microbiota that is maintained even after fundamental dietary shifts, and that any dietary effects on the gut community are likely to be masked by strong individual variations. PMID:24454939

  12. Muscle plasticity in hibernating ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) is induced by seasonal, but not low-temperature, mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Megan M; Choi, Hyung; Rourke, Bryan C

    2011-01-01

    During hibernation, ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) show unusually altered expression of skeletal muscle myosin heavy-chains. Some muscle groups show transitions from fast to slower myosin isoforms despite atrophy, which are not predicted from other mammalian studies of inactivity. We measure myosin protein and mRNA expression, and the mRNA expression of genes important in atrophy and metabolism in a time-course of muscle plasticity prior to, and during extended hibernation. We also investigate the role of strictly low-temperature processes by comparing torpid individuals at 20 and 4°C. Shifts in myosin isoform expression happen at both temperatures, before the onset of torpor, or within the first month of torpor, in all muscles demonstrating isoform remodeling. Skeletal muscle atrophy is greatly attenuated in this hibernating species, and even may be absent in some muscles. When present, atrophy develops early in hibernation, and does not progress in the final 3 months of torpor. Myostatin mRNA is down-regulated 50-75% in the soleus and diaphragm, two important muscles that are spared of atrophy. The transcription factor FOXO1, which spurs proteolytic degradation of contractile proteins through regulation of the ubiquitin ligase MAFbx, is also generally down-regulated, and may contribute to reduced atrophy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) mRNA expression was reduced 50% in some muscles, while elevated more than 300% in others. Our collective findings most strongly support early, seasonal, phenotype changes in skeletal muscles which are not uniquely confined to, or prompted by, torpor at 4°C. Such seasonal control of myosin would be a novel mechanism in mammalian skeletal muscle, which otherwise is most susceptible to mechanical loading and limb-activity patterns.

  13. Testing the role of meander cutoff in promoting gene flow across a riverine barrier in ground skinks (Scincella lateralis).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nathan D; Austin, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC) is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river's diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis) separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1) individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2) individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3) immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4) the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers.

  14. Testing the Role of Meander Cutoff in Promoting Gene Flow across a Riverine Barrier in Ground Skinks (Scincella lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Nathan D.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC) is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river’s diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis) separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1) individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2) individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3) immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4) the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers. PMID:23658778

  15. Historical habitat barriers prevent ring-like genetic continuity throughout the distribution of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Swaim, Karen; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequences to examine the mixed effects of geophysical, habitat, and contemporary urban barriers on the genetics of threatened Alameda Striped Racers (Coluber lateralis euryxanthus), a species with close ties to declining coastal scrub and chaparral habitat in the eastern San Francisco Bay area of California. We used cluster assignments to characterize population genetic structuring with respect to land management units and approximate Bayesian analysis to rank the ability of five alternative evolutionary hypotheses to explain the inferred structure. Then, we estimated rates of contemporary and historical migration among the major clusters and measured the fit of different historical migration models to better understand the formation of the current population structure. Our results reveal a ring-like pattern of historical connectivity around the Tri-Valley area of the East Bay (i.e., San Ramon, Amador, and Livermore valleys), with clusters largely corresponding to different management units. We found no evidence of continuous gene flow throughout the ring, however, and that the main gap in continuity is centered across the Livermore Valley. Historical migration models support higher rates of gene flow away from the terminal ends of the ring on the north and south sides of the Valley, compared with rates into those areas from western sites that border the interior San Francisco Bay. We attribute the break in ring-like connectivity to the presence of unsuitable habitat within the Livermore Valley that has been reinforced by 20th century urbanization, and the asymmetry in gene flow rates to spatial constraints on movement and east–west environmental gradients influenced by the proximity of the San Francisco Bay.

  16. Dynamic reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects using free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability.

  17. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1998-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  18. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1997-12-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  19. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Activity in the Back Squat and Barbell Hip Thrust Exercises.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-12-01

    The back squat and barbell hip thrust are both popular exercises used to target the lower body musculature; however, these exercises have yet to be compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis between the back squat and barbell hip thrust. Thirteen trained women (n = 13; age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; mass = 58.2 kg) performed estimated 10-repetition maximums (RM) in the back squat and barbell hip thrust. The barbell hip thrust elicited significantly greater mean (69.5% vs 29.4%) and peak (172% vs 84.9%) upper gluteus maximus, mean (86.8% vs 45.4%) and peak (216% vs 130%) lower gluteus maximus, and mean (40.8% vs 14.9%) and peak (86.9% vs 37.5%) biceps femoris EMG activity than the back squat. There were no significant differences in mean (99.5% vs 110%) or peak (216% vs 244%) vastus lateralis EMG activity. The barbell hip thrust activates the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris to a greater degree than the back squat when using estimated 10RM loads. Longitudinal training studies are needed to determine if this enhanced activation correlates with increased strength, hypertrophy, and performance.

  20. The Effect of Increasing Volume of Exercise on Activation Pattern of Vastus Medialis and Lateralis and its Correlation With Anterior Knee Pain in Karate Elites

    PubMed Central

    Safar Cherati, Afsaneh; Lotfian, Sara; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Razi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of exercise volume on the pattern of muscle activity is one of the most important factors in training management and injury risk reduction. In the lower limb, the quadriceps muscle which plays a determining role in performing the stance and other karate techniques could be injured in intensive exercise and may induce anterior knee pain in athletes. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between training volume and muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis and its association with anterior knee pain in karate elites. Patients and Methods Male and female athletes from national junior and cadet karate team (14 to 18 years) were invited to participate in the study at the beginning and the end of the training camps. Studies involved measurement of electromyographic muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in both lower extremities with surface electromyography device and assessment of movement by electrogoniometery. Muscle activity was recorded in three tests of dachi, walking up and walking down stairs. Simultaneously, anterior knee pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale and anterior knee pain scale questionnaire. Results Eight athletes of a total number of 23 reported increased ratings of pain in their right knees. No differences in muscle activity were observed in tests of Dachi and stairs between the groups with and without pain. Comparing Dachi task pattern at the beginning and end of training camps, there was no significant difference in pattern of biomechanical movement; however, reducing the amount of muscle activity in early and late phases of tasks was observed in electromyographic assessment. Conclusions The results showed that performing the same task after a six-week training period, less muscle activity was required in all phases in two groups of tasks, including karate-specific movement (dachi) and activities of daily living (up or down stairs). PMID:27826403

  1. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  2. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  3. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  4. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis relative to the vastus lateralis may be related to physical activity levels in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Ferrari, Deisi; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine group differences in muscle activation onset of the vastus medialis (VM) in relation to the vastus lateralis (VL) and pain level during stair ascent in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) who maintain high and moderate levels of physical activity; to determine the association between physical activity level and muscle activation onset. Forty-three females with PFP and thirty-eight pain-free females were recruited and divided into four groups based on their level of physical activity: females with PFP (n=26) and pain-free females (n=26) who practiced a moderate level of physical activity and females with PFP (n=17) and pain-free females (n=12) who practiced an intense amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to ascend a seven-step staircase and the VM and VL activation onset was determined. Females with PFP who practiced high level of physical activity demonstrated delayed onset of VM (4.06ms) compared to healthy females (-14.4ms). Conversely, females with PFP who practiced moderate level of physical activity did not present VM delay (-2.48ms) in comparison to healthy females (-9.89ms). Furthermore, physical activity significantly correlated to the muscle activation onset difference (p=0.005; R=0.60). These findings may explain why controversial results regarding VM and VL muscle activation onset have been found.

  5. Quantitative MRI of Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis and Gluteus Medius Muscle Workload after Squat Exercise: Comparison Between Squatting with Hip Adduction and Hip Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Baffa, Augusto P.; Felicio, Lilian R.; Saad, Marcelo C.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Santos, Antonio C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use MRI to quantify the workload of gluteus medius (GM), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in different types of squat exercises. Fourteen female volunteers were evaluated, average age of 22 ± 2 years, sedentary, without clinical symptoms, and without history of previous lower limb injuries. Quantitative MRI was used to analyze VM, VL and GM muscles before and after squat exercise, squat associated with isometric hip adduction and squat associated with isometric hip abduction. Multi echo images were acquired to calculate the transversal relaxation times (T2) before and after exercise. Mixed Effects Model statistical analysis was used to compare images before and after the exercise (ΔT2) to normalize the variability between subjects. Imaging post processing was performed in Matlab software. GM muscle was the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip adduction and VM the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip abduction, while VL was the most active during squat associated with isometric hip adduction. Our data suggests that isometric hip adduction during the squat does not increase the workload of VM, but decreases the GM muscle workload. Squat associated with isometric hip abduction does not increase VL workload. PMID:23486653

  6. Mosquito Communities and Avian Malaria Prevalence in Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) Within Forest Edge and Interior Habitats in a New Zealand Regional Park.

    PubMed

    Gudex-Cross, David; Barraclough, Rosemary K; Brunton, Dianne H; Derraik, José G B

    2015-09-01

    Forest fragmentation and agricultural development are important anthropogenic landscape alterations affecting the disease dynamics of malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.), largely through their effects on vector communities. We compared vector abundance and species composition at two forest edge sites abutting pastureland and two forest interior sites in New Zealand, while simultaneously assessing avian malaria prevalence in silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). Twenty-two of 240 (9.2%) individual silvereyes captured across all sites tested positive for avian malaria, and Plasmodium prevalence was nearly identical in edge and interior habitats. A total of 580 mosquito specimens were trapped across all sites. These comprised five different species: the introduced Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus; the native A. antipodeus, C. asteliae and C. pervigilans. The known avian malaria vector C. quinquefasciatus was only recorded in the forest edge (mostly at ground level). In contrast, the probable vector C. pervigilans was abundant and widespread in both edge and interior sites. Although frequently caught in ground traps, more C. pervigilans specimens were captured in the canopy. This study shows that avian malaria prevalence among silvereyes appeared to be unaffected by forest fragmentation, at least at the scale assessed. Introduced mosquito species were almost completely absent from the forest interior, and thus our study provides further circumstantial evidence that native mosquito species (in particular C. pervigilans) play an important role in avian malaria transmission in New Zealand.

  7. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-02-01

    Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P ≤ .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

  8. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-06-01

    Bridging exercise variations are well researched and commonly employed for both rehabilitation and sport performance. However, resisted bridge exercise variations have not yet been compared in a controlled experimental study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography (EMG) amplitude for the barbell, band, and American hip thrust variations. Thirteen healthy female subjects (age = 28.9 y; height = 164.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg) familiar with the hip thrust performed 10 repetitions of their 10-repetition maximum of each variation in a counterbalanced and randomized order. The barbell hip thrust variation elicited statistically greater mean gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the American and band hip thrusts, and statistically greater peak gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the band hip thrust (P ≤ .05), but no other statistical differences were observed. It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.

  9. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  10. Quantitative MRI of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscle workload after squat exercise: comparison between squatting with hip adduction and hip abduction.

    PubMed

    Baffa, Augusto P; Felicio, Lilian R; Saad, Marcelo C; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Santos, Antonio C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use MRI to quantify the workload of gluteus medius (GM), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in different types of squat exercises. Fourteen female volunteers were evaluated, average age of 22 ± 2 years, sedentary, without clinical symptoms, and without history of previous lower limb injuries. Quantitative MRI was used to analyze VM, VL and GM muscles before and after squat exercise, squat associated with isometric hip adduction and squat associated with isometric hip abduction. Multi echo images were acquired to calculate the transversal relaxation times (T2) before and after exercise. Mixed Effects Model statistical analysis was used to compare images before and after the exercise (ΔT2) to normalize the variability between subjects. Imaging post processing was performed in Matlab software. GM muscle was the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip adduction and VM the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip abduction, while VL was the most active during squat associated with isometric hip adduction. Our data suggests that isometric hip adduction during the squat does not increase the workload of VM, but decreases the GM muscle workload. Squat associated with isometric hip abduction does not increase VL workload.

  11. Age-related effect of static and cyclic loadings on the strain-force curve of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Walsh, Mark

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the age-related effects of submaximal static and cyclic loading on the mechanical properties of the vastus lateralis (VL) tendon and aponeurosis in vivo. Fourteen old and 12 young male subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions (MVC) on a dynamometer before and after (a) a sustained isometric contraction at 25% MVC and (b) isokinetic contractions at 50% isokinetic MVC, both until task failure. The elongation of the VL tendon and aponeurosis was examined using ultrasonography. To calculate the resultant knee joint moment, the kinematics of the leg were recorded with eight cameras (120 Hz). The old adults displayed significantly lower maximal moments but higher strain values at any given tendon force from 400 N and up in all tested conditions. Neither of the loading protocols influenced the strain-force relationship of the VL tendon and aponeurosis in either the old or young adults. Consequently, the capacity of the tendon and aponeurosis to resist force remained unaffected in both groups. It can be concluded that in vivo tendons are capable of resisting long-lasting static (~4.6 min) or cyclic (~18.5 min) mechanical loading at the attained strain levels (4-5%) without significantly altering their mechanical properties regardless of age. This implies that as the muscle becomes unable to generate the required force due to fatigue, the loading of the tendon is terminated prior to provoking any significant changes in tendon mechanical properties.

  12. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Scott; Kerhervé, Hugo; Lovell, Geoff P.; Gorman, Adam D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts. Methods Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg−1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs) completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30) or 120 s recovery (REC-120). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) (using near infrared spectroscopy), heart rate (HR) and time motion descriptors (TMD) (speed and distance) were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE) was measured for each bout. Results During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE. Conclusions Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing), in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted. PMID:26919064

  13. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  14. Comparison of the Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Released in the Vastus Lateralis Muscle of Patients with Fibromyalgia and Healthy Controls during Contractions of the Quadriceps Muscle – A Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Löfgren, Monika; Bjersing, Jan; Kosek, Eva; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is associated with central hyperexcitability, but it is suggested that peripheral input is important to maintain central hyperexcitability. The primary aim was to investigate the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the vastus lateralis muscle during repetitive dynamic contractions of the quadriceps muscle in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Secondarily, to investigate if the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were correlated with pain or fatigue during these repetitive dynamic contractions. Material and Methods 32 women with fibromyalgia and 32 healthy women (controls) participated in a 4 hour microdialysis session, to sample IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF from the most painful point of the vastus lateralis muscle before, during and after 20 minutes of repeated dynamic contractions. Pain (visual analogue scale; 0–100) and fatigue Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale; 6–20) were assessed before and during the entire microdialysis session. Results The repetitive dynamic contractions increased pain in the patients with fibromyalgia (P < .001) and induced fatigue in both groups (P < .001). Perceived fatigue was significantly higher among patients with fibromyalgia than controls (P < .001). The levels of IL-1β did not change during contractions in either group. The levels of TNF did not change during contractions in patients with fibromyalgia, but increased in controls (P < .001) and were significantly higher compared to patients with fibromyalgia (P = .033). The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in both groups alike during and after contractions (P’s < .001). There were no correlations between pain or fatigue and cytokine levels after contractions. Conclusion There were no differences between patients with fibromyalgia and controls in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and no correlations between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pain or fatigue. Thus, this study indicates that IL-1β, IL-6, IL

  15. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  16. Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Wolfe, C A; Bodt, A

    2013-08-01

    Biological shape can be defined as the boundary of a form in 2-space (R(2)). An earlier study (Lestrel et al., 2010, HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol.) of the cranial vault found that there were statistically significant differences between each of the three groups: H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis compared with H. sapiens. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference among the first three groups. These results suggest that these three groups may have formed single evolving lineage while H. sapiens represents a separate evolutionary development. The purpose of the current research was to discern if the mandible reflected a similar pattern as the cranial vault data. This study used lateral jpeg images of the mandible. Five fossil samples were used: A. robustus (n=7), H. erectus (n=12), H. heidelbergensis (n=4), H. neanderthalensis (n=22) and H. sapiens (n=61). Each mandible image was pre-processed with Photoshop Elements. Each image was then submitted to a specially written routine that digitized the 84 points along the mandible boundary. Each mandible was fitted with elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). Procrustes superimposition was imposed to insure minimum shape differences. The mandible results largely mirrored the earlier cranial vault study with one exception. Statistically significant results were obtained for the mandible between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples in contrast to the earlier cranial vault data. F-tests disclosed that the statistical significance was limited to the anterior symphysis of the mandible. This mosaic pattern may be explained by the reduction in prognathism with the concomitant if rudimentary development of the chin as seen in H. neanderthalensis compared to H. erectus.

  17. Campylorrhinus lateralis, Bilateral microphthalmia and odontoma temporalis in an Oldenburg Foal.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Cornillie, P; Tüllmann, V; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2016-04-01

    An Oldenburg colt with wry nose was autopsied after having lived for only 30 min. It presented cyanotic oral mucosae, underdeveloped eyes and a right-sided temporal osseous mass. The applicable nomenclature for the defects is discussed, and the potential etiopathogenesis is explored by describing the normal embryonic development of the affected body parts.

  18. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis

  19. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. VII. Lesions of the nucleus lateralis posterior.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral lesions of the nucleus laterials posterior thalami (LP) scarcely changed preoperatively learnt conditioned avoidance responses (CAR) in a runway and the Y-maze. Postoperative elaboration of CAR showed some difficulties in the runway which were increased during alternation training in the Y-maze. All rats with LP lesions had severe disturbances of spatial orientation in new situations, which could be overcome by training.

  20. Histomorphology of the proventriculus of three species of Australian passerines: Lichmera indistincta, Zosterops lateralis and Poephila guttata.

    PubMed

    Ogunkoya, Y O; Cook, R D

    2009-08-01

    Histomorphology of the proventriculi of nectarivorous, granivorous and omnivorous passerines was studied. The proventriculus consisted of mucosal, submucosal, muscularis and serosal layers. Proventricular wall was thickest in omnivore, thinnest in granivore and intermediate in nectarivore. The openings of mucosal glands had a single spiral-like fold of mucosa in the omnivorous Silvereye, 2-3 spirals in the granivorous Zebra finch and 4-5 spirals in the nectarivorous Brown honeyeater. The mucosal glands were arranged in a uniform row in the wall of the organ and opened individually via a primary duct to the lumen of the proventriculus. The surface epithelial cells of the tunica mucosa contained secretory cells and the proventricular glands contained endocrine, neck and oxynticopeptic cells. The ultrastructural features of the oxynticopeptic cells changed from the oral to the aboral portion of the gland. In the oral region, the cytoplasm presented numerous, smaller (600-900 nm) homogenously dense zymogen secretory vesicles and larger (0.8-2.3 microm) pale floccular, tubular, mucin-like secretory granules, few small mitochondria and RER while in the aboral portion of the gland, the cytoplasm presented numerous, large mitochondria with closely packed cristae, secondary lysosome and infolding of the basal and apical cell membrane. The tunica sub mucosa was thin with occasional large blood vessels. The tunica muscularis consisted of inner longitudinal, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers. The external tunica serosa contained large bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons that were possibly branches of the intestinal nerve. The structural adaptations of the proventriculi of these three species to their various diets are discussed.

  1. cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling pathway is involved in aggravated cardiotoxicity during Fuzi and Beimu Combination Treatment of Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Pengwei; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Liman; Sun, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Duan, Jinao

    2016-01-01

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) and Fritillariae Thunbergii bulbus (Beimu) have been widely used clinically to treat cardiopulmonary related diseases in China. However, according to the classic rules of traditional Chinese medicine, Fuzi and Beimu should be prohibited to use as a combination for their incompatibility. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the paradox on the use of Fuzi and Beimu combination therapy. Monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rats were treated with either Fuzi, Beimu, or their combination at different stages of PH. We demonstrated that at the early stage of PH, Fuzi and Beimu combination significantly improved lung function and reduced pulmonary histopathology. However, as the disease progressed, when Fuzi and Beimu combination were used at the late stage of PH, right ventricular chamber dilation was histologically apparent and myocardial apoptosis was significantly increased compared with each drug alone. Western-blotting results indicated that the main chemical ingredient of Beimu could down-regulate the protein phosphorylation levels of Akt and PDE4D, whereas the combination of Fuzi and Beimu could up-regulate PKA and CaMKII signaling pathways. Therefore, we concluded that Fuzi and Beimu combination potentially aggravated the heart injury due to the inhibition of PDK1/Akt/PDE4D axis and subsequent synergistic activation of βAR-Gs-PKA/CaMKII signaling pathway. PMID:27739450

  2. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  3. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  4. Higenamine promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 production through HO-1 induction in a murine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jian; Li, Jiaping

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered to be primarily associated with loss of motor function and leads to the activation of diverse cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system to attempt to repair the damaged spinal cord tissue. Higenamine (HG) (1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl) methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol), an active ingredient of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, has been traditionally used as a heart stimulant and anti-inflammatory agent in oriental countries. However, the function and related mechanism of HG on SCI have never been investigated. In our current study, HG treatment displayed increased myelin sparring and enhanced spinal cord repair process. The numbers of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, Ly6G(+) neutrophils and CD11b(+) macrophages were all significantly lower in the HG-treated group than that in the control group after SCI. HG administration increased the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 and promoted M2 macrophage activation. Significantly reduced Hmgb1 expression was also observed in HG-treated mice with SCI. Furthermore, HG treatment promoted HO-1 production. The increased number of M2 macrophages, decreased expression of Hmgb1 and promoted locomotor recovery induced by HG were all reversed with additional HO-1 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, HG promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 expression dependent on HO-1 induction and then promotes locomotor function after SCI.

  5. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

    PubMed

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  6. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are

  7. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  8. Upper-body resistance exercise augments vastus lateralis androgen receptor-DNA binding and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling compared to lower-body resistance exercise in resistance-trained men without an acute increase in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of single bouts of lower-body (LB) and upper- and lower-body (ULB) resistance exercise on serum testosterone concentrations and the effects on muscle testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androgen receptor (AR) protein content, and AR-DNA binding. A secondary purpose was to determine the effects on serum wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt4) levels and skeletal muscle β-catenin content. In a randomized cross-over design, exercise bouts consisted of a LB and ULB protocol, and each bout was separated by 1 week. Blood and muscle samples were obtained before exercise and 3 and 24h post-exercise; blood samples were also obtained at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise. Statistical analyses were performed by separate two-way factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No significant differences from baseline were observed in serum total and free testosterone and skeletal muscle testosterone and DHT with either protocol (p>0.05). AR protein was significantly increased at 3 h post-exercise and decreased at 24 h post-exercise for ULB, whereas AR-DNA binding was significantly increased at 3 and 24h post-exercise (p<0.05). In response to ULB, serum Wnt4 was significantly increased at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise (p<0.05) and β-catenin was significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-exercise (p<0.05). It was concluded that, despite a lack of increase in serum testosterone and muscle androgen concentrations from either mode of resistance exercise, ULB resistance exercise increased Wnt4/β-catenin signaling and AR-DNA binding.

  9. A study of speech emotion recognition based on hybrid algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ju-xia; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Zhao; Rao, Yao-quan; Wu, Xiao-pei

    2011-10-01

    To effectively improve the recognition accuracy of the speech emotion recognition system, a hybrid algorithm which combines Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM), All-Class-in-One Neural Network (ACON) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. In SVM and ACON methods, some global statistics are used as emotional features, while in CHMM method, instantaneous features are employed. The recognition rate by the proposed method is 92.25%, with the rejection rate to be 0.78%. Furthermore, it obtains the relative increasing of 8.53%, 4.69% and 0.78% compared with ACON, CHMM and SVM methods respectively. The experiment result confirms the efficiency of distinguishing anger, happiness, neutral and sadness emotional states.

  10. An Approach for Quality of Service Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    of the Amaranth project at Carnegie Mellon University. References [AAS97] E. Atkins, T. Abdelzaher, and K. Shin. QoS Negotiation in Real-Time...Pisinger. Algorithms for Knapsack Problems. PhD thesis, University of Copenhagen, Dept. of Computer Science, February 1995. [Pro96] Amaranth Project... Amaranth Project. Amaranth White Paper, December 1996. [PS85] F. Preparata and M. Shamos. Computational Geometry : An Introduction. In Texts and

  11. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  12. Aviation Forecasts. Fiscal Years 1976-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    international scheduled carriers continued to show a poor profit picture when looked at as a group . The international trunk car- riers decreased from... blg AVAIL1 + bj- PILOTS + IL PILB »104 b20 VrPRPP-t b2] IFRFF + U10 ACON »u4 I),,., IFRDF ♦ Vu PP t12 ♦ b23 L1PP * b24 LLSTD - b26 CLEAN

  13. Statistical quality control of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals contained in the component medicinal herbs of "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Bogsoon; Yun, Eunsun; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Park, Seungkook

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the current quality control status of raw materials in "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula effective for fatigue recovery in Korea, 1024 samples of 9 herbs available in Seoul area markets were collected, and the contents of quality inspection items such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg) were examined. Medicinal herbs requiring quality control, which may not meet the specifications and standards set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration, were selected using robust z-scores, a random variable. Among the quality control items, control of total ash content was required for the Ssanghwatang raw materials Cinnamomi Cortex, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, and Zizyphi Fructus; loss on drying for Cinnamomi Cortex; and heavy metal (Cd) for Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Additionally, acid-insoluble ash content revealed how many fine soil and sand particles are present in commercial medicinal herbs, which were correlated with heavy metals such as Pb (r = 0.528) and As (r = 0.342) in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (p < 0.01).

  14. Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Jernej; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles' contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children's development.

  15. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  16. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  17. The Effect of Smoking on Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    lateralis muscles using a Bergstrom 5-6 mm biopsy needle. Skin was first lightly anesthetized with 4 ml of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution, a small...Clarkson ! Muscle biopsies will be taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. The biopsy will be obtained under local anesthesia ( Lidocaine ) by a...first Assistant will open the top of the Lidocaine vial and clean with alcohol pad, and hold the vial upside down for physician to withdraw

  18. Mononeuropathy of a distal branch of the femoral nerve in a body building champion

    PubMed Central

    Padua, L; D'Aloya, E; LoMonaco, M; Padua, R; Gregori, B; Tonali, P

    1997-01-01

    A unique case of a body building champion with localised atrophy of the distal portion of the vastus lateralis muscle is reported; neurophysiological evaluation suggests a selective lesion of a distal branch of the vastus lateralis nerve (a motor branch of the femoral nerve). A necroscopic study in four cases was performed to better clarify the site and mechanism of nerve lesion. The data suggest that stretching and compression of the nerve has probably occurred during strenous exercise.

 PMID:9408112

  19. Muscle - tendon unit mechanical and morphological properties and sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Stafilidis, Savvas; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sprint performance is related to the mechanical (elongation - force relationship of the tendon and aponeurosis, muscle strength) and morphological (fascicle length, pennation angle, muscle thickness) properties of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscle - tendon units. Two groups of sprinters (slow, n = 11; fast, n = 17) performed maximal isometric knee extension and plantar flexion contractions on a dynamometer at 11 different muscle - tendon unit lengths. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis was measured using ultrasonography. We observed no significant differences in maximal joint moments at the ankle and knee joints or morphological properties of the gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis between groups (P > 0.05). The fast group exhibited greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis at a given tendon force, and greater maximal elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis during maximum voluntary contraction (P < 0.05). Furthermore, maximal elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis showed a significant correlation with 100-m sprint times (r = -0.567, P = 0.003). For the elongation - force relationship at the gastrocnemius medialis tendon and aponeurosis, the two groups recorded similar values. It is suggested that the greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis of the fast group benefits energy storage and return as well as the shortening velocity of the muscle - tendon unit.

  20. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Jensen, Bente R; Darvann, Tron; Jørgensen, Kurt; Bakke, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Background The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: (1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and (2) to use the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle (p < 0.05) than in the supraspinatus muscle (average value of middle measuring site 51.4 compared to 35.0). Furthermore, the number of spatially connected and homogeneous regions (blobs) was higher in the vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) than in the supraspinatus (average for m. vastus lateralis: 0.092 mm-2 and for m. supraspinatus: 0.016 mm-2). Conclusion The higher intensity and the higher number of blobs in the vastus lateralis muscle indicates that the thigh muscle contained more non-contractile components than the supraspinatus muscle, and that the muscle was coarser. The image analyses supplemented each other and gave a more complete description of the tissue composition in the muscle than the mean grey-scale value alone. PMID:16420695

  1. Diagnosability issues in multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, V.

    1989-01-01

    In a seminal paper on fault diagnosis, Preparata, Metze, and Chien introduced a graph-theoretical model. Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini relaxed some constraints in this model to create a different model for fault diagnosis. Both these models have become the subject of intense research in the past two decades. A major open problem for these models is the question of sequential t-diagnosability-Given an arbitrary system of units and that there are no more than t faulty units in it, can we always identify at least one faulty unit The author shows that this problem is co-NP complete in both models. Recent research has shown that there are polynomial time algorithms to find the maximum number of faulty units a system can withstand and still identify all of them from a single collection of test results. He presents improved algorithms to solve this problem in both models. Using the letters n,m, and {tau} to denote the number of units, the number of tests, and the maximum number of faulty units respectively, our results can be summarized as follows: in the model of Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini, the algorithm has a time complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2}/log{tau}) improving on the currently known O(n{tau}{sup 2}); in the model of Preparata, Metze, and Chien, the algorithm has a complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2.5}) improving on the currently known O(mn{sup 1.5}). He also presents related results in the latter model, which suggest the possibility of reducing the complexity even further. Finally, he develops a general scheme for characterizing diagnosable systems. Using this scheme, he solves the open problem of characterizing t/s and sequentially t-diagnosable systems. The characterizations are then used to rederive some known results.

  2. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-09-27

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments.

  3. Alternatively spliced insertions in the paired domain restrict the DNA sequence specificity of Pax6 and Pax8.

    PubMed Central

    Kozmik, Z; Czerny, T; Busslinger, M

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factors of the Pax family bind to their target genes via the paired domain which is known to be composed of two subdomains each recognizing distinct half-sites in adjacent major grooves of the DNA helix. We now demonstrate that the mammalian Pax8 gene gives rise, by alternative mRNA splicing, to a protein isoform containing an extra serine residue in the recognition alpha-helix 3 of the paired domain. This Pax8(S) protein does not interact with bipartite paired domain-binding sites, indicating that inactivation of the N-terminal DNA-binding motif severely restricts the sequence specificity of the paired domain. However, the Pax8(S) protein binds in vitro and in vivo to the 5aCON sequence which was previously identified as a high-affinity binding site for the Pax6(5a) splice variant carrying a 14-amino-acid insertion in the paired domain. The 5aCON sequence is shown to consist of four interdigitated 5' half-sites of the bipartite consensus sequence and is thus bound by four Pax8(S) molecules via the intact C-terminal DNA-binding motif of the paired domain. Together these data suggest that inactivation of the N-terminal region of the paired domain by alternative splicing is used in vivo to selectively target Pax transcription factors to gene regulatory regions containing highly specialized 5aCON-like sequences. PMID:9362493

  4. Capping in situ with activated carbon in Trondheim harbor (Norway) reduces bioaccumulation of PCBs and PAHs in marine sediment fauna.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Göran S; Hedman, Jenny E; Elmquist Kruså, Marie; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    Three types of thin-layer caps with activated carbon (AC) were tested in situ in experimental plots (10 × 10 m) in Trondheim harbor, Norway, using AC + clay, AC-only or AC + sand. One year after capping, intact sediment cores were collected from the amended plots for ex situ surveys of the capping efficiency in reducing the PAH and PCB aqueous concentrations and bioaccumulation by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and the clam Abra nitida. Reduced pore water concentrations were observed in all AC treatments. The capping efficiency was in general AC + clay > AC-only > AC + sand. AC + clay reduced bioaccumulation of PAH and PCB congeners between 40% and 87% in the worms and between 67% and 97% in the clams. Sediment capped with AC-only also led to reduced bioaccumulation of PCBs, while AC + sand showed no reduction in bioaccumulation. Thus the best thin-layer capping method in this study was AC mixed with clay.

  5. Mother-to-Children Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Malaria Transmission at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Dao, Nangnéré Ginette Laure; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukédé; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Kafando, Jacques Gilbert; Sombie, Bavouma Charles; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouedraogo, Paul; Ghilat, Nadine; Colizzi, Vittorio; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission. PMID:25506464

  6. Effects of Resistance-Associated NS5A Mutations in Hepatitis C Virus on Viral Production and Susceptibility to Antiviral Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Sayuri; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Mami; Yamada, Norie; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Masaki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kato, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Mamoru; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have potent anti-HCV effects but may provoke resistance-associated variants (RAVs). In this study, we assessed the characteristics of these RAVs and explored efficacious anti-HCV reagents using recombinant HCV with NS5A from a genotype 1b strain. We replaced the NS5A of JFH1 with that of Con1 (JFH1/5ACon1) and introduced known NS5A inhibitor resistance mutations (L31M, L31V, L31I and Y93H) individually or in combination. Susceptibilities against anti-HCV reagents were also investigated. RAVs with Y93H exhibited high extracellular core antigen levels and infectivity titers. Variants with any single mutation showed mild to moderate resistance against NS5A inhibitors, whereas variants with double mutations at both L31 and Y93 showed severe resistance. The variants with mutations exhibited similar levels of susceptibility to interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ3 and Ribavirin. Variants with the Y93H mutation were more sensitive to protease inhibitors compared with JFH1/5ACon1. In conclusion, the in vitro analysis indicated that the Y93H mutation enhanced infectious virus production, suggesting advantages in the propagation of RAVs with this mutation. However, these RAVs were susceptible to protease inhibitors. Thus, a therapeutic regimen that includes these reagents is a promising means to eradicate these RAVs. PMID:27703205

  7. The effect of patellar taping on EMG activity of vasti muscles during squatting in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mostamand, Javid; Bader, Dan L; Hudson, Zöe

    2011-01-01

    Although patellar taping has been shown to reduce pain in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, the mechanisms of pain reduction have not completely been established following its application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EMG activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis following the application of patellar taping during a functional single leg squat. Both vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset and vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of 18 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 18 healthy participants as controls were measured using an EMG unit. This procedure was performed on the affected knee of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, before, during, and after patellar taping during unilateral squatting. The same procedure was also performed on the unaffected knees of both groups. The mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset prior to taping (2.54 ms, s = 4.35) were decreased significantly following an immediate application of tape (-3.22 ms, s = 3.45) and after a prolonged period of taping (-6.00 ms, s = 3.40 s) (P < 0.05). There was also a significant difference between the mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset among controls (-2.03 ms, s = 6.04) and participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome prior to taping (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant difference between the ranked values of vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of the affected and unaffected knees of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls during different conditions of taping (P > 0.05). Decreased values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset may contribute to patellar realignment and explain the mechanism of pain reduction following patellar taping in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  8. A reevaluation of the unusual abdominal musculature of squamate reptiles (Reptilia: Squamata).

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2009-08-01

    The abdominal muscles of lizards and snakes (Squamata) have been the subject of periodic attention from anatomists, embryologists, and systematists. Until now, the presence of a superficial portion of the m. rectus abdominis, named the m. rectus abdominis lateralis, has been considered a key synapomorphy of the clade Autarchoglossa, which includes all extant squamates save Gekkota and Iguania. However, the precise anatomical relations of the m. rectus abdominis lateralis have never been fully investigated. Here, I show that the m. rectus abdominis lateralis is present in Iguania. Its absence in Gekkota represents rare gross anatomical support for recent molecular-structure-based hypotheses of squamate relationships placing geckoes as sister to the remaining squamates. Where present, it is the most superficial trunk muscle, exterior to the m. obliquus externus. The separation of the m. rectus abdominis lateralis from the m. rectus abdominis occurs as the m. obliquus externus aponeurosis and part of the m. obliquus internus aponeurosis emerge superficially to form the outer portion of the rectus sheath. In Autarchoglossa, the contralateral mm. recti abdomines laterales meet at the midline and are attached to the imbricae of the transverse scale rows characteristic of the clade, suggesting developmental, functional, and evolutionary association. Because the m. rectus abdominis lateralis is sometimes continuous with the pectoralis, its exclusive association with the m. rectus abdominis is questionable. It may be a neomorphic layer that is part of the abaxial developmental system, comprising those muscles whose connective tissue is largely derived from lateral plate as opposed to somatic mesoderm.

  9. Knee angle-specific MVIC for triceps surae EMG signal normalization in weight and non weight-bearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-08-01

    Varying the degree of weight-bearing (WB) and/or knee flexion (KF) angle during a plantar-flexion maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) has been proposed to alter soleus and/or gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis activation. This study compared the surface EMG signals from the triceps surae of 27 men and 27 women during WB and non weight bearing (NWB) plantar-flexion MVICs performed at 0° and 45° of KF. The aim was to determine which condition was most effective at eliciting the greatest EMG signals from soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively, for subsequent use for the normalization of EMG signals. WB was more effective than NWB at eliciting the greatest signals from soleus (p=0.0021), but there was no difference with respect to gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis (p⩾0.2482). Although the greatest EMG signals during MVICs were more frequently elicited at 0° of KF from gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, and at 45° from soleus (p<0.001); neither angle consistently captured peak gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis or soleus activity. The present findings encourage more consistent use of WB plantar flexion MVICs for soleus normalization; confirm that both WB and NWB procedures can elicit peak gastrocnemius activity; and emphasize the fact that no single KF angle consistently evokes selective maximal activity of any individual triceps surae muscle.

  10. Thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Kyuhou, Shin-ichi; Matsuura-Nakao, Kazuko; Gemba, Hisae

    2004-01-23

    Thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were investigated electrophysiologically in the monkey. Cortical field potentials evoked by the thalamic stimulation were recorded with electrodes chronically implanted on the cortical surface and at a 2.0-3.0 mm cortical depth in the PPC. The stimulation of the nucleus lateralis posterior (LP), nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis pars caudalis (VPLc), and nucleus pulvinaris lateralis (Pul.l) and medialis (Pul.m) induced surface-negative, depth-positive potentials in the PPC. The LP and VPLc projected mainly to the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the Pul.m mainly to the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the posterior bank of the IPS. The Pul.l had projections to all of the SPL, the IPL and both the banks. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with motor functions.

  11. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2005

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2006-01-26

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. This property is held in ownership by the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The 2005 Recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with only two species: Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (RLF). Note: the whipsnake subspecies existing at S300 shows taxonomic variation (generally 50% chaparral whipsnake [Masticophis lateralis] traits) when compared to the Alameda whipsnake (Riemer 1954) and therefore it will be referred to as ''California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis)'' (CWS) for classification purposes in this report (Swaim 2004).

  12. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  13. PubMed Central

    Pellini, R.; Mercante, G.; Pichi, B.; Manciocco, V.; Marchesi, P.; Ferreli, F.; Spriano, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. PMID:27734986

  14. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH4(+)-N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH4(+)-N concentrations leading to a drop of CH4 formation.

  15. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments. PMID:27676445

  16. Remediation of contaminated marine sediment using thin-layer capping with activated carbon--a field experiment in Trondheim harbor, Norway.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Kruså, Marie Elmquist; Breedveld, Gijs D; Eek, Espen; Oen, Amy M P; Arp, Hans Peter H; Raymond, Caroline; Samuelsson, Göran; Hedman, Jenny E; Stokland, Øystein; Gunnarsson, Jonas S

    2011-07-15

    In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers. Compared to the reference field, AC capping reduced fluxes by a factor of 2-10. Pore water PAH concentration profiles were measured in situ using a new passive sampler technique, and yielded a reduction factor of 2-3 compared to the reference field. The benthic macrofauna composition and biodiversity were affected by the AC amendments, AC + clay having a lower impact on the benthic taxa than AC-only or AC + sand. In addition, AC + clay gave the highest AC recoveries (60% vs 30% for AC-only and AC + sand) and strongest reductions in sediment-to-water PAH fluxes and porewater concentrations. Thus, application of an AC-clay mixture is recommended as the optimal choice of the currently tested thin-layer capping methods for PAHs, and more research on optimizing its implementation is needed.

  17. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Biota Assessment. Phase II. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Surface 72 Salinities III-10. Potamogeton pectinatus and Perfoliatus, down- 80 stream boundary III-11. Crassostrea virginica (oyster) - upstream boundary 81... Crassostrea virginica (Figure IIJ-ll). 3) Shift in both upstream and downstream boundaries simultaneously. Thi:; may result in little overall change...cinerea - oyster drill Crassostrea virginica - oyster Minchinia nelsoi. - MSX parasite Mercenaria mercenaria - hard clam !Rulinea lateralis - coot

  18. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  19. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  20. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome during single leg triple hop test.

    PubMed

    Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-09-01

    Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group). Kinematic and EMG data ware collected through participants performed a single session of the SLTHT. The PFPS group exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the EMG activity of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles, when compared with the healthy group in pre-activity and during the stance phase. This same result was also found for the vastus lateralis muscle (p<0.05) when analyzing the EMG activity during the eccentric phase of the stance phase. In kinematic analysis, no significant differences were found between the groups. These results indicate that biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles mainly during the pre-activation phase and stance phases of the SLTHT are more active in PFPS group among healthy group.

  1. Reliability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Determining Muscle Oxygen Saturation during Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Krista G.; Daigle, Karen A.; Patterson, Patricia; Cowman, Jason; Chelland, Sara; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is currently used to assess changes in the oxygen saturation of the muscle during exercise. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in determining muscle oxygen saturation (StO[subscript 2]) in the vastus lateralis during cycling and the gastrocnemius during running…

  2. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVLVE, MULINIA LATERLALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for utilizing the dwarf surf clam, Mulinia lateralis, to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A mult...

  3. The temporal relationship of thresholds between muscle activity and ventilation during bicycle ramp exercise in community dwelling elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the appearance time of the ventilatory threshold point and the electromyographic threshold in the activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris long head and gastrocnemius lateral head muscles during ramp cycling exercise in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven community dwelling elderly males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise testing with an expiratory gas analyzer and surface electromyography to evaluate the tested muscle activities during ramp exercise. [Results] The electromyographic threshold for rectus femoris was not valid because the slope after electromyographic threshold was not significant as compared to that before electromyographic threshold. The slope of the regression line for vastus lateralis was significantly decreased after electromyographic threshold while biceps femoris and gastrocnemius were increased. The electromyographic threshold appearance times for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius were significantly earlier than ventilatory threshold point. There were no difference in electromyographic threshold appearance times among three muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the increase in the slope of the regression line after electromyographic threshold for vastus lateralis was decreased, possibly indicating to postpone muscular fatigue resulting from the activation of biceps femoris and gastrocnemius as biarticular antagonists. This recruitment pattern might be an elderly-specific strategy. PMID:27942152

  4. Consumer acceptance and steak cutting yields of beef top sirloin and knuckle subprimals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) as a substitute for gluteus medius (GM) steaks in food service applications. Beef cap-off top sirloin butts (IMPS# 184E; n = 150) and full knuckles (IMPS# 167B; n = 150) were obtained from a large processing facility and aged fo...

  5. Consumer Acceptance and Steak Cutting Yields of Beef Top Sirloin and Knuckle Subprimals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef knuckles (n = 150) and center-cut top sirloin butts (n = 150) were used to determine the portion-controlled steak cutting yields, palatability characteristics, and consumer acceptance of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) steaks compared to gluteus medius (GM) steaks. Yields were hi...

  6. Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. Materials and Method Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets), Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20–90°). Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage. Results Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (p<0.05). There was no sex difference in isometric torque loss and muscle soreness post exercise induced muscle damage (p>0.05). Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (p<0.05), and remained higher when maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on isometric torque loss, there is no sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage. PMID:26986066

  7. Post-mortem pH decline in different ostrich muscles.

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Mellett, F D

    1996-01-01

    Post-mortem glycolysis, as described by muscle pH decline, was investigated in several ostrich muscles. While the gastrocnemius pars interna, femorotibialis medius, iliotibialis lateralis and iliofemoralis showed the normal descending pH decline pattern, the ambiens as well as the iliofibularis showed a very rapid pH decline until 2 hr post mortem whereafter pH increased.

  8. [Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with patent ductus arteriosus and hypospadia in an Asiatic patient].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Linse, R

    1999-04-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) appeared sporadically in an Asian boy, who also presented with naevus teleangiectaticus lateralis, patent ductus arteriosus (Botalli) and hypospadia. The association of these findings raises the question of a new syndrome. In addition, this is the first report of KFSD in a patient of Asian origin.

  9. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-09-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) in vastus lateralis than in deltoid. Dexamethasone treatment increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 +/- 7% (P < 0.05) and 18 +/- 6% (P < 0.05) as well as Na+,K+ pump content by 18 +/- 9% (P < 0.001) and 24 +/- 8% (P < 0.01), respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a higher alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 mRNA expression in the deltoid (P < 0.05), but no effects on Na+,K+ pump mRNA were detected in vastus lateralis. In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment increased maximal Na+,K+ pump activity in both vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles. The relative importance of transcription and translation in the glucocorticoid-induced regulation of Na+,K+ pump expression seems to be muscle specific and possibly dependent on the actual training condition of the muscle, such that a high Na+,K+ pump maximal activity and mRNA level prior to treatment prevents the transcriptional response to dexamethasone, but not the increase in Na+,K+ pump content and maximal activity.

  10. Local muscle oxygen consumption related to external and joint specific power.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of external work rate on joint specific power and the relationship between knee extension power and vastus lateralis muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). We measured kinematics and pedal forces and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint power for the hip, knee and ankle joints during an incremental cycling protocol performed by 21 recreational cyclists. Vastus lateralis mVO2 was estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy with an arterial occlusion. The main finding was a non-linear relationship between vastus lateralis mVO2 and external work rate that was characterised by an increase followed by a tendency for a levelling off (R(2)=0.99 and 0.94 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). When comparing 100W and 225W, there was a ∼43W increase in knee extension but still a ∼9% decrease in relative contribution of knee extension to external work rate resulting from a ∼47W increase in hip extension. When vastus lateralis mVO2 was related to knee extension power, the relationship was still non-linear (R(2)=0.99 and 0.97 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). These results demonstrate a non-linear response in mVO2 relative to a change in external work rate. Relating vastus lateralis mVO2 to knee extension power showed a better fit to a linear equation compared to external work rate, but it is not a straight line.

  11. Diabetic Osteoporosis: A Review of Its Traditional Chinese Medicinal Use and Clinical and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rufeng; Zhu, Ruyuan; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yubo; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Fengwei; Li, Hongjun; Li, Yu; Fu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The incidence of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is increasing due to lack of effective management over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) suitability in the pathogenesis and clinical and preclinical management of DOP. Methods. Literature sources used were from Medline (Pubmed), CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database), and CSTJ (China Science and Technology Journal Database) online databases. For the consultation, keywords such as diabetic osteoporosis (DOP), TCM, clinical study, animal experiment, toxicity, and research progress were used in various combinations. Around 100 research papers and reviews were visited. Results. Liver-spleen-kidney insufficiency may result in development of DOP. 18 clinical trials are identified to use TCM compound prescriptions for management of patients with DOP. TCM herbs and their active ingredients are effective in preventing the development of DOP in streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan as well as STZ combined with ovariectomy insulted rats. Among them, most frequently used TCM herbs in clinical trials are Radix Astragali, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, and Herba Epimedii. Some of TCM herbs also exhibit toxicities in clinical and preclinical research. Conclusions. TCM herbs may act as the novel sources of anti-DOP drugs by improving bone and glucolipid metabolisms. However, the pathogenesis of DOP and the material base of TCM herbs still merit further study. PMID:27698674

  12. The dyadosphere of black holes and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng

    1998-10-01

    The ``dyadosphere" has been defined (Ruffini \\cite{r2}, Preparata et al. \\cite{prx}) as the region outside the horizon of a black hole endowed with an electromagnetic field (abbreviated to EMBH for ``electromagnetic black hole") where the electromagnetic field exceeds the critical value, predicted by Heisenberg & Euler (\\cite{he}) for e(+) e(-) pair production. In a very short time ( ~ O / mc(2),) a very large number of pairs is created there. We here give limits on the EMBH parameters leading to a Dyadosphere for 10M_{\\odot} and 10^5M_{\\odot} EMBH's, and give as well the pair densities as functions of the radial coordinate. We here assume that the pairs reach thermodynamic equilibrium with a photon gas and estimate the average energy per pair as a function of the EMBH mass. These data give the initial conditions for the analysis of an enormous pair-electromagnetic-pulse or ``P.E.M. pulse" which naturally leads to relativistic expansion. Basic energy requirements for gamma ray bursts (GRB), including GRB971214 recently observed at z=3.4$, can be accounted for by processes occurring in the dyadosphere. In this letter we do not address the problem of forming either the EMBH or the dyadosphere: we establish some inequalities which must be satisfied during their formation process.

  13. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  14. Systematic Understanding of Mechanisms of a Chinese Herbal Formula in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome by an Integrated Pharmacology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD)—a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula—has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS. PMID:27999264

  15. [Mining analysis on composition and medication of menstruation prescriptions in Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-qing; Che, Yu-xia

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, menstruation prescriptions were selected from "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" and analyzed by using GRI algorithm, correlation analysis, hierarchical clustering method through SPSS, Clementine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary systems, in order to screen out 15 menopathy prescriptions, which involve 45 traditional Chinese medicine herbs. In the study, blood-tonifying and qi-tonifying herbs were found to be frequent in the prescriptions. The most frequent single herb was white paeony root, accounting for 9.6% in the total number of prescriptions; The most frequent herb pairs were white paeony root-radix rehmanniae preparata and paeony root-angelica sinensis. Among Fu Shan's menopathy prescriptions, 61 herbal pairs showed a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.05, which evolved into 16 pairs of core combinations. The analysis showed that menopathy prescriptions in volume 1 of "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" focused on tonic traditional Chinese medicines involving liver, spleen and kidney and were adjusted according to changes in qi, blood, cold, hot and wet, which could provide a specific reference for further studies on Fu Shan's academic thoughts and traditional Chinese medicine clinical treatment of menopathy.

  16. Complexity of system-level fault diagnosis and diagnosability

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    It is now possible to design and build systems that incorporate a large number of processing elements. For this reason, fault-diagnosis at the system level, a research area pioneered by the work of Preparata, Metze, and Chien, is of increasing importance. The formalization of their model utilizes directed graphs together with labelings on edges and vertices. The two central problems introduced by the model are called the diagnosis and diagnosability problems. In the diagnosis problem, an algorithm must identify the faulty units of a system based on test results. In the diagnosability problem, an algorithm must determine the maximum number of faulty units a system can contain and still be guaranteed capable of successfully testing itself. One of the main open questions is resolved for this model by presenting the first polynomial time algorithm for the diagnosability problem. The solution uses network-flow techniques and runs in O(absolute value E absolute value V/sup 3/2/) time. Also presented is a new time-complexity bound of O(min(t absolute value E, t/sup 3/ + absolute value E)) for the diagnosis problem, where t is the maximum number of faulty units.

  17. Operational note effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin against larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus and nontarget aquatic mosquito predators in Arkansas small rice plots.

    PubMed

    Dennett, James A; Bernhardt, John L; Meisch, Max V

    2003-06-01

    The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin, applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described. Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil- and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed. Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis, or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6.2 FS (fipronil) at 0.025 lb active ingredient (AI)/acre (0.028 kg/ha) or KARATEZ 2.08 CS (lambda-cyhalothrin) at 0.03 lb AI/acre (0.033 kg/ha) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer. At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots, significantly higher control of An. quadrimaculatus and T. lateralis (69 and 48% control, respectively) was achieved, compared to N. indica (18%). In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment, 100% reductions of both T. lateralis and N. indica were highly significant (P < 0.05) from the lower level of control in An. quadrimaculatus (10%). At 48 h after treatment, no significant, differences existed between all species within fipronil plots, with An. quadrimaculatus, T. lateralis, and N. indica obtaining 41, 10, and 7% control, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) control was obtained in lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment, with 93 and 53% control of T. lateralis and N. indica, respectively, compared to 7% control of An. quadrimaculatus. A marked difference in susceptibility was found between selected nontarget organisms used in this study. When using lambda-cyhalothrin to control adult L. oryzophilus, populations of nontarget beneficial insects, such as T. lateralis and N. indica, could be adversely affected, whereas nontarget pestilent species, such as An. quadrimaculatus, could proliferate. Fipronil achieved higher percentages of control against An

  18. Effects of resistance training on force steadiness and common drive.

    PubMed

    Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S; Dillon, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an 8-week resistance training program on force steadiness and common drive for the vastus lateralis muscle. Eight untrained men performed a resistance training program. Before the program and at the end of each week, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis. The signals were decomposed into action potential trains that were cross-correlated to measure common drive. Force steadiness was quantified as the standard deviation of force during the constant-force portion of the trapezoid muscle action. The training program did not consistently affect force steadiness or common drive for any of the subjects. Although future studies are needed with different muscles and training programs, changes in the overall motor control scheme are not likely with resistance training.

  19. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. PMID:27630416

  20. Difference in leg muscle oxygenation during treadmill exercise by a new near-infrared frequency-domain oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Franceschini, Maria A.; Fantini, Sergio; Gratton, Enrico; Ferrari, Marco

    1997-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the oxygenation and the total hemoglobin concentration pattern in vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups during a standardized treadmill exercise (n equals 6) by a new near infrared frequency-domain oximeter (ISS Oximeter model 96208). Vastus lateralis saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 3% and 71 +/- 15 (mu) M at 0 mph and 72 +/- 5% and 79 +/- 16 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. Gastrocnemius saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 2% and 107 +/- 18 (mu) M at 0 mph and 60 +/- 6% and 113 +/- 23 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. The saturation recovered gradually up to the baseline value when the speed was decreased.

  1. Difference in leg muscle oxygenation during treadmill exercise by a new near-infrared frequency-domain oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fantini, Sergio; Gratton, Enrico; Ferrari, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the oxygenation and the total hemoglobin concentration pattern in vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups during a standardized treadmill exercise (n equals 6) by a new near infrared frequency-domain oximeter (ISS Oximeter model 96208). Vastus lateralis saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 3% and 71 +/- 15 (mu) M at 0 mph and 72 +/- 5% and 79 +/- 16 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. Gastrocnemius saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 2% and 107 +/- 18 (mu) M at 0 mph and 60 +/- 6% and 113 +/- 23 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. The saturation recovered gradually up to the baseline value when the speed was decreased.

  2. Taxonomic review of the tree frog genus Rhacophorus from the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of ontogenetic colour changes and reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Biju, S D; Kamei, Rachunliu G; Mahony, Stephen; Thomas, Ashish; Garg, Sonali; Sircar, Gargi; Suyesh, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Western Ghats species from the genus Rhacophorus is presented. Based on museum studies and new collections from localities spanning the known range of Western Ghats Rhacophorus, we review the four known species of this genus, their type specimens, current taxonomic status and their geographic distribution on the basis of morphological and molecular data. The holotypes of Rhacophorus calcadensis, R. lateralis and R. nialabaricus are redescribed. The previously unidentified holotype of Rhacophorus inalabaricus is herein fixed. Descriptions of ontogenetic colour change (OCC) in the Western Ghats Rhacophorus are provided and we conjecture the taxonomic utility of OCC. Additionally we provide observations on nesting behaviour of each species, and report multiple male participation during amplexus, oviposition and foam nest construction in R. lateralis and R. malabaricus.

  3. Naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E succinate.

    PubMed

    Vuchetich, P J; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Hassoun, E A; Tang, L; Stohs, S J

    1996-01-01

    Quinone metabolites of naphthalene (NAP) are known to produce lipid peroxidation. However, the ability of naphthalene to induce oxidative stress in experimental animals has not been extensively investigated. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin E succinate [(+)-alpha-tocopherol acid succinate; VES] on naphthalene-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage were assessed. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single oral dose of 1100 mg naphthalene/kg (0.50 LD50) in corn oil. Vitamin E succinate-treated rats received 100 mg VES/kg/day orally for 3 d before naphthalene treatment, and 40 mg VES/kg/d after NAP administration. Hepatic and brain tissues and urine samples were collected 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after NAP treatment. Naphthalene treatment resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in lipid peroxidation in liver and brain mitochondria at the 24-h time point. Increases in hepatic and brain mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in VES plus NAP-treated rats were 39-46% less than NAP treated rats at 24 h. DNA-single strand breaks increased 3.0-fold in hepatic tissues in NAP treated rats, and increased only 1.6-fold in VES protected rats at the 24-h time point. Glutathione (GSH) decreased by 83 and 49% in hepatic and brain tissues, respectively, in NAP-treated rats at the 24-h time point, while GSH content in VES plus NAP-treated rats decreased 47 and 21% in hepatic and brain tissues, respectively, at this same time point. Microsomal membrane fluidity, a measurement of membrane damage, increased 1.9- and 1.7-fold in liver and brain tissues, respectively, in NAP-treated rats, and only 1.3- and 1.2-fold in NAP plus VES-treated rats at the 24-h time point. The urinary excretion of malondialdehyde (MDA), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (ACT), and acetone (ACON) was determined at 0-96 h after NAP administration. Between 12-24 h after NAP administration maximal excretion of the four urinary lipid metabolites was observed, with increases of 4.5-, 2.7-, 2.3-, and 2.8-fold for MDA

  4. The Effect of Smoking on Muscle Adaptation to Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    skin was cleaned with betadine and infused with 2% lidocaine (McKesson, San Francisco, CA). A 1.5 cm incision was made and additional lidocaine was...of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution, a small (1-3cm) incision was made in the skin and fascia, the biopsy needle is inserted, and about 200 mg...taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. The biopsy will be obtained under local anesthesia ( Lidocaine ) by a licensed physician. ! The procedure is

  5. A randomized, controlled, blinded study of the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine injected at different intramuscular sites in Chinese infants

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Nianmin; Luo, Feng-Ji; Li, Li; Zheng, Dongyi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Yang, Liqing; Liu, Zhaoqiu; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yunhua; Lu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine administered via the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles, 320 healthy Chinese infants <12 mo of age were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into 2 age groups: 2–5 mo and 6–12 mo. Each age group was then randomized (1:1) to either the vastus lateralis (experimental) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle 2 or 3 times at monthly intervals, or the deltoid (control) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle either 3 times (2–5 mo group) or twice (6–12 mo group) at monthly intervals. Local and systemic adverse reactions after each vaccine dose were recorded, and Hib-PRP antibody concentrations were determined by ELISA at 28 d after completion of the immunization schedule. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations ≥1.0 μg/mL or ≥0.15 μg/mL with the two injection sites for either age group, or in the post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations achieved (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of local and systemic reactions after the first and second vaccinations between the 2 injection sites for either age group (P > 0.05), but the rate of systemic reactions in the 2–5 mo group after the third vaccination via the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower than after deltoid vaccination (0% vs 8.57%; P < 0.05). Thus, administration via the vastus lateralis muscle is worth considering for Hib vaccination. PMID:23842003

  6. Role of Thermal Factors on Aerobic Capacity Improvements With Endurance Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    intracellular homeostasis that occurs during trained by cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen muscular activity as cellular metabolism generates en...17). These differences could cause adaptations in car- vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity increased by 38% with diac responses to exercise ...plasma volume expansion have also been observed to result from repeated heat exposure, and aerobic exercise adaptations; physical fitness; body tempera

  7. Muscle Activation Patterns During Different Squat Techniques.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Slater, LV, and Hart, JM. Muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 667-676, 2017-Bilateral squats are frequently used exercises in sport performance programs. Lower extremity muscle activation may change based on knee alignment during the performance of the exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. Twenty-eight healthy, uninjured subjects (19 women, 9 men, 21.5 ± 3 years, 170 ± 8.4 cm, 65.7 ± 11.8 kg) volunteered. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius of the dominant leg. Participants completed 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee anteriorly (AP malaligned), 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee medially (ML malaligned) and 5 squats with control alignment (control). Normalized EMG data (MVIC) were reduced to 100 points and represented as percentage of squat cycle with 50% representing peak knee flexion and 0 and 99% representing fully extended. Vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased in the medio-lateral (ML) malaligned squat compared with the control squat. In the antero-posterior (AP) malaligned squat, the vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased during initial descent and final ascent; however, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activation increased during initial ascent compared with the control squat. The biceps femoris and gastrocnemius displayed increased activation during both malaligned squats compared with the control squat. In conclusion, participants had altered muscle activation patterns during squats with intentional frontal and sagittal malalignment as demonstrated by changes in quadriceps, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius activation during the squat cycle.

  8. A research on the effects of practicing Baduanjin on the lower extremities by using sEMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Li; Li, Ran; Chen, Jing; Tian, Ye

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of practicing Baduanjin exercises on the lower extremities of subjects, using electromyography analysis, and values of IEMG were calculated. [Subjects] Forty, healthy adults were randomly assigned as subjects to two groups: SG (Study Group, n=20) who received twelve weeks of Baduanjin training, and CG (Control Group, n=20), who received no training. [Methods] A sixteen-channel sEMG system (ME6000, Mega Electronics Ltd., Kuopio, Finland) was selected to record and measure activity changes in two muscles (vastus medialis and vastus lateralis). [Results] After twelve-week of Baduanjin training, the results of this study showed that the SG group had significant increases in values of IEMG in second, fifth and seventh section of the Baduanjin exercises. In second section, the values of IEMG had increased for 56.95% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and for 40.04% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). In fifth section, the values of IEMG had increased for 37.61% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and for 33.83% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). In seventh section, the increasement of IEMG values was 47.19% in vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) and 49.31% in vastus medialis (p < 0.05). [Conclusion] This study indicated that performing twelve-week of Baduanjin training can significantly increase the strength and the physical function of the lower extremities among healthy adults. With no adverse events from exercise were reported during the training procedure, the safety and low intensity of Baduanjin exercise was also proved, it could be widely taken as an appropriate no-risk treatment exercise for healthy adults.

  9. Co-Expression of SERCA Isoforms, Phospholamban and Sarcolipin in Human Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Val A.; Bombardier, Eric; Vigna, Chris; Devji, Tahira; Bloemberg, Darin; Gamu, Daniel; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Tupling, A. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Sarcolipin (SLN) and phospholamban (PLN) inhibit the activity of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs) by reducing their apparent affinity for Ca2+. A ternary complex between SLN, PLN, and SERCAs results in super-inhibition of SERCA activity. Analysis of skeletal muscle homogenate has limited our current understanding of whether SLN and PLN regulate SERCA1a, SERCA2a, or both in skeletal muscle and whether SLN and PLN are co-expressed in skeletal muscle fibers. Biopsies from human vastus lateralis were analyzed through single fiber Western blotting and immunohisto/fluorescence staining to circumvent this limitation. With a newly generated SLN antibody, we report for the first time that SLN protein is present in human skeletal muscle. Addition of the SLN antibody (50 µg) to vastus lateralis homogenates increased the apparent Ca2+ affinity of SERCA (KCa, pCa units) (-Ab, 5.85 ± 0.02 vs. +Ab, 5.95 ± 0.02) and maximal SERCA activity (μmol/g protein/min) (-Ab, 122 ± 6.4 vs. +Ab, 159 ± 11) demonstrating a functional interaction between SLN and SERCAs in human vastus lateralis. Specifically, our results suggest that although SLN and PLN may preferentially regulate SERCA1a, and SERCA2a, respectively, physiologically they both may regulate either SERCA isoform. Furthermore, we show that SLN and PLN co-immunoprecipitate in human vastus lateralis homogenate and are simultaneously expressed in 81% of the fibers analyzed with Western blotting which implies that super-inhibition of SERCA may exist in human skeletal muscle. Finally, we demonstrate unequivocally that mouse soleus contains PLN protein suggesting that super-inhibition of SERCA may also be important physiologically in rodent skeletal muscle. PMID:24358354

  10. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  11. Exercise training-induced gender-specific heat shock protein adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morton, James P; Holloway, Kathryn; Woods, Paul; Cable, Nigel T; Burniston, Jatin; Evans, Louise; Kayani, Anna C; McArdle, Anne

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of short-term endurance training on heat shock protein (HSP) adaptations of male and female human skeletal muscle. The data demonstrate that females did not respond to continuous or interval training in terms of increasing HSP content of the vastus lateralis muscle. In contrast, males displayed HSP adaptations to both training interventions. These data provide a platform for future human studies to examine a potential gender-specific stress response to exercise.

  12. The topography of regio caudalis hypothalami in goose (Anser anser F. domestica).

    PubMed

    Rehák, P; Kostová, D; Boda, K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the topography of the caudal hypothalamic region of the goose on brain sections stained with luxol fast blue and cresyl violet in combination according to Klüver-Barrera (1953), or with cresyl violet (Nissl method). In the regio caudalis hypothalami of this bird we identified in agreement with Nomina anatomica avium (Breazile 1979): nucleus premamillaris (PM), nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML), nucleus mamillaris medialis (MM), nucleus supramamillaris interstitialis (SMI) and nucleus intercalatus (Ic).

  13. Recruitment of fibre types and quadriceps muscle portions during repeated, intense knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Mohr, Magni; González-Alonso, José; Bangsbo, Jens

    2004-10-01

    To investigate recruitment of slow-twitch (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) muscle fibres, as well as the involvement of the various quadriceps femoris muscle portions during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise, 12 healthy male subjects performed two 3-min exercise bouts at approximately 110% maximum thigh O2 consumption (EX1 and EX2) separated by 6 min rest. Single-fibre metabolites were determined in successive muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 6) and intra-muscular temperatures were continuously measured at six quadriceps muscle sites (n = 6). Creatine phosphate (CP) had decreased (P < 0.05) by 27, 73 and 88% in ST fibres and 25, 71 and 89% in FT fibres after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. CP was below resting mean-1 SD in 15, 46, 84 and 100% of the ST fibres and 9, 48, 85 and 100% of the FT fibres at rest, after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. A significant muscle temperature increase (deltaTm) occurred within 2-4 s at all quadriceps muscle sites. DeltaTm varied less than 10% between sites during EX1, but was 23% higher (P < 0.05) in the vastus lateralis than in the rectus femoris muscle during EX2. DeltaTm in the vastus lateralis was 101 and 109% of the mean quadriceps value during EX1 and EX2, respectively. We conclude that both fibre types and all quadriceps muscle portions are recruited at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise, that essentially all quadriceps muscle fibres are activated during repeated intense exercise and that metabolic measurements in the vastus lateralis muscle provide a good indication of the whole-quadriceps muscle metabolism during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise.

  14. A rapid biuret assay for protein of whole fatty tissues.

    PubMed

    Beyer, R E

    1983-03-01

    A rapid biuret procedure is described which avoids the turbidity that occurs with protein analysis of intact fatty tissues. Recovery is complete and absorbancy linear with both concentration of the soluble crystalline serum albumin standard and the volume of homogenate of a variety of tissues. This method has been used successfully for the determination of protein concentrations of homogenates of whole rat heart, liver, kidney, brain, lung, and the following muscles: gastrocnemius, interior and exterior obliques, red and white vastus lateralis, and soleus.

  15. Wildlife studies of Site 300 emphasizing rare and endangered species: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, S.

    1986-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive wildlife species on Site 300 that might be affected by Site operations and developments. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 15 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

  16. A new species of Heterachthes Newman, 1840 from Colombia (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Botero, Juan Pablo

    2017-02-13

    Heterachthes was originally created by Newman (1840) for a single species from the United States of America (Florida): H. ebenus Newman, 1840. Currently, Heterachthes encompasses 68 species distributed to southern USA to southern South America (Monné 2016; Tavakilian and Chevillotte 2016). Of these species, six occur in Colombia: H. concretus, Martins, 1970; H. ebenus; H. lateralis Martins, 1962; H. sablensis Blatchley, 1920; H. signaticollis (Thomson, 1865); and H. vauriae Martins, 1971.

  17. Angiogenesis-related factors in skeletal muscles of COPD patients: roles of angiopoietin-2.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Sigala, Ioanna; Vassilokopoulos, Theodoros; Harel, Sharon; Guo, Yeting; Debigare, Richard; Maltais, Francois; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2013-05-01

    The role of angiogenesis factors in skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. The first objective of this study was to assess various pro- and antiangiogenic factor and receptor expressions in the vastus lateralis muscles of control subjects and COPD patients. Preliminary inquiries revealed that angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is overexpressed in limb muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 promotes skeletal satellite cell survival and differentiation. Factors that are involved in regulating muscle ANGPT2 production are unknown. The second objective of this study was to evaluate how oxidants and proinflammatory cytokines influence muscle-derived ANGPT2 expression. Angiogenic gene expressions in human vastus lateralis biopsies were quantified with low-density real-time PCR arrays. ANGPT2 mRNA expressions in cultured skeletal myoblasts were quantified in response to proinflammatory cytokine and H2O2 exposure. Ten proangiogenesis genes, including ANGPT2, were significantly upregulated in the vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 mRNA levels correlated negatively with forced expiratory volume in 1 s and positively with muscle wasting. Immunoblotting confirmed that ANGPT2 protein levels were significantly greater in muscles of COPD patients compared with control subjects. ANGPT2 expression was induced by interferon-γ and -β and by hydrogen peroxide, but not by tumor necrosis factor. We conclude that upregulation of ANGPT2 expression in vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients is likely due to oxidative stress and represents a positive adaptive response aimed at facilitating myogenesis and angiogenesis.

  18. The Use of Distinctive Features for Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    pronouncing w . and the feature LATERALI from the right context. which associates with the raising of the tongue towards the palatal midline during the...ROUND] is realized by protruding the lips and drawing them relatively close, resulting in the lowering of the first three formants (especially F2 in most...peaks in some cases. thus making the network unduely sensi- tive to amplitude variations at formant locations. Furthermore, the synchrony response

  19. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.

  20. The effect of exercise on the skeletal muscle phospholipidome of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Todd W; Turner, Nigel; Else, Paul L; Hulbert, Anthony J; Hawley, John A; Lee, Jong Sam; Bruce, Clinton R; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy). The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks). Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  1. Medium-intensity, high-volume "hypertrophic" resistance training did not induce improvements in rapid force production in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60-72 years) performed 20 weeks of "hypertrophic" resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0-100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle activity was assessed during these tests by surface electromyogram of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed by panoramic ultrasound of the vastus lateralis. The intervention group increased their maximum isometric (from 2268 ± 544 to 2538 ± 701 N) and dynamic force production (from 137 ± 24 to 165 ± 29 kg), and these changes were significantly different to control (isometric 12 ± 16 vs. 1 ± 9 %; dynamic 21 ± 12 vs. 2 ± 4 %). No within- or between-group differences were observed in rapid isometric force or concentric power. Relative increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area trended to be statistically greater in the intervention group (10 ± 8 vs. 3 ± 6 %, P = 0.061). It is recommendable that resistance training programs for older individuals integrate protocols emphasizing maximum force/muscle hypertrophy and rapid force production in order to induce comprehensive health-related and functionally important improvements in this population.

  2. Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry of an elite sprinter, the African cheetah.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Dobson, G P; Mathieu-Costello, O; Morsbach, D; Worley, M B; Phillips, J A

    1997-11-01

    To establish a skeletal muscle profile for elite sprinters, we obtained muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius and soleus of African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Muscle ultrastructure was characterized by the fiber type composition and mitochondrial volume density of each sample. Maximum enzyme activity, myoglobin content and mixed fiber metabolite content were used to assess the major biochemical pathways. The results demonstrate a preponderance of fast-twitch fibers in the locomotor muscles of cheetahs; 83% of the total number of fibers examined in the vastus lateralis and nearly 61% of the gastrocnemius were comprised of fast-twitch fibers. The total mitochondrial volume density of the limb muscles ranged from 2.0 to 3.9% for two wild cheetahs. Enzyme activities reflected the sprinting capability of the cheetah. Maximum activities for pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis were 1519.00 +/- 203.60 and 1929.25 +/- 482.35 mumol min-1.g wet wt-1, respectively, and indicated a high capacity for glycolysis. This study demonstrates that the locomotor muscles of cheetahs are poised for anaerobically based exercise. Fiber type composition, mitochondrial content and glycolytic enzyme capacities in the locomotor muscles of these sprinting cats are at the extreme range of values for other sprinters bred or trained for this activity including greyhounds, thoroughbred horses and elite human athletes.

  3. Muscle activity in the lower limbs during push-down movement with a new active-exercise apparatus for the leg

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Irie, Shun; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lower-limb deep vein thrombosis is a complication of orthopedic surgery. A leg-exercise apparatus named “LEX” was developed as a novel active-exercise apparatus for deep vein thrombosis prevention. Muscle activity was evaluated to assess the effectiveness of exercise with LEX in the prevention. [Subjects] Eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Muscle activities were determined through electromyography during exercise with LEX [LEX (+)] and during active ankle movements [LEX (−)]. The end points were peak % maximum voluntary contraction and % integrated electromyogram of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus. [Results] LEX (+) resulted in higher average values in all muscles except the tibialis anterior. Significant differences were noted in the peak of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius and in the integrated electromyogram of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. The LEX (+)/LEX (−) ratio of the peak was 2.2 for the biceps femoris and 2.0 for the gastrocnemius . The integrated electromyogram was 1.8 for the gastrocnemius, 1.5 for the rectus femoris, 1.4 for the vastus lateralis, and 1.2 for the soleus. [Conclusion] Higher muscle activity was observed with LEX (+). LEX might be a good tool for increasing lower-limb blood flow and deep vein thrombosis prevention. PMID:27134410

  4. Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed.

  5. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles.

  6. Evidence of muscular adaptations within four weeks of barbell training in women.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Mota, Jacob A; Hernandez, Jennah M; Akalonu, Chibuzo C; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the time course of neuromuscular and hypertrophic adaptations associated with only four weeks of barbell squat and deadlift training. Forty-seven previously untrained women (mean±SD, age=21±3years) were randomly assigned to low volume training (n=15), moderate volume training (n=16), and control (n=16) groups. The low and moderate volume training groups performed two and four sets, respectively, of five repetitions per exercise, twice a week. Testing was performed weekly, and included dual X-ray absorptiometry and vastus lateralis and rectus femoris B-mode ultrasonography. Bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the leg extensors. Significant increases in lean mass for the combined gynoid and leg regions for the low (+0.68kg) and moderate volume (+0.47kg) groups were demonstrated within three weeks. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were shown for leg lean mass, vastus lateralis thickness and pennation angle, and peak torque, but EMG amplitude was unaffected. These findings demonstrated rapid muscular adaptations in response to only eight sessions of back squat and deadlift training in women despite the absence of changes in agonist-antagonist EMG amplitude.

  7. Proteomic analysis of venom variability and ontogeny across the arboreal palm-pitvipers (genus Bothriechis).

    PubMed

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Sasa, Mahmood; Acevedo, Manuel E; Dwyer, Quetzal; Durban, Jordi; Pérez, Alicia; Rodriguez, Yania; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J

    2017-01-30

    Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B. thalassinus, B. aurifer, and B. bicolor from Guatemala, B. marchi from Honduras, and neonate Costa Rican B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, were investigated. B. thalassinus and B. aurifer venoms are comprised by similar toxin arsenals dominated by SVMPs (33-39% of the venom proteome), CTLs (11-16%), BPP-like molecules (10-13%), and CRISPs (5-10%), and are characterized by the absence of PLA2 proteins. Conversely, the predominant (35%) components of B. bicolor are D49-PLA2 molecules. The venom proteome of B. marchi is similar to B. aurifer and B. thalassinus in that it is rich in SVMPs and BPPs, but also contains appreciable amounts (14.3%) of PLA2s. The major toxin family found in the venoms of both neonate B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, is serine proteinase (SVSP), comprising about 20% of their toxin arsenals. The venom of neonate B. schlegelii is the only palm-pitviper venom where relative high amounts of Kunitz-type (6.3%) and γPLA2 (5.2%) inhibitors have been identified. Despite notable differences between their proteomes, neonate venoms are more similar to each other than to adults of their respective species. However, the ontogenetic changes taking place in the venom of B. lateralis strongly differ from those that occur in the venom of B. schlegelii. Thus, the ontogenetic change in B. lateralis produces a SVMP

  8. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  9. Distribution of Endomorphin-like-immunoreactive neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Ganesh, C B

    2017-02-08

    Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer. While the extensions of EM-L-ir fibres were seen along the medial olfactory tract, intensely labeled EM-L-ir somata were found in different subdivisions of the telencephalon. In the diencephalon, intensely stained EM-L-ir neurones were noticed in the preoptic area, the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis (NLTl) and the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars medialis (NLTm) regions, whereas projections of EM-L-ir fibres were also seen along the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract suggested a possible hypophysiotrophic role for these neurones. Intense to moderately stained EM-L-ir neurones were noticed in different subdivisions of thalamic nucleus such as the dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, commissura posterior, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, nucleus posterior tuberis, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus and medial preglomerular nucleus. Numerous intensely stained perikarya and axonal fibres were also noticed throughout the inferior lobe, along the periventricular margin of the reccessus lateralis, and in the nucleus recesus lateralis regions. In addition, numerous moderately labeled EM-like neuronal populations were found in the secondary gustatory nucleus and rostral spinal cord. The widespread distribution of EM-L-ir neurones throughout the brain and spinal cord indicate diverse roles for these cells in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory responses for the first time in fish

  10. Updates in immunoassays: virology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Virus identification is a challenge to the clinical microbiologist since growing viruses in traditional cell culture is labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to contamination. The advent of rapid and automated immunoassays has eliminated this problem by generating positive results in minutes to hours. For example, testing for infectious mononucleosis can yield a positive result in 3-8 minutes as seen with the Beckman Coulter, Inc. ICON Mono test or in 5-15 minutes with the MONO Mononucleosis Rapid Test Device marketed by ACON Laboratories, Inc. Fully automated immunoassay analyzers provide fast, accurate, sensitive results that aid in a prompt and accurate diagnosis for the patient. Turnaround times are shortened, allowing for timely medical intervention and treatment. The priority in any hospital or medical facility is to treat the patient as quickly and appropriately as possible. By using immunoassays, clinical laboratory professionals are able to report out correct results in a timely manner, ensuring overall positive patient outcomes and improved quality of healthcare.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of TJ-8117 (Onpi-to), a drug for renal failure (I): Plasma concentration, distribution and excretion of [3H]-(-)epicatechin 3-O-gallate in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yukiho; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Morota, Takashi; Tomisawa, Hiroki; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    TJ-8117 (Onpi-to) is an herbal medicine extracted from a mixture of five crude medicinals (Rhei Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ginseng Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Aconiti Tuber), which has been developed as a drug for chronic renal failure. (-)Epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), one of the active components of TJ-8117, was labeled with tritium and added to TJ-8117. Pharmacokinetics in plasma, tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity were investigated following a single oral administration of TJ-8117 containing [3H]ECG ([3H]TJ-8117) in rats and dogs. 1. Following oral administration of [3H]TJ-8117, radioactivity exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in Cmax. Linearity of AUC(0-72 h) was lost at the highest dose of [3H]TJ-8117. Cmax and AUC(0-72 h) were higher in female rats than in male rats, a finding which suggested a sex difference in rats. Plasma levels of radioactivity displayed curves with one peak in dogs, which suggested a species difference between rats and dogs. 2. No accumulation was observed in any tissues in male rats. 3. Within 168 h after administration of [3H]TJ-8117 to male rats, 18.7%, 84.1% and 0.9% of the dose was excreted in urine, feces and expired air, respectively. Data from bile-duct cannulated rats indicated that at least 18.4% of the dose was absorbed.

  12. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  13. Nonlinear resonances of a single-wall carbon nanotube cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. K.; Lee, S. I.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of an electrostatically actuated carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever are discussed by theoretical and numerical approaches. Electrostatic and intermolecular forces between the single-walled CNT and a graphene electrode are considered. The CNT cantilever is analyzed by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, including its geometric and inertial nonlinearities, and a one-mode projection based on the Galerkin approximation and numerical integration. Static pull-in and pull-out behaviors are adequately represented by an asymmetric two-well potential with the total potential energy consisting of the CNT elastic energy, electrostatic energy, and the Lennard-Jones potential energy. Nonlinear dynamics of the cantilever are simulated under DC and AC voltage excitations and examined in the frequency and time domains. Under AC-only excitation, a superharmonic resonance of order 2 occurs near half of the primary frequency. Under both DC and AC loads, the cantilever exhibits linear and nonlinear primary and secondary resonances depending on the strength of the excitation voltages. In addition, the cantilever has dynamic instabilities such as periodic or chaotic tapping motions, with a variation of excitation frequency at the resonance branches. High electrostatic excitation leads to complex nonlinear responses such as softening, multiple stability changes at saddle nodes, or period-doubling bifurcation points in the primary and secondary resonance branches.

  14. [Influence of combination on the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in sini decoctions by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huai-Bin; Hong, Yan-Long; Wang, You-Jie; Shen, Lan; Wu, Fei; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The paper is to report the establishment of an HPLC specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini decoctions and the influence of combination on the specific chromatogram. The RP-HPLC method was used with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm), and acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase. Flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was set at 232 nm. The temperature of column was 30 degrees C. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions. Twenty peaks were selected as specific peaks in Sini Decoction with liquiritin peak as the reference peak. Six of them were from Glycyrrhiza and the other 6 peaks were from both Glycyrrhiza and Ganjiangfuzi Decoction. The areas of specific peaks of Sini Decoctions were smaller than those in the chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza. The specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions is markedly influenced by Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli and Rhizoma Zingiberis. The areas of the specific peaks in Sini Decoctions were reduced obviously. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions.

  15. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  16. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests.

    PubMed

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima

    2016-12-01

    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama(®), Bio-Rad(®), Biomerieux(®), DiaSorin(®), Acon Biotech(®) and Biokit(®)), three CLIA (Abbott(®), Siemens(®), Diasorin(®)) and one ECLIA (Roche(®)) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test, the Tigris System(®) Procleix Ultrio Assay(®) and the Bio-Manguinhos(®) HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott(®) and Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  17. Improving thrust by pulse-induced breakdown enhancement in AC surface dielectric barrier discharge actuators for airflow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huijie; Yang, Liang; Qi, Xiaohua; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a plate-to-plate AC surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator using the pulse-induced breakdown enhancing method are experimentally investigated. The encapsulated electrode is supplied with a sine high AC voltage, while the exposed electrode is feed by a synchronized pulse voltage. Based on the thrust force and power consumption measurements, a parametric study was performed using a positive pulse applied at the trough phase of the AC cycles in which the thrust force was observed to increase by about 100% to 300% and the efficiency up to about 100% compared with the AC-only supply conditions for different AC voltages within the tested range. The pulse-induced breakdown effect was analyzed from the electrical and light emission waveforms to reveal the underlying mechanism. The surface potential due to the charge deposition effect was also measured using a specially designed corona-like discharge potential probe. It is shown that the pulse-induced breakdown was able to cause a temporarily intensified local electric field to enhance the glow-like discharge and meanwhile increase the time-average surface potential in the region further downstream. The improvement in the force by the enhancement in the pulse-induced breakdown was mainly due to enhancements in the glow-like discharge and the surface potential increment, with the latter being more important when the AC voltage is higher.

  18. Sentinel node radioguided biopsy in surgical management of the medullary thyroid carcinoma A case report.

    PubMed

    Boni, Giuseppe; Mazzarri, Sara; Grosso, Mariano; Manca, Giampiero; Biricotti, Marco; Ambrosini, Carlo Enrico; Fregoli, Lorenzo; Puccini, Marco; Caldarelli, Claudio; Spisni, Roberto

    2014-01-21

    Il carcinoma midollare della tiroide è raro. Il suo trattamento è chirurgico e consiste in una tiroidectomia totale associata a dissezione dei linfonodi centrali. L’opportunità della linfoadenectomia dei linfonodi cervicali laterali è argomento controverso. Per ridurre l’estensione della dissezione dei linfonodi laterocervicali ai casi in cui tale procedura sia effettivamente necessaria abbiamo eseguito la tecnica della biopsia del linfonodo sentinella, già praticata in altra patologia tumorale, in un caso di carcinoma midollare, sporadico, diagnosticato con ecografia, determinazione dei livelli di calcitonina serica e citologia dell’agoaspirato. All’ecografia non si evidenziavano linfonodi cervicali centrali o laterali. Abbiamo eseguito mappaggio preoperatorio dei linfonodi sentinella iniettando Tecnezio 99-m nel nodulo tiroideo. La paziente è stata poi sottoposta a tiroidectomia totale e biopsia radioguidata dei linfonodi sentinella. L’esame istologico ha confermato la presenza di un carcinoma midollare della tiroide e di micrometastasi in due linfonodi sentinella situati nel compartimento laterale destro. Dopo la tiroidectomia l’intervento è stato completato con dissezione dei compartimenti centrale e laterala destro. Al followup non sono stati rilevati livelli di calcitonina serica nè basali nè dopo stimolazione con pentagastrina. Si tratta del primo caso, riportato in letteratura, che dimostra l’utilità della biopsia radioguidata del linfonodo sentinella nella stadiazione linfonodale e del trattamento chirurgico del microcarcinoma midollare della tiroide. Tale biopsia può essere utile ad eseguire la dissezione linfonodale laterale solo nei pazienti con provato coinvolgimento dei linfonodi laterali del collo e quindi a ridurre l’entità della dissezione e delle relative complicanze.

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities and leg muscle characteristics in elite orienteers.

    PubMed

    Rolf, C; Andersson, G; Westblad, P; Saltin, B

    1997-02-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities, leg muscle structure and metabolic characteristics of m. vastus lateralis (NT), m. rectus femoris (RG) and mm. gastrocnemii (NT and RG) were analysed in five male and seven female elite orienteers from the Swedish National team (NT) and a reference group (RG) of eight male and 10 female upcoming orienteers, all in optimal shape at the end of a competitive season. Maximal oxygen uptake was 78.4 ml/kg/min for NT men (range 75-81) and 67.8 ml/kg/min for NT women (range 62-71), for both groups significantly higher (P < 0.001) than for RG. Maximal serum lactate was 13.3 mmol/l for NT men (range 10-17) and 11.7 mmol/l for NT women (range 8.4-14), which did not differ from RG. No significant correlation was found between maximal oxygen uptake and maximal serum lactate. For NT females only maximal oxygen uptake was significantly related to running economy (P < 0.01). Muscle biopsies showed a high content of type I fibres in m. vastus lateralis as well as in m. gastrocnemius mediale. M. vastus lateralis (NT) had a higher proportion of type I fibres, capillaries per fibre as well as CS, HAD and LDH 1-2 enzymes compared with m. rectus femoris (RG) (P < 0.001-< 0.001), the latter muscle showing a more anaerobic profile. NT males and females had a higher metabolic potential in m. gastrocnemius mediale than RG (P < 0.001). Our results reflect an obligate high and narrow range of aerobic and anaerobic work capacities for successful performance in international elite orienteering. It remains to be shown how these laboratory data are related to individual performance in authentic orienteering competitions.

  20. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  1. Concurrent Exercise on a Gravity-Independent Device during Simulated Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Joshua A.; Yu, Alvin; Haddad, Fadia; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Baker, Michael J.; Tesch, Per A.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of a high-intensity concurrent training program utilizing a single gravity-independent device on maintaining skeletal muscle function and aerobic capacity during short-term unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Methods Nineteen subjects (10 male; 9 female; 21.0 ± 2.5 yr, 65.4 ± 12.2 kg) were separated into 2 groups: 1) 10 day unilateral lower limb suspension only (ULLS; n = 9) and 2) 10 day ULLS plus aerobic and resistance training (ULLS+EX; n = 10). Exercise was performed on a single gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) with alternating days of high-intensity interval aerobic training and maximal exertion resistance training. Results Aerobic capacity increased by 7% in ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor three repetition max increased in the ULLS+EX group (P < 0.05) but this change was only different than ULLS in the plantar flexors (P < 0.05). Peak torque levels decreased with ULLS but were increased for the knee extensors and attenuated for the ankle plantar flexors with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). A shift towards type IIx myosin heavy chain mRNA occurred with ULLS and was reversed with ULLS+EX in the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05) but not the soleus. Myostatin and atrogin increased with ULLS in both the vastus lateralis and soleus but this change was mitigated with ULLS+EX only in the vastus lateralis (P = 0.0551 for myostatin; P < 0.05 for atrogin). Citrate synthase was decreased in the soleus during ULLS but was increased with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that an M-MED class countermeasure device appears to be effective at mitigating the deconditioning effects of microgravity simulated during a modified-ULLS protocol. PMID:25160844

  2. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  3. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    PubMed

    Beadell, Jon S; Atkins, Colm; Cashion, Erin; Jonker, Michelle; Fleischer, Robert C

    2007-09-19

    Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis) and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae) and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in shaping the unique

  4. [Primary thinning and de-epithelialization of microsurgical transplants from the lateral thigh].

    PubMed

    Wolff, K D; Plath, T; Frege, J; Hoffmeister, B

    2000-03-01

    To expand the indicational spectrum of the myocutaneous vastus lateralis flap, which is often too voluminous for intraoral application, we performed extreme, primary thinning of the fat and muscle component of this microsurgical transplant in 14 patients. After subfascial localization of the 0.5- to 1.0-mm-thick perforating vessel, it is exposed through the fascia and muscles up to its exit from the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. After isolating the perforating vessel, it is no longer necessary to include parts of the vastus lateralis muscle in the flap. The fatty tissue of the remaining epifascial fat component is completely removed except for a ca. 1- to 2-cm-wide cuff of fatty tissue and fascia around the perforating vessel. When performing this primary radical removal of the subcutaneous fatty tissue, care should be taken not to injure the deep subdermal vascular plexus. In addition to the thinning procedure, de-epithelialization of the skin was performed using scalpel blade dissection (five patients) or carbon dioxide laser (6 W, five patients). This thinning technique was used for covering ten intraoral and four extraoral defects and enabled the raising of skin flaps with a thickness of 3-5 mm even in obese patients. The vessel pedicle length of thinned flaps was between 12 and 16 cm; flap size varied between 4 x 5 and 9 x 15 cm, and the donor sites were directly closed. In one case, there was a partial necrosis (20%), but the remaining flaps healed without complications. On the intraoral flaps, a thin, smooth and pliable surface developed after re-epithelialization within 3-6 weeks. The described method expands the application possibilities of the myocutaneous vastus lateralis flap for a large number of intraoral and flat defects with minimal donor-site morbidity.

  5. A simple and rapid method for the determination of the concentrations of magnesium, sodium, potassium and sodium, potassium pumps in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dørup, I; Skajaa, K; Clausen, T

    1988-03-01

    1. For the diagnosis of electrolyte disorders, data on skeletal muscle composition are often valuable, but rarely available. We have therefore developed a simple and rapid needle biopsy procedure for the determination of the concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Na+, K+-pumps in muscle. 2. Using a Bergström needle, biopsies weighing around 25 mg were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of 18 normal subjects (aged 44-86 years) and extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The concentrations of K+, Na+ and Mg2+ were 90.7 +/- 1.8, 31.9 +/- 1.6 and 9.5 +/- 0.2 mumol/g wet wt., respectively (means +/- SE). 3. The TCA extraction gave the same values as digestion with 65% HNO3 or 35% H2O2, could be used over the weight range 10-55 mg and showed a Mg2+ recovery of 101.7%. 4. The concentration of Na+, K+-pumps was quantified as the total capacity for [3H]ouabain binding. In vastus lateralis biopsies obtained from six normal subjects the mean value was 258 +/- 16 pmol/g wet wt. 5. Comparison of the concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and [3H]ouabain-binding sites in samples obtained post mortem showed modest variation among different muscles with varying fibre composition. 6. Measurements of the concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Na+, K+-pumps in duplicate biopsies of the vastus lateralis yield values which seen representative for the total pool of skeletal muscle fibres and can be performed within a few hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Immunological Change in a Parasite-Impoverished Environment: Divergent Signals from Four Island Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Beadell, Jon S.; Atkins, Colm; Cashion, Erin; Jonker, Michelle; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis) and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae) and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in shaping the unique

  7. Influence of Tracer Selection on Protein Synthesis Rates at Rest and Post-Exercise in Multiple Human Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Harber, Matthew P.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Crane, Justin D.; Trappe, Scott W.; Trappe, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of tracer selection on mixed muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) at rest and post-exercise during amino acid infusion in multiple human skeletal muscles. FSR was measured before and 24h after 45-min of running using simultaneous infusion of [2H5]-phenylalanine (Phe) and [2H3]-leucine (Leu) coupled with muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and soleus in aerobically-trained men (n=8; age 26±2 yr). Mixed muscle protein FSR was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with a standard curve using the enriched muscle tissue fluid (MTF) as the precursor pool. To control for potential analytical differences between tracers, all samples and standards for both tracers were matched for m+0 abundance. Tracer selection did not influence resting FSR for the vastus lateralis or soleus (P>0.05). FSR measured 24h post-exercise was higher (P<0.05) compared to rest and was similar between tracers for the vastus lateralis (Phe: 0.110±0.010; Leu: 0.109±0.005 %·h−1) and soleus (Phe: 0.123±0.008; Leu: 0.122±0.005 %·h−1). These data demonstrate that tracer selection does not influence the assessment of resting or post-exercise FSR, thereby supporting the use of both [2H5]-phenylalanine and [2H3]-leucine for the measurement of FSR in exercise based studies of human skeletal muscle. PMID:20822780

  8. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.3±0.5 to 14.8±0.86 L · min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.6 nM · s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 7.2±1.4 nM · s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM · s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ∼17.0±2.9 μM) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ∼5.3±2.7 μM) (Cohen's d: 4.17 μM). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles.

  9. Eccentric contraction-induced injury to type I, IIa, and IIa/IIx muscle fibers of elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Jun; Lim, Jae-Young; Nibaldi, Eva G; Phillips, Edward M; Frontera, Walter R; Fielding, Roger A; Widrick, Jeffrey J

    2012-02-01

    Muscles of old laboratory rodents experience exaggerated force losses after eccentric contractile activity. We extended this line of inquiry to humans and investigated the influence of fiber myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content on the injury process. Skinned muscle fiber segments, prepared from vastus lateralis biopsies of elderly men and women (78 ± 2 years, N = 8), were subjected to a standardized eccentric contraction (strain, 0.25 fiber length; velocity, 0.50 unloaded shortening velocity). Injury was assessed by evaluating pre- and post-eccentric peak Ca(2+)-activated force per fiber cross-sectional area (F (max)). Over 90% of the variability in post-eccentric F (max) could be explained by a multiple linear regression model consisting of an MHC-independent slope, where injury was directly related to pre-eccentric F (max), and MHC-dependent y-intercepts, where the susceptibility to injury could be described as type IIa/IIx fibers > type IIa fibers > type I fibers. We previously reported that fiber type susceptibility to the same standardized eccentric protocol was type IIa/IIx > type IIa = type I for vastus lateralis fibers of 25-year-old adults (Choi and Widrick, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299:C1409-C1417, 2010). Modeling combined data sets revealed significant age by fiber type interactions, with post-eccentric F (max) deficits greater for type IIa and type IIa/IIx fibers from elderly vs. young subjects at constant pre-eccentric F (max). We conclude that the resistance of the myofilament lattice to mechanical strain has deteriorated for type IIa and type IIa/IIx, but not for type I, vastus lateralis fibers of elderly adults.

  10. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  11. Open dorsal vertebroplasty of the axis.

    PubMed

    Guerre, Pascal; Kröber, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Vertebroplasty of the axis is always a challenging procedure. We report the case of a young, HIV-positive patient suffering from an osteolytic metastasis of the axis. An open dorsal vertebroplasty was performed. A leakage of the cement formed a new cortical bone of the massa lateralis of C2, and stabilized the C1-C2 articulation by an arthrodesis-like effect. Durable pain relief and stabilization were obtained. The location of the cement, although atypical, had all desired effects of a conventional vertebroplasty. The intra-articular injection of cement into the facets for stabilization and pain relief could be considered in the future.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Phytophthora ramorum, P. nemorosa, and P. pseudosyringae, three species recovered from areas in California with sudden oak death.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frank N; Tooley, Paul W

    2003-12-01

    Sudden oak death has been an emerging disease problem in coastal California and has caused significant losses in forest ecosystems in some regions of the state. The causal agent of this disease has been described as Phytophthora ramorum with two other less aggressive species, P. nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, recovered from some symptomatic plants. The phylogenetic relationship of these species with other members of the genus was examined by sequence alignment of 667 bp of the mitochondrially-encoded cytochrome oxidase II gene and the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. P. ramorum was most closely related to P. hibernalis and P. lateralis in trees from both regions, although the specific relationship among species differed depending on the tree. In the cox II tree these species were on a single clade with P. lateralis basal to a group containing P. ramorum and P. hibernalis. On the maximum parsimony ITS tree P. ramorum was most closely affiliated with P. lateralis and in the same clade as P. hibernalis, but with maximum likelihood analysis P. ramorum was basal to a grouping of P. hibernalis and P. lateralis. While bootstrap support was strong for the grouping of these species together, it was not for determining the relationship among them. In contrast to the cox II tree, the clade containing these three species grouped with P. cryptogea, P. drechsleri, P. erythroseptica, and P. syringae in the ITS tree. Since the same isolates of these species were used for both the cox II and ITS sequence analysis, this difference in species grouping suggests either a differential rate of evolutionary divergence for these two regions, incorrect assumptions about alignment of ITS sequences, or different evolutionary histories of the regions under study. Analysis of combined cox II and ITS data sets gave trees where the relationships among these species were the same as for the ITS tree alone, although the results of the partition homogeneity test (P=0

  13. Cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Amino, Y; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Gemba, H

    2001-08-17

    The cerebello-thalamo-posterior parietal cortical projections were investigated electrophysiologically and morphologically in macaque monkeys. In anesthetized monkeys, electrical stimulation of every cerebellar nucleus evoked marked surface-positive, depth-negative (s-P, d-N) cortical field potentials in the superior parietal lobule and the cortical bank of the intraparietal sulcus, but no responses in the inferior parietal lobule. Tract-tracing experiments combining the anterograde method with the retrograde one indicated that the interposed and lateral cerebellar nuclei projected to the posterior parietal cortex mainly through the nucleus ventral lateralis caudalis of the thalamus. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with cognitive functions.

  14. Temporoparietal-occipital flap for facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moretti, E; Garcia, F G

    2001-04-01

    Eight patients with an extensive facial defect of the masseter region were reconstructed with a temporoparietal- occipital rotation flap. This flap is vascularized by both the arteria auricularis posterior and the arteria occipitalis lateralis. These vessels have been sufficient to ensure viability of the entire flap. It is elevated and easily transposed to the masseter region because of the distensibility obtained from the posterior neck. This approach avoided the need for an unsightly skin graft at the site while providing tissue with hair follicles that blend well with the surrounding hair. This large flap offers cosmetic advantages over other techniques for coverage of facial defects in men.

  15. Chemical analysis of surface hydrocarbons in fireflies by direct contact extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shibue, Keiko; Goto, Yoshimasa; Kawashima, Itsuro; Shibue, Toshimichi

    2004-12-01

    We characterized three Japanese firefly species (Luciola lateralis, Luciola cruciata, and Lucidina biplagiata) and three North American firefly species (Lucidota atra, Photuris lucicrescens, and Photuris cinctipennis) based on their surface hydrocarbons. The analysis of firefly extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed clear differences in the chromatographic profiles and mass spectra. Each firefly could be distinguished by its GC-MS profile. A major difference was observed between Japanese fireflies and North American fireflies. Among the North American fireflies, non-luminous fireflies, Lucidota atra, showed much more complicated GC-MS profile than those of luminous fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and Photuris cinctipennis.

  16. An aquatic light trap designed for live capture of predatory Tropisternus sp (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) larvae in Arkansas rice fields.

    PubMed

    Dennett, J A; Meisch, M V

    2001-12-01

    Construction of an aquatic light trap developed for the live capture of 3rd-stage larvae of predatory Tropisternus sp. for use in laboratory bioassays against larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae is described. On 10 occasions, an average of 5.2 traps was used per evening, resulting in 52 trap-nights that accumulated 106.7 h of trapping time, or an average of 10.6 h per trap. Use of 2 heavy-duty alkaline D-sized batteries and appropriate in-circuit resistance effectively increased bulb life and trap operating time, ranging from 22 to 36 h. During both seasons, approximately 3 wk after permanent flooding of large rice fields was the most productive period in which to capture larvae of Tropisternus sp. Live trapping worked well and provided numerous larvae of Tropisternus sp. for use in laboratory predation bioassays with An. quadrimaculatus and Ps. columbiae larvae. Six hundred fifteen 3rd-stage larvae of Tropisternus sp. and 740 adult Tropisternus lateralis were captured in aquatic light traps in 1999 and 2000. Of traps containing larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis, average numbers of 15.3 and 19.4 were captured per trap, respectively. Among all traps, the largest nightly captures of larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis consisted of 263 and 404 specimens, respectively. The largest single trap captures for larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis were 94 and 184, respectively. Additionally, 478 rice water weevils (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus) also were captured. Rice water weevils averaged 36.7 per trap, with the largest single trap capture of 102 weevils on an evening where 287 weevils were captured among all traps. Other predatory insect species were captured infrequently, consisting primarily of 3rd-stage larvae of Hydrophilus triangularis and adult belostomatids, dytiscids, and notonectids. Predatory larvae of H. triangularis may have been attracted to the traps by the presence of larval Tropisternus sp. Larval

  17. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  18. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species

    PubMed Central

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B.; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R.; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Black-flanked rock-wallabies (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) can reach high numbers in fragmented populations in the West Australian wheat-belt, where they can damage crops and cause habitat degradation. As they are threatened, we wanted a non-permanent control method that did not adversely affect the body condition of treated females compared to untreated females, using body condition as an indicator of general health and fitness. We gave adult female rock-wallabies deslorelin contraceptive implants to suppress their fertility and monitored the impact for three years. Treated females did not conceive new young for over two years. We did not detect any negative effects on body condition, suggesting that deslorelin may be an effective tool for managing overabundant populations of marsupials. Abstract Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus ‘unwanted’ when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with

  19. Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Fiber size and myosin phenotypes of selected rhesus lower limb muscles after a 14-day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bodine, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Talmadge, R. J.; Barkhoudarian, G.; Kim, J.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsies were taken from the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) soleus (Sol, a slow ankle extensor), medial gastrocnemius (MG, a fast ankle extensor), tibialis anterior (TA, a fast ankle flexor), and vastus lateralis (VL, a fast knee extensor) muscles in vivarium controls (n=5) before and after either a 14-day spaceflight (Bion 11, n=2) or a 14-day ground-based flight simulation (n=3). Myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition (gel electrophoresis), fiber type distribution (immunohistochemistry), and fiber size were determined. Although there were no significant changes, each muscle showed trends towards adaptation.

  1. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: A RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Bandholm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. Study Design A randomized cross-over study. Methods Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. Results Data from 23 of the 24 included patients were analyzed. Muscle activity was significantly higher during rapid knee-extensions (120.2% [10th-90th percentile: 98.3-149.1]) compared to slow knee-extensions (106.0% [88.8-140.8]) for the vastus lateralis (p<0.01), but not for the vastus medialis (120.8% [90.4-134.0]) and (121.8% [93.0-133.0]) (p = 0.17), respectively. Slow and rapid knee-extensions were performed at a median angular velocity of 19.7 degrees/sec (13.7-24.4) and 51.4 degrees/sec (28.9-63.1), respectively Conclusion Four to eight weeks after their total knee arthroplasty, the patients in the present study were able to conduct rapid knee-extensions according to the experimental protocol with an approximately doubled angular velocity compared to slow knee-extensions. This was associated with

  2. Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jules, Erik S.; Carroll, Allyson L.; Garcia, Andrea M.; Steenbock, Christopher M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pathogens are becoming increasingly important in forested ecosystems, yet they are often difficult to study because of their rapid transmission. The rate and extent of pathogen spread are thought to be partially controlled by variation in host characteristics, such as when host size and location influence susceptibility. Few host-pathogen systems, however, have been used to test this prediction. We used Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), a foundation tree species in riparian areas of California and Oregon (USA), and the invasive oomycete Phytophthora lateralis to assess pathogen impacts and the role of host characteristics on invasion. Across three streams that had been infected for 13–18 years by P. lateralis, we mapped 2241 trees and determined whether they had been infected using dendrochronology. The infection probability of trees was governed by host size (diameter at breast height [DBH]) and geomorphic position (e.g., active channel, stream bank, floodplain, etc.) similarly across streams. For instance, only 23% of trees <20 cm DBH were infected, while 69% of trees ≥20 cm DBH were infected. Presumably, because spores of P. lateralis are transported downstream in water, they are more likely to encounter well-developed root systems of larger trees. Also because of this water-transport of spores, differences in infection probability were found across the geomorphic positions: 59% of cedar in the active channel and the stream bank (combined) were infected, while 23% of trees found on higher geomorphic types were infected. Overall, 32% of cedar had been infected across the three streams. However, 63% of the total cedar basal area had been killed, because the greatest number of trees, and the largest trees, were found in the most susceptible positions. In the active channel and stream bank, 91% of the basal area was infected, while 46% was infected across higher geomorphic positions. The invasion of Port Orford cedar populations by

  3. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  4. Distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the pigeon visual thalamic centers and related pretectal and mesencephalic nuclei. Phylogenetic and functional determinants.

    PubMed

    Belekhova, Margarita G; Chudinova, Tatiana V; Rio, Jean-Paul; Tostivint, Hérve; Vesselkin, Nikolai P; Kenigfest, Natalia B

    2016-01-15

    Multichannel processing of environmental information constitutes a fundamental basis of functioning of sensory systems in the vertebrate brain. Two distinct parallel visual systems - the tectofugal and thalamofugal exist in all amniotes. The vertebrate central nervous system contains high concentrations of intracellular calcium-binding proteins (CaBPrs) and each of them has a restricted expression pattern in different brain regions and specific neuronal subpopulations. This study aimed at describing the patterns of distribution of parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) in the visual thalamic and mesencephalic centers of the pigeon (Columba livia). We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and double labeling immunofluorescent technique. Structures studied included the thalamic relay centers involved in the tectofugal (nucleus rotundus, Rot) and thalamofugal (nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars dorsalis, GLd) visual pathways as well as pretectal, mesencephalic, isthmic and thalamic structures inducing the driver and/or modulatory action to the visual processing. We showed that neither of these proteins was unique to the Rot or GLd. The Rot contained i) numerous PV-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and a dense neuropil, and ii) a few CB-ir neurons mostly located in the anterior dorsal part and associated with a light neuropil. These latter neurons partially overlapped with the former and some of them colocalized both proteins. The distinct subnuclei of the GLd were also characterized by different patterns of distribution of CaBPrs. Some (nucleus dorsolateralis anterior, pars magnocellularis, DLAmc; pars lateralis, DLL; pars rostrolateralis, DLAlr; nucleus lateralis anterior thalami, LA) contained both CB- and PV-ir neurons in different proportions with a predominance of the former in the DLAmc and DLL. The nucleus lateralis dorsalis of nuclei optici principalis thalami only contained PV-ir neurons and a neuropil similar to the interstitial pretectal/thalamic nuclei of the

  5. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  6. HABITAT EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC CREATURES USING HSI MODEL CONSIDERING THE RIVER WATER TEMPERATURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukazawa, Kei; Shiraiwa, Jun-Ichi; Kazama, So

    Habitats of aquatic creatures (fishes Oncorhynchus masou masou, Plecoglossus altivelis altivel and Cyprinus carpio, fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis, and frogs Anura sp) in the Natori River basin located at the middle of Miyagi prefecture were evaluated dynamically using the water temperature as one of the environmental indices. HSI (Habitat Suitability Index) and WUA (Weighted Useable Area) of aquatic creatures were quantitatively calculated from numerical map information and hydrological simulation with a heat budget model. As results, general HSI of fireflies increased but of frogs decreased by adding the factor water temperature. Migration of Plecoglossus altivelis altivel could be represented by the variation of WUA.

  7. Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Pizzi, Assunta; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; de Angelis, Marco; Ferrari, Marco

    1995-04-01

    Vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation was investigated on volunteers as well as muscular dystrophy patients during a walking test, and on volunteers during a free running by a continuous wave near infrared instrument. The data were analyzed using an oxygenation index independent on pathlength changes. Walking did not significantly affect the oxygenation of volunteers and patients. A relative deoxygenation was found only during free running indicating an unbalance between oxygen supply and tissue oxygen extraction. Preliminary measurements of exercising muscle oxygen saturation were performed by a 110 MHz frequency-domain, multisource instrument.

  8. Cerebrovascular Responses to Incremental Exercise During Hypobaric Hypoxia: Effect of Oxygenation on Maximal Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    cerebral (frontal lobe) (COX) and muscle (vastus lateralis) oxygenation ( MOX ) (near infrared spectros- copy), middle cerebral artery blood flow...PETCO2 and COX dropped throughout exercise, while MCA Vmean fell only from 75 to 100% Ẇmax. MOX fell from rest to 75% Ẇmax at SL and AH and...throughout exercise in CH. The magnitude of fall in COX, but not MOX , was different between conditions (CH AH SL). FIO2 0.60 at Ẇmax did not prolong

  9. Missing and incorrect terms in Terminologia Anatomica (1998).

    PubMed

    Krmpotić-Nemanić, J; Vinter, I

    2003-07-01

    Based on our studies we suggest that the term articulation femoropatellaris should be introduced in the new anatomic terminology, because of the importance of this entity in the function and pathology of the knee joint. In order to indicate that the condylar surfaces, having a different function are separated from the patellar surface of the femur, the term "linea condylopatellaris medialis and linea condylopatellaris lateralis" should be introduced in the anatomical terminology. The term "nodus lymphoideus" should be changed to nodus lymphaticus because the adjective lymphaticus means belonging to the node in question while the adjective lymphoideus means "similar", which is not correct.

  10. Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

    2001-06-01

    The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

  11. TiLIA: a software package for image analysis of firefly flash patterns.

    PubMed

    Konno, Junsuke; Hatta-Ohashi, Yoko; Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Thancharoen, Anchana; Silalom, Somyot; Sakchoowong, Watana; Yiu, Vor; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2016-05-01

    As flash signaling patterns of fireflies are species specific, signal-pattern analysis is important for understanding this system of communication. Here, we present time-lapse image analysis (TiLIA), a free open-source software package for signal and flight pattern analyses of fireflies that uses video-recorded image data. TiLIA enables flight path tracing of individual fireflies and provides frame-by-frame coordinates and light intensity data. As an example of TiLIA capabilities, we demonstrate flash pattern analysis of the fireflies Luciola cruciata and L. lateralis during courtship behavior.

  12. Harmonic reduction in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers by gap feedback linearization.

    PubMed

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F Levent

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear relationship between the electrical input signal and electrostatic force acting on the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membrane limits its harmonic imaging performance. Several input shaping methods were proposed to compensate for the nonlinearity originating from the electrostatic force's dependence on the square of the applied voltage. Here, we analyze harmonic generation in CMUTs with a time-domain model. The model explains the basis of the input shaping methods and suggests that the nonlinearity resulting from gap dependence of the electrostatic force is also significant. It also suggests that the harmonic distortion in the output pressure can be eliminated by subharmonic ac-only excitation of the CMUT in addition to scaling the input voltage with the instantaneous gap. This gap feedback configuration can be approximated by the simple addition of a series impedance to the CMUT capacitance. We analyze several types of series impedance feedback topologies for gap feedback linearization. We show that for subharmonic ac excitation, although resistive and capacitive impedances result in a trade-off between input voltage and harmonic distortion for a desired pressure output, harmonic generation can be suppressed while increasing the Pa/V transmit sensitivity for proper series inductance and resistance feedback. We experimentally demonstrate the feedback method by reducing harmonic generation by 10 dB for the same output pressure at the fundamental frequency by using a simple series resistor feedback with a CMUT operating at a center frequency of 3 MHz. The proposed methods also allow for utilization of the full CMUT gap for transmit operation and, hence, should be useful in high-intensity ultrasonic applications in addition to harmonic imaging.

  13. MiRNA profiling provides insights on adverse effects of Cr(VI) in the midgut tissues of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Swati; Pandey, Ashutosh; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2015-01-01

    Cr(VI), a well-known environmental chemical, is reported to cause various adverse effects on exposed organisms including genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Despite available information on the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity, studies regarding toxicity modulation by epigenetic mechanisms are limited. It was therefore, hypothesized that the global miRNA profiling in Cr(VI) exposed Drosophila, a genetically tractable model organism, will provide information about mis-regulated miRNAs along with their targeted genes and relevant processes. Third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)) were exposed to 5.0-20.0 μg/ml of Cr(VI) for 24 and 48 h. Following miRNA profile analysis on an Agilent platform, 28 of the 36 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be significantly mis-regulated targeting major biological processes viz., DNA damage repair, oxidation-reduction processes, development and differentiation. Down-regulation of mus309 and mus312 under DNA repair, acon to oxidation-reduction and pyd to stress activated MAPK cascade respectively belonging to these gene ontology classes concurrent with up-regulation of dme-miR-314-3p, dme-miR-79-3p and dme-miR-12-5p confirm their functional involvement against Cr(VI) exposure. These findings assume significance since majority of the target genes in Drosophila have functional homologues in humans. The study further recommends Drosophila as a model to explore the role of miRNAs in xenobiotic induced toxicity.

  14. Arginine feeding modifies cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, L; Thomson, S C; Wead, L M; Brown, M R; Gabbai, F B

    1993-01-01

    Glycine (G) infusion causes renal vasodilation mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity is characterized by preglomerular vasoconstriction and decreased efferent arteriolar tone probably related to reduced NO and angiotensin II, respectively. L-Arginine (ARG) is a precursor to NO. To test the hypothesis that chronic CsA decreases renal NO activity, we compared the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine infusion in rats after 8 d of CsA (30 mg/kg per d s.c.), CsA and ARG (1.6 g/kg per d p.o.) (A/CsA), and in two groups of pair-fed controls (CON, A/CON). Single nephron GFR (SNGFR), single nephron plasma flow (SNPF), glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure gradient (delta P), proximal tubular reabsorption (APR), and kidney tissue angiotensin II (AIIk) were measured before and during G. CsA was associated with baseline decrements in SNGFR, SNPF, delta P, and AIIk, and with a blunted hemodynamic response to G. In CON, ARG did not affect baseline hemodynamics or modify the response to G. In CsA, ARG decreased baseline preglomerular resistance and restored the glomerular hemodynamic response to G. G was associated with a significant increase in AIIk in both CON and CsA. These findings suggest that (a) CsA is associated with decreased AIIk, and (b) CsA may diminish NO activity within the kidney, and that this capacity may be partially restored by arginine feeding. PMID:8408638

  15. Methamphetamine treatment outcomes among gay men attending a LGBTI-specific treatment service in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; Kolstee, Johann; Lambert, Sarah; Ness, Ross; Hannan, Siobhan; Holt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) report higher rates of methamphetamine use compared to heterosexual men, and thus have a heightened risk of developing problems from their use. We examined treatment outcomes among GBM clients receiving outpatient counseling at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI)-specific, harm reduction treatment service in Sydney, Australia. GBM receiving treatment for methamphetamine use from ACON's Substance Support Service between 2012-15 (n = 101) were interviewed at treatment commencement, and after 4 sessions (n = 60; follow-up 1) and 8 sessions (n = 32; follow-up 2). At each interview, clients completed measures of methamphetamine use and dependence, other substance use, injecting risk practices, psychological distress and quality of life. The median age of participants was 41 years and 56.4% identified as HIV-positive. Participants attended a median of 5 sessions and attended treatment for a median of 112 days. There was a significant reduction in the median days of methamphetamine use in the previous 4 weeks between baseline (4 days), follow-up 1 (2 days) and follow-up 2 (2 days; p = .001). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants reporting methamphetamine dependence between baseline (92.1%), follow-up 1 (78.3%) and follow-up 2 (71.9%, p < .001). There were also significant reductions in psychological distress (p < .001), and significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001). Clients showed reductions in methamphetamine use and improved psychosocial functioning over time, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of a LGBTI-specific treatment service.

  16. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-hong; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and

  17. The trail from quantum electro dynamics to informative medicine.

    PubMed

    Foletti, Alberto; Ledda, Mario; Grimaldi, Settimio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Liboff, Abraham; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago just before Christmas, in a small meeting room at the Institute of Pharmacology at the University of Rome, we had the opportunity to attend a meeting on "The role of QED in medicine" by Emilio Del Giudice and Giuliano Preparata. Before that meeting, we were more oriented towards a mechanistic view of Biochemistry and Medicine, believing that chemical reactions could only take place when a random collision between molecules with a gain in energy takes place. We envisioned water as just a solvent in which was possible to dissolve a solute. After we listened to Giuliano's and Emilio's speech on the "New physics of water", and on "The possible origin of coherence in cell, tissues and the interaction of very weak and low frequency magnetic fields with the ions, systems of the cell", we realized that living organisms are complex electrochemical systems which evolved in a relatively narrow range of well-defined environmental parameters. Environmental natural electro-magnetic fields are an ubiquitous factor in nature. If nature gave certain organisms the ability to receive information about the environment via invisible electromagnetic signals, then there must also the capability to discriminate between significant and meaningless ones. Bearing in mind that electromagnetic fields can be perceived by living organisms by means a resonance effect, we should not be amazed if they can be able to induce different biological effects. The work that we will present in memory of Emilio is based on the hypotheses that an aqueous system a chemical differentiation agent such as retinoic acid (RA) were electronically captured and transferred to the culture medium of Neuroblastoma Cell Line (LAN-5) and the proliferation rate was assessed to assess cell responses to the electromagnetic information transfer through the aqueous system. Like those enfolded in living organisms could play a synergic role in modulating biological functions, generating dissipative structures

  18. Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in Optimist sailors.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Margot; Boone, Jan; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Bourgois, Jan G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (m. vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high-level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8-14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and re-oxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO₂), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40% VO₂peak, 30% VEpeak and 70% HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF decrease, RMS increase, and deoxy[Hb+Mb] increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.

  19. Lipid storage changes in human skeletal muscle during detraining

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Wen, Caiyun; Li, Jiance; Harris, M. Brennan; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training is known to increase intramuscular triglyceride content in both trained and untrained legs. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) of both trained and untrained legs during detraining. We measured both IMCL and EMCL levels in previously trained vs. untrained legs during 4-weeks of detraining after 6-weeks of strength training. Eight young men (aged 21.4 ± 1.4 years) trained their vastus lateralis muscle in one leg using a dynamometer, whereas the contralateral leg served as untrained control. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), IMCL, EMCL, total creatine (creatine + phophocreatine) of extensor (vastus lateralis) muscles were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS) before training, 3 days after and 28 days after the last bout of training. CSA was increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, and was still high at Day 28 post-training; IMCL increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, then decreased at Day 28 post-training only in the untrained leg; EMCL shows no significant change by Day 3 after training, but at Day 28 post-training has increased in the trained leg and decreased in the untrained leg; total creatine did not change significantly. Conclusion: Decreases of IMCL and EMCL storages in previously untrained leg during detraining indicates an ectopic influence on tissue lipid storage by different metabolic demand among tissues in the same human body. PMID:26578981

  20. Muscle stiffness estimation using a system identification technique applied to evoked mechanomyogram during cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Saito, Kaito; Shinjo, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a method to extract the evoked mechanomyogram (MMG) during cycling exercise and to clarify muscle stiffness at various cadences, workloads, and power. Ten young healthy male participants were instructed to pedal a cycle ergometer at cadences of 40 and 60 rpm. The loads were 4.9, 9.8, 14.7, and 19.6 N, respectively. One electrical stimulus per two pedal rotations was applied to the vastus lateralis muscle at a knee angle of 80° in the down phase. MMGs were measured using a capacitor microphone, and the MMGs were divided into stimulated and non-stimulated sequences. Each sequence was synchronously averaged. The synchronously averaged non-stimulated MMG was subtracted from the synchronously averaged stimulated MMG to extract an evoked MMG. The evoked MMG system was identified and the poles of the transfer function were calculated. The poles and mass of the vastus lateralis muscle were used to estimate muscle stiffness. Results showed that muscle stiffness was 186-626 N /m and proportional to the workloads and power. In conclusion, our method can be used to assess muscle stiffness proportional to the workload and power.

  1. An Acute Bout of Barefoot Running Alters Lower-limb Muscle Activation for Minimalist Shoe Users.

    PubMed

    Snow, N J; Basset, F A; Byrne, J

    2016-05-01

    Despite the abundance of barefoot running-related research, there have been no electromyography studies evaluating the effects of this mode of exercise on habitual users of minimalist footwear. The present study investigated differences in muscle activation during acute bouts of barefoot and shod running, in minimalist shoe users. 8 male participants ran on a motorized treadmill for 10 min under both conditions, at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Electromyographic data were sampled from the biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis during both swing and stance. Root-mean-square analysis of electromyographic data was conducted to compare muscle activation between conditions. During stance, barefoot running resulted in greater muscle activity in gastrocnemius medialis and gluteus maximus, and lower muscle activity in tibialis anterior. During swing, barefoot running resulted in increased muscle activity in vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialus. These results indicate that, for minimalist shoe users, an acute bout of barefoot running results in significantly different lower-limb muscle activity. Increased activation in the above muscles presents a possible mechanism for injury, which should be considered during exercise prescription.

  2. The production and transfer of spermatophores in three Asian species of Luciola fireflies.

    PubMed

    South, Adam; Sota, Teiji; Abe, Norio; Yuma, Masahide; Lewis, Sara M

    2008-05-01

    During mating, many male insects transfer sperm packaged within a spermatophore that is produced by reproductive accessory glands. While spermatophores have been documented in some North American fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), little is known concerning either production or transfer of spermatophores in the aquatic Luciola fireflies widespread throughout Asia. We investigated this process in Japanese Luciola lateralis and L. cruciata by feeding males rhodamine B, a fluorescent dye known to stain spermatophore precursors. We then mated males with virgin females, and dissected pairs at various timepoints after mating. In both of these Luciola species, spermatophores were produced by three pairs of male accessory glands and were transferred to females during the second stage of copulation. Male spermatophores were highly fluorescent, and were covered by a thin outer sheath; a narrow tube leading from an internal sperm-containing sac fit precisely into the female spermathecal duct, presumably for sperm delivery. Both L. lateralis and L. cruciata females have a spherical spermatheca as well as a highly extensible gland where spermatophore breakdown commences by 24h post-mating. Similar reproductive anatomy was observed for both sexes in Luciola ficta from Taiwan. These results suggest that nuptial gifts may play an important role in many firefly-mating systems.

  3. A decline in PABPN1 induces progressive muscle weakness in oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy and in muscle aging.

    PubMed

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Raz, Yotam; Verway, Nisha; van der Sluijs, Barbara; Venema, Andrea; Goeman, Jelle J; Vissing, John; van der Maarel, Silvère M; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Raz, Vered

    2013-06-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations in Poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABPN1). PABPN1 is a regulator of mRNA stability and is ubiquitously expressed. Here we investigated how symptoms in OPMD initiate only at midlife and why a subset of skeletal muscles is predominantly affected. Genome-wide RNA expression profiles from Vastus lateralis muscles human carriers of expanded-PABPN1 at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages were compared with healthy controls. Major expression changes were found to be associated with age rather than with expression of expanded-PABPN1, instead transcriptomes of OPMD and elderly muscles were significantly similar (P<0.05). Using k-means clustering we identified age-dependent trends in both OPMD and controls, but trends were often accelerated in OPMD. We report an age-regulated decline in PABPN1 levels in Vastus lateralis muscles from the fifth decade. In concurrence with severe muscle degeneration in OPMD, the decline in PABPN1 accelerated in OPMD and was specific to skeletal muscles. Reduced PABPN1 levels (30% to 60%) in muscle cells induced myogenic defects and morphological signatures of cellular aging in proportion to PABPN1 expression levels. We suggest that PABPN1 levels regulate muscle cell aging and OPMD represents an accelerated muscle aging disorder.

  4. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Thalamic Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Russo, Gary S.; Hashimoto, Takao; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective tool for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which STN DBS elicits its beneficial effect, however, remains unclear. We previously reported STN stimulation increased the rate and produced a more regular and periodic pattern of neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Here we extend our observations to neurons in the pallidal (ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)) and cerebellar (ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)) receiving areas of the motor thalamus during STN DBS. Stimulation parameters that produced improvement in rigidity and bradykinesia resulted in changes in the pattern and power of oscillatory activity of neuronal activity that were similar in both regions of the motor thalamus. Neurons in both VA/VLo and VPLo tended to become more periodic and regular with a shift in oscillatory activity from low to high frequencies. Burst activity was reduced in VA/VLo, but was not significantly changed in VPLo. There was also a significant shift in the population of VA/VLo neurons that were inhibited during STN DBS, while VPLo neurons tended to be activated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that STN DBS increases output from the nucleus and produces a change in the pattern and periodicity of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network, and that these changes include cerebellar pathways likely via activation of adjacent cerebello-thalamic fiber bundles. PMID:19005057

  5. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  6. Tensiomygraphic Measurement of Atrophy Related Processes During Bed Rest and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunic, B. ostjan; Degens, Hans; Rittweger, Jorn; Narici, Marcco; Pisot, Venceslav; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Pisot, Rado

    2013-02-01

    Tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters were recently proposed for a non-invasive estimation of MHC distribution in human vastus lateralis muscle. However, TMG potential is even higher, offers additional insight into the skeletal muscle physiology, especially in the field of atrophy and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study is in developing time dynamics of TMG-measured contraction time (Tc) and maximal response amplitude (Dm), together with muscle belly thickness, measure thoroughly during 35-day bed rest and followed in 30-day recovery (N = 10 males; age 24.3 ± 2.6 years). Measurements were performed in two postural muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis) and one non-postural muscle (biceps femoris). During bed rest period we found different dynamics of muscle thickness decrease and Dm increase. Tc was unchanged in postural muscles, but in non-postural muscle increased significantly and stayed as such even at the end of recovery. We could conclude that TMG related parameters are more sensitive in measuring muscle atrophic and hypertrophic processes than biomedical imaging technique. However, a mechanism that regulates Dm still needs to be identified.

  7. Lower extremity muscles activity in standing and sitting position with use of sEMG in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Natalia Maria; Konieczny, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Oleksy, Łukasz; Wrzosek, Zdzisława

    2016-01-01

    There is very limited, evidenced data about movement possibilities in patients with high level of lower limb muscles atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Patient (age 46) suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease for 30 years with multiple movement restrictions and muscles atrophy above knees took part into the study. Tests were performed for 8 muscles of the lower limb and pelvis. Muscles electrical activity was tested in sitting and standing position (for knees extended and hyperextended). In the right leg rectus femoris, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and semitendinosus muscles activated at first and were working the longest time. The highest activity was observed in standing position with knees extended. In the left leg rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles activated at first and biceps femoris was working the longest time. Activity level in left lower limb is much lower than in the right one. Muscles weakness is asymmetric. Left leg is much weaker and engages antagonists and synergists muscles to compensate weaker rectus femoris, vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis obliquus.

  8. High oxidative capacity and type IIx fibre content in springbok and fallow deer skeletal muscle suggest fast sprinters with a resistance to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Curry, Jennifer Wendy; Hohl, Rodrigo; Noakes, Timothy David; Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2012-11-15

    Some wild antelopes are fast sprinters and more resistant to fatigue than others. This study therefore investigated two wild antelope species to better understand their reported performance capability. Muscle samples collected post mortem from the vastus lateralis and longissimus lumborum of fallow deer (Dama dama) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) were analysed for myosin heavy chain isoform content, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities. Cross-sectional areas, fibre type and oxidative capacities of each fibre type were determined in the vastus lateralis only. The predominant fibre type in both muscle groups and species were type IIX (>50%), with springbok having more type IIX fibres than fallow deer (P<0.05). Overall cross-sectional area was not different between the two species. The metabolic pathway analyses showed high glycolytic and oxidative capacities for both species, but springbok had significantly higher CS activities than fallow deer. Large variation and overlap in oxidative capacities existed within and between the fibre types. Some type IIX fibres presented with oxidative capacities similar to those from type I and IIA fibres. The data suggest that springbok and fallow deer are able sprint at >90 and 46 km h(-1), respectively, partly from having large type IIX fibre contents and high glycolytic capacities. The high oxidative capacities also suggest that these animals may be able to withstand fatigue for long periods of time.

  9. Increase in passive muscle tension of the quadriceps muscle heads in jumping athletes with patellar tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z J; Ng, G Y F; Lee, W C; Fu, S N

    2016-08-19

    To investigate the passive muscle tension of the quadriceps muscle heads in male athletes clinically diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy (PT) with those of healthy controls and explore the interplay between passive muscle tension and patellar tendon stiffness. Between November 2012 and December 2013, 66 male athletes (mean age of 21.1 ± 4.4 years) were examined using supersonic shear wave imaging technology. The passive tension of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles and patellar tendon stiffness were assessed. The shear elastic modulus of the VL muscle was increased by 26.5% (P < 0.001) in the subjects with PT when compared with the controls. Greater passive tension in the VL was associated with higher patellar tendon stiffness (r = 0.38; P = 0.001). The vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps shows increase in passive muscle tension in jumping athletes with patellar tendinopathy. These findings suggest that increase in muscle tension is not similar in the individual muscles of the quadriceps muscle. Traditional stretching of the whole quadriceps muscle might not be targeted to the tight muscle heads.

  10. Activity of trunk muscles during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Schilling, Nadja

    2009-09-15

    The activity of seven trunk muscles was recorded at two sites along the trunk in adult spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, during swimming and during trotting in water and on land. Several muscles showed patterns of activation that are consistent with the muscles producing a traveling wave of lateral bending during swimming and a standing wave of bending during aquatic and terrestrial trotting: the dorsalis trunci, subvertebralis lateralis and medialis, rectus lateralis and obliquus internus. The interspinalis showed a divergent pattern and was active out of phase with the other muscles suggesting that it functions in vertebral stabilization rather than lateral bending. The obliquus internus and rectus abdominis showed bilateral activity indicating that they counteract sagittal extension of the trunk that is produced when the large dorsal muscles are active to produce lateral bending. Of the muscles examined, only the obliquus internus showed a clear shift in function from lateral bending during swimming to resistance of long-axis torsion during trotting. During terrestrial trotting, muscle recruitment was greater in several muscles than during aquatic trotting, despite similar temporal patterns of muscle activation, suggesting that the trunk is stiffened during terrestrial locomotion against greater gravitational forces whereas the basic functions of the trunk muscles in trotting are conserved across environments.

  11. Inertial loading during gait evokes unique neuromuscular adaptations in old adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas; DeVita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the neuromuscular adaptations of young and old adults in response to a challenge to balance during gait. 12 young (22.2 +/- 2.0 yr.) and 10 old adults (78.8 +/- 6.3 yr.) performed five level walking trials with and without a challenge to balance which consisted of adding a load bilaterally to the participants' ankles and increasing gait speed (1.5 m/sec. and 1.7 m/sec.). Onset, duration, and amplitude of muscle activity in the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus were calculated. Old adults responded to the added load by increasing the activation intensity of their vastus lateralis and semimembranosus disproportionately when compared with young adults. Also, old adults activated their knee flexors earlier and all muscles for a longer period of time than young adults. These findings suggest old adults alter both magnitude of activation and duration of lower extremity musculature in response to increased inertial and velocity demands, and these response characteristics differ from those of young adults.

  12. Neuromuscular Coordination Deficit Persists 12 Months after ACL Reconstruction But Can Be Modulated by 6 Weeks of Kettlebell Training: A Case Study in Women's Elite Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Christoffer H.; Bencke, Jesper; Ørntoft, Christina; Linnebjerg, Connie; Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks' kettlebell training on the neuromuscular risk profile for ACL injury in a high-risk athlete returning to sport after ACL reconstruction. A female elite soccer player (age 21 years) with no previous history of ACL injury went through neuromuscular screening as measured by EMG preactivity of vastus lateralis and semitendinosus during a standardized sidecutting maneuver. Subsequently, the player experienced a noncontact ACL injury. The player was screened again following postreconstruction rehabilitation, then underwent 6-week kettlebell training, and was subsequently screened again at 6-week follow-up. Prior to and after postreconstruction rehabilitation the player demonstrated a neuromuscular profile during sidecutting known to increase the risk for noncontact ACL injury, that is, reduced EMG preactivity for semitendinosus and elevated EMG preactivity for vastus lateralis. Subsequently, the 6-week kettlebell training increased semitendinosus muscle preactivity during sidecutting by 38 percentage points to a level equivalent to a neuromuscular low-risk profile. An ACL rehabilitated female athlete with a high-risk neuromuscular profile changed to low-risk in response to 6 weeks of kettlebell training. Thus, short-term kettlebell exercise with documented high levels of medial hamstring activation was found to transfer into high medial hamstring preactivation during a sidecutting maneuver. PMID:28197354

  13. The ancestral circadian clock of monarch butterflies: role in time-compensated sun compass orientation.

    PubMed

    Reppert, S M

    2007-01-01

    The circadian clock has a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, which contributes to navigation to the overwintering grounds. The location of circadian clock cells in monarch brain has been identified in the dorsolateral protocerebrum (pars lateralis); these cells express PERIOD, TIMELESS, and a Drosophila-like cryptochrome designated CRY1. Monarch butterflies, like all other nondrosophilid insects examined so far, express a second cry gene (designated insect CRY2) that encodes a vertebrate-like CRY that is also expressed in pars lateralis. An ancestral circadian clock mechanism has been defined in monarchs, in which CRY1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor for photic entrainment, whereas CRY2 functionswithin the clockwork as themajor transcriptional repressor of an intracellular negative transcriptional feedback loop. A CRY1-staining neural pathway has been identified that may connect the circadian (navigational) clock to polarized light input important for sun compass navigation, and a CRY2-positive neural pathway has been discovered that may communicate circadian information directly from the circadian clock to the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass. The monarch butterfly may thus use the CRY proteins as components of the circadian mechanism and also as output molecules that connect the clock to various aspects of the sun compass apparatus.

  14. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  15. Influence of exercise and Dianabol on the degradation rate of myofibrillar proteins of the heart and three fiber types of skeletal muscle of female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Morano, I

    1984-12-01

    The influence of methandrostenolone (= Dianabol = 17-beta-hydroxy-17-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) and of a running training program on the degradation rate of myofibrillar proteins of the heart, soleus, red portion of the vastus lateralis, and white portion of the vastus lateralis of female guinea pigs was studied by measuring the time-dependent decrease of radioactive-labeled proteins. The following results were obtained: No alteration of absolute muscle or body weight An increased heart-to-body weight relation in the trained and in the trained group receiving Dianabol A significantly higher myofibrillar protein concentration in the skeletal muscle types than in the heart An increased concentration of myofibrillar proteins in all muscle types in the trained group receiving Dianabol and in the heart of the untrained group receiving Dianabol The degradation rate of the myofibrillar proteins decreased in all muscle types in the trained group receiving Dianabol and in the heart of the untrained group receiving Dianabol and in the trained group.

  16. Acute changes in kinematic and muscle activity patterns in habitually shod rearfoot strikers while running barefoot.

    PubMed

    Strauts, Janina; Vanicek, Natalie; Halaki, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe changes in the kinematics and muscle activities when barefoot running was initially adopted by six habitually shod, recreational rearfoot striking runners. Participants ran on a treadmill shod for 5 min, completed 3 × 10-min intervals of barefoot running and then completed a final minute of shod running at a self-selected pace. Dependent variables (speed, joint angles at foot-contact, joint range of motion (ROM), mean and peak electromyography (EMG) activity) were compared across conditions using repeated measures ANOVAs. Anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion significantly decreased during barefoot conditions at foot contact. The ROM for the trunk, pelvis, knee and ankle angles decreased during the barefoot conditions. Mean EMG activity was reduced for biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. The peak activity across the running cycle decreased in biceps femoris, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. During barefoot running, tibialis anterior activity significantly decreased during the pre-activation and initial contact phases; gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis activity significantly decreased during the push-off phase. Barefoot running caused immediate biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations at the hip and pelvis, which persisted when the runners donned their shoes, indicating that some learning had occurred during an initial short bout of barefoot running.

  17. Effects of strength, endurance, and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Pinto, Ronei S; Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Correa, Cleiton S; Tartaruga, Marcus P; Silva, Eduardo M; Almeida, Ana P V; Trindade, Guilherme T; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concurrent training on endurance capacity and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. Twenty-three healthy men (65 ± 4 years) were divided into 3 groups: concurrent (CG, n = 8), strength (SG, n = 8), and aerobic training group (EG, n = 7). Each group trained 3 times a week for 12 weeks, strength training, aerobic training, or both types of training in the same session. The maximum aerobic workload (Wmax) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of the subjects were evaluated on a cycle ergometer before and after the training period. Moreover, during the maximal test, muscle activation was measured at each intensity by means of electromyographic signals from the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris long head, and gastrocnemius lateralis to determine the dynamic neuromuscular economy. After training, significant increases in VO2peak and Wmax were only found in the CG and EG (p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in myoelectric activity of the RF muscle at 50 (EG), 75 and 100 W (EG and CG) and in the VL for the 3 groups at 100 W (p < 0.05). No change was seen in the electrical signal from the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and biceps femoris. The results suggest specificity in adaptations investigated in elderly subjects, because the most marked changes in the neuromuscular economy occurred in the aerobically trained groups.

  18. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  19. Influence of ageing and essential amino acids on quantitative patterns of troponin T alternative splicing in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Arthur; Drummond, Micah J.; Rasmussen, Blake B.; Kimball, Scot R.

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle performance, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. In part, the age-related reduction in performance is due to a selective loss in muscle fiber mass, but mass-independent effects have also been demonstrated. An important mass-independent determinant of muscle performance is the pattern of expression of isoforms of proteins that participate in muscle contraction, e.g. the troponins. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that ageing impairs alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding fast troponin T (Tnnt3) in human vastus lateralis muscle. Furthermore, we hypothesized that resistance exercise alone or in combination with consumption of essential amino acids will attenuate age-associated effects on Tnnt3 alternative splicing. Our results indicate that ageing negatively affects the pattern of Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing in a manner that correlates quantitatively with age-associated reductions in muscle performance. Interestingly, whereas vastus lateralis Tnnt3 alternative splicing was unaffected by a bout of resistance exercise 24 hour prior to muscle biopsy, ingestion of a mixture of essential amino acids after resistance exercise resulted in a significant shift in the pattern of Tnnt3 spliceform expression in both age groups to one predicted to promote greater muscle performance. We conclude that essential amino acid supplementation after resistance exercise may provide a means to reduce impairments in skeletal muscle quality during ageing in humans. PMID:26201856

  20. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  2. Aspects of chemistry and toxicity of the North Cape oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, L.; Ho, K.; Latimer, J.; Pelletier, M.; McKinney, R.; Pruell, R.; Jayaraman, S.

    1995-12-31

    On January 19, 1996, 820,000 gallons of Number 2 home heating oil were spilled from a barge into the waters off the south shore of Rhode Island. Number 2 oil is toxic to many marine organisms and especially affects the benthic community. Petroleum toxicity is caused primarily by a wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as fluorenes, phenanthrenes, and naphthalenes. Furthermore, populations of benthic organisms exposed to PAHs at sublethal levels may experience dramatic mortalities following subsequently exposure to UV radiation. To evaluate possible impacts of this spill, sediment and water samples were collected from sites in the vicinity of the barge at 2, 6, 13, 33, and 62 days following the event. Sediment extracts were chemically analyzed using GC/MS for characterization and measurement of PAHs. Sediment toxicity tests were conducted using the 96-hour amphipod mortality test with Ampelisca abdita, and phototoxicity tests were performed using the bivalve embryo/larval development test with Mulinia lateralis. Initial chemical and toxicological analyses revealed that the most significantly affected area was inside the Harbor of Refuge, 3 miles east of the actual spill. High PAH concentrations and toxicity remained in at least one area of the Harbor of Refuge 62 days after the spill. Additionally, M. lateralis exposed to seawater from the spill indicated that phototoxicity was present shortly after the spill. Measurements will continue to be made in the Harbor of Refuge and surrounding sites to monitor further changes in PAH concentrations and toxicity.

  3. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm(3) ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners.

  4. The arterial supply of the pelvic limb of the adult ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    el-Nahla, S M; el-Mahdy, T; Abbott, L C; Hassan, S A M

    2010-08-01

    Blood to the pelvic limb of the ostrich is provided by the external iliac and ischiatic arteries that arise from the descending aorta. The external iliac artery (a.) gave rise to the pubic a. that supplied the obturator muscles and continued as the femoral a. The femoral a. gave off three branches: (1) cranial coxal a. to muscles above the pre-acetabular ilium; (2) cranial femoral a. to muscles cranial to the femur, the gastrocnemius muscle, hip and stifle joints and (3) medial femoral a. to muscles caudal and medial to the femur. The ischiatic a. gave rise to the caudal coxal a. that supplied muscles caudal to the femur, muscular branches to the iliotibialis lateralis muscle and to the deep femoral a. that supplied the iliofibularis muscle, cutanea femoralis caudalis and lateralis aa., and branches to the flexors of the leg and knee joint, then terminated as the sural and popliteal arteries. The sural a. supplied most of the flexors of the foot. The popliteal a. supplied the knee joint and flexors of the leg, and then terminated as the cranial and caudal tibial arteries. The caudal tibial a. supplied flexors of the foot. The cranial tibial a. provided four branches to the knee and ankle joints and to the leg. The cranial tibial a. continued into the foot as the common dorsal metatarsal a., which gave off seven different branches to the ankle and foot. With few exceptions, the arteries of the ostrich pelvic limb are similar to those of domestic fowl.

  5. The hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango (Polyborinae, Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Mosto, María Clelia; Carril, Julieta; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2013-10-01

    We describe the hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango. This member of the Falconidae: Polyborinae is a generalist and opportunist that can jump and run down prey on the ground, unlike Falconinae that hunt birds in flight and kill them by striking with its talons. Due to differences in the locomotion habits between the subfamilies, we hypothesized differences in their hindlimb myology. Gross dissections showed that the myology of M. chimango is concordant with that described of other falconids, except for the following differences: the m. flexor cruris medialis has one belly with a longitudinal division; the m. iliotibialis lateralis does not have a connection with the m. iliofibularis; the m. fibularis longus is strongly aponeurotic; the m. tibialis cranialis lacks an accessory tendons and the m. flexor hallucis longus has one place of origin, instead of two. The presence of the m. flexor cruris lateralis can be distinguished as it has been described absent for the Falconidae. We associated its presence with the predominant terrestrial habit of the M. chimango. Each muscle dissected was weighed and the relationship between flexors and extensors at each joint was assessed. The extensor muscles predominated in all joints in M. chimango. Among the flexors, the m. flexor hallucis longus was the heaviest, which could be related to the importance of the use of its talons to obtain food.

  6. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  7. The effect of ground tilt on the lower extremity muscle activity of stroke patients performing squat exercises.

    PubMed

    Ki, Kyog-Il; Choi, Jong-Duk; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ground tilt on the lower extremity muscle activity of stroke patients performing squat exercises. [Subjects] Fifteen hemiparetic patients volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises at three different ground tilt angles: 15° plantar flexion, a neutral position, and 15° dorsiflexion. A surface electromyogram (sEMG) was used to record the electromyographic activities of the leg extensor muscle in the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM). The sEMG activity was analyzed using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni correction. [Results] The results of this study are summarized as follows. Significant differences were noted for the VL and the GL when the angle of the ankle joint was between the 15° plantar flexion and neutral positions during squat exercises involving the VL and when the angle of the ankle joint was between the neutral position and 15° dorsiflexion during squat exercises involving the VM. [Conclusion] In this study, sEMG showed that the VL and GL changed significantly during squat exercises according to the ground tilt angle of hemiparetic patients. Therefore, squat exercises with different ground tilt angles can be used to improve VL and GL strength.

  8. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Barbara J.; Silbert, Benjamin I.; Silbert, Peter L.; Singer, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional “denervation” which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief. PMID:26308056

  9. The relative roles of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation in shaping syllable repertoires of island bird populations change with time since colonization.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Clegg, Sonya M

    2015-02-01

    In birds, song divergence often precedes and facilitates divergence of other traits. We assessed the relative roles of cultural drift, innovation, and acoustic adaptation in divergence of island bird dialects, using silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). In recently colonized populations, syllable diversity was not significantly lower than source populations, shared syllables between populations decreased with increasing number of founder events, and dialect variation displayed contributions from both habitat features and drift. The breadth of multivariate space occupied by recently colonized Z. l. lateralis populations was comparable to evolutionarily old forms that have diverged over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. In evolutionarily old subspecies, syllable diversity was comparable to the mainland and the amount of variation in syllable composition explained by habitat features increased by two- to threefold compared to recently colonized populations. Together these results suggest that cultural drift influences syllable repertoires in recently colonized populations, but innovation likely counters syllable loss from colonization. In evolutionarily older populations, the influence of acoustic adaptation increases, possibly favoring a high diversity of syllables. These results suggest that the relative importance of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation changes with time since colonization in island bird populations, highlighting the value of considering multiple mechanisms and timescale of divergence when investigating island song divergence.

  10. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  11. Decrease of muscle fiber conduction velocity correlates with strength loss after an endurance run.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Rosso, Valeria; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated. After the run, knee extensors showed a decreased strength (-13  ±  9%, p  =  0.001) together with a reduction in EMG amplitude (-13  ±  10%, p  =  0.003) and in CV (-6  ±  8%, p  =  0.032). Knee extensor strength loss positively correlated with vastus lateralis CV differences (r  =  0.76, p  =  0.006). Thus, the exercises-induced muscle fatigue was associated not only with a decrease in EMG amplitude, but also with a reduction in CV. This finding suggests that muscle fibers with higher CV (i.e. those with greater fiber size) were the most impaired during strength production after an endurance run.

  12. Neuromuscular Coordination Deficit Persists 12 Months after ACL Reconstruction But Can Be Modulated by 6 Weeks of Kettlebell Training: A Case Study in Women's Elite Soccer.

    PubMed

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bencke, Jesper; Ørntoft, Christina; Linnebjerg, Connie; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks' kettlebell training on the neuromuscular risk profile for ACL injury in a high-risk athlete returning to sport after ACL reconstruction. A female elite soccer player (age 21 years) with no previous history of ACL injury went through neuromuscular screening as measured by EMG preactivity of vastus lateralis and semitendinosus during a standardized sidecutting maneuver. Subsequently, the player experienced a noncontact ACL injury. The player was screened again following postreconstruction rehabilitation, then underwent 6-week kettlebell training, and was subsequently screened again at 6-week follow-up. Prior to and after postreconstruction rehabilitation the player demonstrated a neuromuscular profile during sidecutting known to increase the risk for noncontact ACL injury, that is, reduced EMG preactivity for semitendinosus and elevated EMG preactivity for vastus lateralis. Subsequently, the 6-week kettlebell training increased semitendinosus muscle preactivity during sidecutting by 38 percentage points to a level equivalent to a neuromuscular low-risk profile. An ACL rehabilitated female athlete with a high-risk neuromuscular profile changed to low-risk in response to 6 weeks of kettlebell training. Thus, short-term kettlebell exercise with documented high levels of medial hamstring activation was found to transfer into high medial hamstring preactivation during a sidecutting maneuver.

  13. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors.

  14. The role of FFM accumulation and skeletal muscle architecture in powerlifting performance.

    PubMed

    Brechue, William F; Abe, Takashi

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and architectural characteristics of skeletal muscle in elite powerlifters, and to investigate their relationship to fat-free mat (FFM) accumulation and powerlifting performance. Twenty elite male powerlifters (including four world and three US national champions) volunteered for this study. FFM, skeletal muscle distribution (muscle thickness at 13 anatomical sites), and isolated muscle thickness and fascicle pennation angle (PAN) of the triceps long-head (TL), vastus lateralis, and gastrocnemius medialis (MG) muscles were measured with B-mode ultrasound. Fascicle length (FAL) was calculated. Best lifting performance in the bench press (BP), squat lift (SQT), and dead lift (DL) was recorded from competition performance. Significant correlations (P < or = 0.01) were observed between muscle distribution (individual muscle thickness from 13 sites) and performance of the SQT (r = 0.79 to r = 0.91), BP (r = 0.63 to r = 0.85) and DL (r = 0.70 to r = 0.90). Subscapular muscle thickness was the single best predictor of powerlifting performance in each lift. Performance of the SQT, BP, and DL was strongly correlated with FFM and FFM relative to standing height (r = 0.86 to 0.95, P < or = 0.001). FAL of the triceps long head and vastus lateralis were significantly correlated with FFM (r = 0.59, P < or = 0.01; 0.63, P < or = 0.01, respectively) and performance of the SQT (r = 0.45; r = 0.50, respectively; P < or = 0.05), BP (r = 0.52; r = 0.56, respectively; P < or = 0.05), and DL (r = 0.56; r = 0.54, respectively; P < or = 0.01). A significant positive correlation was observed between isolated muscle thickness and PAN for triceps long-head (r = 0.64, P < or = 0.01) and gastrocnemius medialis (r = 0.48, P < or = 0.05) muscles, but not for vastus lateralis (r = 0.35). PAN was negatively correlated with powerlifting performance. Our results indicate that powerlifting performance is a function of FFM and, therefore, may

  15. Associations between portion size acceptability of beef cuts and ribeye area of beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Bass, P D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2009-09-01

    Carcasses that do not conform to mainstream specifications (i.e., those with nonconforming ribeye area) may not achieve their full potential value. Research was conducted to evaluate the relationship between beef carcass LM area at the 12th and 13th rib interface (LMA) and portion size acceptability of other muscles in the carcass. Sixty beef carcass sides of varying LMA sizes (between 67.74 and 116.13 cm(2)) were fabricated to generate 14 individual muscle cuts (triceps brachii long head, infraspinatus, chuckeye complexus, pectoralis profundus, longissimus thoracis, latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, longissimus lumborum, tensor fasciae latae, psoas major, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and vastus lateralis). Retail portion size (g/1.27-cm-thick steak) as well as face surface area and dimensions were recorded for each steak cut perpendicular at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis of each muscle. Subsequently, a nationwide survey was conducted with foodservice chefs and retail meat merchandisers to evaluate acceptability of portion sizes and dimensions of individual muscle cuts. Simple linear regression and nonparametric regression analyses were used to evaluate results of the carcass muscle evaluation and survey, respectively. Results demonstrated that LMA did not affect (P < 0.05) retail portion size of 7 of the 14 muscles (chuckeye complexus, pectoralis profundus, psoas major, semimembranosus, tensor fasciae latae, triceps brachii, and vastus lateralis). Similarly, LMA did not affect (P < 0.05) surface area of steak cross-sectional face areas from 7 of the 14 muscles (chuckeye complexus, psoas major, semimembranosus, tensor fasciae latae, infraspinatus, vastus lateralis, and latissimus dorsi). Muscles for which carcass LMA (P < 0.05) was related to portion size or surface area of portion steaks, or both, were included in the survey. Results of the survey demonstrated that portion size for many muscles were still acceptable to retail

  16. Analysis of the aerobic-anaerobic transition in elite cyclists during incremental exercise with the use of electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, A.; Sanchez, O.; Carvajal, A.; Chicharro, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) as a new non-invasive determinant of the metabolic response to incremental exercise in elite cyclists. The relation between EMG activity and other more conventional methods for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition such as blood lactate measurements (lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)) and ventilatory parameters (ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (VT1 and VT2)) was studied. METHODS: Twenty eight elite road cyclists (age 24 (4) years; VO2MAX 69.9 (6.4) ml/kg/min; values mean (SD)) were selected as subjects. Each of them performed a ramp protocol (starting at 0 W, with increases of 5 W every 12 seconds) on a cycle ergometer (validity study). In addition, 15 of them performed the same test twice (reliability study). During the tests, data on gas exchange and blood lactate levels were collected to determine VT1, VT2, LT, and OBLA. The root mean squares of EMG signals (rms-EMG) were recorded from both the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris at each intensity using surface electrodes. RESULTS: A two threshold response was detected in the rms-EMG recordings from both muscles in 90% of subjects, with two breakpoints, EMGT1 and EMGT2, at around 60-70% and 80-90% of VO2MAX respectively. The results of the reliability study showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between mean values of EMGT1 and EMGT2 obtained in both tests. Furthermore, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between mean values of EMGT1, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT1 and LT (62.8 (14.5) and 69.0 (6.2) and 64.6 (6.4) and 68.7 (8.2)% of VO2MAX respectively), or between mean values of EMGT2, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT2 and OBLA (86.9 (9.0) and 88.0 (6.2) and 84.6 (6.5) and 87.7 (6.4)% of VO2MAX respectively). CONCLUSION: rms-EMG may be a useful complementary non-invasive method for analysing the aerobic- anaerobic transition

  17. The contribution of "resting" body muscles to the slow component of pulmonary oxygen uptake during high-intensity cycling.

    PubMed

    Ozyener, Fadil; Whipp, Brian J; Ward, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during moderate constant-workrate (WR) exercise (>lactate-threshold (θL)) are well described as exponential. AboveθL, these kinetics are more complex, consequent to the development of a delayed slow component (VO2sc), whose aetiology remains controversial. To assess the extent of the contribution to the VO2sc from arm muscles involved in postural stability during cycling, six healthy subjects completed an incremental cycle-ergometer test to the tolerable limit for estimation of θL and determination of peak VO2. They then completed two constant-WR tests at 90% of θL and two at 80% of ∆ (difference between θL and VO2peak). Gas exchange variables were derived breath-by-breath. Local oxygenation profiles of the vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscles were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the relevant muscles being performed post-exercise to provide a frame of reference for normalising the exercise-related oxygenation responses across subjects. Above supra-θL, VO2 rose in an exponential-like fashion ("phase 2), with a delayed VO2sc subsequently developing. This was accompanied by an increase in [reduced haemoglobin] relative to baseline (∆[Hb]), which attained 79 ± 13 % (mean, SD) of MVC maximum in vastus lateralis at end-exercise and 52 ± 27 % in biceps brachii. Biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was significantly correlated with VO2 throughout the slow phase. In contrast, for sub- L exercise, VO2 rose exponentially to reach a steady state with a more modest increase in vastus lateralis ∆[Hb] (30 ± 11 %); biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was minimally affected (8 ± 2 %). That the intramuscular O2 desaturation profile in biceps brachii was proportional to that for VO2sc during supra-θL cycle ergometry is consistent with additional stabilizing arm work contributing to the VO2sc.

  18. Effects of unilateral and bilateral cochlea removal on 2-deoxyglucose patterns in the chick auditory system.

    PubMed

    Heil, P; Scheich, H

    1986-10-15

    The 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) method was used to map functional activity in the auditory system of chicks that had been subjected to unilateral or bilateral cochlea removal. Following survival times of 1 day to 4 weeks, chicks were exposed to continuous white noise in the 2DG experiments. In monaural subjects nucleus angularis and nucleus magnocellularis showed faint 2DG uptake on the side contralateral to the intact ear. In the binaural nucleus laminaris, the asymmetrical and almost mirror-imaged labeling pattern (Lippe, Stewart, and Rubel: Brain Res. 196:43-58, '80) was produced. The superior olive (OS) was strongly labeled on the ipsilateral side, whereas the contralateral OS showed only a slight 2DG uptake at its medial border. The lateral lemniscus and nucleus lemnisci lateralis, pars ventralis (LLv) showed stronger activation on the contralateral side. Both Nissl stains and 2DG patterns provide evidence that nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis (VLV) can be subdivided into an anterior (VLVa) and a posterior (VLVp) part. Whereas VLVp is labeled only contralaterally, VLVa is labeled on both sides with similar intensity. Nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis (MLD) is strongly labeled throughout contralaterally. The ipsilateral MLD shows a defined ventral portion of high 2DG uptake. Intensity of labeling here is symmetrical to the corresponding area of the contralateral MLD. These symmetrical patterns were related to the tonotopic organization of MLD, which was mapped in intact animals by using tone stimuli. Assuming that symmetrical 2DG uptake in monaural animals indicates excitatory input from both ears (EE-cells), it appears that these EE-cells occupy a sector of each isofrequency plane in MLD. Nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) generally was stronger labeled on the contralateral side. The columnar organization of field L as seen in monaural chicks has already been described (Scheich, Exp. Brain Res. 51:199-205, '83). In bilaterally deafened chicks, MLD, Ov, and

  19. Skeletal muscle oxidative function in vivo and ex vivo in athletes with marked hypertrophy from resistance training.

    PubMed

    Salvadego, Desy; Domenis, Rossana; Lazzer, Stefano; Porcelli, Simone; Rittweger, Jörn; Rizzo, Giovanna; Mavelli, Irene; Simunic, Bostjan; Pisot, Rado; Grassi, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Oxidative function during exercise was evaluated in 11 young athletes with marked skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by long-term resistance training (RTA; body mass 102.6 ± 7.3 kg, mean ± SD) and 11 controls (CTRL; body mass 77.8 ± 6.0 kg). Pulmonary O2 uptake (Vo2) and vastus lateralis muscle fractional O2 extraction (by near-infrared spectroscopy) were determined during an incremental cycle ergometer (CE) and one-leg knee-extension (KE) exercise. Mitochondrial respiration was evaluated ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized vastus lateralis fibers obtained by biopsy. Quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area, volume (determined by magnetic resonance imaging), and strength were greater in RTA vs. CTRL (by ∼40%, ∼33%, and ∼20%, respectively). Vo2peak during CE was higher in RTA vs. CTRL (4.05 ± 0.64 vs. 3.56 ± 0.30 l/min); no difference between groups was observed during KE. The O2 cost of CE exercise was not different between groups. When divided per muscle mass (for CE) or quadriceps muscle mass (for KE), Vo2 peak was lower (by 15-20%) in RTA vs. CTRL. Vastus lateralis fractional O2 extraction was lower in RTA vs. CTRL at all work rates, during both CE and KE. RTA had higher ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration (56.7 ± 23.7 pmol O2·s(-1)·mg(-1) ww) vs. CTRL (35.7 ± 10.2 pmol O2·s(-1)·mg(-1) ww) and a tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. In RTA, the greater muscle mass and maximal force and the enhanced mitochondrial respiration seem to compensate for the hypertrophy-induced impaired peripheral O2 diffusion. The net results are an enhanced whole body oxidative function at peak exercise and unchanged efficiency and O2 cost at submaximal exercise, despite a much greater body mass.

  20. The Contribution of "Resting" Body Muscles to the Slow Component of Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake During High-Intensity Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Ozyener, Fadil; Whipp, Brian J.; Ward, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during moderate constant-workrate (WR) exercise (>lactate-threshold (θL)) are well described as exponential. AboveθL, these kinetics are more complex, consequent to the development of a delayed slow component (VO2sc), whose aetiology remains controversial. To assess the extent of the contribution to the VO2sc from arm muscles involved in postural stability during cycling, six healthy subjects completed an incremental cycle-ergometer test to the tolerable limit for estimation of θL and determination of peak VO2. They then completed two constant-WR tests at 90% of θL and two at 80% of ∆ (difference between θL and VO2peak). Gas exchange variables were derived breath-by-breath. Local oxygenation profiles of the vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscles were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the relevant muscles being performed post-exercise to provide a frame of reference for normalising the exercise-related oxygenation responses across subjects. Above supra-θL, VO2 rose in an exponential-like fashion ("phase 2), with a delayed VO2sc subsequently developing. This was accompanied by an increase in [reduced haemoglobin] relative to baseline (∆[Hb]), which attained 79 ± 13 % (mean, SD) of MVC maximum in vastus lateralis at end-exercise and 52 ± 27 % in biceps brachii. Biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was significantly correlated with VO2 throughout the slow phase. In contrast, for sub- L exercise, VO2 rose exponentially to reach a steady state with a more modest increase in vastus lateralis ∆[Hb] (30 ± 11 %); biceps brachii ∆[Hb] was minimally affected (8 ± 2 %). That the intramuscular O2 desaturation profile in biceps brachii was proportional to that for VO2sc during supra-θL cycle ergometry is consistent with additional stabilizing arm work contributing to the VO2sc. Key points The source(s) of the "slow component" component of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2sc) associated

  1. Comparison between the changes in muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration in finswimmers during incremental exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangde; Tian, Qingping; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-08-01

    For the purpose of comparing the response in local skeletal muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration during incremental exercise, 8 female finswimmers were recruited to take an incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Muscle oxygenation in right vastus lateralis (VL) were monitored by continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW NIRS), respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were simultaneously measured by a metabolic system and a portable blood lactate analyzer respectively. NIRS measurements showed a muscle oxygenation index inflection point (OIip), from which the muscle oxygenation started to decrease dramatically. Significant correlations have been found between OIip and blood lactate threshold identified at the lowest [La]b value which was >0.5 mmol/L lower than that obtained at the following workload. These results might suggest that the CW NIRS measurement could be applied to monitor lactate threshold noninvasively.

  2. Multicenter survey analysis of satisfaction according to actual utilization of rehabilitation services

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byoung-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Jong-Won; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Most such studies have been limited to evaluating the muscle activity patterns of lower extremity muscles using surface electromyograms, but studies of muscle activity patterns according to chair types are lacking. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 52 university students in their 20s (26 males, 26 females) were selected in order to analyze the activity of five lower extremity muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius). The selected subjects had sufficient muscle strength for the experiment and normal joint range of motion. [Results] To examine the sociodemographic variables of the study subjects, the frequencies and percentages of individual items were presented as follows Table 3. [Conclusion] Differences in lower extremity muscle activity levels during standing and sitting were identified, and differences between genders were also seen. There was no significant difference in lower extremity muscle activity levels between use of fixed and wheeled chairs. PMID:27065547

  3. Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Payne, RC; Hutchinson, JR; Robilliard, JJ; Smith, NC; Wilson, AM

    2005-01-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle–tendon units of the equine pelvic limb. Specifically, we recorded muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon rest length. Physiological cross sectional area was then determined and maximum isometric force estimated. There was proximal-to-distal reduction in muscle volume and fascicle length. Proximal limb tendons were few and, where present, were relatively short. By contrast, distal limb tendons were numerous and long in comparison to mean muscle fascicle length, increasing potential for elastic energy storage. When compared with published data on thoracic limb muscles, proximal pelvic limb muscles were larger in volume and had shorter fascicles. Distal limb muscle architecture was similar in thoracic and pelvic limbs with the exception of flexor digitorum lateralis (lateral head of the deep digital flexor), the architecture of which was similar to that of the pelvic and thoracic limb superficial digital flexors, suggesting a functional similarity. PMID:15960766

  4. Neurons sensitive to narrow ranges of repetitive acoustic transients in the medial geniculate body of the cat.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, E; de Ribaupierre, F

    1982-01-01

    Neuronal activity was recorded in the medial geniculate body (MGB) of nitrous oxide anaesthetized, paralysed cats in response to click trains. For most cells responding to these stimuli the spike discharges are precisely time locked to individual clicks within the train. The present study has revealed that, apart from the normal "locker" response being characterized by a monotonic decrease in the entrainment as the frequency of the clicks within the train increases, there is a small population of "lockers" which show a non-monotonic response to increasing click frequency. 41% of these non-monotonic cells were not at all entrained by the lowest click rates and had time-locked responses for very restricted frequency ranges. These particular non-monotonic "lockers" were more commonly-found in the posterior part of the pars lateralis and in the suprageniculate nucleus. These cells might be involved in the temporal coding of natural sounds such as animal vocalizations and the cat's purr.

  5. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas.

  6. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  7. Human slow troponin T (TNNT1) pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an indicator of skeletal muscle response to resistance exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Choi, Seung Jun; Wang, Zhong-Min; Birbrair, Alexander; Messi, María L; Jin, Jian-Ping; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-12-01

    Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) pre-messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) provides transcript diversity and increases the variety of proteins the gene encodes. Here, we identified three major TNNT1 splicing patterns (AS1-3), quantified their expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of older adults, and demonstrated that resistance training modifies their relative abundance; specifically, upregulating AS1 and downregulating AS2 and AS3. In addition, abundance of TNNT1 AS2 correlated negatively with single muscle fiber-specific force after resistance training, while abundance of AS1 correlated negatively with V max. We propose that TNNT1 AS1, AS2 and the AS1/AS2 ratio are potential quantitative biomarkers of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance training in older adults, and that their profile reflects enhanced single fiber muscle force in the absence of significant increases in fiber cross-sectional area.

  8. Human Slow Troponin T (TNNT1) Pre-mRNA Alternative Splicing Is an Indicator of Skeletal Muscle Response to Resistance Exercise in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Choi, Seung Jun; Wang, Zhong-Min; Birbrair, Alexander; Messi, María L.; Jin, Jian-Ping; Marsh, Anthony P.; Nicklas, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) pre-messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) provides transcript diversity and increases the variety of proteins the gene encodes. Here, we identified three major TNNT1 splicing patterns (AS1–3), quantified their expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of older adults, and demonstrated that resistance training modifies their relative abundance; specifically, upregulating AS1 and downregulating AS2 and AS3. In addition, abundance of TNNT1 AS2 correlated negatively with single muscle fiber–specific force after resistance training, while abundance of AS1 correlated negatively with V max. We propose that TNNT1 AS1, AS2 and the AS1/AS2 ratio are potential quantitative biomarkers of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance training in older adults, and that their profile reflects enhanced single fiber muscle force in the absence of significant increases in fiber cross-sectional area. PMID:24368775

  9. Voluntary breathing increases corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscle during isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Kazuki; Yunoki, Takahiro; Afroundeh, Roghayyeh; Lian, Chang-Shun; Matsuura, Ryouta; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yano, Tokuo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of voluntary breathing on corticospinal excitability of a leg muscle during isometric contraction. Seven subjects performed 5-s isometric knee extension at the intensity of 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (10% MVC). During the 10% MVC, the subjects were instructed to breath normally (NORM) or to inhale (IN) or exhale (OUT) once as fast as possible. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranialmagnetic stimulation in the right vastus lateralis (VL) during the 10% MVC were recorded and compared during the three breathing tasks. MEPs in IN and OUT were significantly higher than that in NORM. Effort sense of breathing was significantly higher in IN and OUT than in NORM. There was a significant positive correlation between MEP and effort sense of breathing. These results suggest that activation of the breathing-associated cortical areas with voluntary breathing is involved in the increase in corticospinal excitability of the VL during isometric contraction.

  10. Compression garments to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; Til, Lluís; Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio; Montoro, José Bruno; Valero, Oliver; Artells, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a compression garment as DOMS prevention. This was accomplished by provoking a DOMS in 15 athletes, running on a treadmill at 73% of their maximal aerobic velocity, during 40 minutes with a 10% negative slope; wearing the compression garments on one thigh, protected thigh (PT), and not in the contralateral thigh, control thigh (CT). A clinical and MRI diagnosis of DOMS was performed. Biopsies in both vastus lateralis were done, and the amount and severity of the DOMS was estimated by measuring intracellular albumin, and lymphocytes CD3+ and neutrophils intra/interfibrilar infiltrates, 48h after the induced damaging exercise. There was less total injury in the PT than in the CT, a 26.7% average. These data indicate that this compression garment is an effective method to reduce the histological injury in DOMS. PMID:24596693

  11. Avian orientation: the pulse effect is mediated by the magnetite receptors in the upper beak.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2009-06-22

    Migratory silvereyes treated with a strong magnetic pulse shift their headings by approximately 90 degrees , indicating an involvement of magnetite-based receptors in the orientation process. Structures containing superparamagnetic magnetite have been described in the inner skin at the edges of the upper beak of birds, while single-domain magnetite particles are indicated in the nasal cavity. To test which of these structures mediate the pulse effect, we subjected migratory silvereyes, Zosterops l. lateralis, to a strong pulse, and then tested their orientation, while the skin of their upper beak was anaesthetized with a local anaesthetic to temporarily deactivate the magnetite-containing structures there. After the pulse, birds without anaesthesia showed the typical shift, whereas when their beak was anaesthetized, they maintained their original headings. This indicates that the superparamagnetic magnetite-containing structures in the skin of the upper beak are most likely the magnetoreceptors that cause the change in headings observed after pulse treatment.

  12. Effects and detection of Nandrosol and ractopamine administration in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Divari, Sara; Berio, Enrica; Pregel, Paola; Sereno, Alessandra; Chiesa, Luca; Pavlovic, Radmila; Panseri, Sara; Bovee, Toine F H; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2017-04-15

    The present study describes different effects of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) nandrolone phenylpropionate (Nandrosol) and the β-agonist ractopamine administration in veal calves, and it investigates different strategies applied to trace these molecules. Morphological changes of gonads and accessory glands attributed to androgen effects, such as testicular atrophy, seminiferous tubule diameter reduction and hyperplasia of prostate epithelium, were detected, although SARMs are not described to cause these lesions. The gene expression analysis showed an anabolic activity of Nandrosol in Longissimus dorsi muscle, where myosin heavy chain (MYH) was significantly up-regulated. An IGF1 increase was weakly significant only in Vastus lateralis muscle. In conclusion, the anatomo-histopathological observations and the MYH mRNA up-regulation in Longissimus dorsi muscle confirm the androgenic treatment in experimental animals. The biosensor assay was not enough sensitive to detect residues in urines and only the direct chemical analysis of urine samples confirmed both β-agonist and SARM treatment.

  13. Firefly flashing under strong static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Barua, Anurup Gohain; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Miyashita, Yuito; Kurita, Satoru; Owada, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Firefly flashing has been the subject of numerous scientific investigations. Here we present in vivo flashes from male specimens of three species of fireflies-two Japanese species Luciola cruciata, Luciola lateralis and one Indian species Luciola praeusta-positioned under a superconducting magnet. When the OFF state of the firefly becomes long after flashing in an immobile state under the strong static magnetic field of strength 10 Tesla for a long time, which varies widely from species to species as well as from specimen to specimen, the effect of the field becomes noticeable. The flashes in general are more rapid, and occasionally overlap to produce broad compound flashes. We present the broadest flashes recorded to date, and propose that the strong static magnetic field affects the neural activities of fireflies, especially those in the spent up or 'exhausted' condition.

  14. Comparison of EMG activity between maximal manual muscle testing and cybex maximal isometric testing of the quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Chang, Jia-Hao; Chien, Chi-Sheng; Chang, Guan-Liang

    2008-02-01

    Two methods have been used to produce a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles for normalization of electromyographic (EMG) data. The purposes of this study were to compare the myoelectic activity of MVIC of manual muscle testing (MMT) versus Cybex maximal isometric testing. Eighteen normal subjects were recruited. MMT and Cybex testing for MVIC of the dominant leg were performed. EMG activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were recorded during MMT and Cybex trials. EMG amplitude and median frequency obtained from the two methods (MMT and Cybex testing) were used for statistical analysis of these three muscles. Statistically, the difference in the mean of the EMG signal amplitude and median frequency between MMT and Cybex testing were not significant. Considering cost and time, MMT for MVIC technique appears to be reliable and highly valuable.

  15. Minerals, haem and non-haem iron contents of rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Cabrera, M C; Del Puerto, M; Saadoun, A

    2009-01-01

    Mineral contents, haem and non-haem iron of rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM), Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I) were determined. No differences between the three muscles were observed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium. There is more potassium, zinc and copper in IL muscle than in OM and I muscles. For Manganese, OM and IL muscles show a higher content in comparison with I muscle. For selenium, IL and I muscles show the highest content compared to OM muscle. For total, haem and non-haem iron, the IL muscle shows the highest content respect to the other muscles. When compared to other meats, the minerals content of rhea meat show an elevated level in phosphorus, selenium and total and haem iron. The human health concern due to the deficient diet in selenium and iron, and their high contents in rhea meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat.

  16. The Hindlimb Myology of Tyto alba (Tytonidae, Strigiformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Mosto, M C

    2017-02-01

    This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae. Hindlimb muscle mass accounts for 14.13% of total body mass, which is within the range of values of both nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors. This study provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology.

  17. Crustaceans as a model for microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mykles, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscles is a serious problem in a microgravity environment. It is hypothesized that the unloading of postural muscles, which no longer must resist gravity force, causes an accelerated breakdown of contractile proteins, resulting in reduction in muscle mass and strength. A crustacean model using the land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, to assess the effects of spaceflight on protein meatabolism is presented. The model is compared to a developmentally-regulated atrophy in which a premolt reduction in muscle mass allows the withdrawal of the large claws at molt. The biochemical mechanisms underlying protein breakdown involves both Ca2(+) -dependent and multicatalytic proteolytic enzymes. Crustacean claw muscle can be used to determine the interactions between shortening and unloading at the molecular level.

  18. Role of calcium-dependent proteinase in molt-induced claw muscle atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each intermolt cycle. Muscle protein decreases 40% during proecdysis and is restored following ecdysis. Amino acid incorporation into protein of postecdysial muscle is five times greater than that in anecdysial muscle. Since the rates of protein synthesis in anecdysial and proecdysial muscle are the same it appears that proecdysial muscle atrophy is caused primarily by an increase in protein degradation. A calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) active at neutral pH has been implicated in the nonlysosomal hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. We have examined the role of a CDP in atrophy of the claw closer muscle. The many similarities between crustacean and vertebrate CDPs have established this crustacean system as a simple and convenient model for the role of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent proteolysis in myofibrillar protein turnover and its manifestation in the structure of the sarcomere. 16 references, 8 figures. (ACR)

  19. The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.

  20. In Vivo Imaging of Human Sarcomere Twitch Dynamics in Individual Motor Units.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gabriel N; Sinha, Supriyo; Liske, Holly; Chen, Xuefeng; Nguyen, Viet; Delp, Scott L; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-12-16

    Motor units comprise a pre-synaptic motor neuron and multiple post-synaptic muscle fibers. Many movement disorders disrupt motor unit contractile dynamics and the structure of sarcomeres, skeletal muscle's contractile units. Despite the motor unit's centrality to neuromuscular physiology, no extant technology can image sarcomere twitch dynamics in live humans. We created a wearable microscope equipped with a microendoscope for minimally invasive observation of sarcomere lengths and contractile dynamics in any major skeletal muscle. By electrically stimulating twitches via the microendoscope and visualizing the sarcomere displacements, we monitored single motor unit contractions in soleus and vastus lateralis muscles of healthy individuals. Control experiments verified that these evoked twitches involved neuromuscular transmission and faithfully reported muscle force generation. In post-stroke patients with spasticity of the biceps brachii, we found involuntary microscopic contractions and sarcomere length abnormalities. The wearable microscope facilitates exploration of many basic and disease-related neuromuscular phenomena never visualized before in live humans.

  1. Changes of blood plasma optical absorption spectrum due to bilirubin photoconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, V. M.; Khanin, Yakov I.; Mironov, Yury A.

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses some of our experimental results on the organism immunity increase caused by an intravenous UV irradiation of blood. The rabbits from an experimental group were treated with an optical fiber (620 micrometers core diameter) introduced to vena auricularis superficialis lateralis of the rabbits' ear. Pulsed UV laser emission was introduced through the optical fiber and rabbits' blood was irradiated for 10 minutes with the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. Subsequently, all rabbits from the experimental and a reference group were infected with the virulent strain of Staphylococcus aureus H 470. These results clearly indicate that the intravenous UV laser irradiation of blood had a positive therapeutic effect on the course of the animals' staphylococcal infection.

  2. [Lateral motor nucleus in the lumbosacral segment of the spinal cord of the horse].

    PubMed

    Flieger, S; Sławomirski, J; Boratyński, Z; Jastrzebski, M

    1984-01-01

    Two medullae oblongatae of horses were cut into 15 microns cross-sections and stained according to the modified method of Nissel. The lateral motor nucleus lies in the lateral and median part of the ventral column of spinal cord grey matter. It adjoins medially nucleus motorius medialis of the spinal ventral column. Cells of this nucleus occur both along the whole lumbar and sacral segment of the spinal cord. In the lateral motor nucleus three cell groups are distinguished - median, basal and lateral. The latter is divided in some segments into subgroups - dorsal and ventral. Along the nucleus quite numerous constrictions and intervals are found, which are caused by various numbers of cells in particular cross-sections. Nucleus motorius lateralis is formed mainly of large and medium multipolar or single spindle cells.

  3. Adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Adams, Gregory R.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Belew, Anne H.; Buchanan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The effect of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on neuromuscular function in humans is analyzed. All ambulatory activity on crutches was performed by eight subjects for 6 weeks who wear a shoe with a 10 cm sole on the right foot to unweight the left lower limb. Results show that average muscle cross sectional area (CSA) of the left knee extensor (KE) decreased 16 percent whereas the KE of the nonsuspended right limb showed no changes. Maximal integrated electromyography of vastus lateralis and overall mean power frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus for submaximal isometric actions were both decreased post-ULLS. It is concluded that six weeks of ULLS induces adaptations in the neuromuscular system of humans which are comparable to those induced by bed rest and spaceflight.

  4. Distribution of prosaposin mRNA in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Abdullah, J M; Atoji, Y

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay and immunohistochemical studies have detected the presence of prosaposin in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Here, first time, we have determined the partial cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin and mapped the distribution of its mRNA in the pigeon CNS. The predicted amino acid sequence of pigeon prosaposin showed 93 and 60% identity to chicken and human prosaposin, respectively. In situ hybridization, autoradiograms showed that the prosaposin mRNA expression was found in the olfactory bulb, prepiriform cortex, Wulst, mesopallium, nidopallium, hippocampal formation, thalamus, tuberis nucleus, pre-tectal nucleus, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis and magnocellularis, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, optic tectum, cerebellar cortex and nuclei, vestibular nuclei and gray matter of the spinal cord. These results suggest that the cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin is comparable to other vertebrates, and the general distribution pattern of prosaposin mRNA resembles those are found in mammals.

  5. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2a with mutation in CAPN3: the first report in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Hua; Liang, Wen-Chen; Minami, Narihiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2015-02-01

    The autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene, and it is characterized by selective atrophy and weakness of proximal limb and girdle muscles. We report a 33-year-old woman with initial presentations of exercise intolerance and running difficulty at age 15 years. At presentation, waddling gait, positive Gowers' sign, and marked muscle atrophy in pelvic and leg muscles were noted. Muscle computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated symmetric involvement of the posterior thigh muscles with relative sparing of vastus lateralis, sartorius, and gracilis. Muscle biopsy revealed a dystrophic change and many lobulated fibers on NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining. Genetic analysis of the CAPN3 gene identified a novel homozygous mutation of c2047_2050 del4, p.Lys683fs mutation, confirming the first LGMD2A patient in Taiwan.

  6. Compression garments to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Valle, Xavier; Til, Lluís; Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio; Montoro, José Bruno; Valero, Oliver; Artells, Rosa

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a compression garment as DOMS prevention. This was accomplished by provoking a DOMS in 15 athletes, running on a treadmill at 73% of their maximal aerobic velocity, during 40 minutes with a 10% negative slope; wearing the compression garments on one thigh, protected thigh (PT), and not in the contralateral thigh, control thigh (CT). A clinical and MRI diagnosis of DOMS was performed. Biopsies in both vastus lateralis were done, and the amount and severity of the DOMS was estimated by measuring intracellular albumin, and lymphocytes CD3+ and neutrophils intra/interfibrilar infiltrates, 48h after the induced damaging exercise. There was less total injury in the PT than in the CT, a 26.7% average. These data indicate that this compression garment is an effective method to reduce the histological injury in DOMS.

  7. Structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle following 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hikida, Robert S.; Gollnick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated microgravity (30 days of continuous 6-deg headdown bedrest, BR) on the structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle were determined. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles before and after the headdown BR were analyzed for histochemical, biochemical and ultrastructual changes. It was found that headdown BR led to decreases in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fiber areas in both muscles, and there was evidence of remodeling of the ultrastructure in both muscles. The activities of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were reduced during BR, but phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities did not change. The results indicate that 30-d exposure to simulated microgravity decreased the capacity for aerobic energy supply of human skeletal muscle and led to a disorganization of the contractile machinery.

  8. A physiological profile of elite Canadian freestyle wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, M T; Taylor, A W; Song, T M

    1986-06-01

    There has been an improvement in Canadian freestyle wrestling performance over the past five years. Medals are now being won at World and Olympic competitions. The present investigation provides baseline physiological data which have been used in the prescription of individual training programs for these athletes. This information is also available to the coaches and contributes to the strategy for individual matches. Generally, the Canadian wrestlers have a physiological profile similar to elite wrestlers from other countries. Maximal aerobic power is comparable to or greater than previously reported values. Needle biopsies reveal exceptionally large fast twitch fibre areas in vastus lateralis. However, anaerobic capacity and upper body strength are less than values reported for other elite athletes.

  9. Redox balance following magnetic stimulation training in the quadriceps of patients with severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Víctor; Casanova, Juan; López de Santamaría, Elena; Mas, Sandra; Sellarés, Jacobo; Gea, Joaquim; Gáldiz, Juan B; Barreiro, Esther

    2008-11-01

    In severe COPD patients, oxidative stress, which is involved in their peripheral muscle dysfunction, increases in response to exercise. In this study, muscle oxidative stress was explored after quadriceps magnetic stimulation training. A randomized controlled study was conducted on very severe COPD patients, who underwent quadriceps magnetic stimulation training for 8 weeks. A control group was also studied. In both groups, vastus lateralis specimens were obtained before and after the 8-week period. Muscle protein carbonylation and nitration and antioxidant enzymes were determined using immunoblotting and proportions and sizes of type I and II fibres using immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, magnetic stimulation muscle training did not modify redox balance, whilst inducing a significant increase in type I fibre sizes. In severe COPD patients, it is concluded that quadriceps magnetic stimulation training was a well-tolerated therapeutic intervention, which did not enhance muscle oxidative stress, while increasing the size of slow-twitch fibres.

  10. Plasma corticosterone responses to lesions and stimulations of the limbic thalami nuclei, medial mammillary nucleus and cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Perassi, N I

    1988-06-01

    The influence of extrahypothalamic limbic structures on adrenocortical activity was investigated in female adult rats. Bilateral lesions on the anteromedial thalami nucleus (AMTN), anteroventral thalami nucleus (AVTN) or the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) all elicited a significant decrease on plasma corticosterone, while their electrochemical stimulation produced a significant increase with respect to animals with sham lesions or sham stimulation. In contrast, after lesions of the dorsomedial thalami nucleus (DMTN), medial mammillary nucleus (pars lateralis) (MMN) or retrosplenial cortex (RC), values of plasma corticosterone were significantly higher than those found in controls, whereas following their stimulation plasma corticosterone levels were lower than in controls. Bilateral lesions or stimulations of anterior cingulate cortex had no significant effect upon corticosterone secretion. These findings may be interpreted as indicative of the existence of excitatory (AMTN, AVTN, and PCC) and inhibitory (DMTN, MMN and RC) central nervous structures for the control of corticoadrenal secretion besides those already known.

  11. Adrenal response to acute stress in mammillary medial nuclei lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Perassi, N I

    1993-01-01

    In view of the inhibitory influence of Mammillary Medial Nuclei, pars lateralis (MMN) on corticoadrenal activity, experiments were conducted in order to determine whether these nuclei are involved in the control of adrenal response to ether stress. In bilateral MMN lesioned rats, prestress plasma corticosterone concentration (C) is significantly higher than that in sham lesioned animals. Acute stress produced a significant C increase in both, sham and lesioned rats, being this increase lower in lesioned animals. After exposure to ether vapors. adrenal concentration of norepinephrine was similar in lesioned and control animals. Whereas, adrenal epinephrine concentration was significantly higher in lesioned rats than that found in the sham lesioned ones. This study demonstrates that the integrity of MMN is not essential for adrenal response to acute stress.

  12. [Reinnervation of larynx in surgical treatment of invasive thyroidal gland cancer].

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, V A

    2013-10-01

    The possibilities and efficacy of performance of simultant operations for invasive thyroid gland cancer in initial neuropathic laryngeal stenosis and dysphonic syndrome, aimed at minimization of the residual volume of thyroid gland tissue and surgical laryngeal reinnervation, were studied. The results of laryngeal surgical reinnervation, in accordance to data of videolaryngoscopy, aerodynamical and spectral analysis of the voice, self estimation of the vocal disorders impact on the patients quality of life were analyzed. Postoperatively in all the patients the improvement of phonation and quality of life was noted. Primary neurorhaphia of recurrent laryngeal nerve secures restoration of normal or nearly normal talkative voice due to restoration of the tone and volume of m. cricoarytenoideus lateralis and m. thyroarytenoideus on the side of affection and may be effectively applied for correction of consequences of laryngeal neuropathic paralysis in surgical treatment of the thyroid gland cancer.

  13. Arthroplasty using a custom-made cemented total hip prosthesis for an extensive giant cell tumor of the proximal femur: report of a patient followed up for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shunji; Enishi, Tetsuya; Hasan, Mohamed Yehya; Hanaoka, Naoyoshi; Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Egawa, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Isamu; Yasui, Natsuo

    2009-09-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old man who had a pathologic transtrochanteric fracture of the left femur due to a grade II giant cell tumor affecting the neck and the trochanteric area. This patient underwent complete resection of the tumor and arthroplasty using a custom-made cemented total hip prosthesis. The good radiologic and functional results of the surgery have been maintained for over 30 years without local recurrence or lung metastasis. Moreover, new bone formation was observed at the reattachment sites of abductors, iliopsoas tendons and vastus lateralis to the femoral component of the prosthesis although local bone resorption was detected at the upper lateral part of the femoral stem and zone I of the cup side.

  14. Elevated Skin Blood Flow Influences Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements During Supine Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation/blood flow based on spectrophotometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin present within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a means of detecting and quantifying changes in tissue blood flow due to physiological perturbation, such as that which is elicited in skeletal muscle during exercise. Since the NIRS technique requires light to penetrate the skin and subcutaneous fat in order to reach the muscle of interest, changes in skin blood flow may alter the NIRS signal in a fashion unrelated to blood flow in the muscle of interest. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of skin blood flow to the NIRS signal obtained from resting vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh.

  15. Effects of high-intensity blood flow restriction exercise on muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Santos, Heleodório H; Sousa, Juliana B C; Júnior, Adenilson T A; Araújo, Joamira P; Aniceto, Rodrigo R; Sousa, Maria S C

    2014-06-28

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  16. Hindlimb immobilization - Length-tension and contractile properties of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Casts were placed around rat feet in plantar flexion position to immobilize the soleus muscle in a shortened position, while the other foot was fixed in dorsal flexion to set the extensor digitorum longus in a shortened position. The total muscular atrophy and contractile properties were measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after immobilization, with casts being replaced every two weeks. The slow twitch soleus and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis and longus muscles were excised after termination of the experiment. The muscles were then stretched and subjected to electric shock to elicit peak tetanic tension and peak tetanic tension development. Force velocity features of the three muscles were assayed in a series of afterloaded contractions and fiber lengths were measured from subsequently macerated muscle. All muscles atrophied during immobilization, reaching a new steady state by day 21. Decreases in fiber and sarcomere lengths were also observed.

  17. Biomechanical bases of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.

  18. Results of Surveys for Special Status Reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J J

    2008-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).

  19. Adaptive response of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the monkey to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medical gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These experiments will be performed as part of the BION mission. The original project proposed to assess the effects of weightlessness in adult Rhesus monkeys which were to be flown on the Space Shuttle as part of SLS-3. Feasibility studies were carried out and a series of experiments were performed at NASA/Ames Research Center to assess the effects of a 21-day restraint period in the ESOP on muscle properties. The results of these studies are summarized.

  20. Effects of the Aconitum alkaloid mesaconitine in rat hippocampal slices and the involvement of α- and β-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Angela

    1998-01-01

    The effects of mesaconitine, the main alkaloid contained in Aconiti tuber, were investigated by use of extracellular recordings of stimulus-evoked population spikes and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.At a concentration of 10 nM, mesaconitine evoked excitations, which were manifested as an increase in the amplitude of the orthodromic spike and the appearance of multiple spikes following the first postsynaptic spike, without affecting the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation. The increase in spike amplitude was persistent and was not reversed by up to 90 min of washout. At concentrations of 30 and 100 nM, the alkaloid produced a biphasic effect, that is an excitation followed by an inhibition without having any effect upon the field e.p.s.p. At concentrations above 100 nM, mesaconitine suppressed the orthodromic population spike and the field e.p.s.p.The excitatory effect was also observed when electrical stimulation was stopped completely during the application of mesaconitine (10 nM) and during the first 15 min of washout.The enhancement of the population spike and the appearance of multiple spikes induced by mesaconitine (10–100 nM) were blocked by pretreatment with the β-adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol (1 μM) and timolol (1 μM), whereas the inhibitory effect was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonists yohimbine (1 μM) and phentolamine (10 μM). However, when the β-adrenoceptor antagonist timolol was added 10 min after the application of mesaconitine, it failed to block the long-lasting enhancement of the spike amplitude and the appearance of multiple population spikes.Application of the selective β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline (500 nM) to the hippocampal slices induced an increase in the amplitude of the orthodromic population spike and elicited 2–3 additional spikes. Mesaconitine (10 nM) did not further potentiate this enhancement of the spike

  1. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible.

  2. Muscle Activation Characteristics of the Front Leg During Baseball Swings with Timing Correction for Sudden Velocity Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  3. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs related to gait transitions in a labriform swimmer.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders D; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim; Domenici, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    Members of the family Embiotocidae exhibit a distinct gait transition from exclusively pectoral fin oscillation to combined pectoral and caudal fin propulsion with increasing swimming speed. The pectoral-caudal gait transition occurs at a threshold speed termed U(p-c). The objective of this study was to partition aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs at speeds below and above the U(p-c) in the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis using swimming respirometry and video analysis to test the hypothesis that the gait transition marks the switch from aerobic to anaerobic power output. Exercise oxygen consumption rate was measured at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.3 L s(-1). The presence and magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were evaluated after each swimming speed. The data demonstrated that 1.4 L s(-1) was below the U(p-c), whereas 1.9 and 2.3 L s(-1) were above the U(p-c). These last two swimming speeds included caudal fin propulsion in a mostly steady and unsteady (burst-assisted) mode, respectively. There was no evidence of EPOC after swimming at 1.4 and 1.9 L s(-1), indicating that the pectoral-caudal gait transition was not a threshold for anaerobic metabolism. At 2.3 L s(-1), E. lateralis switched to an unsteady burst and flap gait. This swimming speed resulted in EPOC, suggesting that anaerobic metabolism constituted 25% of the total costs. Burst activity correlated positively with the magnitude of the EPOC. Collectively, these data indicate that steady axial propulsion does not lead to EPOC whereas transition to burst-assisted swimming above U(p-c) is associated with anaerobic metabolism in this labriform swimmer.

  4. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Josária F.; Alvim, Felipe C.; Castro, Eliane A.; Doimo, Leonice A.; Silva, Marcus V.; Novo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and p<0.000, respectively) compared to group YO. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that changes in isometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. PMID:24676705

  5. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers.

  6. Modifications in activation of lower limb muscles as a function of initial foot position in cycling.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas W; Ardigò, Luca P; Viggiano, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic movements, such as walking/cycling, require the activity of spinal-circuits, the central-pattern-generators (CPG). To our knowledge little work has been done to investigate the activation of these circuits, e.g., the muscular and kinematic activity during cycling initiation. This study aims to detail the muscle output properties as a function of the initial lower limb-position using a simple cycling paradigm. Therefore, subjects were required to pedal on a cycle-ergometer in seated position starting at different-crank-angles (0-150°). Surface-electromyography was recorded from the gluteus major (GL), vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM), while crank position was recorded using a linear-encoder. Gluteus major peak-activity (PA) occurred at 65.0±12.4° when starting with 0° initial crank position (ICP), while occurred maximally at 110.5±2.9 when starting with 70° ICP. Vastus lateralis PA occurred at 40.7±8.8° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 103.4±4.0°. Similarly, GM PA occurred at 112.0±10.7° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 142.5±4.2° PA. Gluteus major and gastrocnemius medialis showed similar PA phase shifts, which may suggest they are controlled by same local circuitry, in agreement with their common spinal origin, i.e., motoneurons pool in S1-S2.

  7. Impact of external pneumatic compression target inflation pressure on transcriptome-wide RNA expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Kephart, Wesley C; Haun, Cody T; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Mobley, Christopher B; Goodlett, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas; Pascoe, David D; Zhang, Lee; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing was employed to determine the acute and subchronic impact of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (PEPC) of different target inflation pressures on global gene expression in human vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Eighteen (N = 18) male participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) sham (n = 6), 2) EPC at 30-40 mmHg (LP-EPC; n = 6), and 3) EPC at 70-80 mmHg (MP-EPC; n = 6). One hour treatment with sham/EPC occurred for seven consecutive days. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at baseline (before first treatment; PRE), 1 h following the first treatment (POST1), and 24 h following the last (7th) treatment (POST2). Changes from PRE in gene expression were analyzed via paired comparisons within each group. Genes were filtered to include only those that had an RPKM ≥ 1.0, a fold-change of ≥1.5 and a paired t-test value of <0.01. For the sham condition, two genes at POST1 and one gene at POST2 were significantly altered. For the LP-EPC condition, nine genes were up-regulated and 0 genes were down-regulated at POST1 while 39 genes were up-regulated and one gene down-regulated at POST2. For the MP-EPC condition, two genes were significantly up-regulated and 21 genes were down-regulated at POST1 and 0 genes were altered at POST2. Both LP-EPC and MP-EPC acutely alter skeletal muscle gene expression, though only LP-EPC appeared to affect gene expression with subchronic application. Moreover, the transcriptome response to EPC demonstrated marked heterogeneity (i.e., genes and directionality) with different target inflation pressures.

  8. Effects of a leaf spring structured midsole on joint mechanics and lower limb muscle forces in running

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Tobias; Alexander, Nathalie; Kröll, Josef; Stöggl, Thomas; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    To enhance running performance in heel-toe running, a leaf spring structured midsole shoe (LEAF) has recently been introduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a LEAF compared to a standard foam midsole shoe (FOAM) on joint mechanics and lower limb muscle forces in overground running. Nine male long-distance heel strike runners ran on an indoor track at 3.0 ± 0.2 m/s with LEAF and FOAM shoes. Running kinematics and kinetics were recorded during the stance phase. Absorbed and generated energy (negative and positive work) of the hip, knee and ankle joint as well as muscle forces of selected lower limb muscles were determined using a musculoskeletal model. A significant reduction in energy absorption at the hip joint as well as energy generation at the ankle joint was found for LEAF compared to FOAM. The mean lower limb muscle forces of the m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius lateralis and m. gastrocnemius medialis were significantly reduced for LEAF compared to FOAM. Furthermore, m. biceps femoris showed a trend of reduction in running with LEAF. The remaining lower limb muscles analyzed (m. gluteus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior) did not reveal significant differences between the shoe conditions. The findings of this study indicate that LEAF positively influenced the energy balance in running by reducing lower limb muscle forces compared to FOAM. In this way, LEAF could contribute to an overall increased running performance in heel-toe running. PMID:28234946

  9. The Effect of Three Different (-135°C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T.; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. Purpose To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. Method This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at −135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. Results No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Conclusion Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of −135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies. PMID:24489726

  10. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and Following a Taper.

    PubMed

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2016-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a one week overreach followed by a 3 week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre- and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d=1.21, p<0.05) and RPETL/session (d=0.9, p<0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of six athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance following the ORT (d=0.50, p<0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased following the in-season training phase (d=0.28, p<0.05), but did not change following the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly following the ORT (d=0.59, p<0.05, d=0.31, p<0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  11. Effect of 6-weeks WBVT on the behaviour of the lower limb muscle fibres during vertical jumping.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Arias, Jacobo Ángel; Ramos-Campo, Domingo Jesús; Esteban, Paula; Martínez, Fernando; Jiménez, José Fernando

    2017-04-05

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of whole body vibration training (WBVT) on body composition, muscle activity of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius muscle architecture (static and dynamic) and ground reaction forces (performance jump) during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump in young healthy adult males. A total of 33 men (23.31 ± 5.62 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (experimental group, EGWBVT: n = 17; 22.11 ± 4.97 years) or a control group (CG: n = 16; 24.5 ± 6.27 years). The total duration of the intervention phase (WBVT) was 6 weeks with a frequency of 3 sessions per week. Statistically significant differences were observed (P ≤ 0.05) between pre- and post-test in the power peak (Δ 1.91 W · kg(-1); P = 0.001), take-off velocity (0.1 cm · s(-1); P = 0.002) and jump height (Δ 0.4 cm; P = 0.002) for EGWBVT. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the body composition and muscle architecture variables. Moreover, no significant differences were found between EGWBVT and CG nor changes in muscle activity during take-off phase of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis pre- versus post-training. This study suggests that a 6-week WBVT programme with increasing intensity improves jump performance but does not alter muscle activity nor muscle architecture in healthy young men.

  12. Effects of a leaf spring structured midsole on joint mechanics and lower limb muscle forces in running.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Tobias; Alexander, Nathalie; Kröll, Josef; Stöggl, Thomas; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    To enhance running performance in heel-toe running, a leaf spring structured midsole shoe (LEAF) has recently been introduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a LEAF compared to a standard foam midsole shoe (FOAM) on joint mechanics and lower limb muscle forces in overground running. Nine male long-distance heel strike runners ran on an indoor track at 3.0 ± 0.2 m/s with LEAF and FOAM shoes. Running kinematics and kinetics were recorded during the stance phase. Absorbed and generated energy (negative and positive work) of the hip, knee and ankle joint as well as muscle forces of selected lower limb muscles were determined using a musculoskeletal model. A significant reduction in energy absorption at the hip joint as well as energy generation at the ankle joint was found for LEAF compared to FOAM. The mean lower limb muscle forces of the m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius lateralis and m. gastrocnemius medialis were significantly reduced for LEAF compared to FOAM. Furthermore, m. biceps femoris showed a trend of reduction in running with LEAF. The remaining lower limb muscles analyzed (m. gluteus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior) did not reveal significant differences between the shoe conditions. The findings of this study indicate that LEAF positively influenced the energy balance in running by reducing lower limb muscle forces compared to FOAM. In this way, LEAF could contribute to an overall increased running performance in heel-toe running.

  13. Molecular biomarkers monitoring human skeletal muscle fibres and microvasculature following long-term bed rest with and without countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Salanova, M; Schiffl, G; Püttmann, B; Schoser, B G; Blottner, D

    2008-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms of human skeletal muscle adaptation to disuse are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the morphological and biochemical changes of the lower limb soleus and vastus lateralis muscles following 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest in women with and without exercise countermeasure using molecular biomarkers monitoring functional cell compartments. Muscle biopsies were taken before (pre) and after bed rest (post) from a bed rest-only and a bed rest exercise group (n = 8, each). NOS1 and NOS3/PECAM, markers of myofibre ‘activity’ and capillary density, and MuRF1 (E3 ubiquitin-ligase), a marker of proteolysis, were documented by confocal immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses. Morphometrical parameters (myofibre cross-sectional area, type I/II distribution) were largely preserved in muscles from the exercise group with a robust trend for type II hypertrophy in vastus lateralis. In the bed rest-only group, the relative NOS1 immunostaining intensity was decreased at type I and II myofibre membranes, while the bed rest plus exercise group compensated for this loss particularly in soleus. In the microvascular network, NOS3 expression and the capillary-to-fibre ratio were both increased in the exercise group. Elevated MuRF1 immunosignals found in subgroups of atrophic myofibres probably reflected accelerated proteolysis. Immunoblots revealed overexpression of the MuRF1 protein in the soleus of the bed rest-only group (> 35% vs. pre). We conclude that exercise countermeasure during bed rest affected both NOS/NO signalling and proteolysis in female skeletal muscle. Maintenance of NO signalling mechanisms and normal protein turnover by exercise countermeasure may be crucial steps to attenuate human skeletal muscle atrophy and to maintain cell function following chronic disuse. PMID:18221329

  14. Influence of muscle fibre composition on muscle oxygenation during maximal running

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Tomoharu; Machida, Shuichi; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between muscle oxygenation (specifically, the levels of oxygenated haemoglobin and myoglobin [oxyHb/Mb]) during maximal running and muscle fibre composition, and to determine whether muscle fibre composition can be non-invasively estimated from oxyHb/Mb levels during maximal running. Methods Eight male runners (, 60.9± 4.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed an incremental running test on a treadmill. OxyHb/Mb levels of the vastus lateralis during maximal running were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Muscle fibre composition of the vastus lateralis was determined from muscle biopsy samples from the same region measured by NIRS, and the fibre types were classified as type I, type IIa, or type IIb fibres using traditional pH-sensitive ATPase staining. Type I and type IIa fibres together were defined as oxidative fibres. Results OxyHb/Mb levels during running were lowest at exhaustion in all participants. OxyHb/Mb levels at exhaustion were positively correlated with the percentages of type I fibres (r=0.755, p<0.05) and oxidative fibres (r=0.944, p<0.01). Conclusions We conclude that higher oxyHb/Mb levels at exhaustion during maximal running are correlated with a higher percentage of oxidative fibres, indicating the potential importance of oxidative fibres in the maintenance of oxyHb/Mb levels during maximal running. Additionally, muscle fibre composition could be non-invasively estimated from oxyHb/Mb levels during maximal running tests in runners. PMID:27900139

  15. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01), but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O(2) delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at

  16. Adaptations in Muscle Activity to Induced, Short-Term Hindlimb Lameness in Trotting Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb’s function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  17. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Teisner, Børge; Kjaer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined in intramuscular dialysate samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of the exercising leg (day 0: 1.89 ± 0.82 ng ml−1; day 2: 1.68 ± 0.37 ng ml−1; day 4: 3.26 ± 1.29 ng ml−1, P < 0.05 versus basal; day 8: 4.68 ± 2.06 ng ml−1, P < 0.05 versus basal and control). No change was noted in the control leg. Despite this increase in N-CAM- and FA1-positive mononuclear cells, an increased expression of myogenin and the neonatal isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MHCn) was not observed. Interestingly, myofibre lesions resulting from extensive damage to the proteins within the myofibre, particularly desmin or dystrophin, were not observed, and hence did not appear to induce the expression of either N-CAM or FA1. We therefore propose that satellite cells can be induced to re-enter the cell growth cycle after a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity exercise. However, a single bout of exercise is not sufficient for the satellite cell to undergo terminal differentiation. PMID:15121802

  18. The function of the disco-muscular apparatus in the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Bade, H

    1999-01-01

    The morphology and function of the disco-muscular apparatus of the human TMJ is a controversial subject. Connections between the muscles which move the mandible and the "disco-capsular complex" have been described in a contradictory way. The disco-muscular apparatus is also described as being more extensive than that of the M. pterygoideus alone to include to the Mm. temporalis and masseter. However, the involvement of the latter is considered to be a peripheral variation of the normal anatomy and of little, if any, functional significance. The existence of independent relationships between the deep portions of the masseter and temporal muscles and the disco-capsular apparatus of the human TMJ is rarely discussed or explained. The morphologic findings were derived from fixed and unfixed human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of varying ages and both sexes, whereby the functional maturity of the masticatory apparatus was taken into consideration. The results of the study show that aside from fibers originating from the superior venter of the M. pterygoideus lateralis, additional muscle or connective tissue fibers from the perimysium of the M. masseter are inserted to varying extents into the disc. The same is true for the M. temporalis, which is also directly connected to the disc via muscular or fibrous elements, or indirectly via fibers from the M. masseter. The insertion of the M. pterygoideus lateralis is always in the medial portion of the Discus articularis and those of the Mm. temporalis and masseter in the middle and lateral portions of the disc respectively. It is highly probable that a direct force transfer through the Mm. temporalis and masseter to the articular disc takes place, and that these muscles contribute to the movement of the disc during jaw movement, whereas the size and form of the muscle insertions are subject to a great deal of individual variation.

  19. Effects of sprint training combined with vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine content and buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; De Naeyer, Hélène; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Stegen, Sanne; Beeckman, Sam; Achten, Eric; Vanhee, Lander; Volkaert, Anneke; Petrovic, Mirko; Taes, Youri; Derave, Wim

    2011-10-01

    Carnosine is an abundant dipeptide in human skeletal muscle with proton buffering capacity. There is controversy as to whether training can increase muscle carnosine and thereby provide a mechanism for increased buffering capacity. This study investigated the effects of 5 weeks sprint training combined with a vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine, carnosine synthase mRNA expression and muscle buffering capacity. Twenty omnivorous subjects participated in a 5 week sprint training intervention (2-3 times per week). They were randomized into a vegetarian and mixed diet group. Measurements (before and after the intervention period) included carnosine content in soleus, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), true-cut biopsy of the gastrocnemius lateralis to determine in vitro non-bicarbonate muscle buffering capacity, carnosine content (HPLC method) and carnosine synthase (CARNS) mRNA expression and 6 × 6 s repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. There was a significant diet × training interaction in soleus carnosine content, which was non-significantly increased (+11%) with mixed diet and non-significantly decreased (-9%) with vegetarian diet. Carnosine content in other muscles and gastrocnemius buffer capacity were not influenced by training. CARNS mRNA expression was independent of training, but decreased significantly in the vegetarian group. The performance during the RSA test improved by training, without difference between groups. We found a positive correlation (r = 0.517; p = 0.002) between an invasive and non-invasive method for muscle carnosine quantification. In conclusion, this study shows that 5 weeks sprint training has no effect on the muscle carnosine content and carnosine synthase mRNA.

  20. Daily electromyography in females with Parkinson's disease: a potential indicator of frailty.

    PubMed

    Roland, Kaitlyn P; Jones, Gareth R; Jakobi, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Females with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased risk for frailty, yet are often excluded from frailty studies. Daily electromyography (EMG) recordings of muscle activity can dissociate stages of frailty and indicate functional decline in non-neurological conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle activity can be used to identify frailty phenotypes in females with PD. EMG during a typical 6.5-h day was examined in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris on less-affected PD side. Muscle activity was quantified through burst (>2% maximum exertion, >0.1s) and gap characteristics (<1% maximum exertion, >0.1s). Differences across frailty phenotype (nonfrail, prefrail, frail) and muscle (biceps brachii, BB; triceps brachii, TB; vastus lateralis, VL; biceps femoris, BF) were evaluated with a 2-way repeated measure ANOVA for each burst/gap characteristic. Thirteen right-handed females (mean=67 ± 8 years) were classified as nonfrail (n = 4), prefrail (n = 6), and frail (n = 3) according to the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index (CHSfi). Frail females had 73% decreased gaps and 48% increased burst duration compared with nonfrail. Decreased gaps may be interpreted as reduced muscle recovery time, which may result in earlier onset fatigue and eventually culminating in frailty. Longer burst durations suggest more muscle activity is required to initiate movement leading to slower movement time in frail females with PD. This is the first study to use EMG to dissociate frailty phenotypes in females with PD during routine daily activities and provides insight into how PD-associated motor declines contributes to frailty and functional decline.

  1. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  2. Topographic organization of subcortical projections to the anterior thalamic nuclei in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H

    1992-09-01

    Subcortical projections to the anterior thalamic nuclei were studied in the rat, with special reference to projections from the mammillary nuclei, by retrograde and anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The medial mammillary nucleus (MM) projects predominantly ipsilaterally to the entire anterior thalamic nuclei, whereas the lateral mammillary nucleus projects bilaterally to the anterodorsal nucleus (AD) of the anterior thalamic nuclei. A topographic relationship was recognized between the MM and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The dorsal region of the pars mediana of the MM projects to the interanteromedial nucleus (IAM), whereas the ventral region projects to the rostral part of the anteromedial nucleus (AM). The dorsal and the ventral regions of the pars medialis project to the dorsomedial part of the AM at its caudal and rostral levels, respectively. The dorsomedial region of the pars lateralis projects to the ventral AM. The ventrolateral region of the pars lateralis projects to the ventral part of the anteroventral nucleus (AV) in such a manner that rostral cells project rostrally and caudal cells project caudally. The pars basalis projects predominantly ipsilaterally to the dorsolateral AV and bilaterally to the AD. The rostrolateral region of the pars posterior projects to the lateral AV, whereas the medial and the caudal regions of the pars posterior project to the dorsomedial AV. The rostrodorsal part of the nucleus reticularis thalami was found to project to the anterior thalamic nuclei; cells located rostrally in this part project to the IAM and AM, whereas cells located caudodorsally project to the AV and AD. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus projects predominantly ipsilaterally to the AV, especially to its dorsolateral part. The present study demonstrates that subdivisions of the subcortical structures are connected to the subnuclei of the anterior thalamic nuclei, with a clear-cut topography arranged in

  3. Long-term resistance training improves force and unloaded shortening velocity of single muscle fibres of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Parente, Valeria; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Adami, Raffaella; Miotti, Danilo; Capodaglio, Paolo; De Vito, Giuseppe; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    Four elderly women (78 +/- 4.3 years) were resistance trained (RT) for one year and needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were taken pre- and post-RT. A training intensity of 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM) was adopted for the entire duration of the study. Following RT, significant gain in isometric force of the quadriceps muscles was observed and MHC isoform distribution of vastus lateralis muscle showed a very significant shift from MHC-1 and MHC-2X towards MHC-2A, i.e. a bi-directional shift. A large population (n = 310) of individual skinned muscle fibres were dissected from biopsy samples and used for determination of cross-sectional area (CSA), specific force (Po/CSA) and unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) at 12 degrees C and maximum activation. Fibres were classified on the basis of their MHC isoform content determined by SDS-PAGE in three pure fibre types (1, 2A and 2X) and two hybrid fibre types (1-2A and 2AX). Whereas the CSA of individual muscle fibres did not change, Po/CSA was significantly higher in both type 1 and type 2A fibres post training. Vo of type 1 fibres was significantly higher post-training, whereas no change in Vo was observed in type 2A fibres. The number of pure type 2X fibres was very low especially post-training and did not enable a statistically significant comparison. The data suggest that in elderly women moderate and prolonged RT: (1) can determine similar adaptations in MHC distribution of skeletal muscle to those expected in young subjects; (2) can improve function of muscle fibres.

  4. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte; Pedersen, Bente K; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2006-09-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus lateralis quadriceps, and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers, because these muscles are characterized by different fiber-type compositions. As expected, citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase activity was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly, such mRNA differences were not evident for any of the genes encoding mitochondrial oxidative proteins, 3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, citrate synthase, alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c, nor for the transcriptional regulators peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, forkhead box O1, or peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-alpha. Thus the mRNA expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and transcriptional regulators does not seem to be fiber type specific as the genes encoding glycolytic and lipid metabolism genes, which suggests that basal mRNA regulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins does not match the wide differences in mitochondrial content of these muscles.

  5. Human skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase)--importance during digitalization.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T A; Holm-Nielsen, P; Kjeldsen, K

    1993-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate in humans the putative importance of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase) in the volume of distribution of digoxin and to assess whether therapeutic digoxin exposure might cause digitalis receptor upregulation in skeletal muscle. Samples of the vastus lateralis were obtained postmortem from 11 long-term (9 months to 9 years) digitalized (125-187.5 micrograms daily) and eight undigitalized subjects. In intact samples from digitalized patients, vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding increased 15% (p < 0.02) from 150 +/- 18 to 173 +/- 13 pmol/g wet wt. (mean +/- SEM) after clearing receptors of bound digoxin by washing samples in excess specific digoxin antibody fragments. 3H-ouabain binding in the untreated group was 257 +/- 28 and 274 +/- 26 pmol/g wet wt. (7%, p > 0.30) before and after washing in specific digoxin antibody fragments, respectively. Thus, the present study indicates a approximately 13% occupancy of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors with digoxin during digitalization. In light of the large skeletal muscle contribution to body mass, this indicates that the skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase pool constitutes a major volume of distribution for digoxin during digitalization. The results gave no indication of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptor upregulation in response to digoxin treatment. On the contrary, there was evidence of significantly lower (37%, p < 0.005) digitalis glycoside receptor concentration in the vastus lateralis of the digitalized patients, which may be of importance for skeletal muscle incapacity in heart failure.

  6. Dynamic gearing in running dogs.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

    1998-12-01

    Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function.

  7. De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types

    SciTech Connect

    Tullson, P.C.; John-Alder, H.B.; Hood, D.A.; Terjung, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. This study evaluated whether there are corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle using an isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. Label incorporation into adenine nucleotides from the (1-14C)glycine precursor was determined and used to calculate synthesis rates based on the intracellular glycine specific radioactivity. Results show that intracellular glycine is closely related to the direct precursor pool. Rates of de novo synthesis were highest in fast-twitch red muscle (57.0 +/- 4.0, 58.2 +/- 4.4 nmol.h-1.g-1; deep red gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis), relatively high in slow-twitch red muscle (47.0 +/- 3.1; soleus), and low in fast-twitch white muscle (26.1 +/- 2.0 and 21.6 +/- 2.3; superficial white gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis). Rates for four mixed muscles were intermediate, ranging between 32.3 and 37.3. Specific de novo synthesis rates exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.986) with muscle section citrate synthase activity. Turnover rates (de novo synthesis rate/adenine nucleotide pool size) were highest in high oxidative muscle (0.82-1.06%/h), lowest in low oxidative muscle (0.30-0.35%/h), and intermediate in mixed muscle (0.44-0.55%/h). Our results demonstrate that differences in adenine nucleotide management among fiber types extends to the process of de novo adenine nucleotide synthesis.

  8. Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Radaelli, Régis; González-Izal, Miriam; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effects of different intrasession exercise orders in the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years), were placed into two concurrent training groups: strength prior to (SE, n = 13) or after (ES, n = 13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training during 12 weeks, three times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper and lower body one maximum repetition test (1RM) and lower-body isometric peak torque (PTiso) and rate of force development were evaluated as strength parameters. Upper and lower body muscle thickness (MT) was determined by ultrasonography. Lower-body maximal surface electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles (maximal electromyographic (EMG) amplitude) and neuromuscular economy (normalized EMG at 50 % of pretraining PTiso) were determined. Both SE and ES groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM, but the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the SE was higher than ES (35.1 ± 12.8 vs. 21.9 ± 10.6 %, respectively; P < 0.01). Both SE and ES showed MT increases in all muscles evaluated, with no differences between groups. In addition, there were increases in the maximal EMG and neuromuscular economy of vastus lateralis in both SE and ES, but the neuromuscular economy of rectus femoris was improved only in SE (P < 0.001). Performing strength prior to endurance exercise during concurrent training resulted in greater lower-body strength gains as well as greater changes in the neuromuscular economy (rectus femoris) in elderly.

  9. Neuromuscular adaptations to water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Bagatini, Natália C; Zaffari, Paula; Cadore, Eduardo L; Radaelli, Régis; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Pinto, Ronei S; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance-aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.

  10. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E.; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki M.; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E.

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01), but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise

  11. Intra-session repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Hug, François

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of intra-session repeatability of muscle activation pattern is of considerable relevance for research settings, especially when used to determine changes over time. However, the repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling is not fully established. Thus, we tested the intra-session repeatability of the activation pattern of 10 lower limb muscles during a sub-maximal cycling exercise. Eleven triathletes participated to this study. The experimental session consisted in a reference sub-maximal cycling exercise (i.e. 150 W) performed before and after a 53-min simulated training session (mean power output=200+/-12 W). Repeatability of EMG patterns was assessed in terms of muscle activity level (i.e. RMS of the mean pedaling cycle and burst) and muscle activation timing (i.e. onset and offset of the EMG burst) for the 10 following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus (GMax), semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medianus (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA). No significant differences concerning the muscle activation level were found between test and retest for all the muscles investigated. Only VM, SOL and TA showed significant differences in muscle activation timing parameters. Whereas ICC and SEM values confirmed this weak repeatability, cross-correlation coefficients suggest a good repeatability of the activation timing parameters for all the studied muscles. Overall, the main finding of this work is the good repeatability of the EMG pattern during pedaling both in term of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing.

  12. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day−1 and 235 mg day−1, respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants’ training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. PMID:25384788

  13. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this

  14. Expression of eight distinct MHC isoforms in bovine striated muscles: evidence for MHC-2B presence only in extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, L; Maccatrozzo, L; Patruno, M; Caliaro, F; Mascarello, F; Reggiani, C

    2005-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in bovine muscles, with particular attention to the MHC-2B gene. Diaphragm, longissimus dorsi, masseter, several laryngeal muscles and two extraocular muscles (rectus lateralis and retractor bulbi) were sampled in adult male Bos taurus (age 18-24 months, mass 400-500 kg) and analysed by RT-PCR, gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry. Transcripts and proteins corresponding to eight MHC isoforms were identified: MHC-alpha and MHC-beta/slow (or MHC-1), two developmental isoforms (MHC-embryonic and MHC-neonatal), three adult fast isoforms (MHC-2A, MHC-2X and MHC-2B) and the extraocular isoform MHC-Eo. All eight MHC isoforms were found to be co-expressed in extrinsic eye muscles, retractor bulbi and rectus lateralis, four (beta/slow, 2A, 2X, neonatal) in laryngeal muscles, three (beta/slow, 2A and 2X) in trunk and limb muscles and two (beta/slow and alpha) in masseter. The expression of MHC-2B and MHC-Eo was restricted to extraocular muscles. Developmental MHC isoforms (neonatal and embryonic) were only found in specialized muscles in the larynx and in the eye. MHC-alpha was only found in extraocular and masseter muscle. Single fibres dissected from masseter, diaphragm and longissimus were classified into five groups (expressing, respectively, beta/slow, alpha, slow and 2A, 2A and 2X) on the basis of MHC isoform electrophoretical separation, and their contractile properties [maximum shortening velocity (v(0)) and isometric tension (P(0))] were determined. v(0) increased progressively from slow to fast 2A and fast 2X, whereas hybrid 1-2A fibres and fibres containing MHC-alpha were intermediate between slow and fast 2A.

  15. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036

  16. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetics Are Associated With Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Walking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults. Methods. Thirty-seven older adults (mean age 78 years; 21 men and 16 women) completed an aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) test and measurement of preferred walking speed over 400 m. Maximal coupled (State 3; St3) mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized myofibers obtained from percutanous biopsies of vastus lateralis (n = 22). Maximal phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) of vastus lateralis was determined in vivo by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 30). Quadriceps contractile volume was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Mitochondrial efficiency (max ATP production/max O2 consumption) was characterized using ATPmax per St3 respiration (ATPmax/St3). Results. In vitro St3 respiration was significantly correlated with in vivo ATPmax (r 2 = .47, p = .004). Total oxidative capacity of the quadriceps (St3*quadriceps contractile volume) was a determinant of VO2 peak (r 2 = .33, p = .006). ATPmax (r 2 = .158, p = .03) and VO2 peak (r 2 = .475, p < .0001) were correlated with preferred walking speed. Inclusion of both ATPmax/St3 and VO2 peak in a multiple linear regression model improved the prediction of preferred walking speed (r 2 = .647, p < .0001), suggesting that mitochondrial efficiency is an important determinant for preferred walking speed. Conclusions. Lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were both associated with slower walking speed within a group of older participants with a wide range of function. In addition to aerobic capacity, lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency likely play roles in slowing gait speed with age. PMID:23051977

  18. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity, from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; de Ruiter, C Jo; Noordhof, Dionne A; Sterrenburg, Renske; Bloemers, Frank W; de Koning, Jos J; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2016-09-01

    V̇o2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max). However, ex vivo quantification of mitochondrial overcapacity is complicated by isolation or permeabilization procedures. An alternative method for estimating mitochondrial oxidative capacity is via enzyme histochemical quantification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. We determined to what extent V̇o2 max attained during cycling exercise differs from mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity of vastus lateralis muscle in chronic heart failure patients, healthy controls, and cyclists. V̇o2 max was assessed in 20 healthy subjects and 28 cyclists, and SDH activity was determined from biopsy cryosections of vastus lateralis using quantitative histochemistry. Similar data from our laboratory of 14 chronic heart failure patients and 6 controls were included. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was predicted from SDH activity using estimated skeletal muscle mass and the relationship between ex vivo fiber V̇o2 max and SDH activity of isolated single muscle fibers and myocardial trabecula under hyperoxic conditions. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity was related (r(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001) to V̇o2 max measured during cycling in subjects with V̇o2 max ranging from 9.8 to 79.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) V̇o2 max measured during cycling was on average 90 ± 14% of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. We conclude that human V̇o2 max is related to mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from skeletal muscle SDH activity. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity is likely marginally limited by oxygen supply to mitochondria.

  19. Specific neuromuscular responses of high skilled laser sailors during a multi-joint posture sustained until exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Maïsetti, O; Boyas, S; Guével, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the myoelectric manifestations of neuromuscular fatigue induced by a sustained bout of hiking with regard to training status, laterality and muscle. Nineteen subjects, separated into three different groups according to their training status in hiking, volunteered to take part in this study. Subjects performed a sustained hiking test until exhaustion at 50 % of the maximal hiking torque on a specially developed hiking ergometer. The electrical activity of two bilateral (left and right sides) muscular chains involved in hiking including the rectus abdominis (RA), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles was explored using surface electromyography. Results indicated a higher endurance time (Tlim) for the highly trained group in hiking (45 %, p < 0.05). The mean electrical activity of the muscles studied reached a medium level at the end of the sustained hiking period (51 % of maximal values, p < 0.001), regardless of the training status. However, the increase in activation level was delayed in hikers (50 % Tlim) compared to non-hikers (25 % Tlim), especially for rectus abdominis and rectus femoris muscles. Furthermore, activation patterns of synergistic muscles differed among the groups so that electrical activity of knee extensors was higher than that of trunk flexors of hikers at the end of hiking task (e.g., left RA: 32 % vs. left VL: 54 % of maximal values, p < 0.001). Shifts in mean power frequency were more pronounced in rectus abdominis muscles (- 24 %, p < 0.001) than in rectus femoris (- 7 %, p < 0.001) and vastus lateralis (unchanged), regardless of the group. Hikers exhibited a lower and more delayed spectral compression (left side: - 1.3 %, right side: - 9.8 %) compared to non-hikers (left and right sides: - 15.1 %). These findings suggest that hikers prolonged endurance time by adjusting neural distribution of activity among synergists, thereby minimizing the contribution of the

  20. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  1. Interaction between dopamine and neuropeptide Y in the telencephalon of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soham; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Singh, Omprakash; Singru, Praful S

    2015-09-01

    In teleosts, while neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as one of the potent regulators of GnRH-LH axis, entopeduncular nucleus (EN) in the ventral telencephalon serves as major site for NPY synthesis/storage. Neurons of the EN innervate preoptic area and pituitary, respond to gonadal steroids, undergo reproduction phase-related changes, and are believed to convey sex steroid-borne information to GnRH neurons. In spite of the importance of EN, the neural circuitry associated with the nucleus has not been defined. Aim of the present study is to examine the possibility of the dopaminergic regulation of EN. NPY-immunoreactive cells and fibers were extensively distributed in the forebrain and pituitary of Cirrhinus cirrhosus. NPY immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory receptor neurons, ganglion cells of terminal nerve, and in neurons of area ventralis telencephali/pars lateralis, EN, nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), and nucleus lateralis tuberis. NPY-fibers were observed in the dorsal telencephalon, tuberal area and pituitary. While the area ventralis telencephali/pars intermedialis (Vi) located just above the EN contained a distinct population of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, their axons seem to innervate NPY neurons in EN. Superfused brain slices containing EN were treated with DA D1- and D2-like receptor agonists. NPY-immunoreactivity in the EN showed significant increase (P<0.001) following DA D1-like receptor agonist, SKF-38393 treatment, but DA D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole was ineffective. DA may regulate NPY neurons in EN via D1-like receptors. DA-NPY interaction in the EN might be important in the central regulation of reproduction in teleosts.

  2. On the Mössbauer Effect and the Rigid Recoil Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The rigid recoil of a crystal is the accepted mechanism for the Mössbauer effect. It's at odds with the special theory of relativity which does not allow perfectly rigid bodies. The standard model of particle physics which includes QED should not allow any signals to be transmitted faster than the speed of light. If perturbation theory can be used, then the X-ray emitted in a Mössbauer decay must come from a single nuclear decay vertex at which the 4-momentum is exactly conserved in a Feynman diagram. Then the 4-momentum of the final state Mössbauer nucleus must be slightly off the mass shell. This off-shell behavior would be followed by subsequent diffusion of momentum throughout the crystal to bring the nucleus back onto the mass shell and the crystal to a final relaxed state in which it moves rigidly with the appropriate recoil velocity. This mechanism explains the Mössbauer effect at the microscopic level and reconciles it with relativity. Because off-mass-shell quantum mechanics is required, the on-mass-shell theories developed originally for the Mössbauer effect are inadequate. Another possibility is that that the recoil response involves a non-perturbative effect in the standard model which could allow for a non-local instantaneous momentum transfer between the crystal and the decay (or absorption), as proposed for example by Preparata and others in super-radiance theory. The recoil time of the crystal is probably not instantaneous, and if it could be measured, one could distinguish between various theories. An experiment is proposed in this paper to measure this time. The idea is to measure the total energy radiated due to bremsstrahlung from a charged Mössbauer crystal which has experienced a recoil. Using Larmor's formula, along with corrections to it, allows one to design an experiment. The favored idea is to use many small nano-spheres of Mössbauer-active metals, whose outer surfaces are charged. The energy radiated then varies as the charge

  3. Knee angular displacement and extensor muscle activity in telemark skiing and in ski-specific strength exercises.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johnny; Haugen, Per

    2004-04-01

    Much of the training of competitive telemark skiers is performed as dry-land exercises. The specificity of these exercises is important for optimizing the training effect. Our aim here was to study the activation of the knee extensor musculature and knee angular displacement during competitive telemark skiing and during dry-land strength training exercises to determine the specificity of the latter. Specificity was analysed with respect to angular amplitude, angular velocity, muscle action and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Five male telemark skiers of national and international standard volunteered to participate in the study, which consisted of two parts: (1) skiing a telemark ski course and (2) specific dry-land strength training exercises for telemark skiing (telemark jumps and barbell squats). The angular displacement of the right knee joint was recorded with an electrogoniometer. A tape pressure sensor was used to measure pressure between the sole of the foot and the bottom of the right ski boot. Electromyographic activity in the right vastus lateralis was recorded with surface electrodes. The EMG activity recorded during maximum countermovement jumps was used to normalize the EMG activity during telemark skiing, telemark jumps and barbell squats. The results showed that knee angular displacement during telemark skiing and dry-land telemark jumps had four distinct phases: a flexion (F1) and extension (E1) phase during the thrust phase of the outside ski/leg in the turn/jump and a flexion (F2) and extension (E2) phase when the leg was on the inside of the turn/jump. The vastus lateralis muscle was activated during F1 and E1 in the thrust phase during telemark skiing and telemark jumps. The overall net knee angular amplitude was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for telemark jumps than for telemark skiing. Barbell squats showed a knee angular amplitude significantly greater than that in telemark skiing (P < 0.05). The mean knee angular velocity of the F1 and

  4. Relationship Between Sprint Performance of Front Crawl Swimming and Muscle Fascicle Length in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Ehsanbakhsh, Alireza; Ilbeygi, Saeed; Sobhkhiz, Azadeh; Argavani, Hamed; Aliakbari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-m sprint front crawl swimming performance and muscle fascicle length in young male swimmers. 23 swimmers were selected and divided into two groups according to their best records of 25-m sprint performance: 14.6-15.7 sec (S1, n = 11) and 15.8-17 sec (S2, n = 12). Muscle thickness and pennation angle of Biceps Brachii (BB; only muscle thickness), Triceps Brachii (TB), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) and Lateralis (GL) muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Although, there was no significant differences between groups in anthropometrical parameter as standing height, body mass, arm length, thigh length and leg length (p < 0.001), however, S1 significantly had a greater muscle thickness in VL, GL, and TB muscles (p < 0.05). Pennation angle only in TB was significantly smaller in S1 (p < 0.05). S1 in VL, GL, and TB muscles significantly had greater absolute fascicle length and in VL and TB muscles had relatively (relative to limb length) greater fascicle length (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between sprint swimming time and absolute and relative fascicle length in VL (absolute: r = -0.49 and relative: r = -0.43, both p < 0.05) and GL (absolute: r = -0.47 and relative: r = -0.42, both p < 0.05). Potentially, it seems that fascicle geometry developed in muscles of faster young swimmers to help them to perform their high speed movement. Key Points This study investigated the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint front crawl performance in young male swimmers. It seems that young swimmers with faster front crawl sprint swimming performance trend to have smaller pennation angle and greater absolute and relative fascicle length (relative to limb length) in their locomotor muscles. Potentially, fascicle geometry developed in faster swimmers to help them to perform higher speed movement via higher

  5. Comparative anatomical studies on the cerebellar nuclei of the pangolins.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Y

    1983-01-01

    The configurations and volumes of the cerebellar nuclei of left and right 10 sides of 5 cases of the pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) were examined with sagittal myelin sheath and toluidine blue stained serial sections and reconstruction models based upon these serial sections respectively. The cerebellar nuclei of the pangolins, same as in other mammals can be divided into four nuclei, nucleus medialis (M), nucleus interpositus posterior (P), nucleus interpositus anterior (A) and nucleus lateralis (L). In all cases from medially to laterally, M, P, A and L appear in order and disappear M, A, P and L in order respectively. The volume of each nucleus in the total volume of the cerebellar nuclei is: M; 5.3-7.9% P; 27.1-31.2% A; 17.6-22.9% L; 42.4-46.2% In right and left each cerebellar nuclei significant difference is not recognized as p is less than 0.05. The posterior protuberance of the nucleus medialis protrudes remarkably in 4 cases of No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 but in only 1 case of No. 5 it protrudes slightly. In nucleus interpositus posterior the ventrolateral protuberance protrudes slightly in 4 cases of No. 1, No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5 but in only 1 case of No. 2 it protrudes remarkably. The anterior protuberance protrudes remarkably in all cases and the superior protuberance protrudes remarkably in 3 cases of No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 but in 2 cases of No. 1 and No. 5 it protrudes slightly. In sulci, sulcus b and sulcus a' are distinct in all cases and sulcus a, sulcus c, sulcus b' and sulcus c' are considerably remarkable. In the toluidine blue stained serial sections, the nucleus medialis is composed of close small nerve cells, nucleus interpositus posterior is composed of the diffuse medium-sized nerve cells, nucleus interpositus anterior is composed of the close medium-sized nerve cells and nucleus lateralis is composed of the diffuse large nerve cells. In projection pictures of each subnuclei to the cerebellar cortex in each directions in the dorsal view

  6. An Electromyographic Comparison of 4 Closed Chain Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, J. Ty; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bleggi, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Closed chain exercises are used in the clinical setting to safely strengthen the muscles about the knee. We compared the EMG activity of 3 muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris) during 4 closed chain exercises (unilateral one-quarter squat, lateral step-up, FlexCord front pull, and FlexCord back pull) to determine which exercise produced the most muscle activity. Design and Setting: We used a 4 × 3 × 2 factorial design with repeated measures on exercise, muscle, and movement (knee flexion and extension). Muscle and movement were the control variables for post hoc comparisons. Data were collected in a sports injury research laboratory. Subjects: Thirty-eight healthy, active female college students aged 21.97 ± 2.8 years, with height 166.9 ± 6.3 cm and weight 61.9 ± 8.5 kg. Subjects had no history of lower extremity pathology that resulted in surgery and no lower extremity pathology within the last year. Measurements: We placed surface electrodes on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris muscles. Synchronized with a metronome, subjects performed 3 repetitions of 4 exercises between 5° and 30° of knee flexion. Electromyographic measurements were taken from the middle third of the flexion and extension phase of each repetition. Results: The FlexCord front pull and back pull produced higher levels of biceps femoris activity than the quarter squat and step-up. The FlexCord front pull also produced a higher level of vastus medialis activity during knee extension than the quarter squat, lateral step-up, or FlexCord back pull. Conclusions: The high levels of biceps femoris activity during the FlexCord exercises indicate that a greater cocontraction exists. With a greater cocontraction, the FlexCord exercises could be safely used during ACL rehabilitation. The high levels of vastus medialis activity during the FlexCord front pull suggest that it may be a beneficial exercise for patellofemoral rehabilitation

  7. Is leg compression beneficial for alpine skiers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance

  8. Afferent projections to the mammillary complex of the rat, with special reference to those from surrounding hypothalamic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalo-Ruiz, A.; Alonso, A.; Sanz, J. M.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the functional organization of the mammillary nuclei, we investigated the afferents to this nuclear complex in the rat with iontophoretically injected wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Particular attention was paid to tracing local hypothalamic afferents to these nuclei. Injections into the medial mammillary nucleus (MMN) revealed strong projections from the subicular region, and weaker projections from the prefrontal cortex, medial septum, and the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. Other descending subcortical projections to the MMN arise from the anterior and the lateral hypothalamic area, the medial preoptic area, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Ascending afferents to the MMN were found to originate in the raphe and various tegmental nuclei. Following all injections into the MMN, labelled neurons were found in nuclei surrounding the mammillary body. The lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus projected mainly to the pars medianus and pars medialis of the MMN. The dorsal and ventral premammillary nuclei projected to the pars lateralis of the MMN. The supramammillary nucleus at rostral level had a small projection to the pars medialis and lateralis of the MMN. However, the most obvious projection from this nucleus was to the pars posterior of the MMN, chiefly from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. Injections into the lateral mammillary nucleus revealed inputs from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, septal region, dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. In addition, the lateral mammillary nucleus was found to receive a moderate projection from the medial part of the supramammillary nucleus and stronger projections from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. A very light projection was also seen from the lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus. These findings add to our knowledge

  9. Relationship between sprint performance of front crawl swimming and muscle fascicle length in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Ehsanbakhsh, Alireza; Ilbeygi, Saeed; Sobhkhiz, Azadeh; Argavani, Hamed; Aliakbari, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-m sprint front crawl swimming performance and muscle fascicle length in young male swimmers. 23 swimmers were selected and divided into two groups according to their best records of 25-m sprint performance: 14.6-15.7 sec (S1, n = 11) and 15.8-17 sec (S2, n = 12). Muscle thickness and pennation angle of Biceps Brachii (BB; only muscle thickness), Triceps Brachii (TB), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) and Lateralis (GL) muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Although, there was no significant differences between groups in anthropometrical parameter as standing height, body mass, arm length, thigh length and leg length (p < 0.001), however, S1 significantly had a greater muscle thickness in VL, GL, and TB muscles (p < 0.05). Pennation angle only in TB was significantly smaller in S1 (p < 0.05). S1 in VL, GL, and TB muscles significantly had greater absolute fascicle length and in VL and TB muscles had relatively (relative to limb length) greater fascicle length (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between sprint swimming time and absolute and relative fascicle length in VL (absolute: r = -0.49 and relative: r = -0.43, both p < 0.05) and GL (absolute: r = -0.47 and relative: r = -0.42, both p < 0.05). Potentially, it seems that fascicle geometry developed in muscles of faster young swimmers to help them to perform their high speed movement. Key PointsThis study investigated the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint front crawl performance in young male swimmers.It seems that young swimmers with faster front crawl sprint swimming performance trend to have smaller pennation angle and greater absolute and relative fascicle length (relative to limb length) in their locomotor muscles.Potentially, fascicle geometry developed in faster swimmers to help them to perform higher speed movement via higher

  10. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  11. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-12-01

    Forty USDA Select and 40 upper two-thirds USDA Choice beef carcasses were used to determine the effects of postmortem aging on tenderness of 17 individual beef muscles. Biceps femoris-long head, complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, serratus ventralis, spinalis dorsi, supraspinatus, tensor fasciae latae, teres major, triceps brachii-long head, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles were removed from each carcass. Seven steaks (2.54-cm thick) were cut from every muscle, and each steak was assigned to one of the following postmortem aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. After completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage (2 degrees C, never frozen), cooked to a peak internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Analysis of WBSF revealed a 3-way interaction (P = 0.004) among individual muscle, USDA quality grade, and postmortem aging period. With the exception of the Select teres major, WBSF of all muscles (both quality grades) decreased with increasing time of postmortem storage. Nonlinear regression was used to characterize the extent (aging response) and rate of decrease in WBSF from 2 through 28 d postmortem for each muscle within each quality grade. In general, WBSF of upper two-thirds Choice muscles decreased more rapidly from 2 to 10 d postmortem than did corresponding Select muscles. Muscles that had greater aging responses generally had greater 2-d WBSF values. The upper two-thirds Choice psoas major, serratus ventralis, and vastus lateralis muscles required similar aging times to complete a majority of the aging response (< or =0.1 kg of aging response remaining) compared with analogous Select muscles. The upper two-thirds Choice complexus, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, triceps brachii-long head, and vastus medialis muscles required 4 to 6 d less time to complete a

  12. Procedural and Physical Interventions for Vaccine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vibhuti; McMurtry, C. Meghan; MacDonald, Noni E.; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination. Design/Methods: Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. Results: A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD −0.69 (95% CI: −0.98, −0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD −0.56 (95% CI: −0.87, −0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD −0.70 (95% CI: −1.00, −0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.05, −0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD −1.25 (95% CI: −2.05, −0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.08, −0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD −0.39 (95% CI: −0.77, −0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD −1.88 (95% CI: −2.57, −1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD −1.23 (95% CI: −1.58, −0

  13. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Júlio C.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G.; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L. Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P.; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length) performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application. Key points Researchers involved in collecting data in this study have no financial or personal interest in the outcome of results or the sponsor. The perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesiology taping application. Kinesiology taping application may not alter the magnitude of EMG activity of vastuslateralis, vastusmedialis, and biceps femoris during the barbell back squat exercise. Electromyographic activity of

  14. Muscle activation and blood flow do not explain the muscle length-dependent variation in quadriceps isometric endurance.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, R D; de Ruiter, C J; de Haan, A

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of central activation in muscle length-dependent endurance. Central activation ratio (CAR) and rectified surface electromyogram (EMG) were studied during fatigue of isometric contractions of the knee extensors at 30 and 90 degrees knee angles (full extension = 0 degree). Subjects (n = 8) were tested on a custom-built ergometer. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension with supramaximal superimposed burst stimulation (three 100-mus pulses; 300 Hz) was performed to assess CAR and maximal torque capacity (MTC). Surface EMG signals were obtained from vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. At each angle, intermittent (15 s on 6 s off) isometric exercise at 50% MTC with superimposed stimulation was performed to exhaustion. During the fatigue task, a sphygmomanometer cuff around the upper thigh ensured full occlusion (400 mmHg) of the blood supply to the knee extensors. At least 2 days separated fatigue tests. MTC was not different between knee angles (30 degrees : 229.6 +/- 39.3 N.m vs. 90 degrees: 215.7 +/- 13.2 N.m). Endurance times, however, were significantly longer (P < 0.05) at 30 vs. 90 degrees (87.8 +/- 18.7 vs. 54.9 +/- 12.1 s, respectively) despite the CAR not differing between angles at torque failure (30 degrees: 0.95 +/- 0.05 vs. 90 degrees: 0.96 +/- 0.03) and full occlusion of blood supply to the knee extensors. Furthermore, rectified surface EMG values of the vastus lateralis (normalized to prefatigue maximum) were also similar at torque failure (30 degrees : 56.5 +/- 12.5% vs. 90 degrees : 58.3 +/- 15.2%), whereas rectus femoris EMG activity was lower at 30 degrees (44.3 +/- 12.4%) vs. 90 degrees (69.5 +/- 25.3%). We conclude that differences in endurance at different knee angles do not find their origin in differences in central activation and blood flow but may be a consequence of muscle length-related differences in metabolic cost.

  15. TU-C-12A-01: Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Lipids in Type 2 Diabetes Using in Vivo Proton MR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Valaparla, S; Boone, G; Ripley, E; Abdul-Ghani, M; Duong, T; Clarke, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify and compare the intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular (EMCL) lipids and total fat fraction in human vastus lateralis (VL) muscle between lean controls and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects using long echo time in vivo proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) Methods: {sup 1}H-MRS single voxel (15 × 15 × 15 mm{sup 3}) stimulated acquisition mode (STEAM) was performed in right vastus lateralis m. on 10 lean controls (age: 28.3±3.94 yrs, BMI: 24.25±3.20 kg/m{sup 2}) and 7 type 2 diabetic (age: 54.28±6.42 yrs, BMI: 31.34±3.13 kg/m{sup 2}) subjects with Siemens 3T MRI and four-channel flex coil. Unsuppressed water spectra (NSA = 16) with TR/TE = 3000/30 msec, TM = 10 msec, BW = 2000 Hz, and water-suppressed spectra (NSA = 128) with TR/TE = 3000/270 msec, TM = 10 msec, and fixed water suppression BW = 50 Hz were acquired. Spectral intensity ratios of IMCL-CH{sub 2}, EMCL-CH{sub 2} and total lipid (IMCL {sub +} EMCL) with unsuppressed water signal (W) were converted into absolute concentrations expressed in mmol/kg. Fat fraction (100 × F/(W+F)) was calculated, where F includes the signal intensities of IMCL and EMCL methylene (CH{sub 2})n, peaks only. Results: Comparison of IMCL (controls: 11.70 ± 6.7, T2DM: 21.74 ± 10.2, p ≤ 0.01), EMCL (controls: 22.89 ± 18.42, T2DM: 77.21 ± 33.4, p ≤ 0.001) and total lipid (64.35 mmol/kg less in controls, p ≤ 0.001) showed statistical significance using two-tailed student t-test. Fat fraction (%) exhibited considerable inter-individual variability for controls (3.14 ± 2.09; range: 1.34 - 7.04) and T2DM (9.34 ± 2.88; range: 4.15 - 13.67) and deemed significant (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusion: Single voxel STEAM {sup 1}H-MRS at long TE provides a robust non-invasive method for characterizing lipids within localized muscle regions, with well-resolved IMCL/EMCL peak separation. Regional lipid estimate and fat fraction in VL m. was significantly different in T2DM compared to lean controls. American Heart

  16. Influence of Gender and Muscle Architecture Asymmetry on Jump and Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = –0.73; FL: r = –0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = –0.76; FL: r = –0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key points The manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender. In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture. In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance. To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised. PMID

  17. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  18. Effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature after running.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Gil-Calvo, M; Giménez, J V; Aparicio, I; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R M; Salvador Palmer, R; Llana-Belloch, S; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-08-01

    High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete's thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running in a moderate indoor environment. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30min (10min of warm-up and 20min at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in 12 regions of interest on the lower limb by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95% CI [0.11-0.45°C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ES<0.8). In conclusion, running with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete's heart rate and perception of fatigue.

  19. Osteolysis of the Greater Trochanter Caused by a Foreign Body Granuloma Associated with the Ethibond® Suture after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Koichiro; Seki, Nobutoshi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    The present case shows a case of progression of osteolysis of the greater trochanter caused by a foreign body granuloma associated with the number 5 Ethibond suture in cementless THA with the direct lateral approach that was completely healed by removal of the Ethibond suture. A 55-year-old Japanese woman with secondary osteoarthritis caused by acetabular dysplasia underwent left cementless THA with the direct lateral approach. After setting of the total hip prosthesis, the gluteus medius muscle and vastus lateralis muscle were reattached to the greater trochanter through two bone tunnels using number 5 Ethibond EXCEL sutures. The left hip pain disappeared after surgery, but the bone tunnels enlarged gradually and developed osteolysis at 10 weeks. The removal of the Ethibond sutures and debridement improved the osteolysis. Histological examination showed the granuloma reaction to a foreign body with giant cell formation. The Ethibond suture has the lowest inflammatory tissue reaction and relatively high tension strength among nonabsorbable suture materials. However, number 5 Ethibond has the potential to cause osteolysis due to a foreign body granuloma, as in the present case. PMID:28255486

  20. Technical report of biota, FEL Site 1, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.W.; Davilla, W.; Orloff, S.

    1986-09-26

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is considering an expansion of laser test facilities adjacent to its existing LLNL Site 300 test location. Construction of a free-electron laser, known as the FEL Project, is being considered on approximately 3900 hectates (10,500 acres) of land. We will refer to this proposed site as FEL Site 1. Knowledge of the flora and vegetation resources of the proposed FEL Site 1 is necessary in order to plan for construction, operation, and possible future expansion of the FEL facility. The purpose of botanical sections of this report is to quantitatively describe the variation of vegetation on FEL Site 1, and to relate the vegetation to potential environmental impacts associated with present operation and possible expansion of site facilities. The primary purpose of the wildlife studies was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive species on FEL Site 1 that might be affected by the proposed FEL project. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 14 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

  1. Morphology and phylogeny of a new wall-less freshwater volvocalean flagellate, Hapalochloris nozakii gen. et sp. nov. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-10-21

    New strains of a wall-less unicellular volvocalean flagellate were isolated from a freshwater environment in Japan. Observations of the alga, described here as Hapalochloris nozakii Nakada, gen. et sp. nov., were made using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Each vegetative cell had two flagella, four contractile vacuoles, and a spirally furrowed cup-shaped chloroplast with an axial pyrenoid, and mitochondria located in the furrows. Based on the morphology, H. nozakii was distinguished from other known wall-less volvocalean flagellates. Under electron microscopy, fibrous material, instead of a cell wall and dense cortical microtubules, was observed outside and inside the cell membrane, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences, H. nozakii was found to be closely related to Asterococcus, Oogamochlamys, Rhysamphichloris, and "Dunaliella" lateralis and was separated from other known wall-less flagellate volvocaleans, indicating independent secondary loss of the cell wall in H. nozakii. In the combined 18S rRNA and chloroplast gene tree, H. nozakii was sister to Lobochlamys.

  2. Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular variables in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Lilian França; Tricoli, Valmor; Barroso, Renato; Rodacki A, L F; Russo, Luciano; Aihara, André Yui; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Artur; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.

  3. Endurance training alters skeletal muscle MCT contents in T2DM men.

    PubMed

    Opitz, D; Lenzen, E; Schiffer, T; Hermann, R; Hellmich, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Brinkmann, C

    2014-12-01

    Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often exhibit chronic elevated lactate levels which can promote peripheral insulin resistance by disturbing skeletal muscle insulin-signaling. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins transfer lactate molecules through cellular membranes. MCT-1 and MCT-4 are the main protein isoforms expressed in human skeletal muscle, with MCT-1 showing a higher affinity (lower Km) for lactate than MCT-4. T2DM patients have reduced membranous MCT-1 proteins. Consequently, the lactate transport between muscle cells and the circulation as well as within an intracellular lactate shuttle, involving mitochondria (where lactate can be further metabolized), can be negatively affected. This study investigates whether moderate cycling endurance training (3 times per week for 3 months) can change skele-tal muscle MCT contents in T2DM men (n=8, years=56±9, body mass index (BMI)=32±4 kg/m(2)). Protein content analyses (immuno-histochemical stainings) were performed in bio-psies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. Intracellular MCT-1 proteins were up-regulated (relative increase+89%), while intracellular MCT-4 contents were down-regulated (relative decrease - 41%) following endurance training. Sarcolemmal MCT-1 and MCT-4 did not change. The question of whether the training-induced up-regulation of intracellular MCT-1 leads to an improved lactate transport (and clearance) in T2DM patients requires further research.

  4. Exercise testing in late-onset glycogen storage disease type II patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Marzorati, Mauro; Porcelli, Simone; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Morandi, Lucia; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has recently became available for patients with glycogen storage disease type II. Previous studies have demonstrated clinical efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy, however, data on physiological variables related to exercise tolerance are scarce. Four glycogen storage disease type II late-onset patients (45 ± 6 years) performed an incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer, up to voluntary exhaustion, before (BEFORE) and after 12 months of ERT (AFTER). Peak workload, oxygen uptake, heart rate, cardiac output (by impedance cardiography) and vastus lateralis oxygenation indices (by continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) were determined. Peak workload and oxygen uptake values significantly increased during ERT (54 ± 30 vs. 63 ± 31 watt, and 17.2 ± 4.4 vs. 19.7 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min, respectively, in BEFORE vs. AFTER). On the other hand, for both peak cardiac output (12.3 ± 5.3 vs. 14.8 ± 4.5L/min) and the NIRS-determined peak skeletal muscle fractional O(2) extraction, expressed as a percentage of the maximal values during a transient limb ischemia (30 ± 39% vs. 38 ± 28%), the observed increases were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that in glycogen storage disease type II patients enzyme replacement therapy is associated with a mild improvement of exercise tolerance. The findings need to be validated during a longer follow-up on a larger group of patients.

  5. A Fuzzy Controller for Lower Limb Exoskeletons during Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Movement Using Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Sharif Muhammad Taslim; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin Raja

    2014-01-01

    Human motion is a daily and rhythmic activity. The exoskeleton concept is a very positive scientific approach for human rehabilitation in case of lower limb impairment. Although the exoskeleton shows potential, it is not yet applied extensively in clinical rehabilitation. In this research, a fuzzy based control algorithm is proposed for lower limb exoskeletons during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) are acquired from the vastus lateralis muscle using a wearable EMG sensor. The resultant acceleration angle along the z-axis is determined from a kinematics sensor. Twenty volunteers were chosen to perform the experiments. The whole experiment was accomplished in two phases. In the first phase, acceleration angles and EMG data were acquired from the volunteers during both sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit motions. During sit-to-stand movements, the average acceleration angle at activation was 11° – 48° and the EMG varied from −0.19 mV to +0.19 mV. On the other hand, during stand-to-sit movements, the average acceleration angle was found to be 57.5°–108° at the activation point and the EMG varied from −0.32 mV to +0.32 mV. In the second phase, a fuzzy controller was designed from the experimental data. The controller was tested and validated with both offline and real time data using LabVIEW. PMID:24599193

  6. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of rock-wallabies, Petrogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) and their biogeographic history within Australia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Cooper, Steven J B; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Taggart, David A; Eldridge, Mark D B

    2012-02-01

    The rock-wallaby genus Petrogale comprises a group of habitat-specialist macropodids endemic to Australia. Their restriction to rocky outcrops, with infrequent interpopulation dispersal, has been suggested as the cause of their recent and rapid diversification. Molecular phylogenetic relationships within and among species of Petrogale were analysed using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1, cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) and nuclear (omega-globin intron, breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene) sequence data with representatives that encompassed the morphological and chromosomal variation within the genus, including for the first time both Petrogale concinna and Petrogale purpureicollis. Four distinct lineages were identified, (1) the brachyotis group, (2) Petrogale persephone, (3) Petrogalexanthopus and (4) the lateralis-penicillata group. Three of these lineages include taxa with the ancestral karyotype (2n=22). Paraphyletic relationships within the brachyotis group indicate the need for a focused phylogeographic study. There was support for P. purpureicollis being reinstated as a full species and P. concinna being placed within Petrogale rather than in the monotypic genus Peradorcas. Bayesian analyses of divergence times suggest that episodes of diversification commenced in the late Miocene-Pliocene and continued throughout the Pleistocene. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that Petrogale originated in a mesic environment and dispersed into more arid environments, events that correlate with the timing of radiations in other arid zone vertebrate taxa across Australia.

  8. Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on skeletal muscle substrates, enzyme activities and capillary supply.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A; Thorsson, A; Colliander, E B

    1990-12-01

    This study compared the skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations in response to combined eccentric and concentric or concentric resistance training regimens. Twenty-six physically active males were assigned to either the combined eccentric and concentric group (n = 10), the concentric group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 6). The combined eccentric and concentric and the concentric groups performed four to five sets of maximal, voluntary bilateral quadriceps muscle actions at 1.05 rad s-1 using a speed-controlled dynamometer three times per week for 12 weeks. The concentric group performed 12 concentric actions per set, whereas the combined eccentric and concentric group performed six coupled eccentric and concentric actions per set. Bilateral percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest pre- and post-training. Tissue samples were analysed for contents of adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate and creatine and for enzyme activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, myokinase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase and Mg2(+)-ATPase using fluorometric techniques. Histochemical staining procedures were employed to determine capillary supply. The overall increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle strength was greater (P less than 0.05) for the combined eccentric and concentric group than for the concentric group. Enzyme or substrate contents and capillary supply were unaltered after either type of training. It is suggested that substantial increases in muscle strength may occur in response to resistance training without enhancing or compromising metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  9. Aging and the Skeletal Muscle Angiogenic Response to Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, John A; Garry, Joseph P; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men.

  10. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  11. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response.

  12. Satellite cell activity, without expansion, after nonhypertrophic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Joanisse, Sophie; McKay, Bryon R.; Nederveen, Joshua P.; Scribbans, Trisha D.; Gurd, Brendon J.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effect of various nonhypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained men and women (men: 29 ± 9 yr and women: 29 ± 2 yr, n = 7 each) completed 6 wk of very low-volume high-intensity sprint interval training. In a separate study, recreationally active men (n = 16) and women (n = 3) completed 6 wk of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (n = 9, 21 ± 4 yr) or low-volume sprint interval training (n = 10, 21 ± 2 yr). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after training. The fiber type-specific SC response to training was determined, as was the activity of the SC pool using immunofluorescent microscopy of muscle cross sections. Training did not induce hypertrophy, as assessed by muscle cross-sectional area, nor did the SC pool expand in any group. However, there was an increase in the number of active SCs after each intervention. Specifically, the number of activated (Pax7+/MyoD+, P ≤ 0.05) and differentiating (Pax7−/MyoD+, P ≤ 0.05) SCs increased after each training intervention. Here, we report evidence of activated and cycling SCs that may or may not contribute to exercise-induced adaptations while the SC pool remains constant after three nonhypertrophic exercise training protocols. PMID:26333785

  13. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  14. Ibuprofen Ingestion Does Not Affect Markers of Post-exercise Muscle Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d−1) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery. PMID:27064890

  15. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  16. Changes in muscle coordination and power output during sprint cycling.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Steven J; Brown, Nicholas A T; Billaut, François; Rouffet, David M

    2014-07-25

    This study investigated the changes in muscle coordination associated to power output decrease during a 30-s isokinetic (120rpm) cycling sprint. Modifications in EMG amplitude and onset/offset were investigated from eight muscles [gluteus maximus (EMGGMAX), vastus lateralis and medialis obliquus (EMGVAS), medial and lateral gastrocnemius (EMGGAS), rectus femoris (EMGRF), biceps femoris and semitendinosus (EMGHAM)]. Changes in co-activation of four muscle pairs (CAIGMAX/GAS, CAIVAS/GAS, CAIVAS/HAM and CAIGMAX/RF) were also calculated. Substantial power reduction (60±6%) was accompanied by a decrease in EMG amplitude for all muscles other than HAM, with the greatest deficit identified for EMGRF (31±16%) and EMGGAS (20±14%). GASonset, HAMonset and GMAXonset shifted later in the pedalling cycle and the EMG offsets of all muscles (except GASoffset) shifted earlier as the sprint progressed (P<0.05). At the end of the sprint, CAIVAS/GAS and CAIGMAX/GAS were reduced by 48±10% and 43±12%, respectively. Our results show that substantial power reduction during fatiguing sprint cycling is accompanied by marked reductions in the EMG activity of bi-articular GAS and RF and co-activation level between GAS and main power producer muscles (GMAX and VAS). The observed changes in RF and GAS EMG activity are likely to result in a redistribution of the joint powers and alterations in the orientation of the pedal forces.

  17. Epigenetics and muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Esther; Gea, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease and a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In COPD, comorbidities, acute exacerbations, and systemic manifestations negatively influence disease severity and progression regardless of the respiratory condition. Skeletal muscle dysfunction, which is one of the commonest systemic manifestations in patients with COPD, has a tremendous impact on their exercise capacity and quality of life. Several pathophysiological and molecular underlying mechanisms including epigenetics (the process whereby gene expression is regulated by heritable mechanisms that do not affect DNA sequence) have been shown to participate in the etiology of COPD muscle dysfunction. The epigenetic modifications identified so far in cells include DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs. Herein, we first review the role of epigenetic mechanisms in muscle development and adaptation to environmental factors in several models. Moreover, the epigenetic events reported so far to be potentially involved in muscle dysfunction and mass loss of patients with COPD are also discussed. Furthermore, the different expression profile of several muscle-enriched microRNAs in the diaphragm and vastus lateralis muscles of patients with COPD are also reviewed from results recently obtained in our group. The role of protein hyperacetylation in enhanced muscle protein catabolism of limb muscles is also discussed. Future research should focus on the full elucidation of the triggers of epigenetic mechanisms and their specific downstream biological pathways in COPD muscle dysfunction and wasting.

  18. Early changes in costameric and mitochondrial protein expression with unloading are muscle specific.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Li, Ruowei; Valdivieso, Paola; Linnehan, Richard M; Castells, Josiane; Tesch, Per; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that load-sensitive expression of costameric proteins, which hold the sarcomere in place and position the mitochondria, contributes to the early adaptations of antigravity muscle to unloading and would depend on muscle fibre composition and chymotrypsin activity of the proteasome. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of eight men before and after 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subjected to fibre typing and measures for costameric (FAK and FRNK), mitochondrial (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, UCP3, and ATP5A1), and MHCI protein and RNA content. Mean cross-sectional area (MCSA) of types I and II muscle fibres in VL and type I fibres in SOL demonstrated a trend for a reduction after ULLS (0.05 ≤ P < 0.10). FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 397 showed a 20% reduction in VL muscle (P = 0.029). SOL muscle demonstrated a specific reduction in UCP3 content (-23%; P = 0.012). Muscle-specific effects of ULLS were identified for linear relationships between measured proteins, chymotrypsin activity and fibre MCSA. The molecular modifications in costamere turnover and energy homoeostasis identify that aspects of atrophy and fibre transformation are detectable at the protein level in weight-bearing muscles within 3 days of unloading.

  19. Agonist and antagonist muscle activation during maximal and submaximal isokinetic fatigue tests of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Hassani, A; Patikas, D; Bassa, E; Hatzikotoulas, K; Kellis, E; Kotzamanidis, C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in electromyographic activity of agonist and antagonist knee musculature between a maximal and a submaximal isokinetic fatigue protocol. Fourteen healthy males (age: 24.3+/-2.5 years) performed 25 maximal (MIFP) and 60 submaximal (SIFP) isokinetic concentric efforts of the knee extensors at 60 degrees s(-1), across a 90 degrees range of motion. The two protocols were performed a week apart. The EMG activity of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded using surface electrodes. The peak torque (PT) and average EMG (aEMG) were expressed as percentages of pre-fatigue maximal value. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant (p<0.05) decline of PT during the maximal (45.7%) and submaximal (46.8%) protocols. During the maximal test, the VM and VL aEMG initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, VM and VL aEMG continuously increased during submaximal testing (p<0.05). The antagonist (BF) aEMG remained constant during maximal test but it increased significantly and then declined during the submaximal testing. The above results indicate that agonist and antagonist activity depends on the intensity of the selected isokinetic fatigue test.

  20. The Effects of Kinesio Tape on Isokinetic Muscular Function of Horse Racing Jockeys

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Byounghee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct a scientific analysis of the effectiveness of Kinesio taping at preventing injury and improving horse racing jockey' performance, by studying the effects on isokinetic muscular function of Kinesio taping applied to the knee joint muscle. [Subjects] Eight horse racing jockeys were selected for this study. [Methods] Measurement of isokinetic muscular function of both flexor and extensor muscles was performed at the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec using a Biodex system 3, before and after application of Kinesio taping to the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and hamstring. [Result] At the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec, significant differences were observed in both flexor and extensor peak torque, average power, and total work of the knee joint after application of Kinesio taping. [Conclusion] The application of Kinesio taping has a positive effect on the function of both knee flexors and extensors, and also kinetic ability. Therefore, its use would lead to a significant increase in the muscle function of horse racing jockeys. PMID:24259774

  1. The influence of electromyographic recording methods and the innervation zone on the mean power frequency-torque relationships.

    PubMed

    Herda, Trent J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Ryan, Eric D; Camic, Clayton L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Smith, Doug B; Weir, Joseph P; Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of electromyographic (EMG) recording methods and innervation zone (IZ) on the mean power frequency (MPF)-torque relationships. Nine subjects performed isometric ramp muscle actions of the leg extensors from 5% to 100% of maximal voluntary contraction with an eight channel linear electrode array over the IZ of the vastus lateralis. The slopes were calculated from the log-transformed monopolar and bipolar EMG MPF-torque relationships for each channel and subject and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were constructed around the slopes for each relationship and the composite of the slopes. Twenty-two to 55% of the subjects exhibited 95% CIs that did not include a slope of zero for the monopolar EMG MPF-torque relationships while 25-75% of the subjects exhibited 95% CIs that did not include a slope of zero for the bipolar EMG MPF-torque relationships. The composite of the slopes from the EMG MPF-torque relationships were not significantly different from zero for any method or channel, however, the method and IZ location slightly influenced the number of significant slopes on a subject-by-subject basis. The log-transform model indicated that EMG MPF-torque patterns were nonlinear regardless of recording method or distance from the IZ.

  2. Effects of isometric quadriceps strength training at different muscle lengths on dynamic torque production.

    PubMed

    Noorkõiv, Marika; Nosaka, Kazunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (1) determine whether isometric training at a short vs. long quadriceps muscle length affects concentric torque production; (2) examine the relationship between muscle hypertrophy and concentric torque; and (3) determine whether changes in fascicle length are associated with changes in concentric torque. Sixteen men performed isometric training at a short (SL, n = 8) or a long muscle length (LL, n = 8). Changes in maximal concentric torque were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 rad · s(-1). The relationships between the changes in concentric torque, cross-sectional area, volume and fascicle length were tested. Concentric torque increased significantly after training only in LL and at angular velocities of 30 and 120 rad · s(-1) by 12-13% (P < 0.05). Muscle size increased in LL only, the changes were correlated (r = 0.73-0.93, P < 0.05) with the changes in concentric torque. Vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length increased in both groups (5.4 ± 4.9%, P = 0.001) but the change was not correlated with changes in concentric torque in either group. Isometric training-induced increases in muscle size and concentric torque were best elicited by training at long muscle lengths. These results highlight a clear muscle length dependence of isometric training on dynamic torque production.

  3. Proteins that accumulate with age in human skeletal-muscle aggregates contribute to declines in muscle mass and function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Suri, Pooja; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Shmookler Reis, Robert J.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation increases with age in normal tissues, and with pathology and age in Alzheimer's hippocampus and mouse cardiac muscle. We now ask whether human skeletal muscle accumulates aggregates with age. Detergent-insoluble protein aggregates were isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies from 5 young (23–27 years of age) and 5 older (64–80 years) adults. Aggregates, quantified after gel electrophoresis, contain 2.1-fold more protein (P<0.0001) when isolated from older subjects relative to young. Of 515 proteins identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, 56 (11%) were significantly more abundant in older muscle, while 21 (4%) were depleted with age (each P<0.05). Orthologs to seven of these proteins were then targeted in C. elegans by RNA interference. Six of the seven knockdown treatments decreased protein aggregation (range 6–45%, P<0.01 to <0.0001) and increased muscle mass (range 1.5- to 1.85-fold, P<0.01 to <0.0001) in aged nematodes, and rescued mobility (range 1.4 to 1.65-fold, P≤0.0005 each) in a nematode amyloidopathy model. We conclude that specific aggregate proteins, discovered as differentially abundant in aging human muscle, have orthologs that contribute functionally to aggregation and age-associated muscle loss in nematodes, and thus can be considered potential drug targets for sarcopenia in humans. PMID:27992858

  4. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity. PMID:27622734

  5. Protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle: relationships to age and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Beltran Valls, Maria R; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into "old" and "old sarcopenic") were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r (2) = -.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r (2) = -.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se.

  6. The influence of gene flow and drift on genetic and phenotypic divergence in two species of Zosterops in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Sonya M; Phillimore, Albert B

    2010-04-12

    Colonization of an archipelago sets the stage for adaptive radiation. However, some archipelagos are home to spectacular radiations, while others have much lower levels of diversification. The amount of gene flow among allopatric populations is one factor proposed to contribute to this variation. In island colonizing birds, selection for reduced dispersal ability is predicted to produce changing patterns of regional population genetic structure as gene flow-dominated systems give way to drift-mediated divergence. If this transition is important in facilitating phenotypic divergence, levels of genetic and phenotypic divergence should be associated. We consider population genetic structure and phenotypic divergence among two co-distributed, congeneric (Genus: Zosterops) bird species inhabiting the Vanuatu archipelago. The more recent colonist, Z. lateralis, exhibits genetic patterns consistent with a strong influence of distance-mediated gene flow. However, complex patterns of asymmetrical gene flow indicate variation in dispersal ability or inclination among populations. The endemic species, Z. flavifrons, shows only a partial transition towards a drift-mediated system, despite a long evolutionary history on the archipelago. We find no strong evidence that gene flow constrains phenotypic divergence in either species, suggesting that levels of inter-island gene flow do not explain the absence of a radiation across this archipelago.

  7. Myopathy in patients with Hashimoto's disease.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jaqueline; Finol, Héctor J; Torres, Sonia H; Roschman-González, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland. Patients may present or not a hypothyroid state, and frequently have manifestations of myopathy. The present work was aimed to assess the clinical symptoms and signs of skeletal muscle alterations in HT, describe the muscular pathological changes and relate them to the functional thyroid status and to the autoimmune condition of the patient. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed in ten HT patients and three control subjects (hormonal levels and electromyography). Biopsies from their vastus lateralis of quadriceps femoris muscle were analyzed under light (histochemistry and immunofluorescense) and electron microscopy. All patients showed muscle focal alterations, ranging from moderate to severe atrophy, necrosis, activation of satellite cells, presence of autophagosomes, capillary alterations and macrophage and mast cell infiltration, common to autoimmune diseases. The intensity of clinical signs and symptoms was not related to the morphological muscle findings, the electromyography results, or to the state of the thyroid function. Reactions for immunoglobulin in muscle fibers were positive in 80% of the patients. Fiber type II proportion was increased in all patients, with the exception of those treated with L-thyroxine. In conclusion, autoimmune processes in several of the patients may be associated to the skeletal muscle alterations, independently of the functional state of the thyroid gland; however, fiber II type proportion could have been normalized by L-thyroxine treatment.

  8. Spinal projections from the lower brain stem in the cat as demonstrated by the horseradish peroxidase technique. II. Projections from the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and raphe nuclei.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, M; Sakai, K; Touret, M; Salvert, D; Jouvet, M

    1979-11-02

    The descending projections to the spinal cord arising from the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and brain stem raphe nuclei have been investigated by means of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. Particular attention was taken to clarify the cells of origin and the funicular trajectory of these spinal projections. After injections of HRP into the spinal cord, a significant of HRP labeled neurons were observed in the following dorsolateral pontine tegmental structures: (1) an area ventral to the nucleus cuneiformis; (2) principal locus coeruleus; (3) locus coeruleus a; (4) locuse subcoeruleus; (5) Kölliker-Fuse nucleus; and (6) nucleus parabrachialis lateralis. As a rule, the projections are ipsilateral and descendaphe-spinal projections, we have demonstrated that the nucleus raphe dorsalis also sends axons to the cervical segment of the spinal cord. Furthermore, in accord with previous reports, HRP labeled cells were also identified in the nucleus raphe magnus, pallidus and obscurus, but not in the nucleus raphe centralis superior and pontis. On the whole the present study further clarified the organization of spinal projections from the dorsolateral pons and raphe nuclei and provided some additional anatomical data for the physiology of the tegmentospinal and raphe-spinal projections.

  9. Localization of allatostatin-immunoreactive material in the central nervous system, stomatogastric nervous system, and gut of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Maestro, J L; Bellés, X; Piulachs, M D; Thorpe, A; Duve, H

    1998-01-01

    Immunoreactivity against peptides of the allatostatin family having a typical YXFGL-NH2 C-terminus has been localized in different areas of the central nervous system, stomatogastric nervous system and gut of the cockroach Blattella germanica. In the protocerebrum, the most characteristic immunoreactive perikarya are situated in the lateral and median neurosecretory cell groups. Immunoreactive median neurosecretory cells send their axons around the circumesophageal connectives to form arborizations in the anterior neuropil of the tritocerebrum. A group of cells in the lateral aspect of the tritocerebrum project to the antennal lobes in the deutocerebrum, where immunoreactive arborizations can be seen in the periphery of individual glomeruli. Nerve terminals were shown in the corpora allata. These terminals come from perikarya situated in the lateral neurosecretory cells in the pars lateralis and in the subesophageal ganglion. Immunoreactive axons from median neurosecretory cells and from cells positioned in the anteriormost part of the tritocerebrum enter together in the stomatogastric nervous system and innervate foregut and midgut, especially the crop and the valve between the crop and the midgut. The hindgut is innervated by neurons whose perikarya are located in the last abdominal ganglion. Besides immunoreactivity in neurons, allatostatin-immunoreactive material is present in endocrine cells distributed within the whole midgut epithelium. Possible functions for these peptides according to their localization are discussed.

  10. A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Josiah H.; Medina-Flores, Melissa; Wilson, Larry David; Jadin, Robert C.; Austin, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas. PMID:23794885

  11. Reversible depression of oxygen consumption in isolated liver mitochondria during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Martin, S L; Maniero, G D; Carey, C; Hand, S C

    1999-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms by which hibernators cool as they enter torpor are not fully understood. In order to examine whether rates of substrate oxidation vary as a function of hibernation, liver mitochondria were isolated from telemetered ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in five phases of their annual hibernation cycle: summer active, and torpid, interbout aroused, entrance, and arousing hibernators. Rates of state 3 and state 4 respiration were measured in vitro at 25 degrees C. Relative to mitochondria from summer-active animals, rates of state 3 respiration were significantly depressed in mitochondria from torpid animals yet fully restored during interbout arousals. These findings indicate that a depression of ADP-dependent respiration in liver mitochondria occurs during torpor and is reversed during the interbout arousals to euthermia. Because this inhibition was determined to be temporally independent of entrance and arousal, it is unlikely that active suppression of state 3 respiration causes entrance into torpor by facilitating metabolic depression. In contrast to the observed depression of state 3 respiration in torpid animals, state 4 respiration did not differ significantly among any of the five groups, suggesting that alterations in proton leak are not contributing appreciably to downregulation of respiration in hibernation.

  12. Muscle and tendon adaptation in adolescent athletes: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G N; Arampatzis, A

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that a non-uniform adaptation of muscle and tendon in young athletes results in increased tendon stress during mid-adolescence. The present longitudinal study investigated the development of the morphological and mechanical properties of muscle and tendon of volleyball athletes in a time period of 2 years from mid-adolescence to late adolescence. Eighteen elite volleyball athletes participated in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-dynamometry sessions to determine quadriceps femoris muscle strength, vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius morphology, and patellar tendon mechanical and morphological properties in mid-adolescence (16 ± 1 years) and late adolescence (18 ± 1 years). Muscle strength, anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), and volume showed significant (P < 0.05) but moderate increases of 13%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. The increase of patellar tendon CSA (P < 0.05) was substantially greater (27%) and went in line with increased stiffness (P < 0.05; 25%) and reduced stress (P < 0.05; 9%). During late adolescence, a pronounced hypertrophy of the patellar tendon led to a mechanical strengthening of the tendon in relation to the functional and morphological development of the muscle. These adaptive processes may compensate the unfavorable relation of muscle strength and tendon loading capacity in mid-adolescence and might have implications on athletic performance and tendon injury risk.

  13. Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Rossini, Katia; Carraro, Ugo; Mayr, Winfried; Vogelauer, Michael; Hoellwarth, Ursula; Hofer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents biopsy analyses in support of the clinical evidence of muscle recovery induced by a new system of life-long functional-electrical-stimulation (FES) training in permanent spinal-motoneuron-denervated human muscle. Not earlier than 1 year after subjects experienced complete conus cauda lesion, their thigh muscles were electrically stimulated at home for several years with large skin surface electrodes and an expressly designed stimulator that delivered much longer impulses than those presently available for clinical use. The poor excitability of long-term denervated muscles was first improved by several months of twitch-contraction training. Then, the muscles were tetanically stimulated against progressively increased loads. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis from long-term denervated subjects showed severe myofiber atrophy or lipodystrophy beginning 2 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Muscle biopsies from a group of 3.6- to 13.5-year denervated subjects, who underwent 2.4 to 9.3 years of FES, show that this progressive training almost reverted long-term muscle atrophy/degeneration.

  14. [Tensiomyography as method of evaluating muscles status].

    PubMed

    Markulincić, Branko; Muraja, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Sports results, as well as results of rehabilitation treatments are closely related to a detailed, strictly individualized programme of sports and rehabilitation training. It is vitally important to monitor and evaluate results constantly. Along with already standardized methods of evaluating neuromuscular system, such as electrodinamometry and isokinetic dinamometry on Cybex; tensiomyography (TMG) as method of assessing muscles status has been introduced. TMG is non-invasive, selective, objective method designed to measure time of activation, delay time as well as contraction time, relaxation time and intesity of muscle contraction in conditions of submaximum electrostimulation. The method is based on measuring the muscle belly enlargements by a superficialy placed precise electromagnetic sensor.TMG enables the examination of some otherwise inaccessible muscles like gluteus maximus muscle and also selective evaluation of single muscle head (for example m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis and m. rectus femoris of m. quadriceps). Estimation of harmonisation between agonistic and antagonistic muscles, synergistic muscles and same muscles on left and right side of the body, is based on muscles biomechanical properties i.e. parameters, calculated from TMG response. Total harmonization (100%) is hardly ever the case, the lowest level sufficient muscle groups functionality is defined by 80% for lateral and 65% for agonistic/synergistic harmonisation. Harmonization below this level either reflects past injures, muscle adaptation or indicates increased exposure to injury.

  15. Head proportion and shape of the head of children between 2 and 7 years--results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Grit

    2007-06-01

    Based upon a longitudinal anthropometric study with integrated picture documentation, the head proportion and head shape of two to seven years old children will be analysed. The study was initiated in April 2002 in the administrative districts of Potsdam and Potsdam-Mittelmark (Germany). 351 boys and girls have been measured and photographed. The children shall be examined up to four years until September 2006 with a half year investigation distance. Twenty-three anthropometric dimensions have been measured including six dimensions of the head. These dimensions of the head are the head length, head breadth, auricular height, interpupillary distance, facial height and lower face height. Furthermore, digital pictures have been taken of each child. So the head of each child can be examined in a frontal view (Norma frontalis) and in a lateral view (Norma lateralis) and will be analysed relating to changing proportions of the head. The results demonstrated and discussed here are based on a longitudinal succession of photos and point out a method to make individual patterns of the changing head proportions and head shape visual on pictures.

  16. Influence of wheel size on muscle activity and tri-axial accelerations during cross-country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P < .05) for all wheel sizes and all phases of the lap with the exception of for the 26 inch wheel during the descent. Findings suggest wheel diameter has no influence on muscle activity and vibration during mountain biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.

  17. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups.

  18. Exercise regulates Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kei; Arnolds, David E W; Ekberg, Ingvar; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-06-25

    Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, eight healthy human subjects performed 30min of cycling exercise at 75% of maximum workload (submaximal) followed by 6 bouts of 60s at 125% maximum workload (maximal). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken at rest (basal), and within 15s following cessation of the submaximal and maximal exercise bouts. Exercise at both submaximal and maximal intensities significantly increased Akt activity (40% and 110%, respectively). Increases in Akt activity were accompanied by increases in Akt Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, decreased GSK3alpha activity ( approximately 30% at both intensities), and increased phosphorylation of GSK3alpha Ser(21). Exercise at both intensities also decreased beta-catenin Ser(33/37)Thr(41) phosphorylation (50-60% at both intensities). These results demonstrate that Akt, GSK3, and beta-catenin signaling are regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, and as such identify them as possible molecular mediators of exercise's effect on metabolic and transcriptional processes in skeletal muscle.

  19. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S; Worthington, Philip L; Shepherd, Sam O; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2014-07-01

    Increases in insulin-mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4-containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans-Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes.

  20. Relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic activity of quadriceps muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young; Oh, Jee Hae; Lee, Jong In

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We evaluated the relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM) to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a cross-sectional study. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with knee OA were assessed by anatomic radiographic knee alignment and the VM/VL ratio was calculated. Surface EMG from both the VM and VL muscles were evaluated during maximal isometric contraction at 60° knee flexion. Simultaneously, peak quadriceps torque was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Subjects were categorized into low, moderate, and high varus groups according to knee malalignment. The peak quadriceps torque and VM/VL ratio across groups, and their relationships with varus malalignment were analyzed. [Results] All subjects had medial compartment OA and the VM/VL ratio of all subjects was 1.31 ± 0.28 (mean ± SD). There were no significant differences in the peak quadriceps torque or VM/VL ratios across the groups nor were there any significant relationships with varus malalignment. [Conclusion] The VM/VL ratio and peak quadriceps torque were not associated with the severity of knee varus malalignment. PMID:25995602

  1. The effects of kinesio tape on isokinetic muscular function of horse racing jockeys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Byounghee

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct a scientific analysis of the effectiveness of Kinesio taping at preventing injury and improving horse racing jockey' performance, by studying the effects on isokinetic muscular function of Kinesio taping applied to the knee joint muscle. [Subjects] Eight horse racing jockeys were selected for this study. [Methods] Measurement of isokinetic muscular function of both flexor and extensor muscles was performed at the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec using a Biodex system 3, before and after application of Kinesio taping to the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and hamstring. [Result] At the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec, significant differences were observed in both flexor and extensor peak torque, average power, and total work of the knee joint after application of Kinesio taping. [Conclusion] The application of Kinesio taping has a positive effect on the function of both knee flexors and extensors, and also kinetic ability. Therefore, its use would lead to a significant increase in the muscle function of horse racing jockeys.

  2. Ascending connections to the forebrain in the Tegu lizard.

    PubMed

    Lohman, A H; van Woerden-Verkley, I

    1978-12-01

    The ascending connections to the striatum and the cortex of the Tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus, were studied by means of anterograde fiber degeneration and retrograde axonal transport. The striatum receives projections by way of the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle from four dorsal thalamic nuclei: nucleus rotundus, nucleus reuniens, the posterior part of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and nucleus dorsomedialis. The former three nuclei project to circumscribed areas of the dorsal striatum, whereas nucleus dorsomedialis has a distribution to the whole dorsal striatum. Other sources of origin to the striatum are the mesencephalic reticular formation, substantia nigra and nucleus cerebelli lateralis. With the exception of the latter afferentation all these projections are ipsilateral. The ascending connections to the pallium originate for the major part from nucleus dorsolateralis anterior of the dorsal thalamus. The fibers course in both the medial forebrain bundle and the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle and terminate ipsilaterally in the middle of the molecular layer of the small-celled part of the mediodorsal cortex and bilaterally above the intermediate region of the dorsal cortex. The latter area is reached also by fibers from the septal area. The large-celled part of the mediodorsal cortex receives projections from nucleus raphes superior and the corpus mammillare.

  3. Efferent projections of the dorsal ventricular ridge and the striatum in the Tegu lizard. Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    PubMed

    Voneida, T J; Sligar, C M

    1979-07-01

    A H3 proline-leucine mixture was injected into the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and striatum of the Tegu lizard in order to determine their efferent projections. The brains were processed according to standard radioautographic technique, and counterstained with cresyl violet. DVR projections were generally restricted to the telencephalon, while striatal projections were limited to diencephalic and mesencephalic structures. Thus the anterior DVR projects ipsilaterally to nuclei sphericus and lateralis amygdalae, striatum (ipsilateral and contralateral) ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and lateral pallium. Posterior DVR projections enter ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and interstitial amygdalar nuclei, olfactory tubercle and bulb, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and a zone surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Labeled axons from striatal injections pass caudally in the lateral forebrain bundle to enter (via dorsal peduncle) nuclei dorsomedialis, medialis posterior, entopeduncularis anterior, and a zone surrounding nucleus rotundus. Others join the ventral peduncle of LFB and enter ventromedial nucleus (thalami), while the remaining fibers continue caudally in the ventral peduncle to the mesencephalic prerubral field, central gray, substantia nigra, nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation and pretectal nucleus posterodorsalis. These results are discussed in relation to the changing notions regarding terminology, classification and functions of dorsl ventricular ridge and striatum.

  4. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.

  5. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  6. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  7. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  8. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    PubMed

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals.

  9. Short-term performance peaking in an elite cross-country mountain biker.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Vegge, Geir; Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-08-01

    Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3.9 W·kg(-1), maximal isometric force 180 Nm and squat jump 21 cm. During overload, perceived leg well-being went from normal to very heavy. On day 1 after overload, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis EMGmean activity was reduced by 3% and 7%, respectively. Other baseline measurements were reduced by 3-7%. On day 4 of the taper, he felt that his legs were good and all measurements were 3-7% higher than before overload. On day 6 after the taper, his legs felt very good. This case shows that an elite mountain biker (11th in UCI World Cup one week prior to the pre-test) could achieve a rather large supercompensation by using a 12-day performance peaking protocol.

  10. Vatellini Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from Brazil: two new species, new records, and a checklist.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-05-12

    The tribe Vatellini Sharp, 1882 is composed of 55 species divided in two genera. Even though a recent revision of the tribe was made, Vatellini of the new world are weakly explored with great gaps in the distributions of species. In Brazil the knowledge is based only on a few localities. In this work two new species are described and illustrated, Vatellus caissara sp. nov. and Vatellus yanomami sp. nov.; new records are given for Brazil: Vatellus maculosus Miller, 2005 in the state of Mato Grosso, Derovatellus lentus (Wehncke, 1876) in Amazonas, Pará and Rio de Janeiro, Vatellus lateralis (Sharp, 1882) in Alagoas, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Pará, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Sul, Vatellus sahlbergi (Sharp, 1882) in Rio de Janeiro, and Vatellus tarsatus (Laporte, 1835) in Pará. A checklist with all species of Vatellini occurring in Brazil is provided and steps for identification of the new species are added in the key of Miller (2005).

  11. Morphology, Projection Pattern and Neurochemical Identity of Cajal’s “Centrifugal Neurons”: The Cells of Origin of the Tectoventrogeniculate Pathway in Pigeon (Columba livia) and Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J.; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (Hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum, and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we have characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern and neurochemical identity of these cells, by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in-vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were ChAT immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs. PMID:24435811

  12. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Soren; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo Loureiro; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M.; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Thornton, John S.; Bushby, Kate; Lochmuller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G.; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I). Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female) with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A) in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w) imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.05). In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7%) exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2%) (p<0.005). MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i) that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii) new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I. PMID:24587344

  13. An electromyographic-based test for estimating neuromuscular fatigue during incremental treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Kovacs, Attila J; Enquist, Evan A; VanDusseldorp, Trisha A; Hill, Ethan C; Calantoni, Austin M; Yemm, Allison J

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were two fold: (1) to determine if the model used for estimating the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) from electromyographic (EMG) amplitude data during incremental cycle ergometry could be applied to treadmill running to derive a new neuromuscular fatigue threshold for running, and (2) to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT, ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Fifteen college-aged subjects (21.5 ± 1.3 y, 68.7 ± 10.5 kg, 175.9 ± 6.7 cm) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with bipolar surface EMG signals recorded from the vastus lateralis. There were significant (p < 0.05) mean differences in running velocities between the VT (11.3 ± 1.3 km h(-1)) and PWCFT (14.0 ± 2.3 km h(-1)), VT and RCP (14.0 ± 1.8 km h(-1)), but not the PWCFT and RCP. The findings of the present study indicated that the PWCFT model could be applied to a single continuous, incremental treadmill test to estimate the maximal running velocity that can be maintained prior to the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. In addition, these findings suggested that the PWCFT, like the RCP, may be used to differentiate the heavy from severe domains of exercise intensity.

  14. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  15. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    PubMed

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during EB cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P < 0.001) greater during CB cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter after EB cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers.

  16. An in vivo microdialysis characterization of the transient changes in the interstitial dialysate concentration of metabolites and cytokines in human skeletal muscle in response to insertion of a microdialysis probe.

    PubMed

    Carson, Brian P; McCormack, William G; Conway, Clare; Cooke, John; Saunders, Jean; O'Connor, William T; Jakeman, Philip M

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle has recently been described as an endocrine organ, capable of releasing cytokines and regulators of metabolism. Microdialysis of the interstitial space of skeletal muscle enables analysis of the release of such cytokines. The purpose of this study was to determine the transient changes in concentration of metabolites and cytokines in human skeletal muscle in a 7h period following the insertion of a microdialysis probe. In total, sixteen microdialysis catheters were inserted into the vastus lateralis of male participants (age 26.2±1.35y, height 180.8±3.89cm, mass 83.9±3.86kg, BMI 25.7±0.87kgm(-2), body fat 26.1±3.0%). Serial samples were analyzed by micro-enzymatic and multiplexed immunoassay. Muscle interstitial glucose and lactate levels remained stable throughout, amino acid concentrations stabilized after 2.5h, however, insertion of a microdialysis catheter induced a 29-fold increase in peak IL-6 (p<0.001) and 35-fold increase in peak IL-8 concentrations (p<0.001) above basal levels 6h post insertion. In contrast to stable amino acid, glucose and lactate concentrations after 2h, commonly reported markers of tissue homeostasis in in vivo microdialysis, the multi-fold increase in IL-6 and IL-8 following insertion of a microdialysis catheter is indicative of a sustained disturbance of tissue homeostasis.

  17. Carnosine, taurine and enzyme activities of human skeletal muscle fibres from elderly subjects with osteoarthritis and young moderately active subjects.

    PubMed

    Tallon, Mark J; Harris, Roger C; Maffulli, Nicola; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    Ageing is associated with a reduction in muscle carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), but there are no data on the changes specifically in type I and type II muscle fibres. Given the higher carnosine content of type II fibers, changes observed in whole muscle may be secondary to a shift in fibre composition. Carnosine, beta-alanine, histidine, taurine, and citrate synthase (CS) and glycogen phosphorylase (Phos), were measured in pools of single muscle fibres from freeze-dried muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis of nine elderly sedentary subjects (65-80 years) with osteoarthritis of the knee and undergoing total knee replacement, and nine young moderately active healthy subjects (20-35 years). Fibres were characterised as type I or II by myosin ATPase activity. Carnosine was 53.2% lower in type II fibres of older subjects resulting in an estimated 7% (and most probably still higher) decline in intracellular physico-chemical buffering capacity. Younger subjects showed higher CS activities in type I and higher Phos activities in type II fibres. These differences were less apparent in elderly subjects. Possible causes for the change in the carnosine content are reduced physical activity, reduced meat intake, or the result of progressive denervation.

  18. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Hill, C A; Harris, R C; Kim, H J; Harris, B D; Sale, C; Boobis, L H; Kim, C K; Wise, J A

    2007-02-01

    Muscle carnosine synthesis is limited by the availability of beta-alanine. Thirteen male subjects were supplemented with beta-alanine (CarnoSyn) for 4 wks, 8 of these for 10 wks. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis was obtained from 6 of the 8 at 0, 4 and 10 wks. Subjects undertook a cycle capacity test to determine total work done (TWD) at 110% (CCT(110%)) of their maximum power (Wmax). Twelve matched subjects received a placebo. Eleven of these completed the CCT(110%) at 0 and 4 wks, and 8, 10 wks. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 5 of the 8 and one additional subject. Muscle carnosine was significantly increased by +58.8% and +80.1% after 4 and 10 wks beta-alanine supplementation. Carnosine, initially 1.71 times higher in type IIa fibres, increased equally in both type I and IIa fibres. No increase was seen in control subjects. Taurine was unchanged by 10 wks of supplementation. 4 wks beta-alanine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TWD (+13.0%); with a further +3.2% increase at 10 wks. TWD was unchanged at 4 and 10 wks in the control subjects. The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine.

  19. First-aid treatment of anaphylaxis to food: focus on epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Simons, F Estelle R

    2004-05-01

    Avoiding food triggers for anaphylactic reactions (severe acute systemic allergic reactions) is easier said than done. Most episodes of anaphylaxis to food occur unexpectedly in the community in the absence of a health care professional. All individuals at risk should therefore have an emergency action plan in place. The cornerstone of first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine injected intramuscularly in the vastus lateralis muscle (lateral aspect of the thigh). In this review, we focus on epinephrine. We examine a therapeutic dilemma: the issue of epinephrine dose selection in an individual for whom no optimal fixed-dose auto-injector formulation exists, and a therapeutic controversy: the issue of epinephrine injection versus an oral H1-antihistamine in anaphylaxis episodes that appear to be mild. The pharmaceutical industry could address the first of these issues by providing a wider range of epinephrine fixed doses in easy-to-use auto-injectors, or by providing adjustable epinephrine doses in auto-injectors. The second issue could be addressed in part by development of alternative routes of epinephrine administration for the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis.

  20. Neuromuscular performance of maximal voluntary explosive concentric contractions is influenced by angular acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D; Bakenecker, P; Zinke, F

    2016-12-28

    Torque production during maximal voluntary explosive contractions is considered to be a functionally more relevant neuromuscular measure than steady-state torque, but little is known about accelerated concentric contractions. This study investigated torque, muscle activity, and fascicle behavior during isometric and fast concentric contractions of quadriceps femoris. Ten participants performed maximal voluntary explosive isometric, isovelocity, and additional concentric knee extensions at angular accelerations ranging from 700 to 4000° s(-2) that resulted in an angular velocity of 300° s(-1) at 40° knee flexion. Concentric torque at 40° knee flexion was corrected for inertia, and the corresponding isometric torque was matched to the time when the target knee angle of 40° was reached during concentric contractions. Electromyography of quadriceps femoris and hamstrings and ultrasound of vastus lateralis were measured to determine muscle activity, fascicle length, and fascicle velocity (FV). The faster the acceleration, the more torque was produced during concentric contractions at 40° knee flexion, which was accompanied by a reduction in FV. In comparison with isometric conditions, concentric quadriceps muscle activity was increased and torque during accelerations ≥3000° s(-2) equaled the time-matched isometric torque. Our results provide novel evidence that acceleration influences torque production during maximal voluntary explosive concentric contractions. This is suggested to be due to series elasticity and reduced force depression.

  1. [Abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated to the submerged roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at Bocaripo Lagoon, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cedeño, Jennellis; Jiménez Prieto, Mayré; Pereda, Luisana; Allen, Thays

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove roots are important habitats for many species. The abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated with the roots demerged of Rhizophora mangle was studied. The samples were gathered between February 2005 and January 2006, in Bocaripo lagoon, north coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. Five stations were established inside the lagoon; on every station two roots were chosen at random, put in plastic bags and scraped. The associated organisms were separated by taxa and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. One thousand ninety two specimens of mollusks, distributed in two classes: Bivalve and Gastropod were collected. Bivalve was the most abundant with 943 individuals. The most representative family was Mytilidae with 6 species, being Musculus lateralis the dominant species. The crustaceans were represented by 372 organisms, belonging to the class Malacostraca, where Panopeus herbstii (169 ind.) was the most abundant species. The families Panopeidae, Porcellanidae and Majidae had the highest number of species. Maximum abundance was in February (224 ind.), with a richness of 25 species and the minimums in November (45 ind.) and a richness of 12 species. The stations 1 and 5 presented the major abundance and richness of organisms, which could be related to environmental conditions favorable, as the major availability of microhabitats and nourishing offer; on the contrary the station 4, presented a more inhospitable environment, due to the high values in the salinity and temperature, which contributes with the minor abundance and richness of the present species.

  2. Skeletal muscle capillary density and fiber type are possible determinants of in vivo insulin resistance in man.

    PubMed Central

    Lillioja, S; Young, A A; Culter, C L; Ivy, J L; Abbott, W G; Zawadzki, J K; Yki-Järvinen, H; Christin, L; Secomb, T W; Bogardus, C

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the capillary density and muscle fiber type of musculus vastus lateralis with in vivo insulin action determined by the euglycemic clamp (M value) in 23 Caucasians and 41 Pima Indian nondiabetic men. M value was significantly correlated with capillary density (r = 0.63; P less than or equal to 0.0001), percent type I fibers (r = 0.29; P less than 0.02), and percent type 2B fibers (r = -0.38; P less than 0.003). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with capillary density (r = -0.46, P less than or equal to 0.0001; r = -0.47, P less than or equal to 0.0001, respectively). Waist circumference/thigh circumference ratio was correlated with percent type 1 fibers (r = -0.39; P less than 0.002). These results suggest that diffusion distance from capillary to muscle cells or some associated biochemical change, and fiber type, could play a role in determining in vivo insulin action. The association of muscle fiber type with body fat distribution may indicate that central obesity is only one aspect of a more generalized metabolic syndrome. The data may provide at least a partial explanation for the insulin resistance associated with obesity and for the altered kinetics of insulin action in the obese. PMID:3301899

  3. Inspiratory muscles experience fatigue faster than the calf muscles during treadmill marching.

    PubMed

    Perlovitch, Renana; Gefen, Amit; Elad, David; Ratnovsky, Anat; Kramer, Mordechai R; Halpern, Pinchas

    2007-04-16

    The possibility that respiratory muscles may fatigue during extreme physical activity and thereby become a limiting factor leading to exhaustion is debated in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether treadmill marching exercise induces respiratory muscle fatigue, and to compare the extent and rate of respiratory muscle fatigue to those of the calf musculature. To identify muscle fatigue, surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of the inspiratory (sternomastoid, external intercostals), expiratory (rectus abdominis and external oblique) and calf (gastrocnemius lateralis) muscles were measured during a treadmill march of 2 km at a constant velocity of 8 km/h. The extent of fatigue was assessed by determining the increase in root-mean-square (RMS) of EMG over time, and the rate of fatigue was assessed from the slope of the EMG RMS versus time curve. Results indicated that (i) the inspiratory and calf muscles are the ones experiencing the most dominant fatigue during treadmill marching, (ii) the rate of fatigue of each muscle group was monotonic between the initial and terminal phases of exercise, and (iii) the inspiratory muscles fatigue significantly faster than the calf at the terminal phase of exercise, and are likely to fatigue faster during the initial exercise as well. Accordingly, this study supports the hypothesis that fatigue of the inspiratory muscles may be a limiting factor during exercise.

  4. Contributions of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and apoptosis to human skeletal muscle wasting with age.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Samantha A; Wacker, Michael J; Richmond, Scott R; Godard, Michael P

    2005-09-01

    The primary mechanism that contributes to decreasing skeletal muscle strength and size with healthy aging is not presently known. This study examined the contribution of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and apoptosis to skeletal muscle wasting in older adults (n = 21; mean age = 72.76 +/- 8.31 years) and young controls (n = 21; mean age = 21.48 +/- 2.93 years). Subjects underwent a percutaneous muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis to determine: (1) ubiquitin ligase gene expression (MAFbx and MuRF1); (2) frequency of apoptosis; and (3) individual fiber type and cross-sectional area. In addition, a whole muscle strength test was also performed. A one-way ANOVA revealed significant increases in the number of positive TUNEL cells in older adults (87%; p < 0.05), although no significant increase in caspase-3/7 activity was detected. Additionally, ubiquitin ligase gene expression, individual muscle fiber type and CSA were not different between old and young subjects. Muscle strength was also significantly lower in old compared to young subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates a preferential role for apoptosis contributing to decreases in muscle function with age.

  5. VO2 responses to running speeds above VO2max.

    PubMed

    Duffield, R; Bishop, D

    2008-06-01

    This study compared VO2, heart rate (HR) and electromyographic (iEMG) responses to speeds above the velocity associated with VO2max (v-VO2max). Eight male, middle-distance runners performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2max and v-VO2max and runs to fatigue at 100 % and 110 % v-VO2max. Breath-by-breath VO2 and HR were continuously recorded; lactate [La (-)] measured pre- and post-run and iEMG measures of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis were recorded during the first and last 20 s of each run. Analysis indicated longer time to fatigue in the 100 % v-VO2max run with no differences between conditions for VO2 or HR amplitudes or post-run [La (-)] (p > 0.05). There were significantly faster tau values (p < 0.05) in the 110 % condition in VO2 and HR. No significant correlations were observed between VO2 or HR tau values and time to fatigue. RF iEMG was significantly larger in 110 % compared to 100 % run in the first 20 s (p < 0.05). While no association between treadmill performance and VO2 response was evident, faster running speeds resulted in faster VO2 and HR responses, with no difference in amplitude or % VO2max attained. This may potentially be as a result of an increased muscle fibre recruitment stimulus during the faster running velocity resulting in faster cardiodynamic responses.

  6. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Gly482Ser in the PGC-1α Gene Impairs Exercise-Induced Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibre Transformation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Steinbacher, Peter; Feichtinger, René G.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kedenko, Igor; Reinhardt, Sandra; Schönauer, Anna-Lena; Leitner, Isabella; Sänger, Alexandra M.; Stoiber, Walter; Kofler, Barbara; Förster, Holger; Paulweber, Bernhard; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α) is an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and a master regulator of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Recent evidence demonstrated that the Gly482Ser single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PGC-1α gene affects insulin sensitivity, blood lipid metabolism and binding to myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). Individuals carrying this SNP were shown to have a reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and a higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated the responses of untrained men with the Gly482Ser SNP to a 10 week programme of endurance training (cycling, 3 x 60 min/week, heart rate at 70-90% VO2peak). Quantitative data from analysis of biopsies from vastus lateralis muscle revealed that the SNP group, in contrast to the control group, lacked a training-induced increase in content of slow contracting oxidative fibres. Capillary supply, mitochondrial density, mitochondrial enzyme activities and intramyocellular lipid content increased similarly in both groups. These results indicate that the impaired binding of MEF2 to PGC-1α in humans with this SNP impedes exercise-induced fast-to-slow muscle fibre transformation. PMID:25886402

  7. Metabolic and morphometric profile of muscle fibers in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Mario; Wang, Huiyuan; Storer, Thomas W.; Casaburi, Richard; Cohen, Arthur H.; Kopple, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle weakness and effort intolerance are common in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study characterized morphometric, histochemical, and biochemical properties of limb muscle in MHD patients compared with controls (CTL) with similar age, gender, and ethnicity. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 60 MHD patients, 1 day after dialysis, and from 21 CTL. Muscle fiber types and capillaries were identified immunohistochemically. Individual muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) were quantified. Individual fiber oxidative capacities were determined (microdensitometric assay) to measure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Mean CSAs of type I, IIA, and IIX fibers were 33, 26, and 28% larger in MHD patients compared with CTL. SDH activities for type I, IIA, and IIX fibers were reduced by 29, 40, and 47%, respectively, in MHD. Capillary to fiber ratio was increased by 11% in MHD. The number of capillaries surrounding individual fiber types were also increased (type I: 9%; IIA: 10%; IIX: 23%) in MHD patients. However, capillary density (capillaries per unit muscle fiber area) was reduced by 34% in MHD patients, compared with CTL. Ultrastuctural analysis revealed swollen mitochondria with dense matrix in MHD patients. These results highlight impaired oxidative capacity and capillarity in MHD patients. This would be expected to impair energy production as well as substrate and oxygen delivery and exchange and contribute to exercise intolerance. The enlarged CSA of muscle fibers may, in part, be accounted for by edema. We speculate that these changes contribute to reduce limb strength in MHD patients by reducing specific force. PMID:22016372

  8. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Colocalization with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, M; Andersen, A C; Delbende, C; Ottonello, I; Eberle, A N; Vaudry, H

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the central nervous system of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase techniques, using an antiserum raised against synthetic salmon MCH. Three groups of MCH-positive cell bodies were localized in the posterior hypothalamus. The most prominent cell group was detected in the nucleus sacci vasculosi. Scattered MCH-immunoreactive cells were observed in the nucleus tuberculi posterioris and in the nucleus lateralis tuberis. At the pituitary level, the caudal part of the median lobe of the pars distalis contained strongly MCH-positive perikarya. Some of these cells were liquor-contacting-type. Immunoreactive fibers originating from the hypothalamic perikarya projected throughout the dorsal wall of the posterior hypothalamus. Positive fibers were also detected within the thalamus and the central gray of the mesencephalon. The distribution of MCH-containing neurons was compared to that of alpha-MSH-immunoreactive elements using consecutive, 5-micron thick sections. Both MCH- and alpha-MSH-immunoreactive peptides were found in the same neurons of the nucleus sacci vasculosi. These data suggest that MCH and alpha-MSH, two neuropeptides which exert antagonistic activities on skin melanophores, may also act in a coordinate manner in the central nervous system of cartilaginous fish.

  9. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention. PMID:27630396

  10. PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In search for additional counter measures of muscle atrophy vibration exercise training may have substantial effort for patients with neuromuscular disorders. To cover safety aspects and obtain muscle morphology data, a pilot study was performed in eleven healthy men. Countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump and one repetition maximum test (1RM) were performed on a force platform before and after a 6 week training period. No severe side effects were found. Repeated needle muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed a selective pre- to post-training type-2 myofiber hypertrophy of up to 50 %. The hypertrophy factors were 160 and 310, for type-2 myofibers. The mechanography system showed a significant increase in the 1RM maximum weight lifted (pre: 111,8 kg ± 11,5; post: 140,9 kg ± 13,00; p < 0,001). Vibration exercise is a safe and effective technique which desires further approval as counter measure in different types of neuromuscular atrophy. PMID:27199541

  11. Combined walking exercise and alkali therapy in patients with CKD4-5 regulates intramuscular free amino acid pools and ubiquitin E3 ligase expression.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma L; Kosmadakis, George C; Smith, Alice C; Viana, Joao L; Brown, Jeremy R; Molyneux, Karen; Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Mulheran, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Shirreffs, Susan; Maughan, Ronald J; Owen, Paul J; John, Stephen G; McIntyre, Christopher W; Feehally, John; Bevington, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Muscle-wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) arises from several factors including sedentary behaviour and metabolic acidosis. Exercise is potentially beneficial but might worsen acidosis through exercise-induced lactic acidosis. We studied the chronic effects of exercise in CKD stage 4-5 patients (brisk walking, 30 min, 5 times/week), and non-exercising controls; each group receiving standard oral bicarbonate (STD), or additional bicarbonate (XS) (Total n = 26; Exercising + STD n = 9; Exercising +XS n = 6; Control + STD n = 8; Control + XS n = 3). Blood and vastus lateralis biopsies were drawn at baseline and 6 months. The rise in blood lactate in submaximal treadmill tests was suppressed in the Exercising + XS group. After 6 months, intramuscular free amino acids (including the branched chain amino acids) in the Exercising + STD group showed a striking chronic depletion. This did not occur in the Exercising + XS group. The effect in Exercising + XS patients was accompanied by reduced transcription of ubiquitin E3-ligase MuRF1 which activates proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Other anabolic indicators (Akt activation and suppression of the 14 kDa actin catabolic marker) were unaffected in Exercising + XS patients. Possibly because of this, overall suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis (3-methylhistidine output) was not observed. It is suggested that alkali effects in exercisers arose by countering exercise-induced acidosis. Whether further anabolic effects are attainable on combining alkali with enhanced exercise (e.g. resistance exercise) merits further investigation.

  12. Avoiding Facial Incisions with Midface Free Tissue Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Mark W.; Sosin, Michael; Urbinelli, Leo J.; Mayo, James L.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Borsuk, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have adopted an intraoral microsurgical anastomosis to the facial vessels to eliminate the need for any visible facial incisions. Methods: Cadaveric dissection was used to demonstrate accessibility of the facial artery and vein through an intraoral approach. Additionally, 5 patients underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction of major defects of the midface through an intraoral, transmucosal approach, obviating the need for visible skin incisions. Results: The pathology included palatal defects due to mucoepidermoid carcinoma and ischemic necrosis from cocaine abuse, maxillary defects secondary to fibrous dysplasia and avascular necrosis from traumatic blast injury, and a residual posttraumatic bony deformity of the zygoma. Reconstructions were performed with a free ulnar forearm flap, a free vastus lateralis muscle flap, a deep circumflex iliac artery myoosseous flap, a free fibula flap, and a deep circumflex iliac artery osseous flap, respectively. The facial artery and vein were used as recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis for all cases. Mean follow-up was 12.2 months. All free tissue transfers were successful, and each patient had a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no associated facial scars. Conclusion: This technique can be employed during reconstruction of an array of bony or soft-tissue midface deficits with minimal morbidity. This small series effectively demonstrates the varied pathologies and tissue deficiencies that can be successfully reconstructed with free tissue transfer using an entirely intraoral approach to the recipient facial vessels, resulting in no visible scars on the face and an improvement in the overall aesthetic outcome. PMID:28280662

  13. Increase in rate of force development with skin cooling during isometric knee extension.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Ryota; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Tadano, Chigaya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yona, Masae; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Muro, Masuo

    2014-12-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) plays an important role when performing rapid and forceful movements. Cold-induced afferent input with transient skin cooling (SC) can modulate neural drive. However, the relationship between RFD and SC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SC increases RFD during isometric knee extension. Fifteen young healthy men (25 ± 8 yrs old) contracted their quadriceps muscle as fast and forcefully as possible with or without SC. Skin cooling was administered to the front of the thigh. Torque and electromyographic activity were measured simultaneously. Peak torque was not affected by SC. Skin cooling induced a significant increase in RFD at the phase 0-30 and 0-50 ms. The root mean square of the electromyography of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis at the phases 0-30-50-100 ms increased significantly or tended to increase with SC. These results suggest that SC may increase neural drive and improve RFD in the very early phases of contraction.

  14. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-09-29

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman's ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions.

  15. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  16. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Little, Jonathan P.; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Sprint interval training has been reported to induce similar or greater mitochondrial adaptations to continuous training. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of different exercise types on the early molecular events regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we compared the effects of continuous and sprint interval exercise on key regulatory proteins linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in subcellular fractions of human skeletal muscle. Nineteen men, performed either 24 min of moderate-intensity continuous cycling at 63% of WPeak (CE), or 4 × 30-s “all-out” cycling sprints (SIE). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were collected pre-, immediately (+0 h) and 3 (+3 h) hours post-exercise. Nuclear p53 and PHF20 protein content increased at +0 h, with no difference between groups. Nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content increased at +0 h after SIE, but not CE. We demonstrate an exercise-induced increase in nuclear p53 protein content, an event that may relate to greater p53 stability - as also suggested by increased PHF20 protein content. Increased nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content immediately following SIE but not CE suggests these may represent important early molecular events in the exercise-induced response to exercise, and that SIE is a time-efficient and possibly superior option than CE to promote these adaptations. PMID:28281651

  17. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53), contracted MS (MD=162.7N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53) and MAS (MD=422.1N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p=0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  18. Sylvatic Infestation of Oklahoma Reptiles with Immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Garvin, Stephen D; Noden, Bruce H; Dillwith, Jack W; Fox, Stanley F; Payton, Mark E; Barker, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Reptiles were collected in nine counties in Oklahoma from September 2002 to May 2004 and examined for Ixodes scapularis (Say) larvae and nymphs to determine seasonal incidence and prevalence of these ticks. In total, 209 reptile specimens consisting of nine species of lizards and seven species of snakes were collected. Plestiodon fasciatus (L.) was the most numerous species collected (55%) followed by Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille) (17%) and Scincella lateralis (Say) (11%). Less than 10 individuals were collected for all remaining reptile species. The infestation prevalence of I. scapularis on all reptile specimens collected was 14% for larvae and 25% for nymphs. Larvae were found on lizards from April until September and peaked in May, while nymphs were found from March until September and peaked in April. I. scapularis larvae (84%) and nymphs (73%) preferentially attached to the axillae/front leg of P. fasciatus. Two chigger species, Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing), were found on 2% of the reptiles collected. No ectoparasites, including ticks, were obtained from the seven species of snakes collected.

  19. Resistance Training Enhances Skeletal Muscle Innervation Without Modifying the Number of Satellite Cells or their Myofiber Association in Obese Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Messi, María Laura; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhong-Min; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models provide compelling evidence for age-related skeletal muscle denervation, which may contribute to muscle fiber atrophy and loss. Skeletal muscle denervation seems relentless; however, long-term, high-intensity physical activity appears to promote muscle reinnervation. Whether 5-month resistance training (RT) enhances skeletal muscle innervation in obese older adults is unknown. This study found that neural cell-adhesion molecule, NCAM+ muscle area decreased with RT and was inversely correlated with muscle strength. NCAM1 and RUNX1 gene transcripts significantly decreased with the intervention. Type I and type II fiber grouping in the vastus lateralis did not change significantly but increases in leg press and knee extensor strength inversely correlated with type I, but not with type II, fiber grouping. RT did not modify the total number of satellite cells, their number per area, or the number associated with specific fiber subtypes or innervated/denervated fibers. Our results suggest that RT has a beneficial impact on skeletal innervation, even when started late in life by sedentary obese older adults.

  20. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells. PMID:26733888

  1. Comparative anatomy of the arterial system of the foot in primates. 1. Macaque.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, S; Ikeda, A

    1990-01-01

    Using stereoscopic angiography, the entire arterial system of the foot of the macaque was analyzed. The arteria saphena, instead of the a. tibialis anterior, reaches the dorsum of the foot, and its branches supply most of the foot. The dorsal arteries are dominant as far as the metatarsal spaces of the lateral four toes. The a. metatarsea dorsalis II showed a tendency to be the single dominant artery and to give rise to even the a. digitalis communis plantaris IV through the catella plantaris distalis. This tendency was observed more clearly in other macaques species than the Japanese monkey. The perforating branch at the second proximal metatarsal space forms the arcus plantaris profundus, which is accompanied by the deep branch of the nervus plantaris lateralis. Beneath the arch, the catella plantaris proximalis is formed on the metatarsal bones among the perforating branches of the aa. metatarseae dorsales. The a. tibialis posterior forms the arcus plantaris superficialis, whose thin branches commonly enter the aa. digitales communes plantares.

  2. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

  3. RELIABILITY AND RESPONSIVENESS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND IN SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; McMullen, Tara; Borgwardt, Michelle R.; Peranich, Lauren M.; Shields, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) aims to preserve the integrity of the paralyzed musculoskeletal system. The suitability of ultrasound (US) for delineating training-related muscle/tendon adaptations after SCI is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify within- and between-operator reliability for US and to determine its responsiveness to post-training muscle/tendon adaptations in SCI subjects. Two novice operators and one experienced operator obtained sonographic images of the vastus lateralis, patellar tendon, soleus, and Achilles tendon from 7 SCI subjects and 16 controls. For control subjects, within-operator concordance (ICC(3,1)) ranged from 0.58 to 0.95 for novice operators and exceeded 0.86 for the experienced operator. Between-operator concordance (ICC (2,1)) ranged from 0.62 to 0.74. Ultrasound detected muscle hypertrophy (p < 0.05) following electrical stimulation training in subjects with SCI (responsiveness), but did not detect differences in tendon thickness. These error estimates support the utility of US in future post-SCI training studies. PMID:20800961

  4. Reduction in single muscle fiber rate of force development with aging is not attenuated in world class older masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Minozzo, Fábio C; Spendiff, Sally; Filion, Marie-Eve; Konokhova, Yana; Purves-Smith, Maddy F; Pion, Charlotte; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Morais, José A; Herzog, Walter; Hepple, Russell T; Taivassalo, Tanja; Rassier, Dilson E

    2016-02-15

    Normal adult aging is associated with impaired muscle contractile function; however, to what extent cross-bridge kinetics are altered in aging muscle is not clear. We used a slacken restretch maneuver on single muscle fiber segments biopsied from the vastus lateralis of young adults (∼23 yr), older nonathlete (NA) adults (∼80 yr), and age-matched world class masters athletes (MA; ∼80 yr) to assess the rate of force redevelopment (ktr) and cross-bridge kinetics. A post hoc analysis was performed, and only the mechanical properties of "slow type" fibers based on unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) measurements are reported. The MA and NA were ∼54 and 43% weaker, respectively, for specific force compared with young. Similarly, when force was normalized to cross-sectional area determined via the fiber shape angularity data, both old groups did not differ, and the MA and NA were ∼43 and 48% weaker, respectively, compared with young (P < 0.05). Vo for both MA and NA old groups was 62 and 46% slower, respectively, compared with young. Both MA and NA adults had approximately two times slower values for ktr compared with young. The slower Vo in both old groups relative to young, coupled with a similarly reduced ktr, suggests impaired cross-bridge kinetics are responsible for impaired single fiber contractile properties with aging. These results challenge the widely accepted resilience of slow type fibers to cellular aging.

  5. Interaction of various mechanical activity models in regulation of myosin heavy chain isoform expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diffee, Gary M.; Mccue, Samuel; Larosa, Angela; Herrick, Robert E.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a novel combination of mechanical activity paradigms on the isomyosin distribution in rat hindlimb muscles. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five experimental groups as follows: normal control, functional overload (OV) of the plantaris, OV in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (OV-S), and a combination of OV-S and either static standing weight-bearing activity (OV-SS) or high-incline treadmill exercise (OV-SE). OV of the plantaris resulted in significant hypertrophy and significant fast-to-slow isomyosin shifts. These changes were completely inhibited by the addition of hindlimb suspension (OV-S). Also, neither of the two weight-bearing regimes (OV-SS and OV-SE) was able to attenuate the suspension-induced atrophy. In the vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis, however, OV-SS was able to partially retard the atrophy associated with suspension. In both the plantaris and vastus intermedius, only OV-SS was able to partially reverse the slow-to-fast isomyosin transitions associated with suspension. These results suggest that the type of mechanical activity is important in determining adaptation to altered loading conditions, with OV-SS appearing more effective than OV-SE in reversing the effects of unweighting.

  6. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  7. Magnetite-based magnetoreception in birds: the effect of a biasing field and a pulse on migratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Kirschvink, Joseph L

    2002-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that single domain magnetite is involved in magnetoreception, we treated Australian silvereyes Zosterops l. lateralis with a strong, brief pulse designed to alter the magnetization of single domain particles. This pulse was administered in the presence of a 1 mT biasing field, either parallel to the direction of the biasing field (PAR group) or antiparallel (ANTI group). In the case of magnetoreceptors based on freely moving single domain particles, the PAR treatment should have little effect, whereas the ANTI treatment should cause remagnetization of the magnetite particles involved in a receptor and could produce a maximum change in that receptor's output for some receptor configurations. Migratory orientation was used as a criterion to assess the effect on the receptor. Before treatment, both groups preferred their normal northerly migratory direction. Exposure to the biasing field alone did not affect their behavior. Treatment with the pulse in the presence of the biasing field caused both the PAR and the ANTI birds to show an axial preference for the east-west axis, with no difference between the two groups. Although these results are in accordance with magnetite-based magnetoreceptors playing a role in migratory orientation, they do not support the hypothesis that single domains in polarity-sensitive receptors are free to move through all solid angles. Possible interpretations, including other arrangements of single domains and superparamagnetic crystals, are discussed.

  8. Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2003-10-22

    Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes.

  9. Relationship between vertical and horizontal jump variables and muscular performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Caleb W; Gill, Nicholas D; Smart, Daniel J; McGuigan, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vertical and horizontal measures in bilateral and unilateral countermovement jump, drop jump and squat jump (SJ), and sprinting speed and muscle architecture of both the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius. Subjects (n = 17) completed a 30-m sprint test, muscle stiffness test; ultrasound measures, and a jump testing session. Measures of horizontal peak and mean force, in both bilateral and unilateral jumps, tended to have greater relationships to sprint speeds (R = 0.132-0.576) than peak and mean force in the vertical plane (R = 0.008-0.504). Vertical velocity variables also showed some large and very large correlations to sprint speed (R = 0.062-0.635). Unilateral measures of velocity tended to have larger correlations to sprint performance than their bilateral counterparts across all jump types and peak and mean velocity in SJ showed large and very large correlations to sprint speed (bilateral R = 0.227-0.635; unilateral 0.393-0.574). Few large correlations were shown between muscle stiffness measures of muscle architecture and kinetic and kinematic variables in either vertical or horizontal jumps. The present findings suggest that sport scientists and strength and conditioning practitioners concerned with the prognostic value of kinetic variables to functional movements such as sprint speed should also use horizontal jumps in addition to vertical jumps in testing and training.

  10. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ± 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ± 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ± 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ± 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p < 0.01) and single muscle fibres than aging (p < 0.05). Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p < 0.05). Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties. PMID:28070513

  11. Glutamate neurons are intermixed with midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates and humans

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Bing; Barker, David J.; Mód, László; Szocsics, Péter; Silva, Afonso C.; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The rodent ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) contain dopamine neurons intermixed with glutamate neurons (expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2; VGluT2), which play roles in reward and aversion. However, identifying the neuronal compositions of the VTA and SNC in higher mammals has remained challenging. Here, we revealed VGluT2 neurons within the VTA and SNC of nonhuman primates and humans by simultaneous detection of VGluT2 mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; for identification of dopamine neurons). We found that several VTA subdivisions share similar cellular compositions in nonhuman primates and humans; their rostral linear nuclei have a high prevalence of VGluT2 neurons lacking TH; their paranigral and parabrachial pigmented nuclei have mostly TH neurons, and their parabrachial pigmented nuclei have dual VGluT2-TH neurons. Within nonhuman primates and humans SNC, the vast majority of neurons are TH neurons but VGluT2 neurons were detected in the pars lateralis subdivision. The demonstration that midbrain dopamine neurons are intermixed with glutamate or glutamate-dopamine neurons from rodents to humans offers new opportunities for translational studies towards analyzing the roles that each of these neurons play in human behavior and in midbrain-associated illnesses such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27477243

  12. Effects of short-term normobaric hypoxia on haematology, muscle phenotypes and physical performance in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Basset, Fabien A; Joanisse, Denis R; Boivin, Frédéric; St-Onge, Josée; Billaut, François; Doré, Jean; Chouinard, Richard; Falgairette, Guy; Richard, Denis; Boulay, Marcel R

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of short-term normobaric hypoxia on physiology and performance in highly trained athletes. Twelve (7 male and 5 female) athletes were randomly assigned into two groups and spent 8 h per night for two consecutive nights a week over 3 weeks under either short-term normobaric hypoxia (simulating 3636 m altitude, inspired O2=13%) or in normobaric normoxia in a single-blind study. Following a 3 week washout period, athletes were then exposed to the other condition. Athletes were tested for maximal oxygen consumption and time to exhaustion on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer before and after each treatment in addition to being tested for anaerobic performance (Wingate test) on a modified Monark cycle ergometer. Blood samples were taken throughout the experiment and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before and after each treatment. Increases in red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemoglobin, platelet number and erythropoietin concentration were observed following short-term normobaric hypoxia. Except for a modest decrease in phosphofructokinase activity following short-term normobaric hypoxia, no changes were observed in muscle enzyme activities, buffer capacity, capillary density or morphology. No performance measures were changed following short-term normobaric hypoxia or normobaric normoxia. Although short-term normobaric hypoxia exposure increased levels of a number of haematological parameters, this was not associated with improved aerobic or anaerobic performance in highly trained athletes.

  13. Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Kenta

    2011-01-01

    I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species) in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as “Genji-botaru” (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky), “Heike-botaru” (Luciola lateralis Motschulsky) and “Hime-botaru” (Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter), in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name (“Hotaru”) was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1) the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for “Hotaru” than “Genji-botaru”, respectively; and (2) the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for “Hotaru” were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1) the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2) the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level) and with an ambiguous taxonomic view. PMID:26467731

  14. Two types of neuron are found within the PPT, a small percentage of which project to both the LM-SG and SC.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kaeko; Nagy, Attila; Eördegh, Gabriella; Benedek, György; Norita, Masao

    2004-04-01

    The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) projects its cholinergic fibers to both the lateralis medialis-suprageniculate nucleus (LM-Sg) and the superior colliculus (SC). For the purpose of verification of whether a single neuron in the PPT projects to both the LM-Sg and the SC, we injected dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DR) into the LM-Sg and dextran fluorescein (DF) into the ipsilateral SC. The DR-positive neurons labeled retrogradely in the PPT are small (mean: 27.13+/-1.22 micro m) and distributed in the rostral two-thirds of this nucleus, whereas the DF-positive neurons are small (mean: 27.54+/-1.16 micro m) or medium-sized (mean: 40.18+/-1.43 micro m), and are located throughout the PPT. Thirty-five percent of all labeled neurons are double-labeled and small. The present study indicates that the PPT projection to the LM-Sg in part involves neurons bifurcating to the SC.

  15. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented.

  16. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically permeabilized with saponin, which selectively perforates the sarcolemma and facilitates the loss of cytosolic content without altering mitochondrial membranes, structure, and subcellular interactions. High-resolution respirometry was performed on permeabilized muscle biopsy preparations. By use of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P ≤ 0.003). The addition of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the mitochondrial intermembrane space with the pyruvate subsequently taken into the mitochondrial matrix where it enters the TCA cycle and is ultimately oxidized.

  17. Changes in muscle metabolites in females with 30-s exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, I; Bar-Or, O; Karlsson, J; Dotan, R; Tesch, P; Kaiser, P; Inbar, O

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in selected intramuscular metabolites associated with non-oxidative energy metabolism after performance of the Wingate Test (WT), a widely used, exhaustive, 30-s cycle test of short-time muscular power. Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of nine female physical education students at rest and immediately after performance of the WT. The concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), lactate, and glycogen were determined. The ATP decreased from 20.9 to 13.8; CP decreased from 62.7 to 25.1; lactate increased from 9.0 to 60.5; and glycogen decreased fro