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Sample records for aconiti laterlis radix

  1. [Investigating mechanism of toxicity reduction by combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata on terms of proteins self-assembly].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-jie; Shen, Yong; Liao, Ri-tao; Gao, Guan-zhen; Ke, Li-jing; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-02-01

    The combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata can increase efficacy and decrease toxicity. This study started from the phenomena of protein self-assembly in the mixed decoction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. The attenuated mechanism was explored between the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by using the protein of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and aconitine which was the major toxic component of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein with aconitine could form stable particles which particle mean diameter was (206.2 ± 2.02) nm and (238.20 ± 1.23) nm at pH 5.0 in normal temperature. Through the mouse acute toxicity experiment found that injection of aconitine monomer all mice were killed, and injection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine particles with the same content of aconitine all mice survived. Survey the stability of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine shows that the colloid particles is stable at room temperature, and it has the possibility to candidate drug carrier. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein can reduce the toxicity of aconitine through self-assembly.

  2. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Hong, Bo; Wang, Jia; Wang, Xi; Niu, Sijia; Zhao, Chunjie

    2012-11-01

    Based upon the regulations stipulated by the State Food and Drug Administration of China, only the processed, detoxified tubers and roots of Aconitum are allowed to be administered orally, used in clinical decoctions and adopted as raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing, so the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti is important for ensuring the Radix Aconiti praeparata quality. A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata. To compare their fingerprints, the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti was developed. Twenty-nine compounds and 26 compounds were assigned to aconitine alkaloids and tentatively identified by comparing accurate mass and fragments information with that of the authentic standards or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literature. The nonester alkaloids were almost the same. The diester diterpene alkaloids were decreased, the monoester-diterpene alkaloids were increased and lipo-alkaloids decreased obviously in the processing of the preparation. These transformed components could be regarded as potential chemical markers that can be used to distinguish between raw and processed herbs.

  3. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  4. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  5. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy.

  6. Exploring processing adjuvants’ influence on traditional Chinese medicine compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuming; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Xu, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that when crude Pinelliae rhizome and Pinelliae rhizoma preparatum are combined with Aconiti Radix Cocta respectively, the toxicity of the combination varies. However, the component's transformation between different compatibility have remained unclear. Objective: In this paper, a novel approach using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was established for exploring the influence of processing adjuvants (PAs) on the compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome. Materials and Methods: In order to obtain information about the representative markers between different groups, an exhaustive study of different protocols based on adding or removing different PAs step by step was carried out and the influence of PAs on compatibility was investigated. Results: It was found that lime can facilitate diester diterpenoid alkaloids with high toxicity in Aconiti Radix Cocta to be converted into low-toxic or non-toxic derivatives. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma had no remarkable effect on the process. Conclusion: The established method in this study will be of great significance to process research mechanism and study on traditional Chinese Medicine compatibility and clinical application. PMID:25422550

  7. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  8. [Identification of aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and study of their cardiac effects].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Tang, Ming-Hai; Chao, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2014-12-01

    In order to affirm the cardioactive components in Fuzi, we identified a group of aminoalcohol- diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-MS) method. Among a total of forty-one isolated ingredients, thirteen major aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids were identified by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of the reference substances. Moreover, Fuzi samples from different places of origin and with different processing methods were examined and their components displayed a pattern of high similarity, though the relative abundance varies probably due to their different processing methods. Furthermore, the cardiac effect of each identified alkaloid was individually evaluated using the isolated bullfrog heart perfusion experiment. Among the thirteen aminoalcohol diterpenoid alkaloids tested, six of them significantly enhanced the amplitude rates. Taken together, we affirm that the cardioactive components in Fuzi are aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids, shedding light on future studies of the mechanisms and development of these cardioactive compounds.

  9. Calculation of Computational Complexity for Radix-2 (p) Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms for Medical Signals.

    PubMed

    Amirfattahi, Rassoul

    2013-10-01

    Owing to its simplicity radix-2 is a popular algorithm to implement fast fourier transform. Radix-2(p) algorithms have the same order of computational complexity as higher radices algorithms, but still retain the simplicity of radix-2. By defining a new concept, twiddle factor template, in this paper, we propose a method for exact calculation of multiplicative complexity for radix-2(p) algorithms. The methodology is described for radix-2, radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) algorithms. Results show that radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) have significantly less computational complexity compared with radix-2. Another interesting result is that while the number of complex multiplications in radix-2 (3) algorithm is slightly more than radix-2 (2), the number of real multiplications for radix-2 (3) is less than radix-2 (2). This is because of the twiddle factors in the form of which need less number of real multiplications and are more frequent in radix-2 (3) algorithm.

  10. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  11. Edematous Erythema at the Hands and Feet Probably Caused By the Traditional Herb “Radix Astragali”

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. Case summary: A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM) in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT) and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. Conclusion: We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature. PMID:21614162

  12. Discrimination and Proper Use of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix, and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix in Korea: A Descriptive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom-Joon; Lee, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR), Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR), and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix (CAR) are very popular herbal medicines in Traditional Korean Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo Medicine. However, the plant origins, efficacies, and traditional uses of these herbal medicines differ. In Korea, PMR is called Ha Su O (He Shou Wu in China), and CWR is called Baek Ha Su O or Baek Su O (Bai Shou Wu in China). Baek Su O refers to CWR in Korea and CAR in China. CAR has not been used as a traditional herbal medicine, and it cannot be legally used as a food or food ingredient in Korea. However, CAR is cultivated in Korea and imported from China. Because the morphology of CWR and CAR is very similar, they are often confused and misused in Korea. This review discusses the reasons for the confusion and misuse of these substances in Korea and provides the exact plant origins, efficacies, uses, components, and toxicities of PMR, CWR, and CAR so that they can be correctly understood and used. PMID:26539235

  13. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  15. Radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis: a case report of a tooth with an unusual morphology

    PubMed Central

    Aeran, Himanshu; Singh, Inderpreet

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the root and canal morphology of the maxillary first molars is quite common. The most common configuration is 3 roots and 3 or 4 canals. Nonetheless, other possibilities still exist. The presence of an additional palatal root is rather uncommon and has been reported to have an incidence of 0.06 - 1.6% in varying populations studied. Whenever two palatal roots exist, one of them is the normal palatal root, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis. Identification of this variation was done through clinical examination along with the aid of multiangled radiographs, and an accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of a cone-beam computed tomography imaging. In addition to the literature review, this article also discusses the epidemiology, classifications, morphometric features, guidelines for diagnosis, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with extra-palatal root. PMID:27847755

  16. Chemical constituents of radix Ranunculus ternati.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Cong, Yue; Song, Shuang; Cai, Ya-Ling; Fang, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Nian

    2008-02-15

    3 Beta-acetoxy-(20S, 22E)-dammaran-22-en-25-ol, a new triterpene, was isolated along with five known triterpenes (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, 3-epiocotillol acetate, and dimmarenediol II acetate), and alpha-D-glc and sucrose from Radix Ranunculus ternati All of them, except oleanolic acid and alpha-D-glc, were isolated from the family of Ranunculaceae for the very first time, and the NMR data of sucrose was first described. In addition, the absolute configurations of alpha-D-glc and the glucose component of sucrose were determined.

  17. Efficient radix-r adders for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Chavoshisani, Reza; Jalali, Ali; Navi, Keivan; Hashemipour, Omid

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a new design method and efficient designs for radix-r adders are proposed for carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNFET) FET nanotechnology. This application also investigates the capability of the nanoscale device for designing high-performance analogue circuits. The proposed designs benefit from the unique electrical properties of CNFET, such as near-ideal current voltage characteristics, very high transconductance, high-performance switches and very high-performance and high-gain binary inverters, at nanoscale. Moreover, adjustable threshold voltage and the same mobility of electrons and holes in a CNFET facilitate the design and modification procedures. The proposed design can be considered as an instance of a general adder, capable of adding radix-r digits with high precision. It is noteworthy that a very limited number of carbon nanotube diameters for designing the proposed adder are needed, which enhance the manufacturability. The proposed circuits are designed based on arithmetic relations and are also verified at 32 nm feature size using HSPICE and the Stanford standard SPICE model.

  18. A new pregnane steroid from Poria cum radix pini.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Jin-Lei; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2010-05-01

    A new pregnane steroid and eight known compounds were isolated from Poria cum radix pini. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data. All the known compounds were isolated from this species for the first time.

  19. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  20. Application of quantitative 1H-NMR method to determination of gentiopicroside in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Hasebe, Yuko; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure gentiopicroside content in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. Gentiopicroside is a major component of Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. The purity of gentiopicroside was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the H-3 signal at δ 7.44 ppm or the H-8 signal at δ 5.78 ppm in methanol-d 4 of gentiopicroside to that of a hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The concentration of HMD was corrected with SI traceability by using potassium hydrogen phthalate of certified reference material (CRM) grade. As a result, the gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae radix as determined by qHNMR was found to be 1.76 and 2.17 %, respectively. The gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae scabrae radix was 2.73 and 3.99 %, respectively. We demonstrated that this method is useful for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  1. Use of mixed radix FFT in electric power systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, I.D.; Lee, P. )

    1994-07-01

    Radix-2 based Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines have been the main stream FFT that are commonly applied to the measurement and analysis of electric power system data. Because of the rigid sampling rates offered by most of the instrument manufacturers and the mathematical limitation imposed by the algorithm of radix-2 FFT, artificial post sampling data windows have been introduced to improve the utility of the radix-2 FFT. The 60 Hz and the 50 Hz based electrical power system frequencies are incompatible with the radix-2 FFT routine to the special requirements of electric power system. Recent advances in the personal computer hardware has opened a new approach to perform the FFT via mixed radix routines. It offers greatly improved flexibility in the selection of a practical data size. And this leads to the elimination of the need of the post sampling software windows. It also allows one to relax or eliminate the requirement of anti-aliasing measures for power system harmonic measurements.

  2. Seasonal variations in the isoflavonoids of radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Sibao, Chen; Dajian, Yang; Shilin, Chen; Hongx, Xu; Chan, Albert S C

    2007-01-01

    The variations in isoflavonoid content in Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild) Ohwi, have been examined in order to determine the optimum time to harvest the herb. Total isoflavonoid contents have been analysed by a UV spectrophotometric method whilst HPLC with photodiode array detection has been used to monitor the contents of seven major individual isoflavonoids, namely, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, genistin, formononetin-7-glucoside and daidzein. Ninety-six samples of Radix Puerariae of different ages and harvested in different months were collected and analysed. The results clearly showed that 3-year-old roots harvested in January have the highest yields of isoflavonoid compounds. Moreover, the results obtained by both methods have a strong correlation. This suggested that the simple and fast UV spectrophotometric method could be used for monitoring the phytochemical quality of Radix Puerariae.

  3. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  4. [HPLC fingerprint of glycyrrhizea radix et rhizoma praeparata cum melle].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Qiao, Shan-Yi; Gao, Song; Che, Yan-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    The chromatographic fingerprint was established by eluting with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid water on an Agilent TC-C18 (2) column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). Six chromatographic peaks were identified by HPLC-MS/MS method. Ten batches of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle were determined, and the similarity was arranged from 0.72 to 0.99. Good precision, stability and repeatability were obtained, and this study provides a reference for the quality control of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle.

  5. [Effects of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on cell proliferation, apoptosis and skeleton in lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-jing; Yang, Ye; Bi, Lei; Chen, Shan-shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Chen, Wei-ping

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 using the orthogonal design method, and to investigate its effects of the component formula on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeleton in lung cancer A549 cells. The orthogonal design method was introduced to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 cells. CCK-8 assay and Real-time cell analysis were adapted to analyze the effect of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on A549 cells viability at different time and dose. Cell apoptosis was measured by Annexin V- FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry. Cell skeleton protein F-actin was detected by high content screening (HCS). The optimizing component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma for total salvianolic acid, total saponins of panax ginseng and ginseng polysaccharide doses were 5, 10, 5 mg L(-1). CCK-8 assay and real-time cell analysis demonstrated that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma treatment could significantly decrease the A549 cell viability in both dose- and time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the increase of cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry when cells treated with the component formula, which indicating that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma could induce A549 cell apoptosis in a time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with control group, a significant decrease in A549 cell skeleton area was found in the component formula-exposed cells in the dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). In summary, the component formula

  6. Chemical fingerprint of commercial Radix Echinopsis and quantitative analysis of alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Han, Jian; He, Wen-ni; Wu, Tao; Wang, Bao-rong; Ye, Min; Guo, De-an

    2010-03-01

    New TLC, HPLC and LC/MS methods were developed for the rapid separation, characterization and quantitation of thiophenes in Radix Echinopsis, a herbal medicine, which has been used in China for long history. Nineteen commercial batches of this herb were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Only five batches were derived from correct species. The other 14 batches were identified as its adulterating species, Radix Rhapontici, as they did not contain characteristic thiophenes of Echinopsis species. By LC/MS, 16 thiophenes were identified from the methanol extracts of Radix Echinopsis and Radix Rhapontici according to their fragmentation behaviors in MS/MS. In addition, a fully validated HPLC method was established to determine the contents of alpha-terthienyl in Radix Echinopsis. The contents ranged from 2.7 to 5.2 mg/g for five tested samples. The methods in this paper were simple and reliable, and could be used for the comprehensive quality control of Radix Echinopsis.

  7. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  8. [Advance in research on chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Sha, Long; Zhao, Yi-wu; Xu, Zhi-liang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarized the recent 30 years research progress of the chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix mainly consist of coumarins, polyene-polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, while steroids and flavonoids were less reported. All constituents were confirmed and corrected through SciFinder. We also checked the Chinese name and English name and listed the CAS number of each compound. It can provide some guidelines for the research, development and utilization of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix in the future. Whether there is columbianin in the Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix need to be further researched.

  9. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  10. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xia; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Hao; Guo, Zihu; Hu, Benxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL) based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME) model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES) and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases. PMID:28190938

  11. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  12. [Determination of trace elements in radix ophiopogonis by HG-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Lou, Qi-Zheng; Xu, Run-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, a method of microwave digestion technique for the contents determination of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in radix ophiopogonis by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emition spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES) was reported. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 97.8% and 102.5%, and its RSD was lower than 4.0%. The results of the determination show that radix ophiopogonis is rich in the inorganic elements such as Fe, and the content of Zn in radix ophiopogonis of Zhejiang is much higher in radix ophiopogonis of Sichun. The result will provide scientific data for the study on the elements in radix ophiopogonis and on their relativity of medicine efficacy.

  13. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  14. Radix Bupleuri ameliorates depression by increasing nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Qing; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chinese herb Radix Bupleuri has been regarded effective to improve treatment of depression, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Low levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increase the likelihood of developing the depression. Therefore, we want to know whether Radix Bupleuri affects the levels of these factors. Methods: A total 160 hemodialysis patients were diagnosed with depression and randomly assigned to two groups: Radix Bupleuri group (received 1 g root power of Radix Bupleuri in a capsule daily Radix Bupleuri) and control group (receive placebo). Results: After three-month follow-up, the patients who received Radix Bupleuri had greater improvement in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms and general functioning via controls after three-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Serum NGF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (178.64 ± 52.18 pg/mL) when compared to a control (103.54 ± 31.23 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). Similarly, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (1635.26 ± 121.66 pg/ml) when compared to a control (516.38 ± 44.89 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The serum levels of NGF and BDNF were negatively related with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and positively related with scores of RAND-36 item Health Survey (RAND-36) (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Thus, Radix Bupleuri ameliorates the patients with depression by increasing serum levels of NGF and BDNF. Radix Bupleuri should be developed a new drug for the therapy of depression. PMID:26309578

  15. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  16. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores. PMID:21867503

  17. Case reports and clinical guidelines for managing radix entomolaris

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bejoy J.; Nishad, A.; Paulaian, Benin; Sam, Jonathan Emil

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the external and internal anatomy of the tooth is essential for successful dental practice. Anomalies in the tooth are often encountered which poses difficulties in dental treatments. As like any other tooth, mandibular first molars are also prone for anatomic malformations. One such anatomic variation is the presence of extra root distolingually. This distolingual root is called radix entomolaris (RE). The presence of an additional root can lead to difficulties during endodontic therapy. This article is a report of two cases describing the management of the first mandibular molars with an RE and clinical guidelines for its management. PMID:27829770

  18. Pharmacokinetic Pilot Study of the Antiangiogenic Activity of Standardized Platycodi Radix

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Emma M.; Liu, Zhijun; Gimble, Jeffrey; Yu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platycodi radix is a radish used in food, such as Korean kimchi, and has been shown to cause weight loss in rodents. Platycodin D is considered its active ingredient and has been shown to inhibit lipases. The authors hypothesized that platycodi radix and the platycodin D it contains inhibit angiogenesis; another mechanism for weight loss. Methods This study tested platycodi radix extract, platycodin D, and an extract of platycodi radix standardized to platycodin D for their ability to inhibit angiogenesis in a human adipose tissue assay. This study treated five healthy volunteers, orally, with platycodi radix extract standardized to 414 mg of platycodin D. Three volunteers were treated under fasting conditions, one volunteer with a 400 kcal meal, and one volunteer treated with a placebo. Blood was drawn over 5 hours to compare serum inhibition of the human adipose tissue angiogenesis. Results Platycodin radix extract, platycodin D, and platycodi radix extract standardized to platycodin D all inhibited angiogenesis. The three volunteers who consumed platycodi radix extract standardized to 414 mg of platycodin D had a 25.76% reduction in angiogenesis from baseline at 60 minutes (P<0.002), and had a statistically significant reduction in angiogenesis from 30 to 240 minutes (P<0.05 to P<0.002). The placebo decreased angiogenesis by 5.6% between 30 and 240 minutes, compared with 17.8% by the extract. The meal delayed absorption by approximately 3.5 hours. Conclusion Platycodi radix extract standardized to platycodin D inhibited angiogenesis in human volunteers, and paves the way for a dose-response study and a human clinical obesity trial. PMID:21975926

  19. Preventing Elevated Radix Deformity in Asian Rhinoplasty with a Chimeric Dorsal-Glabellar Construct

    PubMed Central

    Zelken, Jonathan A.; Hong, Joon Pio; Broyles, Justin M.; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian facial aesthetic surgery should enhance, but not change, natural features. Augmentation rhinoplasty is a hallmark of Asian cosmetic surgery. In the authors' experience, I-shaped implants can elevate and efface the radix, leading to an unnatural appearance (elevated radix deformity). Objectives The Chimeric technique was developed to control final radix position and preserve the nasal profile. We aim to demonstrate that the Chimeric technique promotes forward projection, not elevation, of the radix. Methods Between 2013 and 2015, 49 patients underwent rhinoplasty with I-shaped implants. Nineteen patients had Chimeric dorsal-glabellar implants, 30 did not. Standardized photographs were obtained at every visit. Novel and established photogrammetric parameters were used to describe radix position and position change. A retrospective chart review provided additional procedural details and outcomes data. Results Patients were followed for 10.8 months (range, 2-36 months). Nasal height increase (113% vs 107%) and bridge length increase (118% vs 105%) were significantly greater when the Chimeric technique was not performed (P < .0001). The nasofrontal angle increased 6° in both groups; there was no difference between groups. The vector of radix position change was 26.1° in the Chimeric group and 63.4° in the traditional group (P < .0001). Conclusions The Chimeric technique preserves the nasal profile with a favorable (horizontal) radix transposition vector. There was not a significant difference in final radix position when Chimeric rhinoplasty was performed because that is controlled by implant thickness and position. The technique did not blunt the radix significantly. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:26879296

  20. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  1. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  2. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking.

  3. A hyperglycemic silkworm model for evaluating hypoglycemic activity of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm shows hyperglycemia after intake of diet containing large amount of glucose. The hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs. A hot water extract of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine, showed hypoglycemic effect against the hyperglycemic silkworms. This method is applicable for quick and simple evaluation of the hypoglycemic activities of different batches of Rehmanniae Radix. Our findings suggest that silkworms have a lot of merit as experimental animals for evaluation of various herbal medicines.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of radix astragali based on soxhlet extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nengrong; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, flexibility, and "fingerprints" sensing capability, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful method for characterization of substances. In this paper, two kinds of Radix Astragali with different quality were firstly extracted through continuous circumfluence extraction method and then mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS detection. Most Raman bands obtained in Radix Astragali extraction solution are found at 300-7000cm-1 and 900-1390 cm-1. Although, major peak positions at 470, 556, 949, 1178 and 1286 cm-1 found in these two kinds of Radix Astragali appear nearly the same, Raman bands of 556 and 1178 cm-1 are different in intensity, thus may be used as a characteristic marker of Radix Astragali quality. In detail, we can make full use of the different intensity of two different kinds but the same state at 556 cm-1 to describe the quality standard of Radix Astragali. Our preliminary results show that SERS combining with continuous circumfluence extraction method may provide a direct, accurate and rapid detection method of Radix Astragali.

  5. Mechanisms of improvement of intestinal transport of baicalin and puerarin by extracts of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Li, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Yan, Dong-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is the dried root of Angelicae Dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.)Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana (Boiss.) Shan et Yuan (Fam.Umbelliferae). The total coumarins (Cou) and volatile oil (VO) were main active components that drived from Radix Angelicae Dahuricae. Our previous studies have shown that Cou and VO could increase intestinal absorption for transmucosal drug delivery with unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae for improving drug intestinal transport. Caco-2 cell model was used to study the effect of Radix Angelicae Dahurica on transepithelial electrical resistance. Western blot was used to study its effect on the expression of the actin and ZO-1, tight junction proteins. The effect of Radix Angelicae Dahurica on the expression of P-gp protein was investigated using flow cytometry. VO (0.036-2.88 μL/mL) and Cou (0.027-0.54 mg/mL) caused a reversible, time- and dose-dependent decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. VO and/or Cou could inhibit the expression of the tight junction protein, ZO-1 and actin. VO and/or Cou also could inhibit the expression of P-gp. These data suggested that Radix Angelicae Dahurica increased cell permeability by affecting the expression of actin, ZO-1 or P-gp, opening the tight junction or inhibiting the efflux induced by P-gp.

  6. Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine Radix isatidis (banlangen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Radix isatidis (R. isatidis) (Banlangen) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous for its broad antiviral activity. Its clinical medical history spans several thousands of years in China. Many scientists and scholars have conducted systematic research on this herb from its pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, especially in China. Through our research and literature reports, we inferred that the antiviral activity of R. isatidis mostly depended on the water-soluble part, including amino acids, IRPS, nucleosides, and sulfur-containing alkaloids. By playing a role in directly killing pathogenic viruses or regulating the immune system to enhance anti-virus ability, R. isatidis's biological activities mostly depend on the synergistic effect of its multiple components. This article aims to expand understanding of R. isatidis in the following aspects including medicinal resources, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications, and separation and analytical technologies.

  7. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  8. Eurycoma longifolia in Radix for the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Qodriyah, H M S; Asmadi, A Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of treatment with Radix on ethanol-induced gastric lesions was investigated. The main ingredient of Radix is Eurycoma longifolia. Twenty-four rats of the Sprague-Dawley species were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.5 mL 100% ethanol orally. Another group was used as a control and was given only distilled water orally (control). After 6 h all the rats were fed with normal diet. One group that was administered with ethanol was only given distilled water orally (no treatment). Another two groups that were administered with ethanol were treated with oral Radix 0.128 mg g(-1) b.wt. (Radix) and oral ranitidine 21.4 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (Ranitidine), respectively. After one week, all the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed. The stomach was isolated and examined for the presence and severity of gastric lesions. Measurements for malondialdehyde content and gastric acid concentration were also done. It is found that the ulcer index was lower in the Radix and ranitidine group compared to the no treatment group whereas in the control group there was no lesion. There was no difference in ulcer index between the Radix and ranitidine group. The gastric MDA content was significantly higher in all the groups that were induced with ethanol compared to the control group but no difference between all the ethanol-induced groups. There was no difference in the gastric acid concentration in all groups. Hence it is concluded that Eurycoma longifolia in Radix is as effective as ranitidine in the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  9. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-01-01

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method. PMID:21258639

  10. Photosynthetic physiological response of Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) seedlings to nicosulfuron.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangyang; Zhang, Liguang; Ning, Na; Wen, Yinyuan; Dong, Shuqi; Yin, Meiqiang; Guo, Meijun; Wang, Binqiang; Feng, Lei; Guo, Pingyi

    2014-01-01

    Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicine plants. However, there is no suitable herbicide used for weed control in Radix Isatidis field during postemergence stage. To explore the safety of sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron on Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) seedlings and the photosynthetic physiological response of the plant to the herbicide, biological mass, leaf area, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and P700 parameters of Radix Isatidis seedlings were analyzed 10 d after nicosulfuron treatment at 5th leaf stage in this greenhouse research. The results showed that biological mass, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, PS II maximum quantum yield, PS II effective quantum yield, PS II electron transport rate, photochemical quenching, maximal P700 change, photochemical quantum yield of PS I, and PS I electron transport rate decreased with increasing herbicide concentrations, whereas initial fluorescence, quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation in PS II and quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation due to acceptor side limitation in PS I increased. It suggests that nicosulfuron ≥1 mg L-1 causes the damage of chloroplast, PS II and PS I structure. Electron transport limitations in PS I receptor side, and blocked dark reaction process may be the main cause of the significantly inhibited growth and decreased photosynthetic rate of Radix Isatidis seedlings.

  11. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragastrically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alterations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack.

  12. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae) Haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Skála, Vladimír; Černíková, Alena; Jindrová, Zuzana; Kašný, Martin; Vostrý, Martin; Walker, Anthony J; Horák, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e.) to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  13. [Pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo-jun; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-sheng; Ruan, Ke-feng

    2011-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) was investigated in rats following i.v. or s.c. administration at three dose levels (9, 20, 50 mg x kg(-1)). A moderate coupling reaction between the hydroxyl-activated ROP and the amino-terminated mPEG was chosen to produce PEGylate ROP. The grafting degree of the prepared conjugate was 1.03, and the molecular mass of mPEG used was 20 kDa. High-performance gel permeation chromatorgraphy with fluorescein isothiocyanate prelabeling was established to determine levels of the conjugate in plasma. The results showed that the elimination half-life of the conjugate following s.c. administration was basically identical to that after iv administration. An accurate linear correlation was observed between administration doses and areas under the curve of plasma conjugate level vs. time profile, regardless of the administration route. The absolute bioavailability of the conjugate following sc administration was approximately 56%, and the mean in vivo residence time was 52.1 h, increased 2.4 times compared to those of iv administration. In general, linear pharmacokinetics was observed for the conjugate within the dose range studied, and sc should be a promising administration route for the conjugate.

  14. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  15. Structural Characterisation of a Polysaccharide from Radix Ranunculus Ternati

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yun; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide, HB-1, with a molecular weight of 23,930, was isolated from radix Ranunculi ternati. by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, deproteination,ultrafiltration and gel-filtration column chromatography. Its sugar composition was determined by GLC as Glc, Ara, and Gal in a molar ration of 16.071: 2.722: 1. And the absolute configuration of Glc was identified as D. Smith degradation and methylation reaction showed the proportion of —1Glc (A) was about 16%, —1Glc4— (B) about 62%, (C) about 14%, and —1Gal6— (D) about 8%. The repetitive unit was likely composed of 3 As, 3 Cs, 13 Bs and 1 D. Together with the average molecular weight, it was predictable that HB-1 consisted of about seven of the repetitive unit. The inhibition activity of HB-1 on human glioma cell line SF188 was also measured, only to find it inactive. PMID:25587330

  16. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingyao; Cui, Lili; Shan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae), pentagalloylglucose (Pen), albiflorin (Ali), and protocatechuic acid (Pro), exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect. PMID:28299338

  17. On the design of a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlhenny, Robert D.; Ercegovac, Milos D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an approach to design and implement a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier. An online approach is considered because it offers computational flexibility not available with conventional arithmetic. The design was coded in VHDL and compiled, synthesized, and mapped onto a Virtex 5 FPGA to measure cost in terms of LUTs (look-up-tables) as well as the cycle time and total latency. The routing delay which was not optimized is the major component in the cycle time. For a rough estimate of the cost/latency characteristics, our design was compared to a standard radix-2 floating-point multiplier of equivalent precision. The results demonstrate that even an unoptimized radix-10 online design is an attractive implementation alternative for FPGA floating-point multiplication.

  18. Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Miho; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kubo, Michinori

    2003-08-01

    A 70% methanol extract from red ginseng (steamed and dried roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a kind of Ginseng Radix) had superior activity to that of white ginseng (peeled and dried root of P. ginseng, another kind of Ginseng Radix) in a hair growth promoting assay using mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture. Of the major constituents of P. ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb(1) (G-Rb(1)) exhibited activity, but ginsenoside-Rg(1) (G-Rg(1)) and -Ro (G-Ro) were ineffective. Additionally, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg(3) (20(S)-G-Rg(3)) formed by the processing of red ginseng from the crude root of P. ginseng also showed hair growth promoting activity. These results indicate that Ginseng Radix possesses hair growth promoting activity, and its bioactive components are partially attributable to the ginseng saponin components mentioned above.

  19. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  20. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  1. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  2. [Hemagglutination activity of radix isatidis detected by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Yan, Dan; Zhang, Ping; Li, Han-bing; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Ya-ming; Luo, Yun; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2010-08-01

    In this study, microcalorimetry was adopted to establish a novel method for detecting the hemagglutination process of Radix Isatidis (Banlangen in Chinese, BLG), and to evaluate the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG from various habitats. The hemagglutination biothermokinetics curves of positive reagent (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) and 8 batches BLG from different regions of the hemagglutination with 20% rabbit erythrocyte were recorded by microcalorimetry, then biothermokinetics parameters were abstracted, the hemagglutination utility of samples were calculated and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), meanwhile the results were authenticated by micro-plate agglutination. It showed that the hemagglutination was an exothermic reaction, the reaction rate constant (k: 0.039-73.6 min(-1)), maximum reaction power (Pmax: -1 140.2 - 988.2 microW) and reaction enthalpy (Hi: -529.9 - 717.9 microJ) had good linear correlation with BLG extraction concentration (0.2-1.0 g mL(-1), r > 0.97), and PCA showed Pmax (531-1 335 microW) and Ht (585.2-989.2 microJ) could represent the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG samples, just confirming with the results of micro-plate agglutination (the agglutination dilution was 3-11 respectively). According to the hemagglutination utility, the BLG samples from Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) regions, main producing area and general regions could be clustered correctly; meanwhile, the biothermokinetics curves with perfect distinctive fingerprint and specificity could give out more information for the quality control and evaluation for BLG. In conclusion, the microcalorimetry method established for detecting the hemagglutination activity of BLG samples on rabbit erythrocyte is sensitive and reliable, and could be adopted as an effective technique in detection aggulatination precisely, quantitatively and consecutively; and provide a novel approach for examining and evaluating quality for Chinese

  3. Effects of Asiasari radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jin, Seong-Ho; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2014-12-01

    Medicinal herbs used in traditional Oriental medicine, which have been in use clinically for thousands of years, are attractive sources of novel therapeutics or preventatives. Asiasari radix (A. radix) has been suggested for use in the treatment of dental diseases, including toothache and aphthous stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. radix extracts on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. An Asiasarum heterotropoides extract was centrifuged and freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of A. radix at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 µg/ml). Cell morphology was evaluated with an optical microscope and the viability of the cells was quantitatively analyzed with a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay for up to seven days. The untreated control group exhibited normal fibroblast morphology. The shapes of the cells following 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml A. radix treatments were similar to those of the control group. However, a significant change was noted in the 1,000 µg/ml group on day 1, when compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, on day 7, the shapes of the cells following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatments were rounder and fewer cells were present, when compared with those of the control group. The cultures that grew in the presence of A. radix did not exhibit any changes in the CCK‑8 assay on day 2; however, significant reductions in cell viability were noticed following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatment on days 5 and 7. Within the limits of this study, A. radix influenced the viability of the stem cells derived from the gingiva. Thus, the direct application of A. radix to oral tissues may produce adverse effects at high doses. Therefore, the concentration and application time of A. radix requires meticulous control to obtain optimal results. These effects require consideration

  4. [Study on simplification of extraction kinetics model and adaptability of total flavonoids model of Scutellariae radix].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Jin; Ni, Jian; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Meng-Jie; Dou, Hao-Ran; Shen, Ming-Rui; Yang, Bo-Di; Fu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Because of irregular shapes of Chinese herbal pieces, we simplified the previously deduced general extraction kinetic model for TCMs, and integrated particle diameters of Chinese herbs that had been hard to be determined in the final parameter "a". The reduction of the direct determination of particle diameters of Chinese herbs was conducive to increase the accuracy of the model, expand the application scope of the model, and get closer to the actual production conditions. Finally, a simplified model was established, with its corresponding experimental methods and data processing methods determined. With total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix as the determination index, we conducted a study on the adaptability of total flavonoids extracted from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method in the model. The results showed a good linear correlation among the natural logarithm value of the mass concentration of total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix, the time and the changes in the natural logarithm of solvent multiple. Through calculating and fitting, efforts were made to establish the kinetic model of extracting total flavonoids from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method, and verify the model, with a good degree of fitting and deviation within the range of the industrial production requirements. This indicated that the model established by the method has a good adaptability.

  5. Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of Radix Gentianae, Gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hong; Cheng, Xue-Mei; He, Yu-qi; White, Kenneth N; Bligh, S W Annie; Branford-White, Christopher J; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2007-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics in rats of gentiopicroside (GPS) from orally administered decoctions of Radix Gentianae (DRG) and Gentiana macrophlla (DGM) were compared with that of GPS alone administered at 150 mg/kg orally and 30 mg/kg intravenously. The metabolic profile of GPS after intravenous injection could be fitted to two-compartment model whereas oral administration decoctions DRG or DGM, or GPS alone, could all be fitted to a one-compartment model. After oral administration of GPS alone, GPS was absorbed quickly and reached a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) value, 5.78 +/- 2.24 microg/mL within 0.75 +/- 0.62 h. The plasma level of GPS declined with a T1/2ke, 3.35 +/- 0.76 h. After oral administration of decoctions DRG and DGM, GPS was absorbed and reached significantly higher maximum concentrations of 10.53 +/- 3.20 microg/mL (p < 0.01) and 7.43 +/- 1.64 microg/mL (p < 0.05) at later time points 1.60 +/- 0.76 (p < 0.01) and 2.08 +/- 0.74 h (p < 0.05), for DRG and DGM respectively, compared with oral GPS alone. Significantly larger AUC values were found for decoctions of GPS (83.49 +/- 20.8 microgxh/mL for DRG and 59.43 +/- 12.9 microgxh/mL for DGM) compared with oral GPS alone (32.67 +/- 12.9 microgxh/mL). The results demonstrate that the bioavailability of GPS was markedly improved when administered as a decoction than as purified GPS. The decoction from Radix Gentianae provided 2.5 times better bioavailability and that from Gentiana macrophlla 1.8 times higher. The study confirms the importance of careful pharmacokinetic analysis in the characterization of herbal medicines when applied for future clinical applications.

  6. High speed Radix-4 soft-decision Viterbi decoder for MB-OFDM UWB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guixuan; Portilla, Jorge; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a 64 state soft decision Viterbi Decoder (VD) system by using a high speed radix-4 Add Compare Select (ACS) architecture is presented. The proposed VD system can support different data rate (from 53.5 Mbps to 480 Mbps) for Multiband Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) system when implemented onto the FPGA board. The proposed VD employs efficient two steps Radix 4 architecture, which is responsible of calculating two steps of 64 state Radix 4 Branch Metrics (BM) within one clock cycle. The branch metrics are calculated using a uniform distance measurement algorithm, which equals to the symbol itself when compared to logic-0 and equal to its one's complement when compared to logic-1. By employing the modified Modulo Normalization algorithm, it is possible to use only a 10- bit memory block to restore each of the 64 state metrics, with the advantage of avoiding errors caused by overflow during the updating process for state metrics, and simplifying the comparator circuit of the ACS unit. The Two Pointer Even Algorithm, which is considered to be very simple and more hardware-efficient than the register exchange algorithm, is used for tracing back the survivor sequence and output the decoded data stream. 3-bit soft decision input sequences are used for gathering the experimental results. The sampling frequency of the MBOFDM UWB system is 528 MHz, by using the proposed two steps Radix 4 VD architecture we can process 4 input signals in parallel within one clock cycle, therefore only 132 MHz operating frequency is needed for the proposed VD system. This will dramatically reduce the dynamic power consumption for hardware implementation. Final results of the implementation show that the proposed VD architecture can support a maximum working frequency of 152.5 MHz on Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T Evaluation Platform.

  7. ISA extensions for high-radix online floating-point addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormiani, Pouya; Ercegovac, Miloš D.; Colavin, O.

    2007-09-01

    ISA extensions for DLX type architectures are proposed to perform high radix online floating point addition on fixed point units with extended feature sets. Online arithmetic allows most significant digit first computation of results, allowing overlapped execution of dependent operations and offers greater instruction scheduling opportunities than software implementations of conventional floating point addition. In this paper we seek an ISA formulation to find a middle ground between full hardware floating point addition units and software implementations strictly based on available ALU logic.

  8. Use of the Reduced Precision Redundancy (RPR) Method in a Radix-4 FFT Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    PRECISION REDUNDANCY (RPR) METHOD IN A RADIX-4 FFT IMPLEMENTATION by Athanasios Gavros September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Herschel ...SCHOOL September 2010 Author: Athanasios Gavros Approved by: Herschel H. Loomis, Jr. Thesis Co-Advisor Alan A. Ross Thesis Co...to Professors Herschel H. Loomis, Jr. and Alan A. Ross for their guidance, encouragement and support in the completion of this work. xvi THIS PAGE

  9. Astragali radix: could it be an adjuvant for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-02-10

    Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  10. Sodium dithionite-enhanced quality of radix scutellariae through modification of secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huimin, Guo; Xiaoying, Fu; Hongwei, Du; Wei, Cong; Xiangcai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of radix scutellariae is particularly associated with environmental stresses, but detailed mechanisms remained unclear. Plant under unfavorable situation generates redundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS can modify the secondary metabolism. The varied quality of radix scutellariae could be explained by ROS. Materials and Methods: .004, 0.4, and 40 μmol/L of sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4), a material producing ROS, were applied to Scutellaria baicalensis to mimic unfavorable situation. The relationship between ROS, antioxidant enzymes activity, and secondary metabolite was investigated. Results: ROS level fails to rise due to both the antioxidase and the secondary metabolites. The activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase in the roots of S. baicalensis showed a moderately improvement, meanwhile the phenylalanine ammonia lyase was strongly expressed, and the biosynthesis of flavonoids was heavily elevated. Although the glycosides such as baicalin and wogonoside changed little, the aglycones with the highest effective, such as baicalein and wogonin, were increased by approximately 50%-100%. Conclusion: This is very valuable in insight into the stress physiology and provides a strong tool to enhance the quality of radix scutellariae. PMID:28123992

  11. Astragali radix: could it be an adjuvant for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. PMID:28186109

  12. Novel functional polysaccharides from Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residue: Preliminary characterization and immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Yi; Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cao, Kun; Fan, Qi

    2016-02-10

    The alkali-extractable polysaccharides (APMPs) were isolated from the water extracted residues of Radix Polygoni Multiflori, and further purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide (APMP-2) with molecular weights of 7724.8 Da. HPLC chromatography analysis identified that APMP-2 was a heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of Galactose and Xylose with a molar ratio of 4.31: 1.06. It was shown that both APMP and APMP-2 were of activation effects on splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and also significantly restore the proliferation rate, phagocytic index and cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) production level of 5-FU-treated splenocytes/peritoneal macrophages in a dosage-dependent manner. The results suggested that polysaccharides presented in Radix Polygoni Multiflori water-extracted residues possessed immunomodulatory activity and could be used as potential immunomodulators, and this finding could be a reference for the utilization of Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residues.

  13. [Determination of baicalin and total flavonoids in Radix scutellariae by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian-qian; Pan, Rui-le; Wei, Jian-he; Wu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Lu-da

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for rapid determination of baicalin and total flavonoids in radix scutellariae by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Sixty one samples of radix scutellariae from different areas containing baicalin of 12.24%-21.34% and total flavonoids of 16.08%-26.52% were used. The range of 8000-4000 cm(-1) of near infrared spectra (NIRS) was selected. Calibration models were established using the PLS(partial least squares). Different spectra pretreatment methods were compared and the optimal model was selected. The study showed that first derivative pretreatments and minimum-maximum normalization methods can be used to extracted spectra information thoroughly to analyze the contents of baicalin and total flavonoids, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of baicalin was 0.9024, SEC was 1.01 (standard deviation of the calibration sets) and SEP was 0.8764 (standarddeviation ofthe prediction sets). The correlation coefficient(r) of total flavonoids was 0.9527, SEC was 0.7850 and SEP was 0.5211. Results indicated that near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method can be used to analyze the main active components in radix scutellariae rapidly.

  14. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  15. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of main components in linderae reflexae radix with one single marker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Sui-Qing

    2016-05-08

    Establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by the single marker (QAMS) method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four main components in Linderae Reflexae Radix. Four main components of pinostrobin, pinosylvin, pinocembrin, and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(1-p-mentheneyl)-trans-stilbene were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality by RP-HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. The method was evaluated by a comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard method and QAMS with a different HPLC system. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of the four contents of Linderae Reflexae Radix determined by the external standard method and QAMS (RSD <3%). The contents of four analytes (pinosylvin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, and Reflexanbene I) in Linderae Reflexae Radix were determined by the single marker of pinosylvin. This fingerprint was the spectra determined by Shimadzu LC-20AT and Waters e2695 HPLC that were equipped with three different columns.

  16. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides in Radix codonopsis by supercritical fluid extractions and determination by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjie; Hao, Guiming; Li, Huanxin; Luo, Xu; Chen, Yingjie

    2006-09-01

    A method involving depuration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Radix codonopsis was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The pesticides investigated in the study included alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzene hexachloride, PCNB (pentachloro-nitrobenzene), PCA (pentachloroaniline), HEPT (heptachlor), MPCPS (methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulfide), pp'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene], op'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], pp'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] and pp'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane]. A series of experiments was conducted to optimize the final extraction conditions as follows: pure CO2, extraction pressure 15 MPa, extraction temperature 60 degrees C, extraction time 20 min and flow rate 55 mL/h. A GC method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs in Radix codonopsis. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of active constituents. SFE was used to remove the organochlorine pesticide from Radix codonopsis. The results showed that at least 93.5% of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the herb sample were removed by SPE, while 95.0% of the active constituent marker (atractylenoide III) remained.

  17. Perimenopause Amelioration of a TCM Recipe Composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii: An In Vivo Study on Natural Aging Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Yan; Xie, Qing-Feng; Liu, Wei-Jin; Lai, Ping; Liu, Dan-Dan; Tang, Li-Hai; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Li, Kun-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively applied as preferable herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms. In the present work, the potential of a TCM recipe named RRF, composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii, was investigated on a natural aging rat model. After administration of RRF (141, 282, and 564 mg/kg/d), the circulated estradiol (E2) level increased accompanied by a reduction of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). But no significant impact on serum lutenizing hormone (LH) level was observed. As a result of the E2-FSH-LH adjustment, the histomorphology degenerations of ovary, uterus, and vagina of the 11.5-month female rats were alleviated. And lumbar vertebrae trabecular microstructure was also restored under RRF exposure by means of increasing the trabecular area and area rate. Moreover, levels of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) rallied significantly after RRF treatment. Results from our studies suggest that RRF possesses a positive regulation on the estrogen imbalance and neurotransmitter disorder, thereby restoring reproductive organ degeneration and skeleton deterioration. The above-mentioned benefits of RRF on the menopause syndromes recommend RRF as a potential candidate for the treatment of perimenopausal syndrome. PMID:24454513

  18. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  19. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  20. Comparative analysis of the constituents in Saposhnikoviae Radix and Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma by monitoring inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Takuya; Shimokura, Toshihiro; Morita, Yusuke; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Mikio; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-04-01

    During the development of natural herbal medicines in Japan, Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma (Hamabofu in Japanese) has been used as a substitute for Saposhnikoviae Radix (Bofu). Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae. For example, Bofu is included in Jumihaidokuto by a manufacturer, whereas Hamabofu is included instead of Bofu in the same formula by other manufacturers. Although both Bofu and Hamabofu are used for their expected anti-inflammatory effects, differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. In addition, there have been very few reports comparing the pharmacological activities of the constituents in Bofu and Hamabofu. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts of Bofu and Hamabofu by monitoring levels of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) produced in rat hepatocytes. Moreover, the chemical constituents responsible for the activity were investigated. Our results showed that ethyl acetate fractions of Bofu and Hamabofu extracts contain different compounds, although both fractions suppressed NO production in rat hepatocytes. The linear dihydropyranochromones from the Bofu extract (i.e., 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol, ledebouriellol and hamaudol) suppressed NO production, whereas the coumarins from the Hamabofu extract (i.e., umbelliferone and scopoletin) also suppressed NO production. These results suggest that linear dihydropyranochromones and coumarins are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of Bofu and Hamabofu. It is plausible that Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae due to many constituents with as yet unidentified pharmacological activity.

  1. Preclinical Evidence of Rapid-Onset Antidepressant-Like Effect in Radix Polygalae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yoorim; Park, Sung Hyun; Swanberg, Kelley; Shin, Joo-Yeon; Ha, Sang-Kyu; Cho, Yoonju; Bang, Soo-Yong; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Seung-Hun; Maeng, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    Radix Polygalae (the root of Polygala tenuifolia) is a herb widely used in traditional Asian medicine that is thought to exert a variety of neuropsychiatric effects. Radix Polygalae extract can protect against N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotoxicity and induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, suggesting modulatory roles at glutamatergic synapses and possible antidepressant action. In accordance with this hypothesis, Radix Polygalae extract demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice by decreasing behavioral despair in the forced swim and tail suspension tasks and increasing hedonic-like behavior in the female urine sniffing test 30 minutes after a single oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Reduced latency to acquire a food pellet in the novely suppressed feeding paradigm, without change in anxiety-like behaviors suggested a rapid-onset nature of the antidepressant-like effect. In addition, it decreased the number of failed escapes in the learned helplessness paradigm after two oral administrations 24 hours and 30 minutes before the first test. Finally, it reversed anhedonia as measured by saccharin preference in mice exposed to the chronic stress model after two administrations of 0.1 mg/kg, in contrast to the repeated administration generally needed for similar effect by monoamergic antidepressants. Immobility reduction in tail suspension task was blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX, a pattern previously demonstrated by ketamine and other ketamine-like rapid-onset antidepressants. Also similarly to ketamine, Radix Polygalae appeared to acutely decrease phosphorylation of GluR1 serine-845 in the hippocampus while leaving the phosphorylation of hippocampal mTOR serine 2448 unchanged. These findings serve as preclinical evidence that Radix Polygalae extract exerts rapid-onset antidepressant effects by modulating glutamatergic synapses in critical brain

  2. The Protective Effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori on Diabetic Encephalopathy via Regulating Myosin Light Chain Kinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Wang, Feng; Chen, Shiqiang; Liu, Mi; Pan, Wei; Li, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Currently there has been no effective treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. Radix Polygoni Multiflori, a famous traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in antiaging treatment, especially in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases. In this study we tried to explore the effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori on cognitive function among diabetic rats with demonstrated cognitive impairment. SD rats were divided into group A (control group), group B (diabetes), group C (treated with Radix Polygoni Multiflori at the dose of 2 g/kg/d), and group D (treated with same drug at the dose of 1 g/kg/d). The results showed that 8 weeks of Radix Polygoni Multiflori treatment could improve the cognitive dysfunction of diabetic rats (P < 0.01), recover the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons, and increase the number of synapses in a dose-dependent manner. Further experiment also suggested that the neuroprotective effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori was partly achieved by downregulating MLCK expression in hippocampus via ERK signaling. PMID:26199947

  3. Quality evaluation of various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix and its dregs by determination of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to market investigation, two kinds of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces with different specifications are commercially available: irregular thick slices (0.7-1.3 cm) and length-wise into thin slices (0.11-0.2 cm). The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of various samples of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces and its dregs. Results A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination the contents of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (THSG), emodin and physcion, which were considered to be potent active ingredients. The results showed that the contents of THSG, emodin and physcion varied in samples of different diameters and thicknesses. The results also indicated the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix still contained a considerable amount of THSG, emodin and physcion. Conclusion The various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix sold in the markets did not correlate with their prices, and the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix can be further utilized. PMID:22682356

  4. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  5. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids combined with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Ma, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a neuroprotective effect, but it remains unclear whether Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a synergistic effect with the recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized bone marrow stem cell transplantation on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rat ischemia models were administered 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 g/kg Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids from 3 days before modeling to 2 days after injury. Results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids could reduce pathological injury in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The number of Nissl bodies increased, Bax protein expression decreased, Bcl-2 protein expression increased and the number of CD34-positive cells increased. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids can improve the bone marrow stem cell mobilization effect, enhance the anti-apoptotic ability of nerve cells, and have a neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  6. A study on the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Radix ranunculus ternati on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Li; Xie, Han-Bing; Xia, Yun-Zhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the in vitro anti-breast cancer activity of polysaccharides from Radix ranunculus ternati. Different concentrations of polysaccharide extracts were selected, and MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides had varying degrees of effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines, and the differences were significant compared with the blank control group. FCM showed that the polysaccharides can induce apoptosis. In addition, it can also enhance NK cell activity. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides have a relatively good in-vitro anti-breast cancer activity.

  7. Application of clear polymethylmethacrylate dosimeter Radix W to a few MeV electron in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seito, Hajime; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Hanaya, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshishige; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kojima, Takuji

    2009-11-01

    Characteristics of clear PMMA dosimeter (Radix W) were studied for electron irradiation and compared with the response for gamma irradiation. The dose-response curves were nearly linear up to 30 kGy and become sublinear at higher doses. The radiation-induced absorbance was reduced with 6% within 4 h after irradiation. Dose comparisons were performed for 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV electron irradiation using cellulose triacetate dosimeter (CTA) (FTR-125) and Radix W dosimeters which were independently calibrated for 2 MeV electrons and 60Co gamma-rays using calorimeter and ionizing chamber, respectively. The doses estimated by CTA and Radix W were different by about 20%. The magnitude of this difference was, however, independent of electron energy.

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of ethanol extract combined with Curcumae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on menopausal metabolic disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Park, InSil; Ryuk, JinAh; Lee, HyeWon; Go, Hiroe; Ko, ByoungSeob

    2015-01-01

    Curcumae Radix (CR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR) extracts have been used as health supplements in traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of combined CR and GR extracts (CR+GR) on metabolic complications related menopausal symptoms. We found a significant results that CR+GR extracted using ethanol stimulated the growth of MCF-7 cells in estrogen activity and was attenuated in lipid deposition of HepG2 cells treated with MβCD compared to CR and GR treatments each. To investigate the situation, an experimental menopause rat model with dyslipidemia was induced by surgical bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet in female rats. OVX rats fed HFHC (OVX-HFHC) showed a shift in weight gain, elevated serum cholesterol, altered liver enzymatic parameters and enhanced liver injury compared to the NC and HFHC groups. However, administration of CR+GR, in particular 200 or 450 mg/kg/day, inhibited the increase in body weight gain and lipid metabolic disturbances, lowering total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Furthermore, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) ameliorated the serum levels of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Moreover, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) attenuated not only hepatic steatosis but also larger adipocytes. Our study demonstrated that combined treatment with CR and GR attenuated metabolic complications induced by OVX and HFHC diet, suggesting that this effect may regulate and prevent the acceleration of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after menopause. PMID:26628991

  9. Research progress of the studies on the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum dunn (Peucedani radix).

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    As a commonly employed traditional Chinese medicine, Peucedani Radix (Qian-hu in Chinese), which consists of the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, has a long history of application for the treatment of cough with thick sputum and dyspnea, nonproductive cough and upper air-way infections in traditional medicinal practice. The current review aims to summarize the research progress on the botany, phytochemistry, chemical analysis, pharmacological assay, and pharmacokinetic profile of this famous herbal drug. All available information on this traditional medicine was obtained via electronic search (using ACS, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and CNKI). Phytochemical investigations revealed that angular-type pyranocoumarins (APs), mainly (±)-praeruptorin A (Pd-Ia), (+)-praeruptorin A, (±)-praeruptorin B, (+)-praeruptorin B (Pd-II) and (+)-praeruptorin E (Pd-III), were the main active components in Qian-hu, while some other types of ingredients were also identified from this herb. The crude extract and pure compounds from Peucedani Radix exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, including vasorelaxant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor and anti-platelet aggregative effects. Conversely to the well-defined chemical constituents and activities, the properties of absorption, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism were rarely characterized. However, further investigations are wistful for the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases, especially cardiovascular disorders. Collectively, the present review on the phytochemistry, chemical analysis, pharmacological evaluation, and pharmacokinetic profile of Peucedani Radix will provide meaningful information for further studies and commercial exploitation of the herbal medicine.

  10. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Radix Glycyrrhizae (Liquorice Root)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xican; Chen, Weikang; Chen, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Glycyrrhizae (RG) possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant has not been explored so far. The aim of the study was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: RG was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanolic extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae (ERG). ERG was then determined by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. Results: Our results revealed that ERG could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 517.28±26.61μg/mL). In addition, ERG could scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50165.18±6.48μg/mL) and ABTS+• radical (IC507.46±0.07μg/mL), reduce Fe3+ (IC50 97.23±2.88 μg/mL) and Cu2+ (IC50 59.21±0.18 μg/mL). Chemical analysis demonstrated that the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in ERG were 111.48±0.88 and 218.26±8.57 mg quercetin/g, respectively. Conclusion: Radix Glycyrrhizae can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·), donating electron (e). Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids or total phenolics. PMID:24312831

  11. Quartile and Outlier Detection on Heterogeneous Clusters Using Distributed Radix Sort.

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Kyle L; Meredith, Jeremy S; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, performance improvements in CPUs and memory technologies have outpaced those of storage systems. When extrapolated to the exascale, this trend places strict limits on the amount of data that can be written to disk for full analysis, resulting in an increased reliance on characterizing in-memory data. Many of these characterizations are simple, but require sorted data. This paper explores an example of this type of characterization - the identification of quartiles and statistical outliers - and presents a performance analysis of a distributed heterogeneous radix sort as well as an assessment of current architectural bottlenecks.

  12. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen).

    PubMed

    Pang, Hanqing; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Zhou, Guisheng; Qu, Cheng; Duan, Jin-ao

    2016-01-05

    Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  13. Danggui Buxue Tang, Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Induces Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells: Signaling Mediated by Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Gong, Amy G W; Lau, K M; Zhang, Laura M L; Lin, H Q; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at the weight ratio of 5:1, is used to mitigate menopausal syndromes in women. The pharmacological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang have been illustrated in bone development, blood enhancement, and immune stimulation. Here, we extended the possible pharmacological role of Danggui Buxue Tang in cardiovascular function. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the application of Danggui Buxue Tang induced the release of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in time- and dose-dependent manners. The robust activation of nitric oxide signaling, however, required the boiling of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix together, i.e., as Danggui Buxue Tang instead of other herbal extracts. The Danggui Buxue Tang-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were fully blocked by treatment with an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), and a Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM). In parallel, the blockage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt activation subsequently fully abolished the Danggui Buxue Tang-induced nitric oxide production.

  14. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides extract from Radix Rehmanniae Preparata.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Yu, Ke-qiang; Liu, Yan-yan; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Yan, Mei-hua; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

    2012-01-01

    The anti-fatigue effects of the Radix Rehmanniae Preparata polysaccharides (RRPP) were studied in mice. The RRPP were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid (BLA) contents. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the body weight of mice in the three RRPP groups compared with the negative control group during initial, intermediate and terminal stages in the experiment (p>0.05). The ratio of exhausting swimming time was obviously increased 31.48% (p<0.05) and 61.51% (p<0.01) in the middle-dose group and the high-dose RRPP group, respectively. The BLA and SUN levels were decreased in middle-dose and high-dose RRPP groups (p<0.01). Hepatic glycogen level was increased in three RRPP treated groups (p<0.01). Therefore, RRPP may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata. The mechanism was related to the increase of the storage of hepatic glycogen and the decrease of the accumulation of SUN and BLA.

  15. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Maksudul; Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  16. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  17. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Its Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lili; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5′-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3′) was developed. It is highly conserved and specific within Angelica sinensis while divergent among other species. Then, we designed primers (DG01F/DG01R) to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. 15 samples procured online were analysed. By seeking the signature, we found that 7 of them were counterfeits. 28 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Danggui were amplified. 19 of them were found to contain the signature, and adulterants such as Ligusticum sinense, Notopterygium incisum, Angelica decursiva and Angelica gigas were detected in other batches. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 37-bp, will broaden the application of DNA barcoding to identify the components in decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other products with degraded DNA. PMID:27713564

  18. Effect of Radix Isatidis on the expression of moesin mRNA induced by LPS in the tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yunhai; Fang, Jianguo; Chen, Xin; Xie, Wei

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of the anti-endotoxic part of Radix Isatidis on the expression of moesin mRNA in murine tissues induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the sample solution of F(022) part from Radix Isatidis was intraperitoneally administered to experimental mice, and the lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) were injected into the tail vein, and then the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen were colleted and cut into slices. The mRNA was detected by moesin mRNA hybridization in situ. The staining results were observed under microscope. It was found that moesin mRNA expression was increased in the tissues of liver, kidndy and spleen in mice treated with LPS, while in the mice pre-treated with F(022) part from Radix Isatidis, the LPS-induced moesin mRNA expressions in these tissues were inhibited in a dose-dependant manner. Our study showed that F(022) part from Radix Isatidis can inhibit the LPS-induced expression of moesin mRNA in the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen in mice.

  19. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  20. Quantitative Analysis and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Quercetin from Radix Sanguisorbae

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radix Sanguisorbae has long been used to treat diarrhea, enteritis, duodenal ulcers, and internal hemorrhage. Objective: We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of Radix Sanguisorbae and performed quantitative analyses of three marker components, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Materials and Methods: The three marker components were separated using a reversed-phase Gemini C18 analytical column maintained at 40°C by the gradient elution with two solvent systems. We examined the biological effects of the three marker compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: All of the marker compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with no cytotoxicity. Particularly, ellagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ellagic acid is the most potent bioactive phytochemical component of radix Sanguisorbae in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Established high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied in the quantitative analysis of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin present in an extract from radix SanguisorbaeAmong the three compounds, the ellagic acid.(7.65.mg/g) is main component in radix SanguisorbaeEllagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, PDA: Photodiode array, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL: Interleukin, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, NSAIDs

  1. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  2. Rapid and undamaged analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with soft independent modeling of class analogy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Hu, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this work is to determine the feasibility of identification of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy couple with soft independent modeling of class analogy (FT-IR-SIMCA). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 different crude Radix Scrophulariae was used to product processed ones. The spectra were acquired by FT-IR spectroscopy using a diffuse reflectance fiber optic probe. For the multivariate analysis, SIMCA was used. Results showed that FT-IR-SIMCA was useful to discriminate the processed Radix Scrophulariae samples from crude samples. These samples could be successfully classified by SIMCA. Results: In all cases, the recognition and rejection rates were 97.8% and 100%, respectively. When testing with the blind sample that was picked out from the chosen samples, the accuracy was up to 90%. Conclusion: It means that the methodology is capable of accurately separating processed Radix Scrophulariae from crude samples. PMID:25210313

  3. Determination of Ruscogenin in Ophiopogonis Radix by High-performance Liquid Chromatography-evaporative Light Scattering Detector Coupled with Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Li, Ming; Feng, Ya-Qian; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ophiopogonis Radix is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. It is necessary to establish a suitable quality control methods of Ophiopogonis Radix. Objective: To investigate the quality control methods of Ophiopogonis Radix by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Materials and Methods: A rapid and simple method, HPLC coupled with ELSD, was applied to determinate ruscogenin in 35 batches of Ophiopogenis Radix samples. Orthogonal tests and single factor explorations were used to optimize the extraction condition of ruscogenin. The content of ruscogenin in different origin was further analyzed by hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Results: The ruscogenin was successfully determined by HPLC-ELSD with a two-phase solvent system composed of methanol-water (88:12) at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min, column temperature maintained at 25°C, detector draft tube temperature at 42.2°C, nebulizer gas flow rate at 1.4 L/min, and the gain at 8. The result showed the good linearity of ruscogenin in the range of 40.20–804.00 μg/ml (R2 = 0.9996). Average of recovery was 101.3% (relative standard deviation = 1.59%). A significant difference of ruscogenin content was shown among 35 batches of Ophiopogenis Radix from different origin, varied from 0.0035% to 0.0240%. HCA based on the content of ruscogenin indicated that Ophiopogonis Radix in different origin was mainly divided into two clusters. Conclusion: This simple, rapid, low-cost, and reliable HPLC-ELSD method could be suitable for measurement of ruscogenin content rations and quality control of Ophiopogonis Radix. SUMMARY Ophiopogonis Radix is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases and acute or chronic inflammation for thousands of years. Steroidal saponins were known as the dominant active components for their significant cardiovascular activity, and the most steroid sapogenin of them is

  4. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  6. [Isolation and preparation of an imidazole alkaloid from radix radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch by semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongling; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Zou, Denglang; Li, Yulin

    2014-05-01

    Aconitum pendulum Busch is rich C19 diterpenoid alkaloids, but there is no report of imidazole alkaloid in Aconitum pendulum Busch. In this study, an imidazole alkaloid named 1H-imidazole-2-carboxylic acid, butyl ester (ICABE) was successfully separated from Aconitum pendulum Busch with semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The partition coefficient was measured by HPLC to select the solvent systems for ICABE separation by HSCCC. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-ethanol-water (10:1 : 13:2, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. It was operated at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was rotated at 850 r/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. Under the selected conditions, a high efficiency separation of HSCCC was achieved, and 7.5 mg of ICABE was obtained from 100 mg of the crude sample of Aconitum pendulum in one-step separation within 350 min. The HPLC analysis showed that the purity of the compound was over 98%. The chemical structure was confirmed by UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The established method is simple, highly efficient and suitable for large scale separation of ICABE from radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch.

  7. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features

  8. Fluorescence enhancement of radix angelica dahurica by binding to single silver sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the influence of a single silver sphere on the fluorescence of radix angelica dahurica, which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. The enhancement factors of the excitation and the relaxation processes are deduced. The excitation can be enhanced more than 100 times at 315 nm. The enhancement factor of the emission can reach up to 9 at a center wavelength of 400 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405085 and 61275147), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liaocheng University, China, the Key Project of Science and Technology of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. 2010GGX10127), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013EML006 and ZR2012AL11).

  9. [Study on extraction process of coumarin in a Mongolian drug Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae)].

    PubMed

    Borjigidai, Almaz; Cui, Xun; Pang, Zong-Ran; Cui, Jian; Kang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The present paper discusses ultrasonic extraction method aided extraction of coumarin from a Mongolian drug, Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae), aiming to study out how much coumarin contained in Chagan-sorlo, and to provide the scientific basis and production guidance for extracting coumarin from Chagan-sorlo. Under different conditions the coumarin in Chagan-sorlo was extracted by ultrasonic, measured and analyzed, and then HPLC was used to carry out the measurement. Result showed that with solvent volume fraction of 70%, extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 175 W, temperature of 25 degrees C, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, and 80-100 mesh extraction, the coumarin extraction reaches the highest yield.

  10. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  11. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Attam, Kanika; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Utneja, Shivani; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1) It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2) Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology. PMID:23125938

  12. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix.

    PubMed

    Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.

  13. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  14. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R; Benett, William J; Coleman, Matthew A; Pearson, Francesca S; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  15. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  16. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  17. Simultaneous chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae from different locations in China by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Cao, Gang; Ji, Jinyu; Cong, Xiaodong; Wang, Shengbo; Cai, Baochang

    2011-06-01

    A validated liquid chromatography method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae extracts through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five bioactive compounds, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acteoside, angroside C, harpagoside and cinnamic acid. The chromatographic were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by diode array detector (DAD). Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.03%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) ≥0.9996) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.12-103.38%, with RSD values ranging from 0.6 to 2.8%. In addition, the contents of those five bioactive compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae prepared by different locations of China were determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Scrophulariae.

  18. [Preparation of flavonoid reference standards from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Henan; Yang, Xuedong; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Wenfeng

    2012-07-01

    Flavonoid reference standards were targeted-prepared from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. With HPLC-MS analysis of Scutellariae Radix, 19 flavonoid components were identified by analyzing and comparing their retention times, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectrometry data with literature. The separation and purification protocols of all targeted flavonoid reference standards were optimally designed according to the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. The ethanol extract of Scutellariae Radix was suspended in water and extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol successively. The ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract were separately subjected to primary separation by low pressure reverse phase preparative chromatography. Then the fractions containing targeted compounds were further purified by low pressure reverse and normal phases preparative chromatography. Finally, baicalin and wogonoside reference standards were obtained from n-butanol extract; baicaelin, wogonin, and oroxylin A reference standards were obtained from ethyl acetate extract. The structures of the 5 reference standards were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The HPLC analytical results showed that the purities of the 5 reference standards were all above 98%. It is demonstrated that the rapid targeted-preparation method under the guidance of the HPLC-MS analysis is applicable for the isolation and preparation of chemical components in traditional Chinese medicines.

  19. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  20. The Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Cynanchi wilfordii Radix with Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sunyoung; Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Woo Jin; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3±0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of α -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25729277

  1. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  2. [Analysis of variation of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae radix in different drying methods and conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Bing; Xu, Yuan; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effect of different processing methods and conditions of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix and their change regularity, in order to optimize and establish appropriate drying methods and conditions. After being cleaned, fresh Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs were baked, sun-dried, shade-dried, sun-dried after sulfur-fumigation, dried by quick-lime embedding, freeze-dried, microwave-dried. Finally, 24 groups of samples were obtained after being mashed and passing through the 60-mesh screen. The HPLC-PDA method was adopted to simultaneously determine the content of coumarin compounds. The GC-MS method was used to determine the content of volatile compounds. The principal component analysis (PCA) was made on the standardized analysis results for the 24 groups of samples processed with different drying methods. According to the PCA results, the comprehensive scores of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs processed with different methods in the order from high to low were that unpeeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and sun-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > peeled and microwave-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > unpeeled and sun-dried > unpeeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > peeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > unpeeled and freeze-dried > unpeeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > peeled and freeze-dried > peeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > peeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and microwave-dried. According

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  4. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  5. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and evaluation of its colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fang; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yin, Jinjin

    2012-08-01

    The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and their stability have been reported in this paper. The aqueous catclaw buttercup was used as mild reducing agent for gold nanoparticles synthesis from HAuCl4 solutions. The influence of reaction time, temperature and mass ratio of HAuCl4/catclaw buttercup were evaluated to investigate their effects on gold nanoparticles synthesis. Under the optimized reaction parameters, the gold nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), EDAX technique (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FTIR spectrum, anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method, and plus Improved-Lowry Protein Assay Kit. The HRTEM images showed that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are mostly spherical with size range from 9-24 nm. Furthermore, it was found that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles possessed outstanding colloid stability in aqueous solutions as a function of category and concentration of monovalent salt and pH value of the solution when compared with chemosynthetic ones with the similar size. Anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method revealed that there is no sugar in the biosynthesized gold colloid. While Improved-Lowry tests results demonstrated that the existence of much protein in the biosynthesized gold colloid, which may played an important role in stabilization of it. Owing to their stability, biocompatibility, lower cost and so on, gold nanoparticles synthesized by this biosynthesis method show potential application prospect in optoelectronic and biomedicine.

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  7. Radix Astragali Stimulates p38 MARK Phosphorylation in Pediatric Patients with β-Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinhua; Zhang, Chunhong; Chen, Zhiwen; Du, Guangliang

    2016-01-01

    A previous study conducted by our group demonstrated that Radix Astragali compounded with Codonopsis pilosula and Plastrum testudinis was effective in treating pediatric β-thalassemia in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. However, the mechanism of action that underpins this treatment remains to be elucidated. Blood was collected from patients participating in this clinical trial and nucleated red blood cell-enriched mononuclear cells were isolated to facilitate the extraction of RNA and protein. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of globin genes and p38 MAPK, and total and phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression was assessed using Western blot analysis. Expression of α-, β-, and Aγ-globin mRNAs was not significantly affected following treatment with R. Astragali or the compounded formulation. However, Gγ-globin mRNA levels increased significantly in both treatment groups (when compared with pretreatment levels) following 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, posttreatment Gγ-globin expression was significantly higher in both treatment groups compared with the control group. Although neither p38 MAPK mRNA nor protein levels were affected by the treatments, posttreatment phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly increased in the R. Astragali and compounded formulation groups compared with the control group. These data suggest that the molecular mechanisms that underpin the efficacious use of R. Astragali (and its compounded formulation) in pediatric β-thalassemia treatment facilitate the induction of Gγ-globin expression following activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:27882072

  8. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  9. Receptor and transporter binding and activity profiles of albiflorin extracted from Radix paeoniae Alba

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zeng-liang; Gao, Nana; Xu, Weizhe; Xu, Pingxiang; Li, Shuaiqi; Zheng, Yuan-yuan; Xue, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Albiflorin, a traditional Chinese herb, is a main component of Radix paeoniae Alba, which has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders since ancient times. However, the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of albiflorin is poorly understood. Thus, we explored the binding profile of albiflorin at neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. We also characterised the in vivo effect of albiflorin on monoaminergic systems by using microanalysis to determine the extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats administered albiflorin. We found that albiflorin inhibited the uptake of 5-HT and NE and displayed robust binding affinities for the transporters of both neurotransmitters. By contrast, albiflorin (10 μM) showed no significant affinity to a wide array of central nervous system receptors. The results of our in vivo microdialysis studies showed that administration of albiflorin (3.5, 7.0, 14.0 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and NE in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats. Overall, the current study showed that albiflorin is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity. PMID:27646789

  10. Polysaccharide enhances Radix Saposhnikoviae efficacy through inhibiting chromones decomposition in intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Ming; Jiang, Hua; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wang, Zi-Wei; Jia, Gui-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Vegetative but not reproductive stage of Saposhnikovia divaricate (Turxz.) schischk possesses pharmacological activities. However, our recent study showed that reproductive S. divaricate supplemented with polysaccharide showed evidently elevated pharmacological activities and increased cimifugin content in rat serum. The aims of present study were to assess the influence of polysaccharides on the chromones pharmacological activities in Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS), the dried root of vegetative stage of S. divaricate, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Only cimifugin was detected in the plasma of chromone treated animals and RS polysaccharide significantly increased the plasma content of cimifugin. It was shown that neither cimifugin absorption nor glycoside components transformation in simulated digestive fluid was affected by RS polysaccharide. However, a significant promotion of transformation of cimifugin to more stable prime-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN) by RS polysaccharide, and a protective effect of polysaccharide on chromone components were observed in small intestine solutions. Meanwhile, RS polysaccharide produced a significant elevation of cimifugin and PGCN concentration in vivo. Based on these findings, we concluded that RS polysaccharide could greatly increase the content of cimifugin, which might be related to its degradation-proof effect on cimifugin, via transforming cimifugin to comparatively more stable PGCN and spatial structure protection. PMID:27595868

  11. [Absorption and transportation of calycosin in Astragali Radix by using Caco-2 monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Le, Zhou; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Di, Liu-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids are a class of important active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, pharmacological activity and in vivo process is the focus of research in recent years. Calycosin is the main active ingredients of flavonoids in Astragali Radix, recent studies indicate that it has many kinds of pharmacological activity, but the absorption and transport characteristics in vivo is unclear. The experiment using Caco-2 cell model, with apigenin as internal standard substance, using the method for the determination of drug concentration by HPLC, were studied at different concentrations and absorption transport characteristics of respectively adding different types of protein inhibitors. Data were analyzed by Q test, the results show that low, middle, high concentration of P(app)(BL-AP)/ P(app)(AP-BL) = 1.38 < 1.5, respectively adding different types of protein inhibitors, compared with the control group of P(app)(BL-AP)/ P(app)(AP-BL), there were no significant differences. Calycosin absorption may mainly passive transport, also involved in active transport mechanism, the transport may not be affected by the P-protein, MRP2 protein, SGLT protein.

  12. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  13. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection.

  14. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  15. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness.

  16. Effect of raw Radix Rehmanniae on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Jingwen; Yuan, Yuemei; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yao, Meicun

    2014-05-01

    Raw Radix Rehmanniae (RRR) is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus according to the statistics on all of the anti-diabetic formulas recorded in New National Traditional Chinese Medicine. Pioglitazone and RRR may be co-administrated for presumably enhanced therapeutic effects because of the common indications. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of RRR on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. The pharmacokinetic effect of RRR on pioglitazone was studied in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. A validated UPLC-MS/MS method was used to analyze the concentration of pioglitazone in blood samples. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analyses by Winnonlin 5.0.1. In healthy group, the pre-treatment of RRR significantly (P<0.05) reduced the C(max) but enhanced the V/F of pioglitazone; whereas in T2DM group, significant increase of C(max) and decrease of V/F and T½ were found after the rats were pre-treated with RRR. However, AUC(0-t) and CL/F remained unchanged in both healthy group and T2DM group. In conclusion, co-administration with RRR could alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of pioglitazone to statistically significant levels.

  17. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  18. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness. PMID:27272557

  19. Injectable long-acting in situ forming systems for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Yao, ChunXia; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In the area of injectable long-acting formulations, the in situ forming system (ISFS) is an attractive alternative for its various superiorities. In this study, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic in situ forming systems, using Poloxamer and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) or poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) as carrier, respectively, were investigated for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan. A reasonable and applicable range of formulations were selected from each carrier for in vivo study by investigating their rheological property. The results from in vivo evaluation show that relatively promising sustained behaviors were achieved by formulations 24% P407/10% P188, 40% PLGA30k/NMP, and 30% PLGA50k/NMP. Significant differences of drug release kinetics were observed between in situ thermally-induced Poloxamer-based hydrogels and in situ solvent exchange-induced hydrophobic PLGA depots. This suggests that different ISFS could be chosen to provide different application purpose for polysaccharide drugs. In the case of ROP, Poloxamer-based ISFS is promising for short-term acute therapies; however, PLGA-based ISFS might be promising for long-term precaution or/and cure of myocardial ischemia.

  20. Protective effects of radix Rosa laevigata against Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yao, Nan; Wang, Min; Dai, Yi; Gao, Hao; Yu, Yang; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of an extract of Radix Rosa laevigata (R. R. laevigata) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly elevated by an intravenous injection of heat-killed P. acnes at a dose of 0.4 mg/mouse and then with LPS at 0.1 microg/mouse after 5 d. However, the elevated ALT activity was significantly reduced by the administered of R. R. laevigata (125 and 500 mg/kg/d) for 7 d before the LPS injection. In addition, the extract treatment reduced the number of liver mononuclear cells (MNCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents, but improved the liver oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the chemical profile of R. R. laevigata was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the main peaks were identified as a series of polyphenol compounds which had been confirmed as the significantly active components by their anti-oxidative and NO inhibitory effects. These results suggest that the extract of R. R. laevigata offered good efficacy for preventing liver injury.

  1. Study on the Identification of Radix Bupleuri from Its Unofficial Varieties Based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation Feature Extraction of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Probability Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenying; Wan, Chayan; Cheng, Cungui

    2015-01-01

    The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was employed to acquire the infrared spectra of Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties: the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule Helm. The infrared spectra and spectra of Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and probability neural network (PNN) of these species were analyzed. By the method of FSD, there were conspicuous differences of the infrared absorption peak intensity of different types between Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties. But it is hard to tell the differences between the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule. The differences could be shown more clearly when the DWT was used. The research result shows that by the DWT technology it is easier to identify Radix Bupleuri from its unofficial varieties the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule.

  2. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  3. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines.

  4. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  5. Recognition and identification of active components from Radix Bupleuri using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xu, Tanghui; Quan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jianguo; Dai, Zunxiao; Wu, Bin; Wu, Qiangju

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to screen active components of Radix Bupleuri (a traditional Chinese herb) and discover novel anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the cell membrane chromatography model. Retention components by the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were collected and then analyzed by GC/MS under the optimized conditions in offline conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y/CMC method using amisulpride and haloperidol as standard compounds, this method was applied to screening active components from the extracts of Radix Bupleuri. Retention components of SH-SY5Y/CMC model were saikosaponin A, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin C and saikosaponin D, which were identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials-MTT, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C could protect SY5Y cells. The protective effects of saikosaponin B1 and saikosaponin C were concentration dependent. Saikosaponin A and saikosaponin D inhibited cell viability at concentrations >30 µg/mL (p < 0.05). Via SH-SY5Y/CMC method and SH-SY5Y MTT trial, we rapidly detected target components from Radix Bupleuri, accurately identified them and determined their different effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C may be anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs.

  6. Flavones Isolated from Scutellariae radix Suppress Propionibacterium Acnes-Induced Cytokine Production In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Jung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Huey

    2015-12-24

    Scutellariae radix, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been applied in traditional formulations and modern herbal medications. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in follicles can trigger inflammation and lead to the symptom of inflammatory acnes vulgaris. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Scutellariae radix extract and purified components isolated from it on inflammation induced by P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. The results showed the ethyl acetate (EA) soluble fraction from the partition of crude ethanolic extract from Scutellariae radix inhibited P. acnes-induced interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β production in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Seven flavones were isolated from the EA fraction by repeated chromatographies, and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (FL1, oroxylin), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL2, wogonin), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL3, 7-O-methylwogonin), 5,6'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,2'-tetramethoxy flavone (FL4, skullcapflavone II), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL5), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL6, viscidulin II), and 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-8,6'-dimethoxyflavone (FL7, ganhuangenin). They all significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, and FL2 exerted the strongest effect with half maximal inhibition (IC50) values of 8.7 and 4.9 μM, respectively. Concomitant intradermal injection of each of the seven flavones (20 μg) with P. acnes effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and decreased the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ear homogenates. Our results suggested that all the seven flavones can be potential therapeutic agents against P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.

  7. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  8. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  9. Effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Yook, Tae-Han

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic and erythematous skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The AD was induced on the mice's back skin by using biostir AD. The experimental groups were divided into three groups, PPI (anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture), PPII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, hydrodistillation extraction) and PPIII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, MeOH extraction). All mice were treated using a 1-mL syringe to inject 0.1 mL of pharmacopuncture at right and left acupoints (BL13) on alternate days. In the control group, normal saline was used instead of pharmacopuncture. The following factors were investigated: (1) optical observations made with a handscope and clinical skin scores were evaluated; (2) tissue (general/immune) mast cells and CCR3(+) eosinophils, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor immunoreactive changes were evaluated; (3) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the spleen were immunohistochemically examined; and, (4) the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level and lymphokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4] were measured. In the PPI and the PPIII groups, the clinical skin score, total number of mast cells, CCR3(+) eosinophils immunoreaction, and total serum IgE, IL-2, and IL-4 levels were lower than the control group. The PPI and the PPIII groups also showed strong immunohistochemical reactions for vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. The PPI group particularly showed a very strong immunohistochemical reaction for epidermal growth factor. All groups showed strong immune activity for CD8(+). The PPIII group showed strong immunity for both CD4(+) and CD8(+). From the above results, Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture (MeOH extraction) and anti

  10. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  11. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in Asari Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Xie, De-mei; Liu, Guang-xue; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Zhang, Zi-wei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-02-01

    To develop an analytic method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in 42 samples of two official species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma( ARR) (37 samples of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with different collection time and 5 samples of Asarum sieboldiivar. seoulense). The HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS methods for the qualitative and UPLC-PDA methods for the quantitative analysis were established. Dodecatetraenamides A, B were identified by comparing the retention time, UV absorption spectrum and quasi-molecular ion peak [ M + H]+ with the reference compound using HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS. The content of dodecatetraenamides A and B in ARR were determined by UPLC-PDA. The separation was successfully carried out on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column eluted with mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) in gradient program (0-3 min, 35% B; 3-5 min, 35%-36% B; 5-6 min, 36%-43% B; 6 min-11 min 43% B; 11-12 min, 43%-100% B). The column temperature was 45 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The flow rate was 0.6 mL · min(-1). On one level mass spectrometry scanning, the results showed that the quasi-molecular ion [M + H] + of both dodecatetraenamides A and B were m/z 248.20. The quantitative method with UPLC-PDA has made the baseline separation of the constituents, which were reported as mixtures in the most literatures. The average recovery of dodecatetraenamides A and B were 97.90% and 99.86%, the relative standard deviation were 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. The contents of dodecatetraenamides A, B in all ARR samples was in the range of 0.11-3.89 and 0.24-6.65 mg · g(-1). Their contents reduced with the extension of storage time. Compared with the samples of 2013, the average content of the two constituents in the samples collected in year 2002-2003 reduced 34% and 36%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared the A. sieboldii var. seoulense and A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with the same collective time

  12. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  13. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  14. Poria Attenuates Idiosyncratic Liver Injury Induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Pang, Jing-Yao; Zhang, Cong-En; Li, Chun-Yu; Tu, Can; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Niu, Ming; Xiong, Yin; Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PM) has aroused great concern throughout the world. Hence, it is worthwhile to perform studies on the detoxification with the combined use of medicinal herbs based on the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, the rat model of PM/LPS-induced idiosyncratic liver injury was used. The effects of Poria, Licorice, and Panax notoginseng on rats of PM/LPS-induced liver injury were investigated respectively, hoping to find the most effective herbal medicine to reduce the hepatotoxicity. According to results of biochemical and histological tests, PM could induce the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of rats which presented modest inflammation triggered by non-injurious dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also found that the combined use of Poria and PM in the ratio of 1:2 could significantly ameliorate the PM/LPS-induced liver injury and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, UPLC/QTOF-MS-based metabolomics was performed to identify possible biomarkers and underlying biological pathways. Ten metabolites were expressed differentially among LPS, PM/LPS, and detoxification-treated groups in terms of PCA and OPLS-DA analysis, which could be potential biomarkers. MetaboAnalyst and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that alterations of these metabolites were primarily involved in three pathways: arginine and proline metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. This research provides systematic experimental evidences for the hepatoprotective effect of Poria against PM/LPS-induced liver injury for the first time. And these findings may help better understand the underlying mechanisms of pathophysiologic changes in PM/LPS-induced liver injury. PMID:27803670

  15. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S.; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Combination of Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    So, Mi-Hye; Choi, You-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber have been used to treat the inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine and anti-inflammatory effect of each herb has been shown partially in several articles. However, the combined extract of these medicinal herbs (SL) has not been reported for its anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SL on the creation of several proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cell mouse macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SL inhibited significantly the increase of NO, the release of intracellular calcium, the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-2), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL, and SL inhibited significantly the increase of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) at the concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/mL, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. These results implicate that SL has anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the production of various inflammatory mediators in macrophages. But SL did not inhibit significantly the increase of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES); therefore, further study is demanded for the follow-up research to find out the possibility of SL as a preventive and therapeutic medicine for various inflammatory diseases. PMID:26604969

  18. Influence of different processing times on the quality of Polygoni Multiflora Radix by metabolomics based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xie-An; Ge, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Jin; An, Mingrui; Cao, Jun; He, Jun; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2017-03-20

    A metabolomics method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of processing times on the quality of raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to screen the potential maker metabolites that were contributed to the quality changes. Then these marker metabolites were selected as variables in Fisher's discriminant analysis to establish the models that were used to distinguish the raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix in the markets. Additionally, 36 compounds were identified. 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples and 23 processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were distinguished. The results showed that the 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples belonged to the group of processing time of 0 h, and two processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were part of the group of processing times of 4 h, 12 samples belonged to group of processing times of 8 to 16 h, and nine samples were the group of processing times of 24 to 48 h. The results demonstrated that the method could provide scientific support for the processing standardization of Polygoni Multiflora Radix. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. PMID:24876867

  20. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  1. Integrative hepatoprotective efficacy comparison of raw and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri using nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jie; Sun, Hui-Min; Jia, Jin-Ping; Qin, Xue-Mei; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2017-05-10

    Radix Bupleuri (RB), with a Chinese name Chaihu, is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese herbal drug. It can be baked with vinegar to afford vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB), which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for liver diseases treatment. In the present study, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach was used to compare the liver protective effect of RB and two types of VBRBs, which were prepared by two kinds of vinegar. The contents of 14 metabolites in the liver of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated mice were significantly altered in comparison with control group, and VBRB prepared by Shanxi vinegar showed best effect as revealed by the amount and regulatory degree of the perturbed metabolites. The metabolism pathways analysis showed that the liver protective effect was related with the energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, ketone body metabolism, glutathione metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. The results presented here showed that metabolomic approach made it possible to disclose the subtle biological difference between two types of VBRB, which highlight the potential of metabolomic approach to quantitatively compare the pharmacological effect of the herbal drugs.

  2. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jie; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Zhen-Yu; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (RB), also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic. PMID:26265925

  3. Radix angelica elicits both nitric oxide-dependent and calcium influx-mediated relaxation in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Young

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the vascular relaxation produced by Radix Angelica (AG; Dong Quai) and its possible mechanisms in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine. The butanolic fraction (AgBt) of the crude extract of AG causes gradual endothelium-independent relaxation, which was unaffected by five different potassium channel inhibitors. AgBt attenuated the CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction in high-potassium depolarized medium; this required less than one-tenth the concentration needed to elicit vascular relaxation. An aqueous fraction (AgDw) of the crude extract induced transient acute relaxation, which was virtually abolished by endothelial ablation and pretreatment with L-NNA. L-Arginine fully reversed the action of L-NNA. Methylene blue and atropine significantly attenuated the relaxation, but indomethacin did not. Ferulic acid, the main active component in AG, relaxed both endothelium-intact and -denuded rings, while L-NNA, methylene blue, or atropine did not modify the relaxation. Ferulic acid also did not attenuate the CaCl2-induced contraction in high-potassium depolarized medium. In conclusion, Radix Angelica leads to both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of isolated rat aorta. Increased formation of NO might contribute to the endothelium-mediated relaxation, while inhibition of the calcium influx might be an important mechanism in direct smooth muscle relaxation. A substance other than ferulic acid might create these effects.

  4. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  5. Surfactant-Assisted Pressurized Liquid Extraction at Room Temperature for Radix glycyrrhizae by a New Class of Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Ong, Eng Shi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-assembled surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction system at room temperature was used for the extraction of glycyrrhizin (GLY) in Radix glycyrrhizae. Environmentally friendly saccharide fatty acid ester such as glucose oleic acid ester is proposed to replace chemical-based surfactants. As the chemical properties of the surfactant obtained were unknown initially, lipase-catalyzed synthesis and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were used to ascertain the identity. Surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was carried out dynamically and the extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using different concentration of glucose oleic acid ester were compared with sonication using an organic solvent (ethanol/water, 70:30). The extraction efficiencies of GLY in Radix glycyrrhizae using surfactant-assisted PLE was observed to be higher compared with sonication. The method precision was found to vary from 1.3 to 5.1% (relative standard deviation, RSD, n= 6) on different days. The new method demonstrated the possibility for the extraction to be carried out at room temperature for the production of botanical extracts.

  6. [Determination of 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Ling; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Guoxiang

    2015-08-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 99 pesticide residues with combination of solid-phase extraction technique ( SPE) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS). The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The extract was determined by GC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and matrix-matched internal standard method was applied to quantify the pesticides. The results of all the 99 pesticides showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-0.25 mg/L, with correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.99. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.001-0.050 mg/kg. The recoveries were between 66.7% and 128.0% with RSD values typically lower than 18.3% at three spiked levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg. This method has been applied to determine thirteen batches of commercially available samples, chlorpyriphos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were detected in four batches of Paeoniae Radix Alba. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba.

  7. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purification of two target minor compounds indole-3-acetonitrile-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (target 1) and clemastanin B (target 2) in the present study. Radix isatidis was dried, pulverized and extracted with 50% methanol at room temperature, then concentrated and subjected to pretreatment with D-101 macroporous resin chromatography and extraction by MPLC. The first target compound was separated by MPLC at the purity raised to 70–80%, but without the second minor compounds which were irreversibly adsorbed by C18 solid support. Therefore, the second target compound in the crude extract was directly separated by HSCCC at purity of 80–90%. Finally these refined samples were further separated by pre-HPLC to obtain a high purity at 98–99%. The chemical structure identification of each target compound was carried out by IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR. PMID:25745338

  8. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  9. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition.

  11. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  12. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ke; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription. PMID:27034892

  13. The Inhibition of Mast Cell Activation of Radix Paeoniae alba Extraction Identified by TCRP Based and Conventional Cell Function Assay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huiying; Cheng, Hongqiang; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Xingde; Tu, Jue; Sun, Mingjiao; Mou, Xiaozhou; Shou, Qiyang; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbs have long been used to treat allergic disease, but recently the development was greatly impeded by the lack of good methods to explore the mechanism of action. Here, we showed the effects of Chinese herb Radix Paeoniae alba were identified and characterized by a mast cell activation assay that involves electronic impedance readouts for dynamic monitoring of cellular responses to produce time-dependent cell responding profiles (TCRPs), and the anti-allergic activities were further confirmed with various conventional molecular and cell biology tools. We found Radix P. alba can dose-dependently inhibit TCPRs, and have anti-allergic function in vitro and in vivo. Radix P. alba suppressed mast cell degranulation not only inhibiting the translocation of granules to the plasma membrane, but also blocking membrane fusion and exocytosis; and that there may be other anti-allergic components in addition to paeoniflorin. Our results suggest that Radix P. alba regulated mast cell activation with multiple targets, and this approach is also suitable for discovering other mast cell degranulation-targeting Chinese herbs and their potential multi-target mechanisms. PMID:27195739

  14. [Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma combined with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on p53 and p21 gene expression of IEC-6 cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Jiang, Ze-bo; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Jin-ping; Li, Si-ming; Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

  15. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  16. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  17. Risk of Liver Injury Associated with Chinese Herbal Products Containing Radix bupleuri in 639,779 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Radix bupleuri are often prescribed for chronic hepatitis. There have been no epidemiological studies in populations with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Our study was conducted to determine the association between the use of CHPs containing Radix bupleuri and the risk of hospitalisation related to liver injury among HBV-infected patients in Taiwan. Methods From a total of 639,779 patients with diagnoses related to HBV infection, we included hospitalised adult cases with a primary diagnosis of liver injury in the database of Taiwan's national health insurance during the period 1997–2004. Case-control and case-crossover designs were used to assess the risk of hospitalisation with conditional logistic regression models constructed and adjusted for 270 conventionally hepatotoxic drugs. Cumulative doses of these CHPs and Radix bupleuri were assessed for any dose-response relationship. Findings In total, we collected 1,080 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the case-control design, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.77). The risks from prescribing the CHPs Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang were significantly high, and dose-response relationships were found. The risk of adding each 19 gm dose of Radix bupleuri was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.66 to 2.89). The results using the case-crossover design remained similar. Conclusions Prescribing Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, or CHPs containing more than 19 gram of Radix bupleuri in HBV-infected patients might increase their risks of liver injury. Further studies are indicated to corroborate the above findings. PMID:21264326

  18. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  19. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  20. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  1. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  2. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  3. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  4. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  5. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  6. Evidence of Fasciola hepatica infection in Radix peregra and a mollusc of the family Succineidae in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relf, V; Good, B; McCarthy, E; de Waal, T

    2009-07-07

    Worldwide molluscs of the genera Lymnaea, Pseudosuccinea, Galba and Stagnicola act as intermediate hosts of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Galba truncatula is the only recorded intermediate host of F. hepatica within Ireland and is the principle intermediate host within Europe. To investigate the transmission of liver fluke on the Teagasc hill sheep farm, Co. Mayo, Ireland, snail species other than G. truncatula, were collected from the lowland pasture (snail sp. 'A') in May (n=23) and from the hill area (snail sp. 'B') in March, April and May 2008 (n=78, 53 and 36 respectively). Morphological characteristics identified snail sp. 'A' as a Succinea sp. and snail sp. 'B' as Radix peregra. PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 18S gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of the snail rDNA were used for molecular identification. The 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences revealed a 99% similarity with Omalonyx matheroni (Succineidae) for snail sp. 'A', and for snail sp. 'B' a 99% and 98% similarity with Radix auricularia and R. peregra, respectively. The ITS-2 sequences of snail sp. 'B' revealed a 100% similarity with R. peregra. Using PCR F. hepatica DNA was identified in 73.9% (n=17) of snail sp. 'A' collected during May and 10.3% (n=8), 60.4% (n=32) and 61.1% (n=22) of snail sp. 'B' collected during March, April and May, respectively. A priori knowledge of habitat preference and environmental tolerances of G. truncatula has failed to explain the prevalence of infection recorded in the hill sheep flock on Teagasc hill sheep farm. These findings may explain the presence of infection in sheep populations grazing hill habitats considered too acidic to maintain G. truncatula populations.

  7. Comparative analysis of two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by electronic nose, headspace GC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xu, Feng; Cao, Chen; Shang, Ming-Ying; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Yu, Jie; Liu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) can be identified by experts according to their odors. However, the identification of these medicines is subjective and requires long-term experience. In this paper, electronic nose, headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chemometrics methods were applied to differentiate two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors. The samples used were the dried roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum (AH) and Asarum sieboldii (AS). The electronic nose was used to determine the odors of the samples and enabled rapid differentiation of AH and AS when coupled with principal component analysis. Headspace GC-MS was utilized to reveal the differences between the volatile constituents of AH and AS. In all, 54 volatile constituents were identified, and 9 major constituents (eucalyptol, eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene, methyleugenol, 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene, croweacin, pentadecane and asaricin) could be used as chemical markers to distinguish these two species. AH contained higher relative contents of eucarvone (1.79-16.76%), 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (6.64-26.52%), 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene/methyleugenol (6.43-31.67%) and 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene (1.64-6.66%), whereas AS had higher relative contents of eucalyptol (14.06-24.95%), croweacin (5.64-13.55%), pentadecane (8.44-20.82%) and asaricin (7.03-13.45%). Moreover, AH and AS could be distinguished according to the contents of either all 54 identified volatile constituents or only the 9 major constituents by employing cluster analysis. The proposed method is rapid, simple, eco-friendly and can successfully differentiate these two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors.

  8. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  9. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  10. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  11. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  12. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique

    PubMed Central

    De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology. PMID:28050515

  13. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  15. A genetically distinct Schistosoma from Radix luteola from Nepal related to Schistosoma turkestanicum: A phylogenetic study of schistosome and snail host.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Ramesh; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    During a survey of freshwater snails in the Terai region of southern Nepal, 16 of 2588 specimens of Radix luteola from 4 different habitats were found to be shedding schistosome cercariae. None of the 1411 specimens of Radix acuminata we collected were positive for schistosomes. Analysis of 28S, cox1, 16S and 12S sequences indicated that all the R. luteola-derived schistosomes were genetically very similar to one another and, although unambiguously grouping most closely to the widespread Asian species Schistosoma turkestanicum, were clearly genetically distinct from it. We lack information from other life cycle stages to verify the specific identity of these cercariae, but it is possible they are of Schistosoma bomfordi or Schistosoma dattai, both species previously known only from northern India, the latter species known to infect R. luteola. This study provides sequence evidence for a third genetically distinct lymnaeid-transmitted Schistosoma lineage in Asia (to go along with S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum). As a close relative of S. turkestanicum, it provides the first direct molecular evidence to accompany morphological results from earlier studies for the presence of a S. turkestanicum species group in Asia. It increases to five the number of known or suspected mammalian schistosome species to be present in the Terai region of Nepal. Radix luteola and R. acuminata were identified and differentiated using conchological features and by molecular phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 16S genes.

  16. An Improved LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Eleven Bioactive Constituents for Quality Control of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and Its Related Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; He, Jun; Liu, Er-wei; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2015-01-01

    An improved LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive constituents of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and its related preparations. It was the first report on the quantification of bioactive constituents in different preparations of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis by LC-MS/MS analytical method. These samples were separated with an Agilent Zorbax Extend reversed-phase C18 column (1.8 μm, 4.6 × 100 mm) by linear gradient elution using aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL min−1. The eleven bioactive constituents showed good regression (R > 0.990) within test ranges and the recoveries were in the range of 87.1–110%. The limit of detections and quantifications for most of the major constituents were less than 0.5 and 1.0 ng mL−1, respectively. All results indicated that the developed method could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and related preparations. PMID:26078992

  17. Quality evaluation of Radix Stemonae through simultaneous quantification of bioactive alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hon, Po-Ming; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi; Greger, Harald; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2007-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to simultaneously quantify six major bioactive alkaloids belonging to different structure types in Radix Stemonae, Bai-Bu in Chinese, a traditionally used antitussive and insecticidal medicinal material in China and other countries of Southeast Asia. Diode array detector (DAD) with the wavelengths at 307 and 260 nm was used to monitor the conjugated system of protostemonine (2) and maistemonine (4), respectively, whereas evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was employed to detect croomine (1), stemoninine (3), neotuberostemonine (5) and tuberostemonine (6), the other four analytes with no or poor chromophores. The assay was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate, with a detection limit of 3.64-0.04 microg/mL depending on the individual analytes. The overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 9.3%, and the overall recoveries higher than 91.2%, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were better than 0.996 for all analytes. The newly established method was successfully utilized to determine six major components in the genuine sources of Radix Stemonae: Stemona japonica, S. sessilifolia and S. tuberosa. Significant variations of contents of these components were demonstrated in samples of these three species. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable method is suitable for the routine quality control of herbal medicines containing bioactive components with different structure types such as Radix Stemonae.

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...research programs such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP) is allo- cated via specific guidance from Congress. Proposal

  19. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  20. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  1. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  2. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  3. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Michelle Chun-har; Lau, Tsui-yan; Fan, Kei; Xu, Qing-song; Lam, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR) study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA) extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS) algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66) and higher values of Rp2 (0.55) when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract's bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials. PMID:28337449

  4. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  5. Broad spectrum antibacterial activity of a mixture of isothiocyanates from nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix).

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Biehler, D; Nobis, T; Richter, H; Engels, I; Biehler, K; Frank, U

    2013-02-01

    Isothiocyanates have been reported to exert antimicrobial activity. These compounds are found in a licensed native preparation of nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix) which is used for treatment of upper respiratory and urinary tract infections. The aim of our investigation was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a mixture of the contained benzyl-, allyl-, and phenylethyl- isothiocyanates against clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens including antimicrobial resistant isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by agar-dilution technique. Isothiocyanates were mixed in proportions identical to the licensed drug. Minimum inhibitory- and minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed. The Minimum inhibitory concentration90 was defined as the concentration which inhibited 90% of the microbial species tested. H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. marcescens, P. vulgaris, and Candida spp. were found to be highly susceptible, with minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between ≤0.0005% and 0.004% (v/v) of total ITC. Intermediate susceptibilities were observed for S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with Minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between 0.004% and 0.125% (v/v), but with elevated Minimum bactericidal concentrations90-values (2-7 dilution steps above Minimum inhibitory concentration90). Low susceptibilities were determined for viridans streptococci and enterococci. Interestingly, both resistant and non-resistant bacteria were similarly susceptible to the test preparation.

  6. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA-) based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903. PMID:27795728

  7. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  8. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of the mixture of ginseng radix and crataegi fructus: experimental study and preliminary clinical results.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Seong-Uk; Chang, Gyu-Tae; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2011-06-01

    The mixture of Ginseng Radix and Crataegi Fructus (Gen-CF) was developed to increase the pharmacological effect of ginseng in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the effects of Gen-CF on serum lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats in vivo, as well as its antioxidant activities in vitro, and explored its clinical effects on patients with hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, Gen-CF displayed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrasyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, and inhibited hemolysis induced by 2,2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, Gen-CF significantly inhibited the increases of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride in high cholesterol-diet and Triton WR-1339 models. It also significantly inhibited the decrease of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in these models. In the clinical trial, Gen-CF significantly lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid and phospholipid, with no adverse events, including hepatic or renal toxicity. The data suggest that Gen-CF has the potential to treat hypercholesterolemia and prevent cardiovascular disease.

  9. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes' enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives. PMID:23533497

  10. Herbal formula, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wu, Yun-Ru; You, Jyh-Sheng

    2015-07-02

    The bioactive components extracted from Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma (SR) have been commonly used to treat liver diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the underlying mechanisms and antifibrotic effects of ethanol extract from the herbal combinatorial formula (SRE) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-administered rat model, with functional proteome tools. Our results indicated that the hepatic collagen content and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were obviously alleviated by treatment with SRE. Comprehensive proteomics revealed global protein changes, and the network analysis implied that SRE application would attenuate oxidative stress and cytoskeleton dysregulation caused by DMN exposure. Next, marked downregulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by DMN treatment was restored in the presence of SRE, while SRE treatment contributed to decreased MDA content. Moreover, protein carbonylation and DNA adduction induced by oxidative stress finally leading to liver injury were also reduced under SRE administration. These findings demonstrate that SRE could effectively prevent hepatic fibrosis mainly through regulating the redox status, and subsequently modulating the modification of intracellular molecules. Our experiments might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against oxidation-caused liver diseases.

  11. Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Chul Yung; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA, and collagen type I and α-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Herbal formula, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wu, Yun-Ru; You, Jyh-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive components extracted from Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma (SR) have been commonly used to treat liver diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the underlying mechanisms and antifibrotic effects of ethanol extract from the herbal combinatorial formula (SRE) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-administered rat model, with functional proteome tools. Our results indicated that the hepatic collagen content and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were obviously alleviated by treatment with SRE. Comprehensive proteomics revealed global protein changes, and the network analysis implied that SRE application would attenuate oxidative stress and cytoskeleton dysregulation caused by DMN exposure. Next, marked downregulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by DMN treatment was restored in the presence of SRE, while SRE treatment contributed to decreased MDA content. Moreover, protein carbonylation and DNA adduction induced by oxidative stress finally leading to liver injury were also reduced under SRE administration. These findings demonstrate that SRE could effectively prevent hepatic fibrosis mainly through regulating the redox status, and subsequently modulating the modification of intracellular molecules. Our experiments might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against oxidation-caused liver diseases. PMID:26133262

  13. Targeting delivery of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide to ischemic/reperfused rat myocardium by long-circulating macromolecular and liposomal carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LiNa; Yao, ChunXia; Wu, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery to ischemic myocardium is an enormous challenge. This work aimed to characterize cardiac delivery behaviors of mono-polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) conjugates and long-circulating liposomes (L-Lps) with Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) as drug. The results showed that compared to native ROP, 32-, 52-, and 45-fold increases in blood half-life were achieved by 20-kDa PEG mono-modified ROP (P20k-R), 40-kDa PEG mono-modified ROP (P40k-R), and ROP-loaded L-Lp, respectively. With comparable blood pharmacokinetics, ROP-loaded L-Lp showed both significantly higher targeting efficacy and drug exposure in infarcted myocardium than P40k-R. With regard to P20k-R, both its targeting efficacy and its level in infarcted myocardium at 3 hours postdose were comparable to P40k-R, but its level in blood and myocardium reduced obviously faster. As a whole, the results indicate that both loading in L-Lps and mono-PEGylation are effective in targeting drug to ischemic myocardium, but the former appears to induce stronger effects. PMID:26425081

  14. Analog implementation of radix-2, 16-FFT processor for OFDM receivers: non-linearity behaviours and system performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Hodtani, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Analog implementations of decoders have been widely studied by considering circuit complexity, as well as power and speed, and their integration with other analog blocks is an extension of analog decoding research. In the front-end blocks of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, combination of an analog fast Fourier transform (FFT) with an analog decoder is suitable. In this article, the implementation of a 16-symbol FFT processor based on analog complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor current mirrors within circuit and system levels is presented, and the FFT is implemented using a butterfly diagram, where each node is implemented using analog circuits. Implementation details include consideration of effects of transistor mismatch and inherent noises and effects of circuit non-linearity in OFDM system performance. It is shown that not only can transistor inherent noises be measured but also transistor mismatch can be applied as an input-referred noise source that can be used in system- and circuit-level studies. Simulations of a radix-2, 16-symbol FFT show that proposed circuits consume very low power, and impacts of noise, mismatch and non-linearity for each node of this processor are very small.

  15. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W C; Lee, Pinky S C; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced the Ca(2+) surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production.

  16. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines.

  17. Integrating targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics to investigate the processing chemistry of herbal medicines, a case study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Shen, Hong; Li, Xiu-Yang; Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-11-11

    It is well-recognized that multiple components, the majority of which are secondary metabolites and carbohydrates, collectively contribute to the therapeutic effects of herbal medicines. The chemical characterization of herbal medicines has focused extensively on secondary metabolites but has largely overlooked carbohydrates. Here, we proposed an integrated chromatographic technique based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics strategy simultaneously determining carbohydrates and secondary metabolites for the overall chemical profiling of herbal medicines; this strategy was successfully exemplified in an investigation of processing chemistry of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), a Chinese medicinal herb. It was demonstrated that the integrated strategy holistically illuminated the variations in the glycome and metabolome of RR samples processed by the traditionally-adopted nine cycles of steaming and drying, and further elucidated the processing-induced chemical transformation mechanisms of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites, and thereby revealed the inherent chemical connections between carbohydrates and secondary metabolites. The result suggested that the proposed strategy meets the technical demands for the overall chemical characterization of herbal medicines, and therefore could serve as a powerful tool for deciphering the scientific basis of herbal medicines.

  18. Assessment of molluscicidal activity of essential oils from five Azorean plants against Radix peregra (Müller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rosa, José Silvino; Rainha, Nuno; Baptista, José; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2012-03-01

    The molluscicidal activity of essential oils from two endemic (Juniperus brevifolia; Laurus azorica) and three introduced (Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum; Psidium cattleianum) Azorean plants against the snail Radix peregra was studied under laboratory conditions. Essential oils from leaves of H. gardnerianum, L. azorica and J.brevifolia presented promising molluscicidal activity on both adults and juveniles stages of R. peregra. The molluscicidal activity of these essential oils was found to be both time and concentration dependent. Lethal concentrations (LC(50)) varied between 15.4 (L. azorica) and 44.6 ppm (H. gardnerianum) for juveniles and from 45.3 (H. gardnerianum) to 54.6 ppm (J. brevifolia) for R. peregra adults. Ovicidal effect, calculated as percentage of egg hatching, at 100 ppm concentration, was observed in essential oils from P. undulatum flowers (4.2% of hatching) and leaves of H. gardnerianum (4.9%), L. azorica (7.4%) and J. brevifolia (17.7%). The present study is the first attempt to assess the molluscicidal potential of some Azorean plants essential oils against a Lymnaeidae snail. In fact, the H. gardnerianum, L. azorica and J. brevifolia can offer natural alternative tools for the control of R. peregra population, but more research is needed in order to determine the mode of action of these oils and determine the side effects on the ecosystem where this freshwater snail occurs.

  19. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  20. The Volatile Oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in HUVEC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Lee, Pinky S. C.; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M.; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T. X.; Aisa, Haji A.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca2+ level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, reduced the Ca2+ surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production. PMID:25643147

  1. Blockade of vascular angiogenesis by Aspergillus usamii var. shirousamii-transformed Angelicae Gigantis Radix and Zizyphus jujuba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Jung-Suk; Bae, Ji-Young; Li, Jing; Kim, Dong Shoo; Kim, Jung-Lye; Shin, Seung-Yong; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Hyoung-Sook; Ji, Geun Eog; Kang, Young-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play an important role in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and inflammatory tissue destruction. Increased expression of MMP was observed in benign tissue hyperplasia and in atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive cancer cells utilize MMP to degrade the extracellular matrix and vascular basement membrane during metastasis, where MMP-2 has been implicated in the development and dissemination of malignancies. The present study attempted to examine the antiangiogenic activity of the medicinal herbs of Aspergillus usamii var. shirousamii-transformed Angelicae Gigantis Radix and Zizyphus jujube (tAgR and tZj) with respect to MMP-2 production and endothelial motility in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- or VEGF-exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Nontoxic tAgR and tZj substantially suppressed PMA-induced MMP-2 secretion. In addition, 25 microg/mL tAgR and tZj prevented vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. The results reveal that tAgR and tZj dampened endothelial MMP-2 production leading to endothelial transmigration and tube formation. tAgR and tZj-mediated inhibition of endothelial MMP may boost a therapeutic efficacy during vascular angiogenesis.

  2. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  3. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  4. Hyperaldosteronism: diagnosis, lateralization, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian M

    2014-06-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an important and commonly unrecognized secondary cause of hypertension. This article provides an overview of the current literature with respect to screening, diagnosis, and lateralization. Selection and outcomes of medical and surgical treatment are discussed.

  5. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    km, i.e., the “ submesoscale ”. We aim to understand the underlying mechanisms and forcing, as well as the temporal, spatial, and scale variability of...the overall objectives of the Lateral Mixing DRI to try to determine the extent to which submesoscale stirring is driven by a cascade of energy down...technical goal of our work is to develop the use of airborne LIDAR surveys of evolving dye experiments as a tool for studying submesoscale lateral dispersion

  6. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *P<0.01). In conclusion, the application of HepG2 biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS analysis is a rapid, convenient, and reliable method for screening potential bioactive components in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  8. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  9. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches.

  10. [Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Gu, Li-Jia; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-06-01

    To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the aged rat group, the APS group showed the significant improvement in the impaired learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

  11. Lipid Regulation Effects of Raw and Processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome on Steatotic Hepatocyte L02 Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Li, Chunmei; Yang, Caixia; Zhao, Ronghua; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7α. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD.

  12. Pectinase-Processed Ginseng Radix (GINST) Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in High Fat Diet-Fed ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Dan; Kim, Jung Tae; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    To develop a ginseng product possessing an efficacy for diabetes, ginseng radix ethanol extract was treated with pectinase and obtained the GINST. In the present study, we evaluate the beneficial effect of GINST on high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyper-glycemia and hyperlipidemia and action mechanism(s) in ICR mice. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: regular diet group (RD), high fat diet group (HFD), HFD plus GINST at 75 mg/kg (GINST75), 150 mg/kg (GINST150), and 300 mg/kg (GINST300). Oral glucose tolerance test reveals that GINST improves the glucose tolerance after glucose challenge. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were decreased by 4.3% and 4.2% in GINST75, 10.9% and 20.0% in GINST150, and 19.6% and 20.9% in GINST300 compared to those in HFD control group. Insulin resistance indices were also markedly decreased by 8.2% in GINST75, 28.7% in GINST150, and 36.4% in GINST300, compared to the HFD control group. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid levels in the GINST300 group were decreased by 13.5%, 22.7% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to those in HFD control group. Enlarged adipocytes of HFD control group were markedly decreased in GINST-treated groups, and shrunken islets of HFD control mice were brought back to near normal shape in GINST300 group. Furthermore, GINST enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In summary, GINST prevents HFD-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through reducing insulin resistance via activating AMPK-GLUT4 pathways, and could be a potential therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24116299

  13. Antioxidant and Proliferative Activities of Bupleuri Radix Extract Against Serum Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Cho, Hye Yeon; Lee, Chan Hong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Park, Yong Ki; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a major component of several Oriental herbal medicines used to treat stress and mental illness. There are evidences that antidepressant drugs modulate oxidative damage implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorder, including depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and proliferative effects of BR against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells. Methods We examined the antioxidant effects of BR on a number of measures, including cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of both Bcl-2 and Bax. We also investigated the effects of BR on cell proliferation using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, and used Western blot analysis to measure changes in expression of the cell cycle phase regulators. Results 1) Serum deprivation significantly induced the loss of cell viability, the formation of ROS, the reduction of SOD activity, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. However, BR extract reversed these effects in dose-dependent manner. 2) Serum deprivation significantly reduced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed that serum deprivation significantly decreased cyclinD1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) expression, and increased p27 expression. On the other hand, BR dose dependently reversed these effects. Conclusion This study suggests that aqueous extract of BR may exert potent antioxidant effects and also play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression during neurogenesis. These effects of BR may be a potentially important mechanism of antidepressant underlying the observed antioxidant and proliferative effects. PMID:23483021

  14. Lipid Regulation Effects of Raw and Processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome on Steatotic Hepatocyte L02 Cell

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Yang, Caixia; Zhao, Ronghua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7α. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27642594

  15. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  16. Lateral Entry of Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    completion is accounted for in the training costs used here.) There is evidence that people with post -secondary education, the most likely lateral entrants...between worker and ocupation . Untrained entrants typically sign on for a specialty with little or no experience. -, 18 x, .. The military bears the risk

  17. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  18. Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Don M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  20. Lateral Inhibition during Nociceptive Processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-02-11

    Spatial summation of pain is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is sub-additive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for sub-additive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit spatial summation of pain, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2-laser. Lines (5mm wide) of variable lengths (4cm, 8cm) were compared to two-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared to one-point control stimuli, two-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant spatial summation of pain, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by two-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that two-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the two-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits spatial summation of pain and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary lateral sclerosis, juvenile Merck Manual Consumer Version: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases Patient Support and ... domains, is mutated in a form of recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2):160-5. ...

  2. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Song; Wu-lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-hua, Zhang; Xiang-cai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. Materials and Methods: The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. Conclusion: The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. SUMMARY H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. “↑” and “↓” represent activity or content “up” and “down” respectively. PMID:27019566

  3. Simultaneous detection of eight active components in Radix Tinosporae by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiuyue; Hashi, Yuki; Chen, Zilin

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight major active components (magnoflorine, menisperine, 20-hydroxyecdysone, cepharanthine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, columbin, and palmatine) in Radix Tinosporae. The separation was performed on an InterSustainSwift C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 id × 100 mm) at 40 °C with a gradient elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (v/v = 1:1) and ammonium acetate buffer (25 mmol/L ammonium acetate with 0.2% formic acid) were used as mobile phases, and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. The recovery was tested in real samples and calculated to be 86.97-111.28%, and all the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.998) in relatively wide concentration ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of eight active compounds in real herb samples, which were collected from four different places. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method has great potential for the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Tinosporae.

  4. Development of an in-line HPLC fingerprint ion-trap mass spectrometric method for identification and quality control of Radix Scrophulariae.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Chan, Chi-on; Xu, Lijia; Jin, Dengping; Cao, Xinwei; Mok, Daniel K W; Parekh, H S; Chen, Sibao

    2011-12-05

    Chromatographic fingerprinting has been widely accepted as a crucial method for qualitative and quantitative analyses of bioactives within traditional Chinese medicine. A fingerprint provides detailed information, specific for any given herb, thus facilitating the quality control measures of a given traditional Chinese medicine. In this article, quality assessment of Radix Scrophulariae was achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography combining diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). Eight batches of sample obtained from different origins in China were used to establish the fingerprint and quantitative analyses. By comparing the retention times, UV and MS spectral data with reference standards, four characteristic peaks in the chromatograms were confirmed as corresponding to acetoside, angoroside C, cinnamic acid, and harpagoside. In addition, other two characteristic peaks were tentatively identified, following the literature interpretation of HPLC-ESI-MS and LC-MS/MS (affording structural information) to be sibirioside A and scrophuloside B(4), respectively. The results indicated that the newly developed HPLC-DAD-MS fingerprint method would be suitable for quality control of Radix Scrophulariae.

  5. Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhapontici Radix Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and Induction of HO-1 in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Yim, Nam-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rhapontici Radix (RR) has been used in traditional medicine in East Asia and has been shown to have various beneficial effects. However, its biological properties or mechanism on inflammation-related diseases is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhapontici Radix ethanol extract (RRE). The inhibitory effect of RRE on the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory-related proteins, and mRNAs in LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined by the Griess assay, ELISA, Western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment with RRE significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity. We also found that RRE strongly suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and induced HO-1 expression. It also prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by RRE. These findings suggest that RRE may operate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. Our results suggest that RRE has potential value as candidate to inflammatory therapeutic phytomedicine. PMID:27524868

  7. A pre-classification strategy based on UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS for metabolic screening and identification of Radix glehniae in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Qi, Pengcheng; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Li, Song; Liu, Minyan; Wang, Qiao; Jin, Shumin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have gained increasing popularity in modern society. However, the profiles of TCMs in vivo are still unclear owing to their complexity and low level in vivo. In this study, UPLC-Triple-TOF techniques were employed for data acquiring, and a novel pre-classification strategy was developed to rapidly and systematically screen and identify the absorbed constituents and metabolites of TCMs in vivo using Radix glehniae as the research object. In this strategy, pre-classification for absorbed constituents was first performed according to the similarity of their structures. Then representative constituents were elected from every class and analyzed separately to screen non-target absorbed constituents and metabolites in biosamples. This pre-classification strategy is basing on target (known) constituents to screen non-target (unknown) constituents from the massive data acquired by mass spectrometry. Finally, the screened candidate compounds were interpreted and identified based on a predicted metabolic pathway, well - studied fragmentation rules, a predicted metabolic pathway, polarity and retention time of the compounds, and some related literature. With this method, a total of 111 absorbed constituents and metabolites of Radix glehniae in rats' urine, plasma, and bile samples were screened and identified or tentatively characterized successfully. This strategy provides an idea for the screening and identification of the metabolites of other TCMs.

  8. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in a syringe filter for determination of triazine herbicides in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Qun; Xu, Bo; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xinghua

    2016-02-01

    A novel, cost-effective and simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method, by using a syringe connected with a nylon membrane filter as the adsorbent container, was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides from Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) samples. The selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized with the template of atrazine were employed as the adsorbents for the enrichment and purification of analytes. The extraction parameters, including the volume and type of loading solvent, the type of washing solvent and eluting solvent, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the final extracts were analyzed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Recoveries of the developed method range from 92.4% to 107.3% with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 8.2%. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.005-2.4 µg g(-1) for desmetryn, atrazine and terbumeton, and 0.005-1.5 µg g(-1) for dimethametryn and dipropetryn, with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.9995. The limits of detection (LODs) of five triazine herbicides are in the range of 0.09-0.39 ng g(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by various official organizations. Analytical results of three real Radix Paeoniae Alba samples indicate that the proposed method is cost-effective and easy-to-use than other routine pretreatment methods.

  9. Onjisaponin B Derived from Radix Polygalae Enhances Autophagy and Accelerates the Degradation of Mutant α-Synuclein and Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An-Guo; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Xu, Su-Wei; Chan, Wai-Kit; Ng, Choi-In; Liu, Liang; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi) were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalae—i.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B—onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level. PMID:24248062

  10. Simultaneous qualification and quantification of eight triterpenoids in radix achyranthis bidentatae by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun; Song, Yue; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Yan-Jing

    2007-04-01

    An HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and ESI-MS was established for the simultaneous determination of eight triterpenoids in Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a Zorbax C18 column by linear gradient elution with 0.08% v/v aqueous formic acid and ACN as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Temperature for the detector drift tube was set at 101 degrees C and the nitrogen flow rate was 2.8 L/min. The identities of the analytes were accomplished by comparing retention times and mass data with those of reference compounds. The validation of the method included tests of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, recovery, and stability. All the calibration curves of the eight triterpenoids showed good linear regression (R2 >0.997) within the test ranges. The method provides desirable repeatability with overall intra- and interday variations of less than 4.9%. The obtained recoveries varied between 93.6 and 98.1% while the RSDs were below 3.9% (n = 3). The analysis results indicate that the content of investigated triterpenoids in Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae from different locations was greatly diverse, and the triterpenoids could be used as chemical markers for the discrimination of genuine and ungenuine crude drugs.

  11. Quantification of two polyacetylenes in Radix Ginseng and roots of related Panax species using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hua; Lee, Che-Sum; Leung, Kit-Ming; Yan, Zhong-Kai; Shen, Bai-Hua; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2007-10-31

    A sensitive method for quantitating the pharmacologically active polyacetylenes panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Ginseng was developed using a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method. The detection mode of selected ion monitoring (SIM) allowed sensitive and selective quantitation of the two compounds in ginseng. Method validation showed that the GC-MS method has much lower detection and quantitation limits than the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. This indicates that GC-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of polyacetylene compounds, which have relatively low abundances compared with ginsenosides in ginseng. Based on the quantitative results of different types of ginseng herbs, it was found that the panaxydol and panaxynol contents were higher in forest ginseng than in cultivated ginseng. This method was further applied to the quantitative analyses of panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Notoginseng and American ginseng. The ratio of panaxydol to panaxynol can be utilized as a marker for differentiating ginseng, notoginseng, and American ginseng. This study introduces the first GC-MS method for the quantitative analysis of polyacetylenes in herbs of the Panax genus.

  12. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  13. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  14. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  15. Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).

    PubMed

    Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus

  16. Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma TE-8 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Cai, Weimei; Yang, Qinghui; Lu, Zhihong; Li, Jinsong; Yu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on the proliferation of esophageal carcinoma TE-8 cells and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we incubated TE-8 cells in medium containing various concentrations (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml) of the compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection and its effects on the proliferation of TE-8 cells were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, we observed the morphological changes and measured the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax) in the cells treated with different doses of the compound (low-dose group, 0.05 mg/ml; medium-dose group, 0.2 mg/ml; and high-dose group, 0.8 ng/ml) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The apoptotic index of the cancer cells treated with different doses of the compound was determined by TUNEL assay. Our results revealed that compared with the control group (untreated cells), the proliferation of the cancer cells treated with the compound was significantly inhibited (P≤0.05); the inhibition of the proliferation of the cancer cells occured in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the apoptotic rate of the cells in the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups increased significantly (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax increased significantly in the cells treated with the compound. However, the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 markedly decreased (P<0.05). With the gradual increase in the drug concentration, the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in the cancer cells were altered in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection significantly enhances the expression of pro-apoptotic genes in esophageal carcinoma TE-8

  17. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  18. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system.

  19. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer, even though in unicellular organisms it can have an important confounding effect, and can be a rich source of information on the function of genes through the detection of transfers of clusters of genes. Result We report an algorithm together with its implementation, DeCoLT, that reconstructs ancestral genome organization based on reconciled gene trees which summarize information on sequence evolution, gene origination, duplication, loss, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computed as the number of gains and breakages of adjacencies between pairs of genes. We apply DeCoLT to 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacteria genomes. Conclusion DeCoLT is able to reconstruct adjacencies in 35 ancestral bacterial genomes with a thousand gene families in a few hours, and detects clusters of co-transferred genes. DeCoLT may also be used with any relationship between genes instead of adjacencies, to reconstruct ancestral interactions, functions or complexes. Availability http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/DeCoLT/ PMID:24564205

  20. Stachyose: One of the Active Fibroblast-proliferating Components in the Root of Rehmanniae Radix (地黃 dì huáng)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; To, Ming-Ho; Lau, Kit-Man; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Cheng, Ling; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the fibroblast-proliferating activities of different Rehmanniae Radix (RR) samples and its chemical components using human normal fibroblast cells Hs27. Those active components were quantified in differently treated RR samples using UPLC so as to correlate activity with component content. Our results showed that dried RR aqueous extract exhibited the most potent fibroblast-proliferating activity. Stronger effect was observed when ethanol with heating was applied in the extraction process. Stachyose and verbascoside were demonstrated for their first time to exhibit significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast proliferation. However, the proliferating effect of dried RR extract did not correlate with the stachyose content, and verbascoside was not responsible for the fibroblast proliferative effect of RR since it was undetectable in all samples. In conclusion, stachyose only contributed in part to the activity of RR, suggesting that other active components might be present and yet to be found. PMID:24716137

  1. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  2. Synthesis of a Temperature-Sensitive Matrine-Imprinted Polymer and Its Potential Application for the Selective Extraction of Matrine from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Liu, Xu; Yang, Hua; Ren, Fan; Gan, Lizhen; Jiang, Weizhe

    2015-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive matrine-imprinted polymer was prepared in chloroform by free-radical cross-linking copolymerization of methacrylic acid at 60 °C in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, N-isopropyl acrylamide as the temperature-responsive monomer and matrine as the template molecule. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed on molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) at 50 °C. Additionally, the thermoresponsive MIP was tested for its application as a sorbent material for the selective separation of matrine from Chinese medicinal plant radix Sophorae tonkinensis. It was shown that the thermoresponsive MIP displayed different efficiency in clean-up and enrichments using the SPE protocol at different temperatures. PMID:25658797

  3. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery. PMID:26954017

  4. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  5. Rapid Characterization and Identification of Flavonoids in Radix Astragali by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Wen; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Da-yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and effective method was established for separation and characterization of flavonoid constituents in Radix Astragali (RA) by combination of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (u-HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS(n)). For three major structural types of flavonoids, the proposed fragmentation pathways and major diagnostic fragment ions of isoflavones, pterocarpans and isoflavans were investigated to trace isoflavonoid derivatives in crude plant extracts. Based on the systematic identification strategy, 48 constituents were rapidly detected and characterized or tentatively identified, many of which were first reported in RA. The u-PHLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n) platform was proved as an effective tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources.

  6. Feeble Antipyretic, Analgesic, and Anti-inflammatory Activities were Found with Regular Dose 4’-O-β-D-Glucosyl-5-O-Methylvisamminol, One of the Conventional Marker Compounds for Quality Evaluation of Radix Saposhnikoviae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Ming; Jiang, Hua; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wang, Zi-Wei; Jia, Gui-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: 4’-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (GML) is a conventional marker compound for quality control of Radix Saposhnikoviae. Despite that, neither pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic information is available with regard to GML. As such, the aim of thisstudy was to assess the conventional evaluation indices for the quality of Radix Saposhnikoviae. Materials and methods: Pyretic animal model, hot plate test, and ear edema model were established to evaluate and compare the antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effect of the chromone derivativescimifugin, prime-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN), and GML in Radix Saposhnikoviae. High performance liquid chromatography separation and analysis was used to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters. Simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid was used to investigate the metabolite profiles of PGCN and GML in gastrointestinal tract. Results: Cimifugin exerted a marked dose-dependent antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effect, whereas the effects of PGCN were relatively lower. GML had feeble pharmacodynamic effects. Pharmacokinetic study showed that only cimifugin was detected in the plasma sample of cimifugin and PGCN-treated animals, with drug concentration in the former much higher than the latter. No components were traced in the plasma samples from GML-treated rats. Stability study showed that PGCN and GML was predominantly biotransformed into cimifugin and 5-O-methyvisammiol, respectively. The latter was proven to be extremely unstable in liver tissue homogenate and plasma. Conclusions: A feeble antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities was observed when GML was orally delivered. Given that Radix Saposhnikoviae extract is generally administered orally, we speculate that this compound might be a nonpharmacolagically active agent in real usage. Thus, it might be unscientific to evaluate the quality of Radix Saposhnikoviae based on the content of GML. SUMMARY GML-derived cimifugin

  7. Simultaneous determination of the bioactive components in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Shu; Ling, Yong; Wang, Dong-Geng

    2017-02-16

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the four main bioactive compounds, i.e., baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside and wogonin in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract. Clarithromycin was used as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. The MS/MS ion transit ions monitored were 447.5 → 270.1 for baicalin, 270.1 → 168.1 for baicalein, 461.2 → 284.0 for wogonoside, 284.2 → 168.1 for wogonin and 748.5 → 158.1 for IS. Method validation was performed according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) achieved was 1.13 ng/mL for baicalin, 1.23 ng/mL for baicalein, 0.82 ng/mL for wogonoside and 0.36 ng/mL for wogonin, respectively. The calibration curves obtained were linear (r > 0.99) over the concentration range approximately 1-1000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15% and the accuracy was within ±14.7%. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Radix scutellariae extract.

  8. [Study on the identification of radix scutellariae and extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hui; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Tu, Ya

    2010-07-01

    2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was used to do the research on crude and prepared drug of radix scutellariae and the extracts of them. The results show that the holistic shape of peaks among them are similar in the FTIR spectra. In second derivative spectra, the two absorption peaks: 1,745 and 1,411 cm(-1) of processed products move to the bigger wavenumber direction, while 1,357 cm(-1) of processed products moves to the smaller wavenumber direction; There are conspicuous differences in Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy among them: Four characteristic peaks are shown between 1,300 and 1,800 cm(-1). The intensity of peak at 1,575 cm(-1) is the strongest. There are three main districts about the autopeaks of sliced scutellariae. Wine-fried scutellariae has two auto-peak districts, in which all the auto-peaks are positively correlated. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of different samples present characteristic peaks at 1,615, 1,585, 1,450 cm(-1) (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1,658 cm(-1) (=C-O ) respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. The two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra present five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 800-1,800 cm(-1) (1,366, 1,420, 1,508, 1,585, 1,669 cm(-1)). So the authors can conclude that a lot of information can be provided by macro-fingerprint technology of infrared spectroscopy which can evaluate overall quality of radix scutellariae accurately and be used to study the characteristics of relevance of crude and prepared scutellariae.

  9. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  10. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  11. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  12. Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.

    PubMed

    Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

    2013-07-01

    The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica.

  13. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  14. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis

  15. Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

    2012-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life.

  16. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  17. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in Radix Puerariae using microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Q W; Li, G H; Yang, F Q; Wang, Y; Li, Y C; Wang, Y T

    2010-01-29

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Operational conditions of MAE were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The optimized result was 65% ethanol as extraction solvent, 17mL of extraction volume, 100 degrees C of extraction temperature and 2min of hold time. A Zorbax SB C(18) (50mmx4.6mm I.D., 1.8microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 14 investigated compounds in samples were successfully identified by comparing their retention time, UV spectra and TOF mass data with the reference substances. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9997) within the test ranges. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 1.77% and 2.88%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, respectively. The result indicated that MAE and UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS system might provide a rapid method for the quality control of Radix Puerariae.

  18. Facilitated Visual Interpretation of Scores in Principal Component Analysis by Bioactivity-Labeling of 1H-NMR Spectra-Metabolomics Investigation and Identification of a New α-Glucosidase Inhibitor in Radix Astragali.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueqiu; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2017-03-06

    Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The loading plot and LC-HRMS/NMR of microfractions indicated that previously unknown long chain ferulates could be partly responsible for the observed antidiabetic activity of Radix Astragali. Subsequent preparative scale isolation revealed a compound not previously reported, linoleyl ferulate (1), showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 0.5 mM) at a level comparable to the previously studied isoflavones. A closely related analogue, hexadecyl ferulate (2), did not show significant inhibitory activity, and the double bonds in the alcohol part of 1 seem to be important structural features for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This proof of concept study demonstrates that bioactivity-labeling of the 1H-NMR spectral data of crude extracts allows global and nonselective identification of individual constituents contributing to the crude extract's bioactivity.

  19. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  20. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  1. Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1982-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are inferred, either PMMA or PBP is used, depending on the levels of involvement; when both cord and brain stem are affected. PBP is the designation. Mortality data on MND have been available for a number of countries since 1949. The coding used under international rules has varied considerably over this interval. Before 1969, hereditary muscular atrophies were included. Since 1979, no subdivision by type of MND is possible. International death rates for MND have all been rather close to 1 per 100,000 population per year, though perhaps nearer to 1.4 on the average in recent years. There has been an increasing proportion of MND deaths coded to ALS between 1949 and 1977. There is no notable geographic variation among countries, nor within countries such as the U.S. and Denmark. A slight upward trend in death rates over time in the U.S. is matched by a slight decrease in Denmark. Death rates from all sources indicate a male preponderance for ALS or MND as a whole, at about 1.5 to 1, male to female. There is also a consistent predilection by age, with few deaths under age 50 or so and a clear maximum in age-specific death rates at about age 70. This holds for both sexes. In the U.S., there is also a white-nonwhite difference, with a ratio of about 1.6:1 but with age and sex differences similar to whites. Average annual incidence rates from among white occidental populations range mostly between 0.6 and 1.8 per 100,000 population for MND and about 0.8 and 1.5 per 100,000 for ALS. Again a male predilection is seen. There is a clear maximum in age-specific incidence rates at about age 65 in all surveys except that of

  2. Cervicitis associated with lateral cervical displacement.

    PubMed

    Gjoni, Indira; Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul

    2012-01-01

    Lateral cervical displacement has been recognized as a sign of endometriosis; however, other causes of the finding have not been explored. In our experience, patients without endometriosis are presenting with lateral cervical displacement, mainly towards the left of midline. The common finding in these cases is the presence of cervicitis leading us to hypothesize the role of cervicitis in causing lateral displacement of the cervix. Future research into this area will provide us with a stronger understanding of the role that lateral cervical displacement plays in the development of pelvic pathology and the development of cervical cancer.

  3. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  4. [Influence of metal ions on stability of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside contained in Polygoni Multiflori Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-yu; Feng, Wu-wen; Li, Xiao-fei; Zhang, Ding-kun; Li, Chun-yu; Meng, Ya-kun; Bai, Zhao-fang; Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Xia, Hou-lin; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2016-01-01

    Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG. The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2-O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water

  5. Effects of radix curcumae-derived diterpenoid C on Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation and nuclear factor kappa B signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuan; Lv, Bin; Zhang, Shuo; Dai, Qun; Chen, Bing-Bing; Meng, Li-Na

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study effect of diterpenoid C extracted from radix curcumae on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected inflammation, intestinal metaplasia, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS: We used I-type H. pylori to infect human gastric epithelial gastric epithelium cell line (GES-1) cell lines, and then H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with radix curcumae (RC)-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 μg/mL) and amoxicillin. The expression of p65, IκB kinase (IKK) α and IKKγ proteins was detected with Western blotting, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and IL-4 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver18.0. For comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. If an ANOVA F value was significant, post hoc comparisons were performed between groups. If results were not normally distributed, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups of unpaired values, whereas for comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. Statistical significance was established at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The MTT assay results revealed the inhibited rate of GES-1, and indicated that the IC5 of RC-derived diterpenoid C and amoxicillin all were 5 μg/mL for gastric GES-1 cells. The expression of IL-8 was significantly increased, especially at 12 h time point; and the expression of IL-4 was decreased in H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells. After H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with RC-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations and amoxicillin, the expression of IL-8 was decreased at 12, 24, 48, 72 h points (P < 0.01), especially in high-concentration diterpenoid C (20 μg/mL) group; and the expression of IL-4 was increased, especially in moderate and high-concentration diterpenoid C (10 and 20 μg/mL) groups. RC

  6. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  7. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  8. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  9. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  10. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  11. Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

  12. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  13. Later Life: A Time to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an emerging framework for investigating and interpreting the experiences of learning in later life is presented. This framework is contextualized by a study in which the lived experiences of later-life computer learners were investigated. Significant ontological and existential interpretations from the study provided insights into…

  14. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  15. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  16. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  17. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  18. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  19. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  20. [Lateral ligament injuries of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Kriegelstein, S; Altenberger, S; Volkering, C; Röser, A; Wölfel, R

    2013-09-01

    Lateral ligament injuries are the most common sports injury and have a high incidence even in non-sportive activities. Although lateral ligament injuries are very common there is still a controversial debate on the best management. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and X-ray images help to rule out fractures. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose associated injuries. According to the recommendations of the various scientific societies the primary therapy of lateral ligament injuries is conservative. Chronic ankle instability develops in 10-20 % of patients and the instability can be a result of sensomotoric deficits or insufficient healing of the lateral ligament complex. If the patient does not respond to an intensive rehabilitation program an operative reconstruction of the lateral ligaments has to be considered. Most of the procedures currently performed are anatomical reconstructions due to better long-term results compared to tenodesis procedures.

  1. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  2. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  3. Species classification and quality assessment of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and combined chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Jie; Li, Zhen-Yu; Qin, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Li-Zeng; Guo, Xiao-Qing

    2011-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established to analyze 36 Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) samples collected from three species (Bupleurum chinense DC., B. scorzonerifolium Willd. and B. smithii Wolff.). Addition of trifluoroacetic acid into the mobile phase resulted in fingerprint chromatograms with stable baselines. There were thirty-two characteristic peaks in the standard fingerprint of B. chinense DC. Different recognition pattern methods, including similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) were utilized to analyze the 36 samples based on the contents of chemical constituents. Consistent results from SA, HCA and PCA analysis illustrated the rationalisation for why B. smithii Wolff. was not quoted in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and classified samples were in agreement with their species. PLS-DA loading plots showed the chemical markers which had the most influences on the separation among different species. However, SA, HCA and PCA could not differentiate between wild and cultivated B. chinense DC. as well as between samples from different provinces. HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provided a very flexible and reliable method for homogeneity evaluation and quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicine.

  4. Assessment of metal contamination in the Hun River, China, and evaluation of the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei as potential biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Wang, Shaofeng; Chen, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongwei; Gao, Mi; Bi, Ran; Klerks, Paul L; Wang, He; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2017-01-10

    The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-MS. The results showed that although the overall potential ecological risks of the metals were low at our sampling sites, Cd posed a noteworthy ecological risk. Strong correlations were obtained between Cd concentrations in the organisms and in the environment. The results indicated that Z. platypus and R. swinhoei can be useful biomonitoring species for assessing Cd contamination. Biomonitoring with the snail may be most effective when focused on the gonad/digestive tissue (because of the high metal accumulation there), but further work is needed to confirm this.

  5. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  6. Identification of urine tauro-β-muricholic acid as a promising biomarker in Polygoni Multiflori Radix-induced hepatotoxicity by targeted metabolomics of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Li-Long; Fan, Ya-Xi; Dong, Lei-Chi; Ma, Jiang; Dong, Xin; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-02-24

    Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been widely used as a tonic for centuries. However, hepatotoxicity cases linked to PMR have been frequently reported and appropriate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis are currently lacking. Here, an approach using UPLC-QqQ/MS-based targeted metabolomics of bile acids (BAs) complemented with biochemistry and histopathology was applied to characterize the development and recovery processes of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and to identify biomarkers. The expression of bile salt export pump (Bsep) and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) were evaluated to investigate the underlying mechanism. Steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in PMR-treated rats, which were accompanied by the elevation of serum biochemistry. The metabolic profiles of BAs were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis, hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) in serum and tauro-β-muricholic acid (TβMCA) in urine were identified as potential biomarkers for PMR-induced hepatotoxicity. The elevated expression of Bsep and decreased expression of Ntcp in the liver of PMRtreated rats indicated that hepatotoxicity was related to the disorders of BAs metabolism. Our study demonstrated that BAs may be used for clinical diagnosis of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity. Urine TβMCA was identified as a promising biomarker to facilitate the clinical monitoring of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity and may serve as potential therapeutic target.

  7. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  8. Screening anti-allergic components of Astragali Radix using LAD2 cell membrane chromatography coupled online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanni; Sun, Yueming; Fu, Jia; Kong, Liyun; Han, Shengli

    2017-02-01

    Huangqi (Astragali Radix), a traditional Chinese herb, is widely used in clinical therapy in China. In addition, an anti-allergic effect of constituents in Huangqi has been reported in the scientific literature. In the present study, cell membrane chromatography coupled online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed to screen, analyze and identify the anti-allergic components of Huangqi. The Laboratory of Allergic Disease 2 (LAD2) cell was used to establish cell membrane chromatography, which was combined with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The coupled system was then used to screen anti-allergic components from Huangqi. Effects of active components were verified by histamine release assay. A component retained on the LAD2 cell membrane chromatography was identified as formononetin. Bioactivity of formononetin was investigated by histamine release assay in LAD2 cells, and it was found that formononetin could inhibit histamine release in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 100 μm. The LAD2 cell membrane chromatography online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method is an effective technique for screening the anti-allergic components of Huangqi.

  9. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yuan, Wei; Lin, Yun-Lian; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Juan, Yi-Chen; Sun, Wan-Hua; Tsay, Huey Jen; Lee, Yu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao) contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt) was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w.) gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities. PMID:28018473

  10. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  11. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of freshwater snail (Radix balthica) to discover genes and pathways affected by exposure to oxazepam.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Jean-Yves; Bonnafe, Elsa; Klopp, Christophe; Escudier, Frédéric; Geret, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in aquatic ecosystems due to the non-efficiency of waste water treatment plants. Therefore, aquatic organisms are frequently exposed to a broad diversity of pharmaceuticals. Freshwater snail Radix balthica has been chosen as model to study the effects of oxazepam (psychotropic drug) on developmental stages ranging from trochophore to hatching. In order to provide a global insight of these effects, a transcriptome deep sequencing has been performed on exposed embryos. Eighteen libraries were sequenced, six libraries for three conditions: control, exposed to the lowest oxazepam concentration with a phenotypic effect (delayed hatching) (TA) and exposed to oxazepam concentration found in freshwater (TB). A total of 39,759,772 filtered raw reads were assembled into 56,435 contigs having a mean length of 1579.68 bp and mean depth of 378.96 reads. 44.91% of the contigs have at least one annotation. The differential expression analysis between the control condition and the two exposure conditions revealed 146 contigs differentially expressed of which 144 for TA and two for TB. 34.0% were annotated with biological function. There were four mainly impacted processes: two cellular signalling systems (Notch and JNK) and two biosynthesis pathways (Polyamine and Catecholamine pathways). This work reports a large-scale analysis of differentially transcribed genes of R. balthica exposed to oxazepam during egg development until hatching. In addition, these results enriched the de novo database of potential ecotoxicological models.

  12. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An-Guo; Kam-Wai Wong, Vincent; Zeng, Wu; Liu, Liang; Yuen-Kwan Law, Betty

    2015-01-01

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-flight mass spectrometry {UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS}. By exhibiting more potent autophagic effect in cells, the active fraction enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin, and reduces protein level and aggregation of α-synuclein in a higher extent when compared with onjisaponin B. Here, we have reported for the first time the new application of cell-based CMC and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS analysis in identifying new autophagy inducers with neuroprotective effects from Chinese medicinal herb. This result has provided novel insights into the possible pharmacological actions of the active components present in the newly identified active fraction of RP, which may help to improve the efficacy of the traditional way of prescribing RP, and also provide new standard for the quality control of decoction of RP or its medicinal products in the future. PMID:26598009

  13. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  14. Molecular study for detecting the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Imani-Baran, Abbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh Viayeh, Reza; Paktarmani, Razieh

    2012-10-26

    Fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in Iran. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana in northwestern Iran. The snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from May to December 2010 and identified. A fragment of 618 bp of 28s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DraII and AvaII enzymes. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that 3.12% of the snails were infected with F. gigantica. It was also found that the infected snails had a limited distribution over the water bodies located in the central part of the region. It was concluded that PCR-RFLP was a reliable approach to detect Fasciola infection in pond snails and may be useful to establish control measures for livestock and humans' fasciolosis in the region.

  15. Indirect identification of antioxidants in Polygalae Radix through their reaction with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and subsequent HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiyuan; Chen, Jiale; Zhou, Qinfen; Lei, Houliang; Luan, Lianjun; Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-11-01

    A rapid and efficient method for the identification of antioxidants in the traditional Chinese medicine Polygalae Radix (PR) by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS is described. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction of antioxidants with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced in comparison to the untreated sample. The identity confirmation was achieved by Q-TOF-MS/MS technique. With this method, eight components were proposed possessing potent antioxidant activity. They were identified as sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, sucrose monoester, polygalaxanthone III, tenuifoliside B, 3',6-disinapoylsucrose (DISS), sucrose diester, tenuifoliside C, respectively. DISS was proposed to be the most potent one. The antioxidant activity of DISS was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in vitro. Vitamin C (Vc) was used as positive control substance. DISS showed moderate DPPH (DISS's IC50 value was 1024.17 μg/mL, Vc's was 294.68 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 324.13 μg/mL, Vc's was 117.50 μg/mL) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. DISS can be used as a new source of natural antioxidant in foods and cosmetics.

  16. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Screening Method for the Detection of Radical-Scavenging Natural Antioxidants from the Whole Scutellariae (Radix, Stem and Leaf).

    PubMed

    Shi, Gao-Feng; Yao, Rui-Xing; Wang, Guo-Ying; Wang, Zhen-Ju; Chen, Fu-Wen

    2015-08-01

    A novel free radical reaction combined with high-performance LC-photodiode array-ESI-MS/MS screening method was developed for the detection and identification of natural antioxidants from whole Scutellariae. Six compounds and whole Scutellariae extracts were found to possess a potential antioxidant capacity, and their free radical-scavenging activities were investigated in detail. The six compounds were identified as baicalin, baicalein, scutellarin, scutellarein, wogonoside and chrystin-7-glucoronide. The present study reveals that the radical-scavenging capacities of the whole Scutellariae extracts are as follows: hydroxyl radical > superoxide radical > peroxy radical. Wogonoside showed the strongest capability for scavenging hydroxyl radical. Baicalein not only showed the strongest capability for scavenging superoxide radical but also showed capability for lipid radical; Scutellarein (Peak 5) exhibited the highest reactivity in the lipid peroxidation processes. Based on these studies, the current paper accomplishes the evaluation of activities of some important anti-radical substances extracted from the radix, stem and leaf of the whole Scutellariae.

  17. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg) or captopril (15 mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

  18. Anti-obesity effect of radix Angelica sinensis and candidate causative genes in transcriptome analyses of adipose tissues in high-fat diet-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-30

    We have previously reported that radix Angelica sinensis (RAS) suppressed body weight and altered the expression of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In the present study we performed RNA sequencing-mediated transcriptome analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-obesogenic effects of RAS in mice. The results revealed that 36 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in adipose tissues from the RAS supplementation group (DH) and control group (HC). These 36 DEGs were clustered into 297 functional gene ontology (GO) categories, among which several GO annotations and signaling pathways were associated with lipid homeostasis. Six out of the 36 DEGs were identified to be involved in lipid metabolism, with the APOA2 gene a potential anti-obesogenic influence. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-Seq was identical to the results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, RAS supplementation in HFD-induced obese mice was associated with an anti-obesogenic global transcriptomic response. This study provides insight into potential applications of RAS in obesity therapy.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of Radix Saposhnikoviae for metabolomic research.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Yue; Wang, Xin-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Lv, Lei; Zhou, Gui-chen; Chai, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2013-02-01

    In this study, metabolite profiling of Radix Saposhnikoviae from different geographical locations was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOFMS) and multivariate statistical analysis technique. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the data shows that these samples could be roughly separated into three groups: Guan Fangfeng, Kou Fangfeng and Chuan Fangfeng. The potential chemical markers were discovered through the loading plot of PCA. Based on accurate mass measurements and subsequent fragment ions of TOFMS after in-source collision induced dissociation, as well as matching of empirical molecular formulae with those of published components in the in-house chemical library, 10 potential markers, such as 4'-O-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol, cimifugin, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 3'-O-angeloylhammaudol, were tentatively identified and partially verified by the available reference standards. The results of this study indicate that it is an effective and novel approach to identify traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from different sources, and that performing quantity determination of corresponding marker compounds could optimize the quality control of TCM.

  20. A Biomedical Investigation of the Hepatoprotective Effect of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Network Pharmacology-Based Prediction of the Active Compounds and Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor-Yue; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen. However, Danshen treatment could not activate the internal enzymatic antioxidant system in ALD and NAFLD models. To further explore the hepatoprotective mechanism of Danshen, an in silico-based network pharmacology approach was employed in the present study. The pharmacological network analysis result revealed that six potential active ingredients such as tanshinone iia, salvianolic acid b, and Danshensu may contribute to the hepatoprotective effects of Danshen on ALD and NAFLD. The action mechanism may relate with regulating the intracellular molecular targets such as PPARα, CYP1A2, and MMP2 for regulation of lipid metabolism, antioxidant and anti-fibrogenesis by these potential active ingredients. Our studies suggest that the combination of network pharmacology strategy with in vivo experimental study may provide a forceful tool for exploring the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and developing novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:28335383

  1. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  2. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E

    2015-03-21

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  3. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  4. Ankle instability and arthroscopic lateral ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability.

  5. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  6. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  7. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  8. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... DW. Converging mechanisms in ALS and FTD: disrupted RNA and protein homeostasis. Neuron. 2013 Aug 7;79( ... Miller CC, Shaw CE. Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: lateral meningocele syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Connective Tissue Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ... and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Educational Resources (3 links) Disease InfoSearch: Lateral meningocele ...

  11. The laterality effect: myth or truth?

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2008-03-01

    Tzelgov and colleagues [Tzelgov, J., Meyer, J., and Henik, A. (1992). Automatic and intentional processing of numerical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 166-179.], offered the existence of the laterality effect as a post-hoc explanation for their results. According to this effect, numbers are classified automatically as small/large versus a standard point under autonomous processing of numerical information. However, the genuinity of the laterality effect was never examined, or was confounded with the numerical distance effect. In the current study, I controlled the numerical distance effect and observed that the laterality effect does exist, and affects the processing of automatic numerical information. The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks.

  12. The lateralization of symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Fleminger, J J

    1981-03-01

    An awareness of symptoms being lateralized was established in almost half of a series of 60 acutely ll schizophrenics and is reported in a further series of 16 patients with this disorder. Case illustrations are given. The symptoms most commonly showing this phenomenon were hypochondriacal delusions and hallucinations, usually of an auditory kind. Possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are discussed. Some evidence was found for a difference between the sexes in the direction of lateralization symptoms.

  13. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  14. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  15. Lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohd; Nuhmani, S; Ram, C S; Sachin, Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Muscular biomechanics characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the conditions. This article present on overview of the current knowledge on lateral Epicondylitis and focuses on Etiology, Diagnosis and treatment strategies, conservative treatment are discussed and recent surgical techniques are outlined. This information should assist health care practitioners who treat patients with this disorder.

  16. An Efficient High-performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Elaborate the Changes of Components Between the Raw and Processed Radix Aconitum kusnezoffii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Ji, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Shuang; Dong, Jie; Tan, Peng; Na, Shengsang; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crude radix Aconitum kusnezoffii (RAK) has great toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine practice proved that processing may decrease its toxicity. In our previous study, we had established a new method of RAK processing (Paozhi). However, the mechanism is yet not perfect. Objective: To explore the related mechanism of processing through comparing the chemical contents. Materials and Methods: A new processing method of RAK named stoving (Hong Zhi) was used. In particular, RAK was stored at 110°C for 8 h, and then high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) was developed for the detection of the alkaloids of the crude and processed RAK decoction pieces. Results: Thirty components of the crude RAK were discovered, among which, 23 alkaloids were identified. Meanwhile, 23 ingredients were detected in the processed RAK decoction pieces, among which, 20 alkaloids were determined yet. By comparison, eight alkaloids were found in both crude and processed RAK decoction pieces, 15 alkaloids were not found in the crude RAK, however, 10 new constituents yield after processing, which are 10-OH-hypaconine, 10-OH-mesaconine, isomer of bullatine A, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-mesaconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-aconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-hypaconine, dehydrated aconitine, 14-benzoylaconine, chuanfumine, dehydrated mesaconitine. Conclusion: The present study showed that significant change of alkaloids was detected in RAK before and after processing. Among them, the highly toxic diester alkaloids decreased and the less toxic monoester alkaloids increased. Moreover, the concentration changes significantly. HPLC-ESI-MSn are Efficient to elaborate the mechanism of reduction of toxicity and enhancement efficacy after processing. SUMMARY Stoving is a simple and effective method for the processing of radix Aconitum kusnezoffii.In the positive mode, the characteristic fragmentations of Aconitum alkaloids were obtained

  17. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (p<0.05) and the IC50 values were 69.83, 16.66 and 51.6 μM, respectively. Wogonin and oroxylin A, which were screened both from Radix scutellariae extraction and the drug-containing serum, could be selected as lead compounds to obtain good anti-hepatoma effects. The proposed comprehensive 2D CMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  18. Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Kristiina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vanneste, Steffen; Vercruysse, Steven; Boucheron, Elodie; Alard, Philippe; Chriqui, Dominique; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom

    2004-04-06

    At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root induction system, in which most xylem pole pericycle cells were synchronously activated by auxin transport inhibition followed by auxin application, was used for microarray transcript profiling. Of 4,600 genes analyzed, 906 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified that could be grouped into six major clusters. Basically, three major patterns were discerned representing induced, repressed, and transiently expressed genes. Analysis of the coregulated genes, which were specific for each time point, provided new insight into the molecular regulation and signal transduction preceding lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. The reproducible expression profiles during a time course allowed us to define four stages that precede the cell division in the pericycle. These early stages were characterized by G1 cell cycle block, auxin perception, and signal transduction, followed by progression over G1/S transition and G2/M transition. All these processes took place within 6 h after transfer from N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to 1-naphthalene acetic acid. These results indicate that this lateral root induction system represents a unique synchronized system that allows the systematic study of the developmental program upstream of the cell cycle activation during lateral root initiation.

  19. Injectable long-acting systems for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide based on mono-PEGylation and in situ formation of a PLGA depot

    PubMed Central

    Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, XiangWei; Feng, Yi; Shen, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a highly hydrophilic macromolecule, has a unique anti-ischemic action in the myocardium. One of the main problems with its use is its relatively short half-life in vivo. To solve this problem, injectable long-acting drug delivery systems, which combine mono-PEGylation (PEG, polyethylene glycol) with the in situ formation of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) depots, were tested in this study. Methods Through a moderate coupling reaction between 20 kDa amino-terminated methoxy-PEG and excessive ROP with activated hydroxyls, a long-circulating and bioactive mono-PEGylated ROP was prepared and characterized. A reasonable and applicable range of PLGA formulations loaded with the mono-PEGylated ROP were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in vivo. Results Relative to ROP, the half-life of which was only 0.5 hours, the conjugate alone, following subcutaneous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in the systemic circulation, with a mean residence time in vivo of approximately 2.76 days. In combination with in situ-forming PLGA depots, the residence time of the conjugate in vivo was prolonged further. In particular, a long-lasting and steady plasma exposure for nearly a month was achieved by the formulation comprising 40% 30 kDa PLGA in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Conclusion Long-lasting and steady drug exposure could be achieved using mono-PEGylation in combination with in situ formation of PLGA depots. Such a combination with ROP would be promising for long-term prophylaxis and/or treatment of myocardial ischemia. For high-dose and highly hydrophilic macromolecular drugs like ROP, more than one preparation technology might be needed to achieve week-long or month-long delivery per dosing. PMID:25489243

  20. Factors affecting stability of z-ligustilide in the volatile oil of radix angelicae sinensis and ligusticum chuanxiong and its stability prediction.

    PubMed

    Cui, F; Feng, L; Hu, J

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain a suitable vehicle for Z-ligustilide in the volatile oil of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Ligusticum Chuanxiong in which it is stable enough for the application in pharmaceutics, to investigate its degradation laws, and to predict its shelf-life at 25 degrees C. Factors including temperature, light, pH value, co-solvents and antioxidants can all influence the stability of Z-ligustilide, thereinto antioxidants could markedly improve its stability in aqueous solution by almost 35%. The suitable vehicle for Z-ligustilide contains 1.5% tween-80, 0.3% Vitamin C, and 20% propylene glycol (PG). Furthermore, the degradation rates of Z-ligustilide were found to conform to a rate equation following Weibull probability distribution within a range of degradation ratio, and the equation could be expressed as follow: ln ln (1/1-alpha) = ln k + m ln t. Where alpha is degradation ratio; t is time; m and k are constants relating to the degradation rate. The degradation rate will get greater as the increasing of parameter k. According to the degradation law obtained from the equation, the drug shelf-life (10% of active ingredient degraded, T90) in this vehicle was predicted to be more than 1.77 years at 25 degrees C through Arrehenius equation and accelerating experiments. The present investigation was undertaken to propose a kinetic treatment that may be applicable to any type of degradation of the active ingredient of pharmaceutical formulation, and also could provide a good foundation for the new drug development of Z-ligustilide, especially for injection formulation.

  1. Colon-derived uremic biomarkers induced by the acute toxicity of Kansui radix: A metabolomics study of rat plasma and intestinal contents by UPLC-QTOF-MS(E).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Hou, Jin-Jun; Qi, Peng; Yang, Min; Yan, Bing-Peng; Bi, Qi-Rui; Feng, Rui-Hong; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2016-07-15

    Kansui radix (KR) is a poisonous Chinese herbal medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the acute toxicity obstructs its clinical applications. To explore its acute toxicity mechanism to enhance clinical safety, a metabolomics study based on UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS(E) was performed. Wistar rats were exposed for 4h to the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts prepared from KR at a high dose (25g/kg). The contents of six different sections of rat intestine, including the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected as samples for the first time, as well as the rat plasma. The interesting results showed that only those rats exposed to the ethyl acetate extract showed a watery diarrhea, similar to the observed acute human toxicity. The identified biomarkers found in the plasma, such as phenol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate were significantly perturbed in the rats. These biomarkers are known as colon-derived uremic compounds, which were first reported with respect to KR. The three essential amino acids which produced these biomarkers were only found in the contents of colon and rectum. A hypothesis was proposed that only the colon-derived uremic compounds induced by KR might be responsible for the acute toxicity. Three traditional process methods to reduce the toxicity of KR were compared based on these biomarkers, and different levels of toxicity modulation were observed. These results may be helpful to further understand the mechanism of acute toxicity, and the relevance of the traditional process methods to ameliorate the adverse effects of KR.

  2. Sodiation-based in-source collision for profiling of pyranocoumarins in Radix Peucedani (Qianhu): utility of sodium adducts' stability with in-source collision.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Yingfei; Kang, Chen; Zhao, Haiyu; Xiang, Li; Li, Chuan; Wang, Qiao

    2017-01-19

    Full scan mode of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source offers a chance on global detection of complicated components; however, the scan mode carries significant challenges in rapidly capturing information of analysts. Sodiation-based in-source collision was proposed here, as a technique for rapid detecting untargeted analytes in full scan analysis, which was based on the stability of sodium adducts and the nonselectivity of in-source collision. Then the technique was applied to profile of angular-type pyranocoumarins (APs) in Radix Peucedani, with full scan analysis performed at two specific in-source collision energy: a high energy 50 V that is tolerated by the sodium adducts of APs, and a low energy 10 V, at which abundant adducts were offered. The spectra list of two average mass spectra was exported, and stable ions were selected based on the intensity ratio of standards at the two collision energy. Then 27 plausible [M + Na](+) m/z values of APs were acquired after filtering the fragment ion and isotope ions and validating with [M + NH4 ](+) . Eighty-two APs finally were tentatively identified based on their accurate spectral data of MS(n) , fragmentation rules, and elution order regardless of their absolute configuration, which included 25 reported APs from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. The technique provided a novel application of sodium adduct in qualitative analysis. And it was valuable for rapidly capturing information of analytes in full scan analysis, not only for APs but also for other compounds that could form sodium adducts.

  3. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  4. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  5. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  6. Lateral force microscopy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lievonen, J; Ahlskog, M

    2009-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are usually imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. However, in many applications, such as mechanical manipulation or elasticity measurements, contact mode is used. The forces affecting the nanotube are then considerable and not fully understood. In this work lateral forces were measured during contact mode imaging with an AFM across a carbon nanotube. We found that, qualitatively, both magnitude and sign of the lateral forces to the AFM tip were independent of scan direction and can be concluded to arise from the tip slipping on the round edges of the nanotube. The dependence on the normal force applied to the tip and on the ratio between nanotube diameter and tip radius was studied. We show that for small values of this ratio, the lateral force signal can be explained with a simple geometrical model.

  7. Lateral ligament reconstruction procedures for the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tourné, Y; Mabit, C

    2017-02-01

    Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.

  8. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  9. Knee ligament injury during lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Hearon, B F; Brinkley, J W; Raddin, J H; Fleming, B W

    1985-01-01

    A volunteer woman subject incurred injury to her right knee consisting of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and stretched medial collateral ligament during a lateral (+Gy) impact test. Similar injury has not been reported in the English-language literature an accidental sideward automotive crashes or lateral impact experimentation involving humans. The primary mechanism which produced this injury was external tibial rotation on the femur with the knee flexed. The factors contributing to the injury included extraordinarily forceful leg bracing by the subject, her knee joint laxity or hypermobility, and the absence of side supports to limit lower extremity flailing during the impact response. In future lateral impact tests, women subjects should be used with caution and any subject with abnormal joint mobility should be excluded from participation.

  10. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  11. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS ≥5 years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol 2016;80:935–938 PMID:27761925

  12. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades.

  13. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  14. Ampelopsis Radix Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Toxicity in Parkinson's Disease Models In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jin Sup; Lee, Hyejung; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-01-01

    Ampelopsis Radix, the root of Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Vitaceae), is a herbal medicine which has been widely used in East Asia. The present study was done to explore whether the standardized extract of Ampelopsis Radix (AJW) protects dopaminergic neurons via antioxidant mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. The effects of AJW on primary mesencephalic cultures stressed with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium were investigated using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and reactive oxygen species measurement. The eliminative effects of AJW on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals were explored using colorimetric methods. The effects of AJW on the mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) were determined by pole test as well as TH and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunohistochemistry. AJW protected dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation in vitro. Moreover, AJW showed potent radical scavenging activities in vitro. In the mouse PD model, AJW protected the dopaminergic neurons in the brain, leading to motor improvements. AJW inhibited the MPTP-evoked accumulation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the brain. These data suggest that AJW has neuroprotective effects with antioxidant mechanisms in PD models. PMID:24204389

  15. The Assessment of Cerebral Laterality: The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory (LAI), an instrument for determining cerebral laterality, was administered to 1,000 undergraduates to determine the ability of the LAI to discriminate between right- and left-dominant groups. Each S was administered the LAI, a 45-item verbal report instrument which assesses both fine and gross…

  16. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  17. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  18. The potential lateral growth of lithalsas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissart, Albert; Calmels, Fabrice; Wastiaux, Cécile

    2011-03-01

    The lithalsas in the Hudson Bay region of northern Québec, Canada, are the closest modern analogs of ancient features that collapsed to form conspicuous circular depressions ("viviers") common in the Hautes-Fagnes, a region in Belgium. Observations made in both regions are complementary and suggest that these mounds formed by frost heaving displacing soil not only upward, as previously assumed, but also laterally. This lateral displacement is consistent with diverse observations and inferences, which include (1) the simple rounded outline, either circular or oval, typical of both active and relic lithalsas; (2) evidence of local lateral extension inferred from exposures of the relic forms; (3) the relative inefficiency of solifluction in accumulating surface material to form the peripheral ramparts of remnant lithalsas due to the very gentle slopes of the mounds; and (4) the dip of ice lenses within a lithalsa in the Hudson Bay region, perhaps indicating that the freezing front dipped outward along its periphery. The growth of segregation ice is the primary driver for the vertical growth and lateral enlargement of a lithalsa.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise.

  20. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  1. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  2. Clinical Psychology and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pagnini, Francesco; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Banfi, Paolo; Corbo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians. PMID:21833203

  3. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  4. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2016-07-12

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  5. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  6. Imaging appearances of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chien, Alexander J; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Femino, John E; Hayes, Curtis W

    2004-01-01

    Six patients were retrospectively identified as having undergone lateral ligament reconstruction surgery. The surgical procedures were categorized into four groups: direct lateral ligament repair, peroneus brevis tendon rerouting, peroneus brevis tendon loop, and peroneus brevis tendon split and rerouting. At radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of one or more suture anchors in the region of the anterior talofibular ligament indicates direct ligament repair, whereas a fibular tunnel indicates peroneus brevis tendon rerouting or loop. Both ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging demonstrate rerouted tendons as part of lateral ankle reconstruction; however, MR imaging can also depict the rerouted tendon within an osseous tunnel if present, especially if T1-weighted sequences are used. Artifact from suture material may obscure the tendon at MR imaging but not at US. With both modalities, the integrity of the rerouted peroneus brevis tendon is best evaluated by following the tendon proximally from its distal attachment site, which typically remains unchanged. The rerouted tendon or portion of the tendon can then be traced proximally to its reattachment site. Familiarity with the surgical procedures most commonly used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction, and with the imaging features of these procedures, is essential for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and ensuring accurate assessment of the ligament reconstruction.

  7. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  8. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  9. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  10. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  11. Defining Mental Health in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…

  12. Piston measurement by quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Soazic; Rouyer, Claude; Marre, Gabrielle; Blanchot, Nathalie; Montant, Sébastien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2006-09-01

    We present what is to our knowledge a new method for measuring the relative piston between two independent beams separated by a physical gap, typical of petawatt facilities. The feasibility of this measurement, based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally: piston has been measured with accuracy and sensitivity better than 50 nm.

  13. Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.

  14. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  15. Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

  16. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  17. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  18. Laterality, Implicit Memory, and Attention Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Geraldine A.; Brown, Geoffrey

    1991-01-01

    Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…

  19. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  20. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    2016-09-08

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  1. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…

  2. Measuring acetabular component position on lateral radiographs - ischio-lateral method.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Tiberi Iii, John V; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of arthritis and postoperative assessment of arthroplasty treatment is observation and measurement from plain films, using the flm edge for orientation. A more recent employment of an anatomical landmark, the ischial tuberosity, has come into use as orientation for evaluation and is called the ischio-lateral method. In this study, the use of this method was evaluated as a first report to the literature on acetabular component measurement using a skeletal reference with lateral radiographs. Postoperative radiographs of 52 hips, with at least three true lateral radiographs taken at different time periods, were analyzed. Component position was measured with the historical method (using the flm edge for orientation) and with the new method using the ischio-lateral method. The mean standard deviation (SD) for the historical approach was 3.7° and for the ischio-lateral method, 2.2° (p < 0.001). With the historical method, 19 (36.5%) hips had a SD greater than ± 4°, compared to six hips (11.5%) with the ischio-lateral method. By using a skeletal reference, the ischio-lateral method provides a more consistent measurement of acetabular component position. The high intra-class correlation coefficients for both intra- and inter-observer reliability indicate that the angle measured with this simple method, which employs no further technology, increased time, or cost, is consistent and reproducible for multiple observers.

  3. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  4. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  5. Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation by modulating transforming growth factor-β/smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WEIJUAN; LI, LIN; TIAN, XIAOPENG; YAN, JINJIN; YANG, XINZHENG; WANG, XINLONG; LIAO, GUOZHEN; QIU, GENQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) is capable of protecting against liver fibrosis in rats. The hypothesis of the present study was that APE exerts its anti-fibrotic effect by mediating the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a series of assays were designed to detect the effects of APE on cell proliferation, cell invasion and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, the effects of APE on the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were explored, with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms. HSCs were initially isolated from normal rat liver. A number of assays were then employed in order to evaluate the effects of APE on the function of these cells. Cell proliferation was investigated using an MTT assay and cell invasion was observed with the use of transwell invasion chambers. Collagen synthesis was measured with a 3H-proline incorporation assay and expression of α-smooth muscle actin was used to determine the extent of HSC activation. Protein expression induced by TGF-β1 in HSCs was investigated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transcriptional activity was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that APE (5–80 μg/ml) significantly inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and activation of HSCs induced by TGF-β1 were disrupted by treatment with APE in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 was observed to increase the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, while APE administered at higher doses produced inhibitory effects on Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In addition, administration of APE abrogated the TGF-β1-induced reduction in Smad-7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results further indicated that APE treatment not only

  6. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  7. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  8. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  9. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  10. Epidural Abscess Masquerading as Lateral Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Brodner, David C.; Cutler, Jeff; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants, the evacuation of the sinus, or the use of medical treatment alone surrounds the treatment of lateral sinus thrombosis. Treatment of an epidural abscess associated with coalescent mastoiditis is much less controversial-drainage is usually recommended. The differing treatments of these complications mandate accurate diagnosis. The advent of more sophisticated radiological studies has facilitated diagnosis of these complications; however, tests are not infallible. We present three cases in which preoperative imaging demonstrates an epidural abscess mimicking lateral sinus thrombosis by compression of the vessel. A false-positive computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study may lead to the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, improper treatment. In light of this possibility, we recommend surgical exploration in all such cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171148

  11. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  12. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  13. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  14. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment. PMID:28165384

  15. Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spread Displacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    available from these larger events, however, is too meager to provide adequate statistical constraint on the regression analysis. Thus, extrapolation to...the lateral spreads that developed in the South of Market and Mission Creek zones of San Francisco during the 1906 earthquake moved only about 10% to...History Database (After Bartlett and Youd, 1992) 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Coyote Creek Bridge near Milpitas, California Mission Creek Zone in San

  16. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  17. Laterally-Biased Quantum IR Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid 28040 SPAIN EOARD Grant 12-3006 Report Date: October 2013 Final...Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid 28040 SPAIN 8. PERFORMING...Z39-18 Laterally-biased quantum IR detectors – Report Nov 2013 1 EOARD - Award No. FA8655-12-1-3006 Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos

  18. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Forkel, Stephanie J; Simmons, Andrew; Vergani, Francesco; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-09-18

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention is characteristic of most humans, but its anatomical basis remains unknown. We report the first evidence in humans for a larger parieto-frontal network in the right than left hemisphere, and a significant correlation between the degree of anatomical lateralization and asymmetry of performance on visuospatial tasks. Our results suggest that hemispheric specialization is associated with an unbalanced speed of visuospatial processing.

  19. [Surgical anatomy of the lateral ventricles].

    PubMed

    Lejeune, J-P; Baroncini, M; Peltier, J; Le Gars, D

    2011-01-01

    The lateral ventricle is a deep-seated cavity, overlayed by a cortical mantle which contains eloquent areas, especially on the dominant hemisphere, and surrounded by the optic radiations. The surgical approach requires a thorough preoperative reflexion based on magnetic resonance imaging, in order to understand the site of origin and the vascular pedicles of the tumor. Surgical approaches to the frontal horn, temporal horn and atrium are successively described.

  20. Evaluation and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valadi, Nojan

    2015-06-01

    Motor neuron diseases can cause progressive impairment of voluntary muscles of movement, respiration, speech, and swallowing. This review discusses the most common motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of ALS, and its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. A coordinated approach by the primary care physician and neurologist is necessary with a focus on treatment options, durable medical equipment needs, and end-of-life discussions.

  1. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  2. Perturbations Caused by Lateral Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Harris, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. Interpreting the records from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the insulating layer in which the gauges are mounted can differ signifcantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian code calculations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength, and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress-time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials.

  3. Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92%) have got successful block with no significant complication in any case. PMID:20885867

  4. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  5. Lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines of palaeo-ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, C. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of sedimentation at ice-stream lateral margins is important in reconstructing the dynamics of former ice sheets and modelling the mechanisms by which sediment is transported beneath contemporary ice streams. Theories of the formation of ice-stream lateral moraines (ISLMs) have hitherto been based on a relatively limited number of terrestrial and marine examples. Here, an inventory of ISLMs is compiled from available studies, together with independent analysis of seismic-reflection and bathymetric datasets. The locations and dimensions of 70 ISLMs, alongside a synthesis of their key architectural and geomorphic characteristics, are presented. Two different types of ISLMs are identified. Type 1 ISLMs are up to 3.5 km wide and 60 m thick. They maintain a constant width, thickness and cross-sectional shape along their length. Type 1 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral shear-moraines that form subglacially in the shear zone between ice streams and slower-flowing regions of an ice sheet. In contrast, Type 2 ISLMs are up to 50 km wide and 300 m thick. They are only identified close to the shelf break in the marine environment. Type 2 ISLMs exhibit an increase in width and thickness along their length and their distal slopes become steeper in a seaward direction. They contain internal dipping reflections that indicate sediment progradation away from the former ice stream. Type 2 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral marginal-moraines that were formed at the lateral boundary between ice streams and seafloor terrain that was free of grounded ice. We suggest that, using bathymetric images and acoustic profiles, it is possible to differentiate between ice-stream lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines in the geological record. This distinction is important for understanding the mechanisms of sediment transfer beneath ice streams and for making inferences about the conditions that existed

  6. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  7. [How to understand the excessive lateral rectus muscle recession].

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaoli; Wei, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Surgical treatments of intermittent exotropia include symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession, symmetric bilateral medial rectus resection, asymmetric monocular lateral rectus recession and/or medial rectus resection, in which lateral rectus recession is the most common method. The maximum amount of lateral rectus recession, however, is still controversial. Bilateral lateral rectus recession 7-8 mm for 35(Δ)-40(Δ) exotropia and unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection for exotropia larger than 40(Δ) are suggested by most doctor usually. But some other doctors advocated augmented bilateral lateral rectus recession (9-14 mm ) for exotropia larger than 50(Δ) or augmented unilateral lateral rectus recession for moderate angle exotropia (30(Δ)-35(Δ)), which brought confusion in practical clinical work. In this paper, we'll focus on the amount of lateral rectus recession, and discuss several common issues related to augmented lateral rectus recession, in order to provide references for the majority of clinicians.

  8. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  9. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

  10. Laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2014-08-01

    It is known that sudden sensorineural hearing loss and other otoneurologic diseases, such as tinnitus or Ménière disease, occur more frequently in the left ear than in the right. We studied lateralization of sudden deafness in 489 patients treated at Radebeul Hospital from January 2004 to December 2009. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.24; we found a predominance of the left side only in female patients. The cause for this predominance is unclear. The slight asymmetry might indicate a greater vulnerability of the left inner ear in women, suggesting hormonal factors in the genesis of sudden deafness.

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Matin, Marzieh; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous and erosive mucocutaneous disease. Rarely, it occurs in patients with other autoimmune disease. The relation between PV and neurological disorders is unclear and needs to be more studied. Here, we report a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), followed by dermatologic involvement. Histopathological evidence and direct immunofluorescence are consistent with PV. Systemic corticosteroid and azathioprine were effective in the treatment of mucocutaneous lesions. PV seems to be accidentally associated with ALS. Expression of major histocompatibility complex Class II in autoimmune disease and production of autoantibodies have been proposed to describe the association of PV with ALS. PMID:28163728

  12. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145

  13. The changing scene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Robberecht, Wim; Philips, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Several recent breakthroughs have provided notable insights into the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with some even shifting our thinking about this neurodegenerative disease and raising the question as to whether this disorder is a proteinopathy, a ribonucleopathy or both. In addition, these breakthroughs have revealed mechanistic links between ALS and frontotemporal dementia, as well as between ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as the cerebellar atrophies, myotonic dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. Here, we summarize the new findings in ALS research, discuss what they have taught us about this disease and examine issues that are still outstanding.

  14. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  15. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  16. Quantifying disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic.

  17. Strategy of integrated evaluation on treatment of traditional Chinese medicine as 'interaction of system to system' and establishment of novel fuzzy target contribution recognition with herb-pairs, a case study on Astragali Radix-Fructus Corni.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cheng, Xinwei; Zhang, Zhengwei; Fan, Kailei; Qiao, Fengxian; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2016-10-15

    To date, in the struggle against diseases and the development of TCM, what we lack is wisdom rather than knowledge. Studies on pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine are facing critical challenges on how to select the proper parameters or targets to represent the pharmacological evaluation system. With seven steps of optimized modules established by ourselves, we can re-evaluate TCM in a panorama view with a proper pharmacological evaluation system. In this article, with the treatment of TCM as 'interaction of system to system', a novel and generally applicable approach called fuzzy target contribution recognition was established and agents from Astragali Radix-Fructus Corni in resisting diabetic nephropathy were successfully discovered for the first time. CG6, a promising agent from this herb-pair on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, was finally acquired and its possible molecular mechanism was explored through a nuclear factor erythroid 2-Like 2 (NFE2L2) activation-dependent pathway.

  18. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  19. A novel approach to rapidly explore analytical markers for quality control of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract granules by robust principal component analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Zhou, Yan; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-11-02

    In a well-controlled experiment, outliers discriminated by robust principal component analysis (RPCA) represent contents in samples which are of particular quality distinguishable from the rest of the others, therefore chemical constituents in a natural product causing discrimination between outliers and the majority of samples could be considered as analytical markers for quality control. Based on this strategy, a novel approach for rapidly exploring characteristic analytical markers was proposed for the quality control of extract granules of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (EGRSM). In this study, large sizes of samples were analyzed via high-throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS). RPCA was first performed on the three groups of samples: RSM (the raw material), the in-house prepared aqueous extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (AERSM) and commercial product of EGRSM, to determine the variation of specific constituents between raw material and the final products as well as the effect of manufacturing process on the overall quality. Then RPCA was performed on the commercial products of EGRSM to explore the applicability of identified characteristic markers for the quality control of EGRSM. Candidate markers were extracted by RPCA, and their molecular formulae were determined by high resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analysis. The suitability of identified markers was then evaluated by determining the relationship between quantities of the identified markers with their antioxidant activities biologically, and further confirmed in a variety of samples. In conclusion, the combination of RPCA with UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS is a reliable means to identify chemical markers for evaluating quality of herbal medicines.

  20. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  2. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  3. Lateral epicondylalgia: midlife crisis of a tendon.

    PubMed

    Luk, James K H; Tsang, Raymond C C; Leung, H B

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis and management of lateral epicondylalgia, or tennis elbow, a common ailment affecting middle-aged subjects of both genders continue to provoke controversy. Currently it is thought to be due to local tendon pathology, pain system changes, and motor system impairment. Its diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a classical history, as well as symptoms and signs. In selected cases, additional imaging (X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) can help to confirm the diagnosis. Different treatment modalities have been described, including the use of orthotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, topical glyceryl trinitrate, exercise therapy, manual therapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, acupuncture, taping, platelet-rich plasma injections, hyaluronan gel injections, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Nevertheless, evidence to select the best treatment is lacking and the choice of therapy depends on the experience of the management team, availability of the equipment and expertise, and patient response. This article provides a snapshot of current medical practice for lateral epicondylalgia management.

  4. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  5. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons.

  6. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view.

  7. ERAMOSA controls lateral branching in snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Mizzotti, Chiara; Galliani, Bianca M.; Dreni, Ludovico; Sommer, Hans; Bombarely, Aureliano; Masiero, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Plant forms display a wide variety of architectures, depending on the number of lateral branches, internode elongation and phyllotaxy. These are in turn determined by the number, the position and the fate of the Axillary Meristems (AMs). Mutants that affect AM determination during the vegetative phase have been isolated in several model plants. Among these genes, the GRAS transcription factor LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls) plays a pivotal role in AM determination during the vegetative phase. Hereby we characterize the phylogenetic orthologue of Ls in Antirrhinum, ERAMOSA (ERA). Our data supported ERA control of AM formation during both the vegetative and the reproductive phase in snapdragon. A phylogenetic analysis combined with an analysis of the synteny of Ls in several species strongly supported the hypothesis that ERA is a phylogenetic orthologue of Ls, although it plays a broader role. During the reproductive phase ERA promotes the establishment of the stem niche at the bract axis but, after the reproductive transition, it is antagonized by the MADS box transcription factor SQUAMOSA (SQUA). Surprisingly double mutant era squa plants display a squa phenotype developing axillary meristems, which can eventually turn into inflorescences or flowers. PMID:28145519

  8. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  9. Field dependence, laterality and the EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K P; Shaw, J C

    1978-03-01

    There is evidence that an individual's 'cognitive style' is related to lateralization of function in the brain, and that this in turn is associated with characteristic EEG coherence spectra. We tested the hypothesis that field dependence (a measure of cognitive organization) and hand preference (a measure of functional organisation) relate to EEG coherence measures in a specific way. The predicted associations were based on the proposal that right preferent individuals have a more specific, and left preferents a more diffuse, system of functional units in the cortex. The association between alpha band resting EEG coherence (sampled on two occasions for both hemispheres from 12 right and 12 left preferent individuals), field dependence (Nyborg's criterion of frame dependence on a rod and frame test), and laterality scores (questionnaire and manual performance), was measured by Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Significant associations support the proposed model except for coherence within the left preferents' right hemisphere. It is argued that the right hemisphere is more specifically organised in strong sinistrals than the general model would predict. These and other results support the use of EEC coherence measures in the study of cerebral functional organisation.

  10. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  11. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing.

  12. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  13. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Jung, H H; Neumann, M; Bloch, K E

    2012-07-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents the most common motoneuron disorder in adulthood. It is characterized by selective degeneration of the motoneurons. About 10% of patients have a genetically determined ALS. Clinically, ALS is characterized by coexistence of signs of the first motoneuron, such as spasticity and hyperreflexia, as well as the second motoneuron, such as muscular atrophy and fasciculations. If such signs are present in at least three regions and if other possible causes have been excluded, a definite diagnosis of ALS can be made based on the revised El-Escorial criteria. Initial manifestations are often focalized and generalization develops during the course. The glutamate antagonist riluzole is worldwide the only approved ALS treatment. However, symptomatic treatments to ameliorate spasticity, drooling, speech and swallowing problems, and assisted ventilation to treat respiratory failure are essential.

  14. Lateral Hypothalamic Circuits for Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in non-restricted animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing 1000’s of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking, and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has utilized contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala, and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  15. Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Timothy J; Drazer, German; Frechette, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve.

  16. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  17. On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bellyustin, N.S.

    1995-02-01

    Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

  18. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  19. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A; Sweeney, B J; Connolly, S

    2001-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  1. Towards superlattices: Lateral bipolar multibarriers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drienovsky, Martin; Schrettenbrunner, Franz-Xaver; Sandner, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tkatschenko, Fedor; Richter, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    We report on transport properties of monolayer graphene with a laterally modulated potential profile, employing striped top gate electrodes with spacings of 100 to 200 nm. Tuning of top and back gate voltages gives rise to local charge carrier density disparities, enabling the investigation of transport properties either in the unipolar (nn') or the bipolar (np ') regime. In the latter, pronounced single- and multibarrier Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances occur. We present measurements of different devices with different numbers of top gate stripes and spacings. The data are highly consistent with a phase coherent ballistic tight-binding calculation and quantum capacitance model, whereas a superlattice effect and modification of band structure can be excluded.

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  3. [Dysphagia with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Fumiko

    2011-11-01

    Dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is common. The dysphagia of LMI is dynamically characterized by a failure in triggering of the pharyngeal-phase swallowing movements, reduced output, and lack of coordination (swallowing pattern abnormality). Based on accurate evaluation, we can select suitable rehabilitative approaches for individual patients, including respiratory therapy, food modification, postural changes, and oral care. We focused on the absence of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening of the unaffected side of the medullae. The movement pattern was defined as failure of bolus passage through the intact side of the UES, occurring at least once during the videofluorographic evaluation of each individual. Three abnormal patterns of UES opening were classified. The passage pattern abnormality shows the failure of the stereotyped motor sequence. For severe cases, it is necessary to consider long-term treatment, including botulinum toxin injection or surgery to prevent aspiration and adequate nutritional management.

  4. [Lateral instability of the upper ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Harrasser, N; Eichelberg, K; Pohlig, F; Waizy, H; Toepfer, A; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R

    2016-11-01

    Because of their frequency, ankle sprains are of major clinical and economic importance. The simple sprain with uneventful healing has to be distinguished from the potentially complicated sprain which is at risk of transition to chronic ankle instability. Conservative treatment is indicated for the acute, simple ankle sprain without accompanying injuries and also in cases of chronic instability. If conservative treatment fails, good results can be achieved by anatomic ligament reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments. Arthroscopic techniques offer the advantage of joint inspection and addressing intra-articular pathologies in combination with ligament repair. Accompanying pathologies must be adequately addressed during ligament repair to avoid persistent ankle discomfort. If syndesmotic insufficiency and tibiofibular instability are suspected, the objective should be early diagnosis with MRI and surgical repair.

  5. Dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Tomik, Barbara; Guiloff, Roberto J

    2010-01-01

    Dysarthria is a motor disorder of speech characterized by abnormalities of the articulation and intelligibility of speech. Phonation and the rate of facial movements may also be affected. Understanding the nature and course of dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because loss of communication prevents patients from participating in many activities, may lead to social isolation, and reduces the quality of life. The goal of management of dysarthria in ALS patients is to optimize communication effectiveness for as long as possible. The information about dysarthria in ALS is dispersed in physiological, pathological, speech therapy, otorhinolaringological and neurological publications. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the clinical features, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, investigations and management of dysarthria in ALS patients. There is a need to compare the different methods used to assess dysarthria and for controlled clinical trials to assess therapeutic strategies.

  6. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  7. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  8. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for feeding and reward.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Garret D; Wise, Roy A

    2016-02-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in well-fed animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing thousands of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has used contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding-specific circuits.

  9. Infant feeding and later obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger; Monasterolo, Ricardo Closa; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Giovannini, Marcello; Beyer, Jeannette; Demmelmair, Hans; Anton, Brigitte; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Dobrzanska, Anna; Sengier, Anne; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Cachera, Marie-Françoise Rolland; Grote, Viet

    2009-01-01

    Some 30 years ago, Günter Dörner proposed that exposure to hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters during limited, sensitive periods of early development exert programming effects on disease risk in human adults. Early programming of long term health has since received broad scientific support and attention. For example, evidence increases for programming effects of infant feeding choices on later obesity risk. Meta-analyses of observational studies indicate that breast feeding reduces the odds ratio for obesity at school age by about 20%, relative to formula feeding, even after adjustment for biological and sociodemographic confounding variables. We hypothesized that breast feeding protects against later obesity by reducing the likelihood of high weight gain in infancy, and that this protection is caused at least partly by the lower protein supply with breast milk relative to standard infant formulae (the "Early Protein Hypothesis"). These hypotheses are tested in the European Childhood Obesity Project, a randomized double blind intervention trial in more than 1,000 infants in five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain). Formula fed infants were randomized to receive during the first year of life infant formulae and follow-on-formulae with higher or lower protein contents. Follow-up at 2 years of age shows that lower protein supply with formula normalizes early growth relative to a breast fed reference group and to the WHO growth reference. These results demonstrate that modification of infant feeding practice has an important potential for long-term health promotion and should prompt a review of the recommendations and policies for infant formula composition.

  10. Lateral interactions in the outer retina.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-09-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (I(Ca)) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones.

  11. [Lateralization of the epileptic process and psychology].

    PubMed

    Preiss, J; Kristof, M

    1989-04-01

    In a group of 70 patients with a unilateral epileptic process in the temporal limbic structures, localized in the left half of the brain in 38 patients (26 men, 12 women) and in the right half of the brain in 32 patients (17 men, 15 women) the lateralization of motor functions, asymmetry of emotional mimicry, conjugated deviation of the eye bulbs, intellect, memory, psychomotor rate and personality (laterality test of Matĕjcek--Zlab, Wechsler's intellect and memory scale, Benton, Stroop, VAROS, SUPOS, DSF, Washington Psychosocial--Seizure Inventory WPSI was investigated. Patient with a left-sided epileptic process had only insignificantly lower contact with psychiatry (31.6% as compared with 40.6%). Significantly lower contacts with psychiatry were recorded in 35 patients with a predominance of emotional mimicry (while smiling) on the left (25.0% as compared with 47.1%, p less than 0.05) and particularly significantly low in 18 patients with a combination of signs left-sided epileptic process + predominance of emotional mimicry on the left + deviation of the eyeballs on the right (mathematical stimulus) + genotypical righthandedness (16.7% as compared with 42.3%, p less than 0.025). Men with a left-sided epileptic process displayed a significantly greater anxiety, in women this trend was only indicated. Four women with a left-sided epileptic process anticipating regulation of behaviour was typical, for women with a right-sided epileptic process lower autoregulating inhibitions. A left-sided epileptic process had significantly more often a favourable course of epilepsy (in 65.8% as compared with 25.0%, p less than 0.005). In psychological tests, however, the differentiating criteria were much more than the course of the disease invalid pension, contact with psychiatry and subjective need of assistance from a psychiatrist or psychologist.

  12. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  13. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  14. Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuli; Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Bai, Lijun; Dang, Jingxia; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality.

  15. Lateral and cross-lateral focusing of spherical particles in a square microchannel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Seo, Kyung-Won; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2011-02-07

    The inertial migration of particles in micro-scale flows has received much attention due to its promising applications, such as the membrane-free passive separation of particles or cells. The particles suspended in rectangular channels are known to be focused near the center of each channel face as the channel Reynolds number (R(C)) increases due to the lift force balance and the hydrodynamic interactions of the particles with the wall. In this study, the three-dimensional positions of neutrally buoyant spherical particles inside a square microchannel are measured using the digital holographic microscopy technique, and a transition from the lateral tubular pinch to the cross-lateral focusing with increasing R(C) is reported. The particles are found to migrate first in the lateral direction and then cross-laterally toward the four equilibrium positions. A general criterion that can be used to secure the fully developed state of particle focusing in Lab-on-a-Chip applications is also derived. This criterion could be helpful for the accurate estimation of the design parameters of inertial microfluidic devices, such as R(C), channel length and width, and particle diameter.

  16. All-inside, anatomical lateral ankle stabilization for revision and complex primary lateral ankle stabilization: a technique guide.

    PubMed

    Prissel, Mark A; Roukis, Thomas S

    2014-12-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common mechanical problem that often requires surgical management when conservative efforts fail. Historically, myriad open surgical approaches have been proposed. Recently, consideration for arthroscopic management of lateral ankle instability has become popular, with promising results. Unfortunately, recurrent inversion ankle injury following lateral ankle stabilization can occur and require revision surgery. To date, arthroscopic management for revision lateral ankle stabilization has not been described. We present a novel arthroscopic technique combining an arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization kit with a suture anchor ligament augmentation system for revision as well as complex primary lateral ankle stabilization.

  17. Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163563.html Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, ... weight babies may be at increased risk for mental health problems later in life, a new review suggests. ...

  18. A new mechanism for spatial pattern formation via lateral and protrusion-mediated lateral signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Ginger L.; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Tissue organization and patterning are critical during development when genetically identical cells take on different fates. Lateral signalling plays an important role in this process by helping to generate self-organized spatial patterns in an otherwise uniform collection of cells. Recent data suggest that lateral signalling can be mediated both by junctional contacts between neighbouring cells and via cellular protrusions that allow non-neighbouring cells to interact with one another at a distance. However, it remains unclear precisely how signalling mediated by these distinct types of cell–cell contact can physically contribute to the generation of complex patterns without the assistance of diffusible morphogens or pre-patterns. To explore this question, in this work we develop a model of lateral signalling based on a single receptor/ligand pair as exemplified by Notch and Delta. We show that allowing the signalling kinetics to differ at junctional versus protrusion-mediated contacts, an assumption inspired by recent data which show that the cleavage of Notch in several systems requires both Delta binding and the application of mechanical force, permits individual cells to act to promote both lateral activation and lateral inhibition. Strikingly, under this model, in which Delta can sequester Notch, a variety of patterns resembling those typical of reaction–diffusion systems is observed, together with more unusual patterns that arise when we consider changes in signalling kinetics, and in the length and distribution of protrusions. Importantly, these patterns are self-organizing—so that local interactions drive tissue-scale patterning. Together, these data show that protrusions can, in principle, generate different types of patterns in addition to contributing to long-range signalling and to pattern refinement. PMID:27807273

  19. Lateral bias, functional asymmetry, dance training and dance injuries.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: 1. provide a conceptual framework for consolidating laterality research in dance training from an interdisciplinary perspective; 2. encourage the reporting of lateral data; 3. promote the development of standardized methods for assessing lateral preference and functional asymmetry so that data sets from student screenings, lab studies, and injury reports can be compared; and 4. stimulate further laterality research in the dance studio to examine student preference and teaching bias, thereby promoting balanced training.

  20. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral... is set forth as follows: § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static...

  1. A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector is presented. It allows in a simple way to adjust the hollow retroreflectors with a lateral shifting. It enables to make the manufacturing process of adjustable lateral hollow retroreflectors easier and cheaper. The testing optical bed of this method is displayed. The evaluation of uncertainties and a limit value for this method are given.

  2. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  3. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  4. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  5. Diageotropica and lateral rooting, the rest of the story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nature of the control of lateral root initiation has been controversial for 80+ years. A mutant tomato (diageotropica), incapable of producing lateral roots, was first classified as ethylene requiring since exceptionally low concentrations of ethylene, applied to the shoot, stimulated lateral r...

  6. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Xu; Li, Jian; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. Methods: There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the

  7. Lateral transport of phosphorus along forested hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrt, Jakob; Weiler, Markus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Details about the phosphorus (P)-cycle in temperate forests are still incomplete, though there are indications that the organic topsoil acts as an important source and sink for P. It can act as a sink for P in fallen litter and as a source since the decaying biomass replenishes the pool of inorganic, water soluble and thus plant available P. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of lateral mobilization, transport and retention of total P (persulfate digestion method) in the soil at various depths of a broadleaf forest during heavy rainstorm events. On three locations in Germany, 10 m long and over 3m deep trenches were constructed to collect lateral subsurface flow from three discrete depth-layers between the soil surface and a depth of three meters. Sampling is handled through an automated system which collects flow-proportional samples in high temporal resolution. Sampling took place from March to November 2015 including more than 20 rainfall runoff events. Simultaneously to the sampling, flow rate, conductivity and temperature of the interflow was measured as well as soil moisture, rainfall and discharge in the nearest downslope spring. The results show consistently that P-concentrations in interflow samples are highest at the beginning of a rainfall-interflow-event, both for wet and dry initial conditions, and drop considerably over the course of the event until they stabilize. Secondly, P-concentration of interflow samples is by far highest in the organic topsoil, being up to one magnitude higher that in the mineral soil directly below and decreasing further with depth. This pattern applies despite the fact that there is very little temporal delay between the activation of interflow in the topsoil and deeper layers which indicates that at least some of the interflow in the topsoil ends up as interflow in deeper layers within a short time span. These results indicate that the organic topsoil contains a pool of P that is easily mobilized and

  8. Simultaneous verbal and affective laterality effects.

    PubMed

    Bulman-Fleming, M B; Bryden, M P

    1994-07-01

    By analyzing the error scores of normal participants asked to identify a specific word spoken in a specific tone of voice (for example, the word "tower" spoken in a happy tone of voice), we have been able to demonstrate concurrent verbal and affective cerebral laterality effects in a dichotic listening task. The targets comprised the 16 possible combinations of four two-syllable words spoken in four different tones of voice. There were 128 participants equally divided between left- and right-handers, with equal numbers of each sex within each handedness group. Each participant responded to 144 trials on the dichotic task, and filled in the 32-item Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Analysis of false positive responses on the dichotic task (responding "yes" when only the verbal or only the affective component of the target was present, or when both components were present but were at opposite ears) indicated that significantly more errors were made when the verbal aspect of the target appeared at the right ear (left hemisphere) and the emotional aspect was at the left ear (right hemisphere) than when the reverse was the case. A single task has generated both effects, so that differences in participants' strategies or the way in which attention is biased cannot account for the results. While the majority of participants showed a right-ear advantage for verbal material and a left-ear advantage for nonverbal material, these two effects were not correlated, suggesting that independent mechanisms probably underly the establishment of verbal and affective processing. We found no significant sex or handedness effects, though left-handers were much more variable than were right-handers. There were no significant correlations between degree of handedness as measured on the handedness questionnaire and extent of lateralization of verbal or affective processing on the dichotic task. We believe that this general technique may be able to provide information as to the nature and

  9. Dynamic cortical lateralization during olfactory discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yaniv; Putrino, David; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Odour discrimination and memory involve changes in the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. The results obtained in the present study suggest that there is an asymmetry in piriform cortical change, with learning-related changes in cortical oscillations emerging with different time courses over the course of multiday training in the left and right piriform cortices in rats. There is an initial decrease in coherence between the left and right piriform cortices during the early stages of the odour discrimination task, which recovers as the animals approach criterion performance. This decreased coherence is expressed when the animals are performing the task relative to when they are in their home cage. The results suggest a transient cortical asymmetry during learning and raise new questions about the functions and mechanisms of cerebral lateralization. Abstract Bilateral cortical circuits are not necessarily symmetrical. Asymmetry, or cerebral lateralization, allows functional specialization of bilateral brain regions and has been described in humans for such diverse functions as perception, memory and emotion. There is also evidence for asymmetry in the human olfactory system, although evidence in non-human animal models is lacking. In the present study, we took advantage of the known changes in olfactory cortical local field potentials that occur over the course of odour discrimination training to test for functional asymmetry in piriform cortical activity during learning. Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context

  10. Intrinsic Circuits in the Lateral Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah; Sun, Yajie; Klein, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Network activity in the lateral central amygdala (CeL) plays a crucial role in fear learning and emotional processing. However, the local circuits of the CeL are not fully understood and have only recently begun to be explored in detail. Here, we characterized the intrinsic circuits in the CeL using paired whole-call patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry, and optogenetics in C57BL/6J wild-type and somatostatin-cre (SOM-Cre) mice. Our results revealed that throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the CeL, neurons form inhibitory connections at a rate of ∼29% with an average amplitude of 20 ± 3 pA (at −40 mV). Inhibitory input from a single neuron is sufficient to halt firing in the postsynaptic neuron. Post hoc immunostaining for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in wild-type mice and paired recordings in SOM-Cre mice demonstrated that the most common local connections were PKCδ(−) → PKCδ(−) and SOM(+) → SOM(+). Finally, by optogenetically activating either SOM(+) or SOM(−) neurons, we found that almost all neurons in the CeL were innervated by these neuronal populations and that connections between like neurons were stronger than those between different neuronal types. These findings reveal a complex network of connections within the CeL and provide the foundations for future behavior-specific circuit analysis of this complex network. PMID:28374004

  11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-09-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot's disease or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades - or even one decade - ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion.

  12. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  13. Narrative discourse deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menaged, Anna; Olm, Christopher; McMillan, Corey T.; Boller, Ashley; Irwin, David J.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined narrative discourse in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to assess the role of executive functioning in support of language and the neuroanatomical basis for such support. Methods: We analyzed a semistructured speech sample in 26 patients with ALS and 19 healthy seniors for narrative discourse features of coherence. Regression analyses related a measure of discourse coherence (“local connectedness”) to gray matter atrophy and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy. Results: Patients with ALS were impaired relative to controls on measures of discourse adequacy, including local connectedness and maintenance of the theme. These discourse measures were related to measures of executive functioning but not to motor functioning. Regressions related local connectedness to gray matter atrophy in ventral and dorsal prefrontal regions and to reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts mediating projections between prefrontal regions. Conclusion: Patients with ALS exhibit deficits in their ability to organize narrative discourse. These deficits appear to be related in part to executive limitations. Consistent with the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem disorder, this deficit is related to disease in prefrontal regions. PMID:24991038

  14. 3D deterministic lateral displacement separation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-11-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems and the observed trajectories can be predicted based on a model developed in the 2D case. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe significant differences in the net displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. We also discuss other modifications to the obstacle array and driving forces that could enhance separation in microfluidic devices.

  15. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  16. LATER FIRST MARRIAGE AND MARITAL SUCCESS

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Norval D.; Uecker, Jeremy; Love, Robert W. B.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid twenties. PMID:22948068

  17. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers’ efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  18. Modelling suicide risk in later life.

    PubMed

    Lo, C F; Kwok, Cordelia M Y

    2006-08-01

    Affective disorder is generally regarded as the prominent risk factor for suicide in the old age population. Despite the large number of empirical studies available in the literature, there is no attempt in modelling the dynamics of an individual's level of suicide risk theoretically yet. In particular, a dynamic model which can simulate the time evolution of an individual's level of risk for suicide and provide quantitative estimates of the probability of suicide risk is still lacking. In the present study we apply the contingent claims analysis of credit risk modelling in the field of quantitative finance to derive a theoretical stochastic model for estimation of the probability of suicide risk in later life in terms of a signalling index of affective disorder. Our model is based upon the hypothesis that the current state of affective disorder of a patient can be represented by a signalling index and exhibits stochastic movement and that a threshold of affective disorder, which signifies the occurrence of suicide, exists. According to the numerical results, the implications of our model are consistent with the clinical findings. Hence, we believe that such a dynamic model will be essential to the design of effective suicide prevention strategies in the target population of older adults, especially in the primary care setting.

  19. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  20. Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

  1. Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2015-06-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS). Studies suggest that ALS is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (i.e., ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disorder is mediated non-cell autonomously, i.e., not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in the pathogenesis. Provided in this unit is a review of ALS rodent models, including discussion of their relative advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on correlating the model phenotype with the human condition and the utility of the model for defining the disease process. Information is also presented on RNA processing studies in ALS research, with particular emphasis on the newest ALS rodent models.

  2. Lateral perforation in parallel post space preparations.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, A Cemal; Alaçam, Tayfun; Topuz, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat

    2004-08-15

    This study evaluates the amount of remaining tooth structure and possibility of producing lateral perforation following the use of different diameters of parallel-sided Parapost drills in groups of different canal curvatures (0 degrees-15 degrees, 16 degrees-25 degrees, 26 degrees <) in distal canals of first and second mandibular molar teeth. After enlargement of root canals using the crown-down pressureless technique, Parapost drills #1, #2, and #3 were used in the different canal groups for the preparation of a post space. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before the post space preparation and after each Parapost drill application. Four horizontal lines (a, b, c, and d) were drawn at equal distances on these images, starting from the pulp chamber floor moving apically at 2 mm increments. There were no significant differences between the different curvature groups at the a, b, c, and d levels for the critical level of the remaining tooth structure (multiple comparison test; p>0.05). However, in considering root perforation, both at the inner and outer side of the roots, there were statistically significant differences at "c" and "d" levels in group 3 (#3 drill) without taking into account the root curvature (ANOVA; p< 0.5). None of the specimens showed strip perforation.

  3. Treatment algorithm for chronic lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Sandro; Ruffilli, Alberto; Pagliazzi, Gherardo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Evangelisti, Giulia; Buda, Roberto; Faldini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: ankle sprains are a common sports-related injury. A 20% of acute ankle sprains results in chronic ankle instability, requiring surgery. Aim of this paper is to report the results of a series of 38 patients treated for chronic lateral ankle instability with anatomic reconstruction. Materials and methods: thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical repair using the Brostrom-modified technique, while the remaining underwent anatomic reconstruction with autologous or allogenic graft. Results: at a mean follow-up of 5 years the AOFAS score improved from 66.1 ± 5.3 to 92.2 ± 5.6. Discussion: the findings of this study confirm that anatomic reconstruction is an effective procedure with satisfactory subjective and objective results which persist at long-term follow-up along with a low complication rate. No differences, in term of clinical and functional outcomes, were observed between the Brostrom-modified repair and the anatomic reconstruction technique. Level of evidence: level IV. PMID:25767783

  4. Decisional Capacity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khin Khin, Eindra; Minor, Darlinda; Holloway, Amanda; Pelleg, Ayla

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive and behavioral changes that can be observed in the neurodegenerative terminal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), once characterized as purely a motor neuron disease, have become increasingly recognized over the past century. Detecting cognitive deficits earlier and identifying continued changes at regular intervals can lead to improved care, proactive treatments, and earlier discussions about end-of-life wishes. Although medical decisional capacity is required for every treatment decision made, its importance becomes paramount when making decisions on complex medical treatments that will invariably and significantly affect quality of life or life itself. In this review, we conducted a critical analysis of the evidence-based literature on the cognitive and behavioral impairments in ALS that can compromise medical decisional capacity. We review specific ALS-related clinical scenarios in which decisional capacity is of utmost importance and discuss a practical framework for cognitive and behavioral assessment that can be routinely and efficiently used, while being mindful of the confounding factors associated with ALS. Finally, we review models for preserving patient choices that can be used in patients with ALS to help safeguard autonomy and retain dignity toward the end of life.

  5. Alcoholic Marriage: Later Start, Sooner End

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. Methods We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3575 female and 1845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Conclusions Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. PMID:21244438

  6. Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.

    PubMed

    Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-05-20

    A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins.

  7. Later first marriage and marital success.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Norval D; Uecker, Jeremy E; Love, Robert W B

    2010-09-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid-twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid-twenties.

  8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  9. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Kiri; Garrett, Andrew; Deardorff, Adam S; Rattay, Frank; Resatz, Susanne; Fyffe, Robert; Walmsley, Bruce; Leão, Richardson N

    2011-07-01

    The development of cochlear implants for the treatment of patients with profound hearing loss has advanced considerably in the last few decades, particularly in the field of speech comprehension. However, attempts to provide not only sound decoding but also spatial hearing are limited by our understanding of circuit adaptations in the absence of auditory input. Here we investigate the lateral superior olive (LSO), a nucleus involved in interaural level difference (ILD) processing in the auditory brainstem using a mouse model of congenital deafness (the dn/dn mouse). An electrophysiological investigation of principal neurons of the LSO from the dn/dn mouse reveals a higher than normal proportion of single spiking (SS) neurons, and an increase in the hyperpolarisation-activated I(h) current. However, inhibitory glycinergic input to the LSO appears to develop normally both pre and postsynaptically in dn/dn mice despite the absence of auditory nerve activity. In combination with previous electrophysiological findings from the dn/dn mouse, we also compile a simple Hodgkin and Huxley circuit model in order to investigate possible computational deficits in ILD processing resulting from congenital hearing loss. We find that the predominance of SS neurons in the dn/dn LSO may compensate for upstream modifications and help to maintain a functioning ILD circuit in the dn/dn mouse. This could have clinical repercussions on the development of stimulation paradigms for spatial hearing with cochlear implants.

  10. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view.

  11. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases.

  12. Selective attention impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Chiara; Prats Sedano, Maria Angeles; Silvoni, Stefano; Segato, Nicoletta; Cavinato, Marianna; Merico, Antonio; Piccione, Francesco; Palmieri, Arianna; Birbaumer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms). Participants had to respond to the long deviant stimuli only. During the task the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The N200, P300 and re-orienting negativity (RON) ERP components were analysed. Compared to controls ALS patients showed reduced amplitudes and delayed latencies of N200, P300 and RON. These results could be attributable to both an alteration in change detection resulting in a reduction of the allocation and re-orientation of attentional resources or a general slowing or reduction of neural processing efficiency in the same system. The ERPs results support the hypothesis that ALS involves extramotor cognitive functions including auditory attentional processing at all processing stages, early (200 ms) and late (300-600 ms). These data prove the usefulness and sensitivity of the auditory ERPs in detection of cognitive functions in ALS patients.

  13. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  14. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation seemingly increases with disease progression. Infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and T cells are associated with these areas, although with mixed reports regarding T cell composition. This literature review will provide evidence supporting the immune system as an important part of ALS disease mechanism and present a hypothesis to direct the way for further studies.

  15. Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

    1989-01-01

    The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

  16. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  17. Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Frank; Skudlarek, Anika; Berndt, Janine; Kornhuber, Malte E

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is an often underestimated and neglected symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 46 patients with ALS, 46 age- and gender matched population-based controls, and 23 diseased controls with myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps. Data were collected with the use of the short form brief pain inventory (BPI). Results Pain was reported in 78% of ALS patients,79% of DM2 patients, and 54% of controls (P < 0.05). More ALS patients than controls reported moderate to severe pain (42% vs. 20%). Pain in ALS patients interfered significantly more with daily activities than in controls (median pain interference score: 3.0 vs. 1.2, P < 0.05), especially enjoyment of life (5.0 vs. 1.0) and mood (3.0 vs. 1.0). There was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the severity of pain. Movement-induced cramps were reported in 63% of ALS patients, mostly in the distal extremities. There was no difference in the duration of ALS disease between patients reporting cramps and those who did not. Discussion Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS. PMID:25642388

  18. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-01-07

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.

  19. Diagnostic considerations of lateral column foot pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Traister, Eric; Simons, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foot maladies are often classified descriptively by general foot locations, i.e., forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot. However, common vernacular verbiage, implicating a common biomechanical purpose, also applies pathology to the medial or lateral foot column. Although imprecisely defined, lateral column injuries to the foot encompass conditions that affect any of the lateral side of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. The lateral column of the foot includes the calcaneus, the cuboid, the fourth and fifth metatarsals as well as the calcaneocuboid, cuboido-metatarsal, and intermetatarsal joints. It may be helpful to think in a "lateral column" fashion when evaluating and treating certain lateral foot injuries, load patterns, and biomechanical or anatomical faults. Misdiagnosed injuries in this area of the foot can be a source of great morbidity to the athlete. It is important for the clinician to be aware of common conditions presenting as pain to the lateral side of the foot.

  20. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217