33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
20120701
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 20120701 20120701 false ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI. 100.913 Section 100.913 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI....
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
20140701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
20100701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
20130701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
20110701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
Master Plan for Educational Facilities: Garwood, Union County, New Jersey.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhardt and Engelhardt, Inc., Purdy Station, NY.
Garwood, New Jersey, is a small borough of 0.69 square miles with an estimated population in 1978 of 4,856 persons. This master plan for educational facilities begins with an overview of the district that describes its beginnings as an industrial community. A number of maps illustrate characteristics of the area including its topography,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Gregorich, Edward G.; Elberling, Bo; Hopkins, David W.; Sparrow, Ashley D.; Novis, Philip M.; Greenfield, Lawrence G.; Simpson, Myrna J.
20101101
Despite its harsh environmental conditions, terrestrial Antarctica contains a relatively large microbial biomass. Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lakederived algae and cyanobacteria. Here we employed two complementary analytical techniques, biomarker measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solutionstate 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to provide further information at a molecularlevel about the composition and possible source of SOM in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. The predominance of branched alkanes and shortchain lipids in the solvent extracts indicates that the primary contribution to the SOM was microbialderived. Chemical structures in the NaOH extracts from soils were also dominated by amide, peptides, and a CH 3dominating aliphatic region that were characteristic of microbial signatures. Furthermore, the SOM in the Garwood Valley contained compounds that were different from those in the cyanobacteriadominated mat from a nearby lake (including monoethyl alkanes and enriched sidechain protons). This observation suggests that easily degradable carbon sources from the nearby lake did not dominate the SOM, which is consistent with a fast turnover of the matderived organic matter found in the valley. This study highlights the important role of native soil microbes in the carbon transformation and biogeochemistry in terrestrial Antarctica.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, J.; Fountain, A. G.; O'Connor, J. E.
20111201
The cold, polar desert environmental conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys serve as an analog for the physical processes thought to affect Mars. Garwood Valley, one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78°S, 164°E) has a mean annual temperature of ~255 K and experiences <50 mm of waterequivalent snowfall per year (most of which sublimates). During the last glacial maximum, the West Antarctic/Ross Ice Sheet ice filled and blocked the lower end of Garwood Valley. Despite surface temperatures ~12 K lower than at present (243 K average), alpine glacier and ice sheet melt in Garwood Valley was sufficient to form a lake in the resulting closed basin, which partly filled with a thick (>8 m) stack of deltaic and lacustrine sediments. In places, the delta sediments overlie remnants of the valleyfilling ice plug. The delta sediments are found in a complex composed of three stepped surfaces that suggest sequential lowering of the lake level via incision through the valleyfilling ice plug. The delta stratigraphy has been exposed by erosion, driven by massive ice melt and lateral erosion by the modern Garwood River (an alpine glacierfed river that flows during austral summer). Garwood delta sediments contain LGMaged algal mats, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and diatomaceous biomarker beds. Fossil algal mats are largely concentrated in delta foreset/topset beds, while carbonate and diatombearing layers are common in bottomsets. Mean annual temperatures have remained well below 273 K in Garwood Valley since delta emplacement, resulting in preservation of the lake deposits as icecemented permafrost. Where the active layer (summer thawing) intersects massive buried ice deposits, deltaic and glacial drift sediments are mobilized to form gullies, providing modern examples of cold desert gully formation processes in a highpurity ice substrate. These Antarctic conditions are strongly analogous to the climate and hydrological environment anticipated at Holden and Eberswalde craters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clayman, Dee L.
19950101
Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CDROM pictorial dictionary…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrielli, Alessandro
20160801
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and actionangle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical rmatrices and exchange relations, nonultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (nonlinear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical rmatrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, SineGordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlosshauer, Maximilian; Camilleri, Kristian
20110301
Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum—for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shed some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum—classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherenceinduced classicality and Bohr's classical concepts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyer, Timothy H.
19850101
The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zeropoint spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, James
19780101
Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always exstudents of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…
Fermions from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
20101215
We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states {tau} of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of twolevel observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p{sub {tau}} amounts to a rotation of the wave function q{sub {tau}}(t)={+}{radical}(p{sub {tau}}(t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.
A Classical Science Transformed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kovalevsky, Jean
19790101
Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)
Quirk, R
19841101
The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832
Entanglement with Classical Spinors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baylis, William E.; Johnson, Crystal
20040501
The spinor formulation of classical dynamics, which arises naturally in Clifford algebra approaches, describes particle dynamics in terms of spinor amplitudes and gives quantum mechanical, spin1/2 form to many classical expressions for particles whose dynamics can be represented by single spinor fields. Here we use tensor products of the algebra of physical space (APS)[1] to explore the quantum/classical interface and provide insight into quantum properties and, in particular, entanglement in multiparticle spin1/2 systems. Entanglement in mixedstate systems is seen as spinor (Â"quantumÂ") correlation beyond the maximum possible with classical frequencies or probabilities. The relevance to systems of qubits in a quantum computer is elaborated. [1] W. E. Baylis, Â"Applications of Clifford Algebras in PhysicsÂ", in Lectures on Clifford (Geometric) Algebras and Applications, R. Ablamowicz and G. Sobczyk, eds., Birkhäuser Boston, 2004.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
19930101
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
Subnuclear realm: classical in quantum and quantum in classical
Kosyakov, B. P.
19990311
Exact solutions in the classical YangMillsWong theory enable explaining a number of enigmatic classical features of subnuclear realm. Moreover, they reveal some unexpected quantum features of this classical treatment.
Classical dynamical localization.
Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker
20141024
We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a wellknown argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tightbinding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918
Classical Demonstration of Polarization.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauman, Robert P.; Moore, Dennis R.
19800101
Presents a classical demonstration of polarization for high school students. The initial state of this model, which demonstrates the important concepts of the optical and quantum problems, was developed during the 1973 summer program on lecture demonstration at the U.S. Naval Academy. (HM)
Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camic, Charles
20080101
They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…
Observations of classical cepheids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pel, J. W.
19800101
The observations of classical Cepheids are reviewed. The main progress that has been made is summarized and some of the problems yet to be solved are discussed. The problems include color excesses, calibration of color, duplicity, ultraviolet colors, temperaturecolor relations, mass discrepancies, and radius determination.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.
19830101
The articles in this journal issue suggest techniques for classroom use of literature that has "withstood the test of time." The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Storytelling Connection for the Classics" (Mary Ellen Martin); (2) "Elizabeth Bennet: A Liberated Woman" (Geneva Marking); (3) "Hawthorne: A Study in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles
19940101
Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huddleston, Gregory H.
19930101
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.
19730101
Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)
Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.
Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
20050101
America's few Black classics professors have overcome contempt and criticism to contribute a unique perspective to the study of the ancient world. Dr. Patrice Rankine, an associate professor from Purdue University, has grown used to the irony. As one of the few Black classicists teaching at an American university, he has drawn plenty of skepticism…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanashvily, G. A.
20141201
We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Ibram
20080101
As a 26yearold English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…
Waters, C Kenneth
20041201
I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theorybiased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in wellestablished sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the socalled laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theorybiased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554
Semiclassical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestone, John
20160301
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semiclassical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.
20120101
We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atomlaser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atomlaser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The AutlerTownes splitting due to the atomlaser interaction is analogous to the…
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
19960101
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but nonperturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbisà, Fulvio
20150101
The aim of these notes is to provide a selfcontained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cutoff, in which case the cutoff has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously.
Quantum transitions between classical histories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas
20150901
In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitterlike throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the noboundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.
Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Meter, Rodney
20140801
Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediatescale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the same time, those classical computers continue to advance, but those advances are now constrained by thermodynamics, and will soon be limited by the discrete nature of atomic matter and ultimately quantum effects. Technological advances benefit both quantum and classical machinery, altering the competitive landscape. Can we build quantum computing systems that outcompute classical systems capable of some logic gates per month? This article will discuss the interplay in these competing and cooperating technological trends.
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
20091201
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910674; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910692; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910709. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:13921406. PMID:19727989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
20070101
M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million lightyears from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. Xray data from NASA's Chandra Xray Observatory reveals pointlike sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue).
The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jumpstarting the process by which stars form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Y. R.
19901001
The two seminal papers that set the theoretical foundation of nonlinear optics were written by Bloembergen and coworkers in 1962. The first one on "Interaction between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric" by Armstrong, Bloembergen, Ducuing and Pershan1 describes mainly the wave mixing process, aside from discussions on microscopic expressions for nonlinear susceptibilities, localfield corrections, energy relations, and others. The second one on "Light Waves at the Boundary of Nonlinear Media" by Bloembergen and Pershan2 considers the boundary effects on wave mixing. Both papers are clear in concepts, but the mathematical derivations are rather difficult to digest. While most people in nonlinear optics have studied the papers, few have attempted to reproduce the equations in them. Recently, through teaching, I have found that even the derivation of an expression for the transmitted second harmonic field, ET, in a nonlinear uniaxial medium is not so simple. The ABDP paper used the slowly varying amplitude approximation to obtain ET, whereas the BP paper found ET more rigorously by taking the boundary conditions explicitly into account. It is, however, not trivial to see whether the two expressions of ET from the two papers are consistent with each other. This is actually an important issue considering that the result is the basis of all wave mixing problems. As a tribute to Prof. Bloembergen on the occasion of his 70th birday, I take the liberty to review the derivations in these masterpieces, fill in the intermediate steps in the derivations, and discuss the consistency. Hopefully, this could serve, in a small way, as a supplement to the Bloembergen classics in nonlinear optics.
Quantum mechanics from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
20100415
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics  the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the noncommuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
20120101
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter
19890101
Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…
Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohn, Jack
19800101
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Classic African American Children's Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNair, Jonda C.
20100101
The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
20160701
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRSTBFV and BV (or fieldantifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRSTBFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRSTBFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial nondegenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Classical dynamics of quantum entanglement.
Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Reslen, Jose
20120301
We analyze numerically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of two interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of ℏ. As ℏ→0 the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value. The limit law that rules the time dependence of entropy is well reproduced by purely classical computations. Its general features can be explained by simple classical arguments, which expose the different ways entanglement is generated in systems that are classically chaotic or regular. PMID:22587162
Anderson localization from classical trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander
20080801
We show that Anderson localization in quasionedimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively describe this mechanism in two different ways: the explicit description of transition probabilities in terms of interfering trajectories, and an hierarchical integration over fluctuations in the classical phase space of the array cavities.
Quantum money with classical verification
Gavinsky, Dmitry
20141204
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries  this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
The classical microwave frequency standards
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; LaurentGuy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.
19900101
Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.
Electrostatics interactions in classical simulations.
Cisneros, G Andrés; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste
20130101
Electrostatic interactions are crucial for both the accuracy and performance of atomistic biomolecular simulations. In this chapter we review wellestablished methods and current developments aiming at efficiency and accuracy. Specifically, we review the classical Ewald summations, particleparticle particlemethod particlemethod Ewald algorithms, multigrid, fast multipole, and local methods. We also highlight some recent developments targeting more accurate, yet classical, representation of the molecular charge distribution. PMID:23034752
Classical theory of radiating strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
19900101
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Quantum money with classical verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavinsky, Dmitry
20141201
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries  this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Classicality of a quantum oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadzadegan, Aida; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.
20160301
Gaussian quantum systems exhibit many explicitly quantum effects but can be simulated classically. By using both the Hilbert space (Koopman) and the phasespace (Moyal) formalisms we investigate how robust this classicality is. We find failures of consistency of the dynamics of hybrid classicalquantum systems from both perspectives. By demanding that no unobservable operators couple to the quantum sector in the Koopmanian formalism, we show that the classical equations of motion act on their quantum counterparts without experiencing any back reaction, resulting in nonconservation of energy in the quantum system. By using the phasespace formalism we study the shorttime evolution of the moment equations of a hybrid classicalGaussian quantum system and observe violations of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation in the quantum sector for a broad range of initial conditions. We estimate the timescale for these violations, which is generically rather short. This inconsistency indicates that while many explicitly quantum effects can be represented classically, quantum aspects of the system cannot be fully masked. We comment on the implications of our results for quantum gravity.
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, A. M.; Plastino, A.
20160901
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semiclassic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantumclassic transition. The socalled mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the BandtPompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semiclassical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit.
Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denny, Mark
20090101
The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…
Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...
Classical picture of postexponential decay
Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Martorell, J.; Sprung, D. W. L.
20100415
Postexponential decay of the probability density of a quantum particle leaving a trap can be reproduced accurately, except for interference oscillations at the transition to the postexponential regime, by means of an ensemble of classical particles emitted with constant probability per unit time and the same halflife as the quantum system. The energy distribution of the ensemble is chosen to be identical to the quantum distribution, and the classical point source is located at the scattering length of the corresponding quantum system. A onedimensional example is provided to illustrate the general argument.
MeasurementBased Classical Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Anwar, Hussain; Usher, Naïri; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Dan E.
20140401
Measurementbased quantum computation (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation, in which computation proceeds via adaptive single qubit measurements on a multiqubit quantum state. It is computationally equivalent to the circuit model. Unlike the circuit model, however, its classical analog is little studied. Here we present a classical analog of MBQC whose computational complexity presents a rich structure. To do so, we identify uniform families of quantum computations [refining the circuits introduced by Bremner et al. Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2010)] whose output is likely hard to exactly simulate (sample) classically. We demonstrate that these circuit families can be efficiently implemented in the MBQC model without adaptive measurement and, thus, can be achieved in a classical analog of MBQC whose resource state is a probability distribution which has been created quantum mechanically. Such states (by definition) violate no Bell inequality, but, if widely held beliefs about computational complexity are true, they, nevertheless, exhibit nonclassicality when used as a computational resource—an imprint of their quantum origin.
Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
20130101
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…
Augmenting a Classical Electrochemical Demonstration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.
19950101
Presents an augmentation of a classical electrochemical demonstration that addresses the learning styles of the students and teaches electrochemistry in a concrete manner. Enables each student to see each event clearly, repeatedly, or in stopaction mode and enables students to improve their own mental models by providing them with a visually…
Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong
20150701
Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently NekrasovShatashvili limit using the betadeformed irregular matrix model (Pennertype matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.
Classical Music as Enforced Utopia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeechWilkinson, Daniel
20160101
In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…
CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Classical biological control of weeds is an important tool for managing invasive alien plants that have become too widespread to control by conventional methods. It involves the discovery and release of naturally occurring species of natural enemies (insects, mites or pathogens) to control a pest (...
Holographic entanglement beyond classical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrella, Taylor; Dong, Xi; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Martin, Victoria L.
20130901
The Rényi entropies and entanglement entropy of 1+1 CFTs with gravity duals can be computed by explicit construction of the bulk spacetimes dual to branched covers of the boundary geometry. At the classical level in the bulk this has recently been shown to reproduce the conjectured RyuTakayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy. We study the oneloop bulk corrections to this formula. The functional determinants in the bulk geometries are given by a sum over certain words of generators of the Schottky group of the branched cover. For the case of two disjoint intervals on a line we obtain analytic answers for the oneloop entanglement entropy in an expansion in small crossratio. These reproduce and go beyond anticipated universal terms that are not visible classically in the bulk. We also consider the case of a single interval on a circle at finite temperature. At high temperatures we show that the oneloop contributions introduce expected finite size corrections to the entanglement entropy that are not present classically. At low temperatures, the oneloop corrections capture the mixed nature of the density matrix, also not visible classically below the HawkingPage temperature.
No return to classical reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew
20160101
At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurementuncertainty, measurementdisturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the nocloning theorem and the collapse of the wavepacket) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding  the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finitedimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the PuseyBarrettRudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.
Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory: Fundamentals
Khrennikov, Andrei
20110328
We present fundamentals of a prequantum model with hidden variables of the classical field type. In some sense this is the comeback of classical wave mechanics. Our approach also can be considered as incorporation of quantum mechanics into classical signal theory. All quantum averages (including correlations of entangled systems) can be represented as classical signal averages and correlations.
Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, MinHsiu
20150801
In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the wellstudied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the GácsKörner common information.
Classicality in discrete Wigner functions
Cormick, Cecilia; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Gottesman, Daniel; Paz, Juan Pablo; Pittenger, Arthur O.
20060115
Gibbons et al., [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)] have recently defined discrete Wigner functions W to represent quantum states in a Hilbert space with finite dimension. We show that such a class of Wigner functions W can be defined so that the only pure states having nonnegative W for all such functions are stabilizer states, as conjectured by Galvao, [Phys. Rev. A 71, 042302 (2005)]. We also show that the unitaries preserving nonnegativity of W for all definitions of W in the class form a subgroup of the Clifford group. This means pure states with nonnegative W and their associated unitary dynamics are classical in the sense of admitting an efficient classical simulation scheme using the stabilizer formalism.
Classical and Recurrent Nova Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi; Casanova, Jordi; GarcíaBerro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Shore, Steven N.; Calder, Alan C.
20130101
Remarkable progress in the understanding of nova outbursts has been achieved through combined efforts in photometry, spectroscopy and numerical simulations. According to the thermonuclear runaway model, novae are powered by thermonuclear explosions in the hydrogenrich envelopes transferred from a lowmass stellar companion onto a close white dwarf star. Extensive numerical simulations in 1D have shown that the accreted envelopes attain peak temperatures ranging between 108 and 4 × 108 K, for about several hundred seconds, hence allowing extensive nuclear processing which eventually shows up in the form of nucleosynthetic fingerprints in the ejecta. Indeed, it has been claimed that novae can play a certain role in the enrichment of the interstellar medium through a number of intermediatemass elements. This includes 17O, 15N, and 13C, systematically overproduced with respect to solar abundances, plus a lower contribution in a number of other species (A < 40), such as 7Li, 19F, or 26Al. At the turn of the XXI Century, classical novae have entered the era of multidimensional models, which provide a new insight into the physical mechanisms that drive mixing at the coreenvelope interface. In this review, we will present hydrodynamic models of classical novae, from the onset of accretion up to the explosion and ejection stages, both for classical and recurrent novae, with special emphasis on their gross observational properties and their associated nucleosynthesis. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the final yields will be discussed. Recent results from 2D models of mixing during classical nova outbursts will also be presented.
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo
20080615
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, ChernSimons, and twodimensional YangMills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under areapreserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.
Classical music and the teeth.
Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo
20130101
Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth. PMID:23691776
Instantaneous fields in classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heras, J. A.
20050101
In this paper we express the retarded fields of Maxwell's theory in terms of the instantaneous fields of a Galileiinvariant electromagnetic and we find the vector function χL whose spatial and temporal derivatives transform the Euclidean fields into the retarded ones. We conclude that the instantaneous fields can formally be introduced as unphysical objects into classical electrodynamics which can be used to find the physical retarded fields.
Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*
de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira
20150101
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294
Classical Histories in Hamiltonian Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouletsis, Ioannis
20010801
The incompatibility between the treatment of time in the classical and in the quantum theory results in the socalled problem of time in canonical quantum gravity. For this reason, attempts have been made to devise algorithms of quantization which accomodate the covariance of the classical theory from the outset. One of the most prominent of these attempts is based on the notion of continuous histories (Isham and Linden) in the context of the consistent histories approach to quantum theory (Griffiths, Omnes, GellMann and Hartle). By the term continuous histories it is implied that the canonical fields and the symplectic structure of the theory depend on time as well as space. The aim of this thesis (in the form it was submitted to the University of London, February 2000) is to show that, even at the purely classical level, a history approach has several advantages (compared to its equaltime counterpart) when it comes to discussing spacetime issues. This is illustrated here by reframing and generalizing the derivation of geometrodynamics from first principles (Hojman, Kuchar, Teitelboim) in the language of the history phase space.
Entanglement in the classical limit: Quantum correlations from classical probabilities
Matzkin, A.
20110815
We investigate entanglement for a composite closed system endowed with a scaling property which allows the dynamics to be kept invariant while the effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} of the system is varied. Entanglement increases as ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{yields}0. Moreover, for sufficiently low ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} the evolution of the quantum correlations, encapsulated, for example, in the quantum discord, can be obtained from the mutual information of the corresponding classical system. We show this behavior is due to the local suppression of path interferences in the interaction that generates the entanglement.
Classical Optics and its Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansuripur, Masud
20090201
Preface; Introduction; 1. Abbe's sine condition; 2. Fourier optics; 3. Effect of polarization on diffraction in systems of high numerical aperture; 4. Gaussian beam optics; 5. Coherent and incoherent imaging; 6. Firstorder temporal coherence in classical optics; 7. The Van CittertZernike theorem; 8. Partial polarization, Stokes parameters, and the Poincarè Sphere; 9. Secondorder coherence and the Hanbury Brown  Twiss experiment; 10. What in the world are surface plasmons?; 11. Surface plasmon polaritons on metallic surfaces; 12. The Faraday effecy; 13. The magnetooptical Kerr effect; 14. The Sagnac interferometer; 15. FabryPerot etalons in polarized light; 16. The EwaldOseen extinction theorem; 17. Reciprocity in classical Linear optics; 18. Optical pulse compression; 19. The uncertainty principle in classical optics; 20. Omnidirectional dielectric mirrors; 21. Optical vortices; 22. Geometricoptical rays, Poynting's vector, and field momenta; 23. Doppler shift, stellar aberration, and convection of light by moving Media; 24. Diffraction gratings; 25. Diffractive optical elements; 26. The talbot effect; 27. Some quirks of total internal reflection; 28. Evanescent coupling; 29. Internal and external conical refraction; 30. Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures; 31. The method of Fox and Li; 32. The beam propagation method; 33. Launching light into a Fiber; 34. The optics of demiconductor fiode Laser; 35. Michelson's dtellar interferometer; 36. Bracewell's interferometric telescope; 37. Scanning optical microscopy; 38. Zernike's method of phase contrast; 39. Polarization microscopy; 40. Nomarski's differential interference contrast microscope; 41. The Van Leeuwenhoek microscope; 42. Projection photolithography; 43. Interaction of light with subwavelength structures; 44 The Ronchi test; 45. The ShackHartmann Wavefront sensor; 46. Ellipsometry; 47. Holography and holographic interferometry; 48. Selffocusing in nonlinear optical media; 49
Classical analog of quantum phase
Ord, G.N.
19920701
A modified version of the Feynman relativistic chessboard model (FCM) is investigated in which the paths involved are spirals in the spacetime. Portions of the paths in which the particle`s proper time is reversed are interpreted in terms of antiparticles. With this intepretation the particleantiparticle field produced by such trajectories provides a classical analog of the phase associated with particle paths in the unmodified FCM. It is shwon that in the nonrelativistic limit the resulting kernel is the correct Dirac propagator and that particleantiparticle symmetry is in this case responsible for quantum interference. 7 refs., 3 figs.
Classical dynamics on Snyder spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignemi, S.
20150401
We study the classical dynamics of a particle in Snyder spacetime, adopting the formalism of constrained Hamiltonian systems introduced by Dirac. We show that the motion of a particle in a scalar potential is deformed with respect to special relativity by terms of order βE2. A remarkable result is that in the relativistic Snyder model a consistent choice of the time variable must necessarily depend on the dynamics. This is a consequence of the nontrivial mixing between position and momentum coordinates intrinsic to the Snyder model.
Recent developments in classical relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, B. G.
20011001
In the period spanned by the Texas meetings,the term ``classical relativity'' was not yet coined 40 years agothe notions of gravitational collapse, gravitational radiation singularities and black hole where in the center of almost all investigations and developments. 40 years ago black holes were exotic theoretical concepts far from reality. Now they seem to exist all over the univers. In the last 40 years a scenarium describing the collaps or collision of stellar objects or BHs has formed. In my talk I want to outline this picture, tell you which parts are firmly established and where the big open questions are. .
Classical Lagrange Functions for the SME
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, N.
20111201
A technique is presented for finding the classical Lagrange function corresponding to a given dispersion relation. This allows us to study the classical analogue of the StandardModel Extension. Developments are discussed.
Classically spinning and isospinning solitons
Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike
20120926
We investigate classically spinning topological solitons in (2+1) and (3+1)dimensional models; more explicitely spinning sigma model solitons in 2+1 dimensions and Skyrme solitons in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. For example, such types of solitons can be used to describe quasiparticle excitations in ferromagnetic quantum Hall systems or to model spin and isospin states of nuclei. The standard way to obtain solitons with quantised spin and isospin is the semiclassical quantization procedure: One parametrizes the zeromode space  the space of energydegenerate soliton configurations generated from a single soliton by spatial translations and rotations in space and isospace  by collective coordinates which are then taken to be timedependent. This gives rise to additional dynamical terms in the Hamiltonian which can then be quantized following semiclassical quantization rules. A simplification which is often made in the literature is to apply a simple adiabatic approximation to the (iso)rotational zero modes of the soliton by assuming that the soliton's shape is rotational frequency independent. Our numerical results on classically spinning arbitrarily deforming soliton solutions clearly show that soliton deformation cannot be ignored.
Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
20130901
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a WiFi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.
Classical and eclipse optical choppers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duma, VirgilFlorin
20130301
The paper presents some of our advances in the study and development of optical choppers. The modulation functions we have studied for classical choppers are pointed out  for tophat (constant intensity) light beam distributions. The eclipse choppers that, to the best of our knowledge we have introduced are also presented. We thus point out the differences between the profiles of light (laser) impulses produced by the classical devices (with rotating wheels with windows with linear edges) and the novel eclipse choppers  under patent (with windows with circular edges that produce for the circularshaped section of the laser beam in the plane of the wheel a planetary eclipselike effect  from which the name we have proposed for this type of device). The most convenient (from the technological and from the cost point of view) solution, with wheels with circular holes is also obtained. The advantages and the drawbacks of the various devices are discussed. Both a theoretical and an experimental approach are considered. The latter is done on a chopper module we have constructed, with prototype chopper wheels we have designed and manufactured. Throughout the study, tophat laser beams are considered, as they are most used in laser manufacturing applications. The perspective of conducting the study on other light beams distributions (e.g., Gaussian) is also pointed out.
Friedreich Ataxia in Classical Galactosaemia.
Neville, Siobhán; O'Sullivan, Siobhan; Sweeney, Bronagh; Lynch, Bryan; Hanrahan, Donncha; Knerr, Ina; Lynch, Sally Ann; Crushell, Ellen
20160101
Movement disorders such as ataxia are a recognized complication of classical galactosaemia, even in dietcompliant patients. Here, we report the coexistence of classical galactosaemia and Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) in nine children from seven Irish Traveller families. These two autosomal recessive disorders, the loci for which are located on either side of the centromere of chromosome 9, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium in this subgroup. Both conditions are known to occur with increased frequency amongst the Irish Traveller population.Each member of our cohort had been diagnosed with galactosaemia in the neonatal period, and all are homozygous for the common Q188R mutation in the GALT gene. Eight of the nine patients later presented with progressive ataxia, between the ages of 513 years. Another child presented in cardiac failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy at 7 years of age. He was not ataxic at presentation and, one year from diagnosis, his neurological examination remains normal. The diagnosis of FRDA was confirmed by detecting the common pathogenic GAA expansion in both alleles of the frataxin gene (FXN) in each patient.Neurological symptoms are easily attributed to an underlying diagnosis of galactosaemia. It is important to consider a diagnosis of Friedreich ataxia in a child from the Irish Traveller population with galactosaemia who presents with ataxia or cardiomyopathy. PMID:26219880
Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.
Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O
19841001
The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 3545% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min1 X kg1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low. PMID:6513765
Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masciantonio, Rudolph
19770101
A curriculum resource developed by the School District of Philadelphia deals with Africa in Classical Antiquity. Each unit contains suggestions for lower, middle and upper schools. Topics covered are: history of Africa; great Africans in the GraecoRoman world; racial attitudes; blacks in classical art, and Africa in classical literature. (CHK)
Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others
This curriculum resource is intended primarily to assist teachers of Latin and Greek to infuse material on Africa in classical antiquity into the curriculum at all levels. It gathers together background information on the role of Africa in classical antiquity that has not been treated in traditional classical language courses. The resource guide…
Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asia, Daniel
20100101
How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…
Introducing the Classics to Reluctant Readers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazarus, Lissa J.
Using the pocket classics can be a painless way to introduce the classics to eighthgrade students. Condensed versions of the classics can take the sting out of the reading, stimulate students' interest, and help prepare them for high school. To offer students in one eighthgrade class some control over their own learning, a contract system was…
DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics
Not Available
19920601
The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.
Unrenormalized classical electromagnetism
Ibison, Michael . Email: ibison@earthtech.org
20060215
This paper follows in the tradition of directaction versions of electromagnetism having the aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. However, the directaction approach ultimately failed in that respect because its initial exclusion of selfaction was later found to be untenable in the relativistic domain. Pursing the same end, this paper examines instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and selfaction is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point charges in a positroniumlike arrangement for which the orbits are found to be selfsustaining and naturally quantized.
Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal
20100501
Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in precollege science classes, or in public science education setting.
Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.
Galley, Chad R
20130426
Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a longstanding gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733
Gamma Rays from Classical Novae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
19970101
NASA at the University of Chicago, provided support for a program of theoretical research into the nature of the thermonuclear outbursts of the classical novae and their implications for gamma ray astronomy. In particular, problems which have been addressed include the role of convection in the earliest stages of nova runaway, the influence of opacity on the characteristics of novae, and the nucleosynthesis expected to accompany nova outbursts on massive OxygenNeonMagnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs. In the following report, I will identify several critical projects on which considerable progress has been achieved and provide brief summaries of the results obtained:(1) two dimensional simulation of nova runaway; (2) nucleosynthesis of nova modeling; and (3) a quasianalytic study of nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae.
Diffusion of monochromatic classical waves.
Gerritsen, Sijmen; Bauer, Gerrit E W
20060101
We study the diffusion of monochromatic classical waves in a disordered acoustic medium by scattering theory. In order to avoid artifacts associated with mathematical point scatterers, we model the randomness by small but finite insertions. We derive expressions for the configurationaveraged energy flux, energy density, and intensity for one, two, and threedimensional (3D) systems with an embedded monochromatic source using the ladder approximation to the BetheSalpeter equation. We study the transition from ballistic to diffusive wave propagation and obtain results for the frequency dependence of the medium properties such as mean free path and diffusion coefficient as a function of the scattering parameters. We discover characteristic differences of the diffusion in 2D as compared to the conventional 3D case, such as an explicit dependence of the energy flux on the mean free path and quite different expressions for the effective transport velocity. PMID:16486306
Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ömer, Bernhard
20050701
The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control, and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables, and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how nonclassical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the nonobservability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.
Classical vs. nonclassical pathways of mineral formation (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Yoreo, J. J.
20131201
Recent chemical analyses, microscopy studies and computer simulations suggest many minerals nucleate through aggregation of prenucleation clusters and grow by particlemediated processes that involve amorphous or disordered precursors. Still other analyses, both experimental and computational, conclude that even simple mineral systems like calcium carbonate form via a barrierfree process of liquidliquid separation, which is followed by dehydration of the ionrich phase to form the solid products. However, careful measurements of calcite nucleation rates on a variety of ionized surfaces give results that are in complete agreement with the expectations of classical nucleation theory, in which clusters growing through ionbyion addition overcome a free energy barrier through the natural microscopic density fluctuations of the system. Here the challenge of integrating these seemingly disparate observations and analyses into a coherent picture of mineral formation is addressed by considering the energy barriers to calcite formation predicted by the classical theory and the changes in those barriers brought about by the introduction of interfaces and clusters, both stable and metastable. Results from a suite of in situ TEM, AFM, and optical experiments combined with simulations are used to illustrate the conclusions. The analyses show that the expected barrier to homogeneous calcite nucleation is prohibitive even at concentrations exceeding the solubility limit of amorphous calcium carbonate. However, as demonstrated by experiments on selfassembled monolayers, the introduction of surfaces that moderately decrease the interfacial energy associated with the forming nucleus can reduce the magnitude of the barrier to a level that is easily surmounted under typical laboratory conditions. In the absence of such surfaces, experiments that proceed by continually increasing supersaturation with time can easily bypass direct nucleation of calcite and open up pathways through
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo
20160901
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), a key immuneinhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ Tcell exhaustion and tumor immuneescape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique Bcell malignancy in the sense that malignant ReedSternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and EpsteinBarr virus infection and by interacting with PD1 promote an immunesuppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immunerelated adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used. PMID:27147112
Classical catalase: ancient and modern.
Nicholls, Peter
20120915
This review describes the historical difficulties in devising a kinetically satisfactory mechanism for the classical catalase after its identification as a unique catalytic entity in 1902 and prior to the breakthrough 1947 analysis by Chance and coworkers which led to the identification of peroxide compounds I and II. The role of protons in the formation of these two ferryl complexes is discussed and current problems of inhibitory ligand and hydrogen donor binding at the active site are outlined, especially the multiple roles involving formate or formic acid. A previous mechanism of NADPHdependent catalase protection against substrate inhibition is defended. A revised model linking the catalytic ('catalatic') action and the oneelectron side reactions involving compound II is suggested. And it is concluded that, contrary to an idea proposed in 1963 that eukaryotic catalase might be a 'fossil enzyme', current thinking gives it a central role in the redox protective processes of long term importance for human and other eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. PMID:22326823
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
20110601
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Crystallization of classical multicomponent plasmas
Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew
20100315
We develop a method for calculating the equilibrium properties of the liquidsolid phase transition in a classical, ideal, multicomponent plasma. Our method is a semianalytic calculation that relies on extending the accurate fitting formulas available for the one, two, and threecomponent plasmas to the case of a plasma with an arbitrary number of components. We compare our results to those of C. J. Horowitz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 75, 066101 (2007)], who used a moleculardynamics simulation to study the chemical properties of a 17species mixture relevant to the oceancrust boundary of an accreting neutron star at the point where half the mixture has solidified. Given the same initial composition as Horowitz et al., we are able to reproduce to good accuracy both the liquid and solid compositions at the halffreezing point; we find abundances for most species within 10% of the simulation values. Our method allows the phase diagram of complex mixtures to be explored more thoroughly than possible with numerical simulations. We briefly discuss the implications for the nature of the liquidsolid boundary in accreting neutron stars.
Olfactory Classical Conditioning in Neonates
Sullivan, Regina M.; TaborskyBarba, Suzanne; Mendoza, Raffael; Itano, Alison; Leon, Michael; Cotman, Carl W.; Payne, Terrence F.; Lott, Ira
20070101
Onedayold, awake infants underwent an olfactory classical conditioning procedure to assess associative learning within the olfactory system of newborns. Experimental infants received ten 30second pairings of a novel olfactory conditioned stimulus (a citrus odor of neutral value) and tactile stimulation provided by stroking as the reinforcing unconditioned stimulus (a stimulus with positive properties). Control babies received only the odor, only the stroking, or the stroking followed by the odor presentation. The next day, all infants, in either the awake or sleep state, were given five 30second presentations of the odor. Results were analyzed from video tapes scored by an observer unaware of the infants’ training condition. The results indicate that only those infants who received the forward pairings of the odor and stroking exhibited conditioned responding (head turning toward the odor) to the citrus odor. The performance of the conditioned response was not affected by the state of the baby during testing, because both awake and sleeping infants exhibited conditioned responses. Furthermore, the expression of the conditioned response was odor specific; a novel floral odor presented during testing did not elicit conditioned responses in the experimental babies. These results suggest that complex associative olfactory learning is seen in newborns within the first 48 hours of life. These baseline findings may serve as normative data against which observation from neonates at risk for neurological sequelae may be compared. PMID:2011429
Fragmentation of hot classical drops
Vicentini, A.; Jacucci, G.; Pandharipande, V.R.
19850501
Time evolution of hot drops of matter containing approx.230 or approx.130 particles is studied by classical molecular dynamics. Initially, the drops have uniform density and a sharp surface. The chosen initial conditions include three values of density and a range of temperatures wide enough to study the phenomena of evaporation, fragmentation, and total vaporization in a unified fashion. The average density and temperature of central matter is measured periodically to obtain trajectories of the evolution in the rho,T plane. These trajectories indicate that the matter expands almost adiabatically until it reaches the region of adiabatic instabilities. Density inhomogeneities develop in this region, but the matter fragments only if the expansion continues to average densities of less than onefourth the liquid density, otherwise it recondenses into a single blob. The recondensed matter and fragments have very crooked surfaces. If the temperature is high enough, the expanding matter does not enter the region of adiabatic instabilities and totally vaporizes. For initial densities of the order of equilibrium density, matter does not fragment or develop large inhomogeneities in the region enclosed by the isothermal and adiabatic spinodals. Thus it appears unlikely that fragmentation of small drops (nuclei) can be used to study the isothermal critical region of gasliquid phase transition. A detailed tabulation of the energies and number of monomers, dimers, light, and heavy fragments emitted in each event is presented.
Classical universes are perfectly predictable!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Jan Hendrik
I argue that in a classical universe, all the events that ever happen are encoded in each of the universe's parts. This conflicts with a statement which is widely believed to lie at the basis of relativity theory: that the events in a spacetime region R determine only the events in R's domain of dependence but not those in other spacetime regions. I show how, from this understanding, a new prediction method (which I call the 'Smoothness Method') can be obtained which allows us to predict future events on the basis of local observational data. Like traditional prediction methods, this method makes use of socalled ' ceteris paribus clauses', i.e. assumptions about the unobserved parts of the universe. However, these assumptions are used in a way which enables us to predict the behaviour of open systems with arbitrary accuracy, regardless of the influence of their environmentwhich has not been achieved by traditional methods. In a sequel to this paper (Schmidt, 1998), I will prove the Uniqueness and Predictability Theorems on which the Smoothness Method is based, and comment in more detail on its mathematical properties.
Potential wells for classical acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shi; Lin, ShuYu; Mo, RunYang; Fu, ZhiQiang
20140101
The acceleration theorem of Bloch waves is utilized to construct random potential wells for classical acoustic waves in systems composed of alternating `cavities' and `couplers'. One prominent advantage of this method is these `cavities' and `couplers' are all monolayer structures. It allows forming more compact classical potential wells, which leads to the miniaturization of acoustic devices. We systematically investigate properties of harmonic, tangent, hyperbolic function, and square classical potential wells in quasiperiodic superlattices. Results show these classical potential wells are analogues of quantum potential wells. Thus some technologies and concepts in quantum potential well fields may be generalized to classical acoustic wave fields. In addition, some abnormal cases regarding forming classical potential wells are also found.
Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional Walgebras
Suh, Uhi Rinn
20150115
We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine Walgebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine Walgebras can be considered as quasiclassical limits of quantum affine Walgebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional Walgebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional Walgebra has two compatible λbrackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional Walgebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λbrackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional Walgebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.
Classical underpinnings of gravitationally induced quantum interference
Mannheim, P.D.
19980201
We show that the gravitational modification of the phase of a neutron beam [the ColellaOverhauserWerner (COW) experiment] has a classical origin, being due to the time delay that classical particles experience in traversing a background gravitational field. Similarly, we show that classical light waves also undergo a phase shift in traversing a gravitational field. We show that the COW experiment respects the equivalence principle even in the presence of quantum mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
On the tomographic description of classical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibort, A.; LópezYela, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.; Ventriglia, F.
20120301
After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of socalled GaussLaguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.
Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.
19850101
Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)
Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.
PiñaOviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A
20160901
Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NSCHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Bsymptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NSCHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/ReedSternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NSCHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal nonHLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal nonHLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL. PMID:27441757
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
Gray, S.K.
19820801
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..>.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..>.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..>.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..>.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup / is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)
NUCLEAR THERMOMETERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE
Downen, Lori N.; Iliadis, Christian; Jose, Jordi; Starrfield, Sumner
20130110
Classical novae are stellar explosions occurring in binary systems, consisting of a white dwarf and a mainsequence companion. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of massive white dwarfs, consisting of oxygen and neon, are believed to reach peak temperatures of several hundred million kelvin. These temperatures are strongly correlated with the underlying white dwarf mass. The observational counterparts of such models are likely associated with outbursts that show strong spectral lines of neon in their shells (neon novae). The goals of this work are to investigate how useful elemental abundances are for constraining the peak temperatures achieved during these outbursts and determine how robust 'nova thermometers' are with respect to uncertain nuclear physics input. We present updated observed abundances in neon novae and perform a series of hydrodynamic simulations for several white dwarf masses. We find that the most useful thermometers, N/O, N/Al, O/S, S/Al, O/Na, Na/Al, O/P, and P/Al, are those with the steepest monotonic dependence on peak temperature. The sensitivity of these thermometers to thermonuclear reaction rate variations is explored using postprocessing nucleosynthesis simulations. The ratios N/O, N/Al, O/Na, and Na/Al are robust, meaning they are minimally affected by uncertain rates. However, their dependence on peak temperature is relatively weak. The ratios O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al reveal strong dependences on temperature and the poorly known {sup 30}P(p, {gamma}){sup 31}S rate. We compare our model predictions to neon nova observations and obtain the following estimates for the underlying white dwarf masses: 1.341.35 M {sub Sun} (V838 Her), 1.181.21 M {sub Sun} (V382 Vel), {<=}1.3 M {sub Sun} (V693 CrA), {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (LMC 1990 no. 1), and {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (QU Vul).
Element abundances of classical novae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrea, J.; Drechsel, H.; Starrfield, S.
19941101
Physical conditions and element abundances in the optically thin shells of 11 classical novae with outbursts between 1978 and 1989 were determined from an analysis of UV and optical spectra obtained during the nebular stage. Eight novae were studied on the basis of new optical and UV spectra. The accuracy of the element abundances depends on whether or not simultaneous UV spectra were available to determine individual ionization stage dependent gas temperatures. Generally, slightly higher than solar abundances of helium and pronounced overabundances of the heavier elements were found. QU Vul turned out to be an ONeMg nova, while the other objects belong to the class of CO novae. The nature of V2214 Oph could not be completely clarified. The novae V1668 Cyg (1978), V693 CrA (1981), and V1370 Aql (1982), for which published element abundances exist, were reanalyzed to check the consistency of our spectral analysis approach. Satisfactory agreement of the results was found. Photoionization calculations were carried out for PW Vul using the code of Aldrovandi, Pequignot, and Stasinska. A synthetic spectrum was generated for the parameters derived from the analysis of the UV and optical spectra, which is in very good agreement with the observations. The spectral analysis technique was then applied to the model spectrum and reproduced the model parameters well. Electron temperatures for the C(2+) and C(3+) ions between 7 500 and 12,000 K and for N(4+) betwen 12,000 and 16,000 K were derived. For PW Vul these temperatures remained relatively constant over several months. The decline in density of the ejected shells with time could be investigated for V842 Cen, QV Vul, V977 Sco, and V443 Sct, and was found to deviate from the relation Ne proportional to t2 for free expansion of a shell in a different way for each object. A possible explanation may be the complex density structure of the shells. This suspicion is supported by high resolution spectra (ESO 3.6m telescope
Classical transport in disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papaioannou, Antonios
This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in onedimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the longtime regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surfacetovolume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the
The Classical Performing Arts of India.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtiss, Marie Joy
A monograph of the numerous activities that have contributed to the current renaissance of India's classical performing arts covers the theoretical aspects, musical instruments, the main schools of classical dance, and drama. Besides the basic research described, the total project produced a set of 300 slides with annotated listing, picturing the…
Rediscovering the Classics: The Project Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Ruth; Lubell, Marcia
Focusing on seven classics of literature that are most challenging for teachers and students, but which are also a part of the high school literary canon, this book shares ways to create a learnercentered classroom for the study of literature. For each of the seven classics, the book "walks teachers through" the teachinglearning process,…
Factors Influencing the Learning of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
19800101
Describes a study investigating the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. The purpose was to (1) describe preinstructional knowledge and skills; (2) correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics; and (3) develop hypothesis about relationships between these…
Three approaches to classical thermal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.
20110401
In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three wellknown different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closedtime path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Teaching the Classics in High School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shelley, Anne Crout
19980101
Discusses why the classics can be difficult to teach in high schools. Offers suggestions for making difficult literature more approachable for high school students by scaffolding students' engagement with classic texts; building background knowledge; developing vocabulary; facilitating the reading of the text; and through enrichment an extension.…
Modal analysis of a classical guitar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, David; Rossing, Thomas D.
20021101
Using holographic interferometry, we have determined the modes of vibration of a classical guitar (by the first author) having an asymmetricallybraced top plate and a crossed braced back of unique design. The vibrational modes and acoustical properties are compared with other classical guitars.
Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asia, Daniel
20100101
A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…
The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallant, Clifford J.
A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…
Classics and Moral Education: A Reply
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Pat
19750101
Criticizes John Wilson's "Classics and Moral Education," in this issue, as being ambiguous and vague. The view here is that moral education would not derive automatically from classical studies but must be taught and developed, and based on a value system already present. (CHK)
Velopharyngeal Port Status during Classical Singing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Power, David
20050101
Purpose: This investigation was undertaken to examine the status of the velopharyngeal (VP) port during classical singing. Method: Using aeromechanical instrumentation, nasal airflow (mL/s), oral pressure (cm H[subscript 2]O), and VP orifice area estimates (cm[squared]) were studied in 10 classically trained sopranos during singing and speaking.…
Classic and HardBoiled Detective Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reilly, John M.
Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hardboiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…
Quantum phase uncertainties in the classical limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franson, James D.
19940101
Several sources of phase noise, including spontaneous emission noise and the loss of coherence due to whichpath information, are examined in the classical limit of high field intensities. Although the origin of these effects may appear to be quantummechanical in nature, it is found that classical analogies for these effects exist in the form of chaos.
Classical and QuantumMechanical State Reconstruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
20120101
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartledge, Paul
20050101
Classics is in the newsor on the screen: "Gladiator" a few years ago, "Troy" very recently, "Alexander" as I write. How significant is this current Hollywood fascination with the ancient Greeks and Romans? Or should we take far more seriously the decline of the teaching of the Classical languages in schools, a decline so grave as to prompt a…
Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.
20160701
Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almostideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.
Classical data compression with quantum side information
Devetak, I.; Winter, A.
20031001
The problem of classical data compression when the decoder has quantum side information at his disposal is considered. This is a quantum generalization of the classical SlepianWolf theorem. The optimal compression rate is found to be reduced from the Shannon entropy of the source by the Holevo information between the source and side information.
New Classical and New Keynesian Macroeconomics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vane, Howard; Snowdon, Brian
19920101
Summarizes underlying tenets and policy implications of new classical and new Keynesian macroeconomics. Compares new approaches with orthodox Keynesian and monetarist schools of thought. Identifies the fundamental difference between new classical and new Keynesian models as the assumption regarding the speed of wage and price adjustment following…
On entanglementassisted classical capacity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holevo, A. S.
20020901
We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglementassisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglementassisted and unassisted classical capacities.
Recent developments in classical density modification
Cowtan, Kevin
20100101
Classical densitymodification techniques (as opposed to statistical approaches) offer a computationally cheap method for improving phase estimates in order to provide a good electrondensity map for model building. The rise of statistical methods has lead to a shift in focus away from the classical approaches; as a result, some recent developments have not made their way into classical densitymodification software. This paper describes the application of some recent techniques, including most importantly the use of prior phase information in the likelihood estimation of phase errors within a classical densitymodification framework. The resulting software gives significantly better results than comparable classical methods, while remaining nearly two orders of magnitude faster than statistical methods. PMID:20383000
Classical and quantum correlations under decoherence
Maziero, J.; Celeri, L. C.; Serra, R. M.; Vedral, V.
20091015
Recently some authors have pointed out that there exist nonclassical correlations which are more general, and possibly more fundamental, than entanglement. For these general quantum correlations and their classical counterparts, under the action of decoherence, we identify three general types of dynamics that include a peculiar sudden change in their decay rates. We show that, under suitable conditions, the classical correlation is unaffected by decoherence. Such dynamic behavior suggests an operational measure of both classical and quantum correlations that can be computed without any extremization procedur000.
Classical odderon in QCD at high energies
Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju
20050615
We show that the weight functional for color sources in the classical theory of the color glass condensate (CGC) includes a term which generates odderon excitations. Remarkably, the classical origin of these excitations can be traced to the random walk of partons in the two dimensional space spanned by the SU(3) Casimirs. We compute dipole and baryon odderon operators in the CGC and show that contributions from the classical color sources to these are suppressed in the limit of very large parton densities.
Applying classical geometry intuition to quantum spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durfee, Dallin S.; Archibald, James L.
20160901
Using concepts of geometric orthogonality and linear independence, we logically deduce the form of the Pauli spin matrices and the relationships between the three spatially orthogonal basis sets of the spin1/2 system. Rather than a mathematically rigorous derivation, the relationships are found by forcing expectation values of the different basis states to have the properties we expect of a classical, geometric coordinate system. The process highlights the correspondence of quantum angular momentum with classical notions of geometric orthogonality, even for the inherently nonclassical spin1/2 system. In the process, differences in and connections between geometrical space and Hilbert space are illustrated.
Failure of classical elasticity in auxetic foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roh, J. H.; Giller, C. B.; Mott, P. H.; Roland, C. M.
20130401
Poisson's ratio, ν, was measured for four materials, a rubbery polymer, a conventional soft foam, and two auxetic foams. We find that for the first two materials, having ν ≥ 0.2, the experimental determinations of Poisson's ratio are in good agreement with values calculated from the shear and tensile moduli using the equations of classical elasticity. However, for the two auxetic materials (ν < 0), the equations of classical elasticity give values significantly different from the measured ν. We offer an interpretation of these results based on a recently published analysis of the bounds on Poisson's ratio for classical elasticity to be applicable.
Nonconservation of momentum in classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chunghyoung
Pérez Laraudogoitia (1996) presented an isolated system of infinitely many particles with infinite total mass whose total classical energy and momentum are not necessarily conserved in some particular inertial frame of reference. With a more generalized model Atkinson (2007) proved that a system of infinitely many balls with finite total mass may evolve so that its total classical energy and total relativistic energy and momentum are not conserved in any inertial frame of reference, and yet concluded that its total classical momentum is necessarily conserved. Contrary to this conclusion of Atkinson, I show that Atkinson's model has a solution in which the total momentum fails to be conserved in every inertial frame of reference. This result, combined with Atkinson's, demonstrates that both classical and relativistic mechanics allow the energy and momentum of a system of infinitely many components to fail to be conserved in every inertial frame of reference.
Entropic inequalities in classical and quantum domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man'ko, Margarita A.
20100901
Different kinds of entropy associated with probability distribution functions characterizing the system state in classical and quantum domains are reviewed. Shannon entropy and Rényi entropy are discussed. The notion of tomographic entropy determined by the probability distribution in the phase space of the classical system and by the density operator of the quantum system is considered. Inequalities for the tomographic entropies in classical and quantum domains are studied, and a difference in the form of these inequalities in corresponding domains is suggested as a test to clarify the classicality and quantumness of the system state in quantum optics experiments. A new bound for tomographic entropy (ln πe)Φ(θ) depending on the local oscillator phase difference in homodyne photon detection experiments is discussed.
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Shela
19860101
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
Nonclassical divalent lanthanide complexes.
Nief, François
20100801
The synthesis of nonclassical divalent lanthanide complexes, i.e. those not containing the classical samarium(II), europium(II) or ytterbium(II), was once thought impossible. Since 1997, when the first stable complex of thulium(II) was discovered, there has been many more examples of stable coordination and organometallic complexes of lanthanum(II), neodymium(II) and dysprosium(II) in addition to thulium(II), and the influence of the ligand system on the stability of the complexes is beginning to be understood. These nonclassical divalent compounds show exceptional reactivity as some of them have been shown to activate dinitrogen at room temperature, together with related reduced divalentlike systems, and to undergo spontaneous intramolecular carbonhydrogen bond activation. Many more examples of nonclassical divalent compounds together with new aspects of their exciting reactivity should be discovered in the near future. PMID:20631944
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; VillasBoas, C. J.
20160701
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Three Neglected Advances in Classical Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Wilmer J.; Hollander, Willard F.
19950101
This article describes three advances in classical genetics: improved pedigree charting, use of a standard of reference, and calculation of probabilities in complex assortment. Provides support for the importance of teaching these methods in addition to new techniques. (LZ)
Hermite polynomials and quasiclassical asymptotics
Ali, S. Twareque; Engliš, Miroslav
20140415
We study an unorthodox variant of the BerezinToeplitz type of quantization scheme, on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space generated by the real Hermite polynomials and work out the associated quasiclassical asymptotics.
Understanding singularities — Classical and quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konkowski, Deborah A.; Helliwell, Thomas M.
20160101
The definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed. Examples are given of both as well as their utility in general relativity. In particular, the classical and quantum singularity structure of certain interesting conformally static spherically symmetric spacetimes modeling scalar field collapse are reviewed. The spacetimes include the Roberts spacetime, the HusainMartinezNuñez spacetime and the Fonarev spacetime. The importance of understanding spacetime singularity structure is discussed.
Racing in parallel: Quantum versus Classical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiger, Damian S.; Troyer, Matthias
In a fair comparison of the performance of a quantum algorithm to a classical one it is important to treat them on equal footing, both regarding resource usage and parallelism. We show how one may otherwise mistakenly attribute speedup due to parallelism as quantum speedup. We apply such an analysis both to analog quantum devices (quantum annealers) and gate model algorithms and give several examples where a careful analysis of parallelism makes a significant difference in the comparison between classical and quantum algorithms.
Classical gravity does not refract negatively.
McCall, Martin W
20070301
We appraise recent claims that classical gravitation can induce negative refraction of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum. By recasting the previous literature in covariant notation, we show that the criterion used hitherto for determining negative refraction in vacuum is inappropriate, and can even be satisfied by parametrized transformations in Minkowski spacetime. Using instead a covariantly acceptable definition, we find that in classical vacuum the power flux of a plane electromagnetic wave points in the direction of phase advance. PMID:17359145
Instability in the Classic Theory of Coarsening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpov, V. G.
19950401
It is shown that classic coarsening theory is unstable with respect to largescale fluctuations of the linear dimension considerably exceeding the average intergrain distance and amplitudes of the order of the average values of the corresponding quantities. The consideration is based on reducing the classic theory equations to the form allowing the standard Fourier analysis to be employed. In the case of mobile nuclei, the tendency toward instability is shown to increase.
Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzkin, A.
20090601
Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de BroglieBohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantumtoclassical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly nonclassical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs nonspreading and noninterfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de BroglieBohm interpretation  in particular the existence of pointlike particles pursuing welldefined trajectories  would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.
Quantum and Classical Electrostatics Among Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerr, T. P.; Obolensky, O. I.; Ogurtsov, A. Y.; Yu, YiKuo
Quantum theory has been unquestionably successful at describing physics at the atomic scale. However, it becomes more difficult to apply as the system size grows. On the other hand, classical physics breaks down at sufficiently short length scales but is clearly correct at larger distances. The purpose of methods such as QM/MM is to gain the advantages of both quantum and classical regimes: quantum theory should provide accuracy at the shortest scales, and classical theory, with its somewhat more tractable computational demands, allows results to be computed for systems that would be inaccessible with a purely quantum approach. This strategy will be most effective when one knows with good accuracy the length scale at which quantum calculations are no longer necessary and classical calculations are sufficient. To this end, we have performed both classical and quantum calculations for systems comprising a small number of atoms for which experimental data is also available. The classical calculations are fully exact; the quantum calculations are at the MP4(SDTQ)/augccpV5Z and CCSD(T)/augccpV5Z levels. The precision of both sets of calculations along with the existence of experimental results allows us to draw conclusions about the range of utility of the respective calculations. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NLM and utilized the computational resources of the NIH HPC Biowulf cluster.
An action for a classical string, the equation of motion and group invariant classical solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
20080901
A string action which is essentially a Willmore functional is presented and studied. This action determines the physics of a surface in Euclidean three space which can be used to model classical string configurations. By varying this action an equation of motion for the mean curvature of the surface is obtained which is shown to govern certain classical string configurations. Several classes of classical solutions for this equation are discussed from the symmetry group point of view and an application is presented.
Nonclassical protein secretion in bacteria
Bendtsen, Jannick D; Kiemer, Lars; Fausbøll, Anders; Brunak, Søren
20050101
Background We present an overview of bacterial nonclassical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. We have compiled a list of proteins found extracellularly despite the absence of a signal peptide. Some of these proteins also have known roles in the cytoplasm, which means they could be socalled "moonlightning" proteins having more than one function. Results A thorough literature search was conducted to compile a list of currently known bacterial nonclassically secreted proteins. Pattern finding methods were applied to the sequences in order to identify putative signal sequences or motifs responsible for their secretion. We have found no signal or motif characteristic to any majority of the proteins in the compiled list of nonclassically secreted proteins, and conclude that these proteins, indeed, seem to be secreted in a novel fashion. However, we also show that the apparently nonclassically secreted proteins are still distinguished from cellular proteins by properties such as amino acid composition, secondary structure and disordered regions. Specifically, prediction of disorder reveals that bacterial secretory proteins are more structurally disordered than their cytoplasmic counterparts. Finally, artificial neural networks were used to construct protein feature based methods for identification of nonclassically secreted proteins in both Grampositive and Gramnegative bacteria. Conclusion We present a publicly available prediction method capable of discriminating between this group of proteins and other proteins, thus allowing for the identification of novel nonclassically secreted proteins. We suggest candidates for nonclassically secreted proteins in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The prediction method is available online. PMID:16212653
Classical Theory, Postmodernism, and the Sociology Liberal Arts Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lembcke, Jerry Lee
19930101
Discusses classical theory as a modernist endeavor to apprehend the phenomenon of "unity of disunity." Presents three ways that classical theory approaches the philosophy views of Durkheim, Marx, and Weber. Concludes that postmodernism validates the relevancy of classical theory. (CFR)
Trading Classical and Quantum Computational Resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravyi, Sergey; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.
20160401
We propose examples of a hybrid quantumclassical simulation where a classical computer assisted by a small quantum processor can efficiently simulate a larger quantum system. First, we consider sparse quantum circuits such that each qubit participates in O (1 ) twoqubit gates. It is shown that any sparse circuit on n +k qubits can be simulated by sparse circuits on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time 2O (k )poly (n ) . Second, we study Paulibased computation (PBC), where allowed operations are nondestructive eigenvalue measurements of n qubit Pauli operators. The computation begins by initializing each qubit in the socalled magic state. This model is known to be equivalent to the universal quantum computer. We show that any PBC on n +k qubits can be simulated by PBCs on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time 2O (k )poly (n ). Finally, we propose a purely classical algorithm that can simulate a PBC on n qubits in a time 2α npoly (n ) , where α ≈0.94 . This improves upon the bruteforce simulation method, which takes time 2npoly (n ). Our algorithm exploits the fact that n fold tensor products of magic states admit a lowrank decomposition into n qubit stabilizer states.
Quantumclassical crossover in electrodynamics
Polonyi, Janos
20060915
A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Diracsea can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple oneloop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantumclassical crossover and the AbrahamLorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other charges in the macroscopic or the microscopic side, respectively. The functional form of the quantum renormalization group, the generalization of the renormalization group method for the density matrix, is proposed to follow the scale dependence through the quantumclassical crossover in a systematical manner.
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness.
MartinMayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
20150101
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as 'DWave' chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional 'classical' computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spinglass theory that recognize 'temperature chaos' as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the DWave Two chip on different temperaturechaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
Nonlinear atom interferometer surpasses classical precision limit.
Gross, C; Zibold, T; Nicklas, E; Estève, J; Oberthaler, M K
20100422
Interference is fundamental to wave dynamics and quantum mechanics. The quantum wave properties of particles are exploited in metrology using atom interferometers, allowing for highprecision inertia measurements. Furthermore, the stateoftheart time standard is based on an interferometric technique known as Ramsey spectroscopy. However, the precision of an interferometer is limited by classical statistics owing to the finite number of atoms used to deduce the quantity of interest. Here we show experimentally that the classical precision limit can be surpassed using nonlinear atom interferometry with a BoseEinstein condensate. Controlled interactions between the atoms lead to nonclassical entangled states within the interferometer; this represents an alternative approach to the use of nonclassical input states. Extending quantum interferometry to the regime of large atom number, we find that phase sensitivity is enhanced by 15 per cent relative to that in an ideal classical measurement. Our nonlinear atomic beam splitter follows the 'oneaxistwisting' scheme and implements interaction control using a narrow Feshbach resonance. We perform noise tomography of the quantum state within the interferometer and detect coherent spin squeezing with a squeezing factor of 8.2 dB (refs 1115). The results provide information on the manyparticle quantum state, and imply the entanglement of 170 atoms. PMID:20357767
Effective dynamics of a classical point charge
Polonyi, Janos
20140315
The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoffdependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoffdependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landaupole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.  Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.
Relativistic Entanglement From Maxwell's Classical Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, John E.; Quarterman, Adrian H.
20130901
With the help of light cone coordinates and light cone field representations of Maxwell's classical equations, quantum polarization entanglement is explained using the relativistic results of a companion paper that shows how conventional or reference waves can have an adjoint wave, travelling in phase with the reference wave, but in a proper relativistic frame that travels in the opposing direction to the proper frame of the reference wave. This subsequently allows waves, travelling in opposite directions, to have the same proper frame and consequently such waves can be regarded as relativistically local. The light cone coordinates offer a classical form of a quantum wave function and demonstrate a classical equivalent of a mixed quantum state.
Classical antiferromagnet on a hyperkagome lattice.
Hopkinson, John M; Isakov, Sergei V; Kee, HaeYoung; Kim, Yong Baek
20070720
Motivated by recent experiments on Na4Ir3O8 [Y. Okamoto, M. Nohara, H. ArugaKatori, and H. Takagi, arXiv:0705.2821 (unpublished)], we study the classical antiferromagnet on a frustrated threedimensional lattice obtained by selectively removing one of four sites in each tetrahedron of the pyrochlore lattice. This "hyperkagome" lattice consists of cornersharing triangles. We present the results of largeN mean field theory and Monte Carlo computations on O(N) classical spin models. It is found that the classical ground states are highly degenerate. Nonetheless a nematic order emerges at low temperatures in the Heisenberg model (N=3) via "order by disorder," representing the dominance of coplanar spin configurations. Implications for ongoing experiments are discussed. PMID:17678320
Quantum dynamics simulation with classical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, John S.; Eisfeld, Alexander
20131201
In a previous paper [J. S. Briggs and A. Eisfeld, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050294710.1103/PhysRevA.85.052111 85, 052111 (2012)] we showed that the time development of the complex amplitudes of N coupled quantum states can be mapped by the time development of positions and velocities of N coupled classical oscillators. Here we examine to what extent this mapping can be realized to simulate the “quantum,” properties of entanglement and qubit manipulation. By working through specific examples, e.g., of quantum gate operation, we seek to illuminate quantum and classical differences which hitherto have been treated more mathematically. In addition, we show that important quantum coupled phenomena, such as the LandauZener transition and the occurrence of Fano resonances can be simulated by classical oscillators.
NonClassical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase
Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert
20160101
Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoformspecific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamidebased compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to offtarget inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamidebased compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also nonclassical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of nonclassical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoformspecific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828
Classical analogs of double electromagnetically induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang
20130301
Double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in a fourlevel atomic system with tripodtype energylevel configuration is modeled by using two classical systems. The first is a set of three coupled harmonic oscillators subject to frictional forces and external drives and the second is a set of three coupled RLC circuits with electric resistors and alternating voltage sources. It is shown that both of the two classical systems have absorption spectra of DEIT similar to that of the fourlevel tripodtype atomic system. These classical analogies provide simple and intuitive physical description of quantum interference processes and can be used to illustrate experimental observations of the DEIT in quantum systems.
Manifestly diffeomorphism invariant classical Exact Renormalization Group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Tim R.; Preston, Anthony W. H.
20160601
We construct a manifestly diffeomorphism invariant Wilsonian (Exact) Renormalization Group for classical gravity, and begin the construction for quantum gravity. We demonstrate that the effective action can be computed without gauge fixing the diffeomorphism invariance, and also without introducing a background spacetime. We compute classical contributions both within a backgroundindependent framework and by perturbing around a fixed background, and verify that the results are equivalent. We derive the exact Ward identities for actions and kernels and verify consistency. We formulate two forms of the flow equation corresponding to the two choices of classical fixedpoint: the Gaussian fixed point, and the scale invariant interacting fixed point using curvaturesquared terms. We suggest how this programme may completed to a fully quantum construction.
Classical Approach to Multichromophoric Resonance Energy Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque, Sebastián; Brumer, Paul; Pachón, Leonardo A.
20150901
A classical formulation of the quantum multichromophoric theory of resonance energy transfer is developed on the basis of classical electrodynamics. The theory allows for the identification of a variety of processes of different order in the interactions that contribute to the energy transfer in molecular aggregates with intracoupling in donors and acceptor chromophores. Enhanced rates in multichromophoric resonance energy transfer are shown to be well described by this theory. Specifically, in a coupling configuration between NA acceptors and ND donors, the theory correctly predicts an enhancement of the energy transfer rate dependent on the total number of donoracceptor pairs. As an example, the theory, applied to the transfer rate in light harvesting II, gives results in excellent agreement with experiment. Finally, it is explicitly shown that as long as linear response theory holds, the classical multichromophoric theory formally coincides with the quantum formulation.
NonClassical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase.
Lomelino, Carrie L; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert
20160101
Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoformspecific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamidebased compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to offtarget inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamidebased compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also nonclassical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of nonclassical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoformspecific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828
Coexistence of peptides with classical neurotransmitters.
Hökfelt, T; Millhorn, D; Seroogy, K; Tsuruo, Y; Ceccatelli, S; Lindh, B; Meister, B; Melander, T; Schalling, M; Bartfai, T
19870715
In the present article the fact is emphasized that neuropeptides often are located in the same neurons as classical transmitters such as acetylcholine, 5hydroxytryptamine, catecholamines, gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) etc. This raises the possibility that neurons produce, store and release more than one messenger molecule. The exact functional role of such coexisting peptides is often difficult to evaluate, especially in the central nervous system. In the periphery some studies indicate apparently meaningful interactions of different types with the classical transmitter, but other types of actions including trophic effects have been observed. More recently it has been shown that some neurons contain more than one classical transmitter, e.g. 5HT plus GABA, further underlining the view that transfer of information across synapses may be more complex than perhaps hitherto assumed. PMID:2885215
Classical approach to multichromophoric resonance energy transfer.
Duque, Sebastián; Brumer, Paul; Pachón, Leonardo A
20150911
A classical formulation of the quantum multichromophoric theory of resonance energy transfer is developed on the basis of classical electrodynamics. The theory allows for the identification of a variety of processes of different order in the interactions that contribute to the energy transfer in molecular aggregates with intracoupling in donors and acceptor chromophores. Enhanced rates in multichromophoric resonance energy transfer are shown to be well described by this theory. Specifically, in a coupling configuration between N_{A} acceptors and N_{D} donors, the theory correctly predicts an enhancement of the energy transfer rate dependent on the total number of donoracceptor pairs. As an example, the theory, applied to the transfer rate in light harvesting II, gives results in excellent agreement with experiment. Finally, it is explicitly shown that as long as linear response theory holds, the classical multichromophoric theory formally coincides with the quantum formulation. PMID:26406811
Quantum and classical optics–emerging links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eberly, J. H.; Qian, XiaoFeng; Qasimi, Asma Al; Ali, Hazrat; Alonso, M. A.; GutiérrezCuevas, R.; Little, Bethany J.; Howell, John C.; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A. N.
20160601
Quantum optics and classical optics are linked in ways that are becoming apparent as a result of numerous recent detailed examinations of the relationships that elementary notions of optics have with each other. These elementary notions include interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement. All of them are present in both quantum and classical optics. They have historic origins, and at least partly for this reason not all of them have quantitative definitions that are universally accepted. This makes further investigation into their engagement in optics very desirable. We pay particular attention to effects that arise from the mere coexistence of separately identifiable and readily available vector spaces. Exploitation of these vectorspace relationships are shown to have unfamiliar theoretical implications and new options for observation. It is our goal to bring emerging quantum–classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work will promote discussion and lead to unified understanding.
Observable signatures of a classical transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Matthew C.; Lin, Wei
20160301
Eternal inflation arising from a potential landscape predicts that our universe is one realization of many possible cosmological histories. One way to access different cosmological histories is via the nucleation of bubble universes from a metastable false vacuum. Another way to sample different cosmological histories is via classical transitions, the creation of pocket universes through the collision between bubbles. Using relativistic numerical simulations, we examine the possibility of observationally determining if our observable universe resulted from a classical transition. We find that classical transitions produce spatially infinite, approximately open FriedmanRobertsonWalker universes. The leading set of observables in the aftermath of a classical transition are negative spatial curvature and a contribution to the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature quadrupole. The level of curvature and magnitude of the quadrupole are dependent on the position of the observer, and we determine the possible range of observables for two classes of singlescalar field models. For the first class, where the inflationary phase has a lower energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generally falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows to a constant. For the second class, where the inflationary phase has a higher energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generically falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows without bound. We find that the magnitude of the quadrupole and curvature grow with increasing centre of mass energy of the collision, and explore variations of the parameters in the scalar field lagrangian.
Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
20160101
Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudonoise) as performed in spreadspectrum communication used presently in WiFi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.
Classical dynamics on curved Snyder space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivetić, B.; Meljanac, S.; Mignemi, S.
20140501
We study the classical dynamics of a particle in nonrelativistic Snyderde Sitter space. We show that for spherically symmetric systems, parameterizing the solutions in terms of an auxiliary time variable, which is a function only of the physical time and of the energy and angular momentum of the particles, one can reduce the problem to the equivalent one in classical mechanics. We also discuss a relativistic extension of these results, and a generalization to the case in which the algebra is realized in flat space.
Relaxation properties of weakly coupled classical systems
RomeroRochin, V.; Oppenheim, I.
19881001
The relaxation properties of a small classical system weakly coupled to a large classical system which acts as a heat bath are described using a generalized FokkerPlanck equation. The FokkerPlanck equation is derived in general using a modification of the elimination of fast variables techniques previously described. The specific example in which the small system is a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to the heat bath is treated in detail and it is demonstrated that there is a dynamic frequency shift as well as a statistical shift of the oscillator frequency.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
19940401
The key ideas of the environmentinduced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
Classical communication cost of quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sainz, Ana Belén; Aolita, Leandro; Brunner, Nicolas; Gallego, Rodrigo; Skrzypczyk, Paul
20160701
Quantum steering is observed when performing appropriate local measurements on an entangled state. Here we discuss the possibility of simulating classically this effect, using classical communication instead of entanglement. We show that infinite communication is necessary for exactly simulating steering for any pure entangled state, as well as for a class of mixed entangled states. Moreover, we discuss the communication cost of steering for general entangled states, as well as approximate simulation. Our findings reveal striking differences between Bell nonlocality and steering and provide a natural way of measuring the strength of the latter.
Chaos in classical D0brane mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GurAri, Guy; Hanada, Masanori; Shenker, Stephen H.
20160201
We study chaos in the classical limit of the matrix quantum mechanical system describing D0brane dynamics. We determine a precise value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, and, with less precision, calculate the entire spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. We verify that these approach a smooth limit as N → ∞. We show that a classical analog of scrambling occurs with fast scrambling scaling, t ∗ ˜ log S. These results confirm the klocality property of matrix mechanics discussed by Sekino and Susskind.
Enhancing nonclassicality in mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Gröblacher, Simon; Paternostro, Mauro
20130301
We study the effects of postselection measurements on both the nonclassicality of the state of a mechanical oscillator and the entanglement between two mechanical systems that are part of a distributed optomechanical network. We address the cases of both Gaussian and nonGaussian measurements, identifying in which cases simple photon counting and Geigerlike measurements are effective in distilling a strongly nonclassical mechanical state and enhancing the purely mechanical entanglement between two elements of the network.
Galilei relativity principle in classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotelnikov, G. A.
A theorem is formulated that Galilei group is that of Maxwell equation exact symmetry group, providing the fields are transformed by nonlinear representation of this group. Galilei symmetry differs from the relativistic one in the fact that relativistic symmetry is manifested while postulating the light velocity invariance, whereas Galilei symmetry is manifested during postulating time invariance. In relativistic case the field transformations are linear and global, in Galilei case they are nonlinear and evidently depend on time and coordinates. Existence of Galilei symmetry for Maxwell equations means that in a certain sense, Galilei relativity principle holds not only in classical mechanics but in classical electrodynamics too.
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.
20111214
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a wellestablished method with an analysis of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems
Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.
20141215
The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.
The molecular mechanisms of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Felberbaum, Rachael S.
20050101
Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the appearance of giant abnormal cells called Hodgkin and ReedSternberg (HRS) cells. HRS cells arise from germinal center B lymphocytes and in about 50 percent of patients, are infected with EpsteinBarr Virus. In addition, HRS cells show constitutive NFkappaB activation and are resistant to apoptosis. This paper reviews several recent studies that for the first time implicate specific molecules in the pathogenesis of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Targeting these molecules could lead to the development of novel therapies for this disease. PMID:16720015
Classical ultrarelativistic scattering in ADD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gal'tsov, Dmitry V.; Kofinas, Georgios; Spirin, Pavel; Tomaras, Theodore N.
20090501
The classical differential crosssection is calculated for highenergy smallangle gravitational scattering in the factorizable model with toroidal extra dimensions. The three main features of the classical computation are: (a) It involves summation over the infinite KaluzaKlein towers but, contrary to the Born amplitude, it is finite with no need of an ultraviolet cutoff. (b) It is shown to correspond to the nonperturbative saddlepoint approximation of the eikonal amplitude, obtained by the summation of an infinite number of ladder graphs of the quantum theory. (c) In the absence of extra dimensions it reproduces all previously known results.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, W. H.; Paz, J. P.
The key ideas of the environmentinduced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan, no information without representation.
Classical combustion diagnostics for engine research
Amann, C.A.
19850101
The use of engine diagnostic techniques in research on the reciprocating internal combustion engine has contributed substantially to engine progress over the years. Many of these techniques were developed before the advent of the laser, and most engine research still uses these classical methods. This paper provides historical snapshots of efforts to understand flame propagation and knock in homogeneouscharge engines, and fuelair mixing and some of its ramifications in diesels. Such a review demonstrates the accomplishments facilitated by measurement of pressure, temperature, fluid motions, and chemistry within the cylinder. A critique of these classical diagnostics is then offered.
Entanglement in QuantumClassical Hybrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
20110101
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, nonclassical systems such as quantumclassical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantuminspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the HamiltonJacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Nonlocality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of nonlocality in physics.
Classical probabilities for Majorana and Weyl spinors
Wetterich, C.
20110815
Highlights: > Map of classical statistical Ising model to fermionic quantum field theory. > Latticeregularized real Grassmann functional integral for single Weyl spinor. > Emerging complex structure characteristic for quantum physics. > A classical statistical ensemble describes a quantum theory.  Abstract: We construct a map between the quantum field theory of free Weyl or Majorana fermions and the probability distribution of a classical statistical ensemble for Ising spins or discrete bits. More precisely, a Grassmann functional integral based on a real Grassmann algebra specifies the time evolution of the real wave function q{sub {tau}}(t) for the Ising states {tau}. The time dependent probability distribution of a generalized Ising model obtains as p{sub {tau}}(t)=q{sub {tau}}{sup 2}(t). The functional integral employs a lattice regularization for single Weyl or Majorana spinors. We further introduce the complex structure characteristic for quantum mechanics. Probability distributions of the Ising model which correspond to one or many propagating fermions are discussed explicitly. Expectation values of observables can be computed equivalently in the classical statistical Ising model or in the quantum field theory for fermions.
Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer
20110101
Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technologyassisted language learning led 8…
Ethnicity and Classicism: A Beautiful Connection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Arthur
19840101
The founder of the Dance Theater of Harlem describes his own professional development and discusses how Martin Luther King's assassination led him to make a commitment to the people of Harlem, to the untapped talents of Black artists, and to breaking the traditional barrier against Black dancers in classical ballet. (CMG)
Foreign Language, the Classics, and College Admissions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaFleur, Richard A.
19930101
This article reports the results of a survey, funded by the American Classical League (ACL) and conducted during 199091, that assessed attitudes toward high school foreignlanguage study, in particular the study of Latin and Greek, in the college admissions process. (21 references) (VWL)
Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald
20050101
This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…
Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.
van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; RubioGozalbo, M Estela
20130101
Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a dietindependent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841
Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients
20130101
Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a dietindependent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841
Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peslak, John, Jr.
19790101
Comparisons are made for the particleinabox, the harmonic oscillator, and the oneelectron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantummechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
20090101
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
The Strange World of Classical Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, David
20100101
We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…
Classical Linguistics in the United States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poultney, James W.
19880101
Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness
MartinMayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
20150101
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘DWave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spinglass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the DWave Two chip on different temperaturechaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markvorsen, Steen
20080101
Using only fairly simple and elementary considerationsessentially from first year undergraduate mathematicswe show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the…
Classical "Topoi" and the Academic Commonplace.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Musgrove, Laurence E.
An investigation of the various ways the term "topos" is used in classical rhetoric reveals the limited range of invention strategies offered by academic discourse pedagogy. Donald Bartholmae's work on basic writing addresses the relationship of the commonplace to topical invention within academic discourse. Investigation of the history of…
Classical and quantum Kummer shape algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odzijewicz, A.; Wawreniuk, E.
20160701
We study a family of integrable systems of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators on the classical and quantum levels. We show that the integrability of these systems follows from their symmetry characterized by algebras, here called Kummer shape algebras. The resolution of identity for a wide class of reproducing kernels is found. A number of examples, illustrating this theory, are also presented.
The Classical Diffusion Paradigm in Crisis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hooks, Gregory
The erosion of the credibility of the classical diffusion paradigm by recent challenges to its fundamental assumptions has resulted in a "paradigmatic crisis" as related to research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations. Such basic assumptions as that of a harmonious and cooperative society and of agricultural research guided by endogenous…
Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.
This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…
MultipleAccess QuantumClassical Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razavi, Mohsen
20111001
A multiuser network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical codedivision multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoystate quantum key distribution protocols.
The Oxford Treasury of Classic Poems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Michael, Ed.; StuartClark, Christopher, Ed.
This book contains over 90 classic poems for children. The collection of poems includes nonsense verse by Lear and Carroll, story poems by Tennyson and Keats, and humorous poems by Belloc and Betjeman. The collection also includes poems by modern poets, such as Charles Causley, Ted Hughes, John Agard, Roger McGough, and Stevie Smith. The…
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W
20160101
Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a metaanalysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of highdose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybinassisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600
Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.
19910101
The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)
Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space
Wetterich, C.
20100715
Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.
Arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, YiPing; Hwang, Tzonelih
20140101
This paper points out design confusion existing in all the arbitrated quantum signatures (AQS) that require public discussions over authenticated classical channels. Instead, an AQS scheme of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels is proposed here. A cryptographic hash function is used in combine with quantum mechanics to check the existence of an eavesdropping or to verify a signature. In addition, by using only single photons, this scheme provides higher efficiency both in quantum transmissions and generations. The proposed AQS scheme is shown to be immune to several wellknown attacks, i.e., the Trojanhorse attacks and the existential forgery attack.
Classical Photogrammetry and Uav  Selected Ascpects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikrut, S.
20160601
The UAV technology seems to be highly futureoriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow  Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV  System FT03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial preprocessing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side
Classical and Quantum Probability for Biologists  Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei.
20100101
The aim of this review (oriented to biologists looking for applications of QM) is to provide a detailed comparative analysis of classical (Kolmogorovian) and quantum (Diracvon Neumann) models. We will stress differences in the definition of conditional probability and as a consequence in the structures of matrices of transition probabilities, especially the condition of double stochasticity which arises naturally in QM. One of the most fundamental differences between two models is deformation of the classical formula of total probability (FTP) which plays an important role in statistics and decision making. An additional term appears in the QMversion of FTP  so called interference term. Finally, we discuss Bell's inequality and show that the common viewpoint that its violation induces either nonlocality or "death of realism" has not been completely justified. For us it is merely a sign of nonKolmogorovianity of probabilistic data collected in a few experiments with incompatible setups of measurement devices.
Hidden invariance of the free classical particle
Garcia, S. )
19940601
A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group [ital G] is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semiinvariance under [ital G] leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by [ital U](1) leads to quantum mechanics.
Time Monitoring Variability of Classical Be Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, Benjamin; Eisner, Joshua A.; Stone, Jordan
20160101
Classical Be stars are B type stars that show hydrogen emission in their spectra, and exhibit variability across the electromagnetic spectrum, including visible and infrared wavelengths. While spectroscopic variability in the optical range has been studied previously, the near infrared region has not been investigated as thoroughly. We present multiple epochs of near infrared spectroscopy for a sample of eight Classical Be stars. Our observations were taken using the FSPEC instrument on the 90inch Bok reflector telescope at Kitt Peak during the months of May and June of 2010 and 2011. We targeted the Brackett Gamma emission line of hydrogen with a resolution of ≈3500. Using Python we developed tools to analyze the reduced and calibrated spectra, as well as compute equivalent widths. Timeseries spectra indicate that a majority of the systems exhibit spectroscopic variability. By monitoring the strengths of the emission feature over time we aim to constrain the physical properties of these systems.
Bell Experiment with Classical Optical Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Bethany; Qian, XiaoFeng; Howell, John; Eberly, J. H.
We theoretically and experimentally explore the implications of entanglement in statistically classical optical fields. The description of these fields in terms of polarization and amplitude degrees of freedom can take a nonseparable form which employs a mathematical description of entanglement often associated with quantum phenomena. By subjecting these optical fields to a Bell analysis, we examine the role of entanglement in marking the quantumclassical boundary. We report a value of the Bell parameter greater than calB = 2 . 54 , many standard deviations outside the limit calB = 2 established by the ClauserHorneShimonyHolt Bell inequality. This suggests that Bell violation has less to do with quantum theory than previously thought, but everything to do with entanglement. University of Rochester Research Award, NSF PHY1203931, NSF PHY1505189, and NSF/INSPIRE PHY1539859.
Quantum and classical phases in optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armata, Federico; Latmiral, Ludovico; Pikovski, Igor; Vanner, Michael R.; Brukner, Časlav; Kim, M. S.
20160601
The control of quantum systems requires the ability to change and readout the phase of a system. The noncommutativity of canonical conjugate operators can induce phases on quantum systems, which can be employed for implementing phase gates and for precision measurements. Here we study the phase acquired by a radiation field after its radiation pressure interaction with a mechanical oscillator, and compare the classical and quantum contributions. The classical description can reproduce the nonlinearity induced by the mechanical oscillator and the loss of correlations between mechanics and optical field at certain interaction times. Such features alone are therefore insufficient for probing the quantum nature of the interaction. Our results thus isolate genuine quantum contributions of the optomechanical interaction that could be probed in current experiments.
Experimental tests of classical and quantum dimensionality.
Ahrens, Johan; Badziąg, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin; Zukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
20140411
We report on an experimental test of classical and quantum dimension. We have used a dimension witness that can distinguish between quantum and classical systems of dimensions two, three, and four and performed the experiment for all five cases. The witness we have chosen is a base of semideviceindependent cryptographic and randomness expansion protocols. Therefore, the part of the experiment in which qubits were used is a realization of these protocols. In our work we also present an analytic method for finding the maximum quantum value of the witness along with corresponding measurements and preparations. This method is quite general and can be applied to any linear dimension witness. PMID:24765923
Monodisperse cluster crystals: Classical and quantum dynamics.
DíazMéndez, Rogelio; Mezzacapo, Fabio; Cinti, Fabio; Lechner, Wolfgang; Pupillo, Guido
20151101
We study the phases and dynamics of a gas of monodisperse particles interacting via softcore potentials in two spatial dimensions, which is of interest for softmatter colloidal systems and quantum atomic gases. Using exact theoretical methods, we demonstrate that the equilibrium lowtemperature classical phase simultaneously breaks continuous translational symmetry and dynamic spacetime homogeneity, whose absence is usually associated with outofequilibrium glassy phenomena. This results in an exotic selfassembled cluster crystal with coexisting liquidlike longtime dynamical properties, which corresponds to a classical analog of supersolid behavior. We demonstrate that the effects of quantum fluctuations and bosonic statistics on clusterglassy crystals are separate and competing: Zeropoint motion tends to destabilize crystalline order, which can be restored by bosonic statistics. PMID:26651695
CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS REQUIRE ENHANCED MASS LOSS
Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Izzard, Robert; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Ed
20121120
Measurements of rates of period change of Classical Cepheids probe stellar physics and evolution. Additionally, better understanding of Cepheid structure and evolution provides greater insight into their use as standard candles and tools for measuring the Hubble constant. Our recent study of the period change of the nearest Cepheid, Polaris, suggested that it is undergoing enhanced mass loss when compared to canonical stellar evolution model predictions. In this work, we expand the analysis to rates of period change measured for about 200 Galactic Cepheids and compare them to population synthesis models of Cepheids including convective core overshooting and enhanced mass loss. Rates of period change predicted from stellar evolution models without mass loss do not agree with observed rates, whereas including enhanced mass loss yields predicted rates in better agreement with observations. This is the first evidence that enhanced mass loss as suggested previously for Polaris and {delta} Cephei must be a ubiquitous property of Classical Cepheids.
Crossover from quantum to classical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morr, Dirk K.
20160101
Understanding the crossover from quantum to classical transport has become of fundamental importance not only for technological applications due to the creation of sub10nm transistors  an important building block of our modern life  but also for elucidating the role played by quantum mechanics in the evolutionary fitness of biological complexes. This article provides a basic introduction into the nature of charge and energy transport in the quantum and classical regimes. It discusses the characteristic transport properties in both limits and demonstrates how they can be connected through the loss of quantum mechanical coherence. The salient features of the crossover physics are identified, and their importance in opening new transport regimes and in understanding efficient and robust energy transport in biological complexes are demonstrated.
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
20150501
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
IbarraSierra, V.G.; AnzaldoMeneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; HernándezSaldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; RoaNeri, J.A.E.
20130815
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail.  Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
V723 Cas a borderline classical nova
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedjung, M.; Iijima, T.
20021101
V723 Cas had a light curve similar to that of HR Del before maximum, with a very slow premaximum rise, explained according to [2] by the presence of an optically thin wind before maximum unlike the optically thick wind generally seen for classical novae after maximum. Examination of the Fe II emission lines by the SAC method, is compatible with this also having been the case for V723 Cas.
Large numbers hypothesis. I  Classical formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
19820101
A selfconsistent formulation of physics at the classical level embodying Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is developed based on units covariance. A scalar 'field' phi(x) is introduced and some fundamental results are derived from the resultant equations. Some unusual properties of phi are noted such as the fact that phi cannot be the correspondence limit of a normal quantum scalar field.
Mutual information in classical spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilms, Johannes; Troyer, Matthias; Verstraete, Frank
20111001
The total manybody correlations present in finite temperature classical spin systems are studied using the concept of mutual information. As opposed to zerotemperature quantum phase transitions, the total correlations are not maximal at the phase transition, but reach a maximum in the hightemperature paramagnetic phase. The Shannon mutual information and the Renyi mutual information in both Ising and Potts models in two dimensions are calculated numerically by combining matrix product state algorithms and Monte Carlo sampling techniques.
Thermal Casimir drag in fluctuating classical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Démery, Vincent; Dean, David S.
20110701
A uniformly moving inclusion which locally suppresses the fluctuations of a classical thermally excited field is shown to experience a drag force that depends on the dynamics of the field. It is shown that in a number of cases the linear friction coefficient is dominated by short distance fluctuations and takes a very simple form. Examples where this drag can occur are for stiff objects, such as proteins, nonspecifically bound to more flexible ones such as polymers and membranes.
Time in classical and in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elçi, A.
20100701
This paper presents an analysis of the time concept in classical mechanics from the perspective of the invariants of a motion. The analysis shows that there is a conceptual gap concerning time in the DiracHeisenbergvon Neumann formalism and that Bohr's complementarity principle does not fill the gap. In the DiracHeisenbergvon Neumann formalism, a particle's properties are represented by Heisenberg matrices. This axiom is the source of the time problem in quantum mechanics.
New variables for classical and quantum gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
19860101
A Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity based on certain spinorial variables is introduced. These variables simplify the constraints of general relativity considerably and enable one to imbed the constraint surface in the phase space of Einstein's theory into that of YangMills theory. The imbedding suggests new ways of attacking a number of problems in both classical and quantum gravity. Some illustrative applications are discussed.
Semiclassical methods in nuclear physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brink, David M.
These lecture notes present an introduction to some semiclassical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the ThomasFermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for manybody problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.
Electromagnetically induced classical and quantum Lau effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Deqin
20160701
We present two schemes of Lau effect for an object, an electromagnetically induced grating generated based on the electromagnetically induced effect. The Lau interference pattern is detected either directly in the way of the traditional Lau effect measurement with a classical thermal light being the imaging light, or indirectly and nonlocally in the way of twophoton coincidence measurement with a pair of entangled photons being the imaging light.
Fundamentals of nonassociative classical field theory
Kurdgelaidze, D.F.
19870501
A nonassociative classical field theory is constructed. Octonion algebra is studied. The octonion is represented as the sum of a quaternion and an associator. The octonion algebra is expanded and Lorentz group generators are specified in terms of octonion bases in one of the subalgebras. Lorentz vectors and spinors are constructed in the nonassociative algebra. The representation of the Lorentz group in terms of spin and the associator is obtained.
INCLINATION MIXING IN THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT
Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu
20110720
We investigate the longterm evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low and highinclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the lowinclination population may have been in the highinclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the sizeinclination and colorinclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than nonbinary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higherorder mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as nonresonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the nonresonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.
Testing for Classicality of a Physical System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut
20130401
Often quantum logics are algebraically modelled by orthomodular posets. The physical system described by such a quantum logic is classical if and only if the corresponding orthomodular poset is a Boolean algebra. We provide an easy testing procedure for this case. Moreover, we characterize orthomodular posets which are lattices and consider orthomodular posets which admit a full set of states and hence represent socalled spaces of numerical events. This way further test procedures are obtained.
Large classical universes emerging from quantum cosmology
PintoNeto, Nelson
20090415
It is generally believed that one cannot obtain a large universe from quantum cosmological models without an inflationary phase in the classical expanding era because the typical size of the universe after leaving the quantum regime should be around the Planck length, and the standard decelerated classical expansion after that is not sufficient to enlarge the universe in the time available. For instance, in many quantum minisuperspace bouncing models studied in the literature, solutions where the universe leaves the quantum regime in the expanding phase with appropriate size have negligible probability amplitude with respect to solutions leaving this regime around the Planck length. In this paper, I present a general class of moving Gaussian solutions of the WheelerDeWitt equation where the velocity of the wave in minisuperspace along the scale factor axis, which is the new large parameter introduced in order to circumvent the abovementioned problem, induces a large acceleration around the quantum bounce, forcing the universe to leave the quantum regime sufficiently big to increase afterwards to the present size, without needing any classical inflationary phase in between, and with reasonable relative probability amplitudes with respect to models leaving the quantum regime around the Planck scale. Furthermore, linear perturbations around this background model are free of any transPlanckian problem.
Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Nicholas
20150501
Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek  it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates  and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560  4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.
Ultrahigh energy probes of classicalization
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar Email: cesar.gomez@uam.es
20120701
Classicalizing theories are characterized by a rapid growth of the scattering cross section. This growth converts these sort of theories in interesting probes for ultrahigh energy experiments even at relatively low luminosity, such as cosmic rays or Plasma Wakefield accelerators. The microscopic reason behind this growth is the production of Nparticle states, classicalons, that represent selfsustained lumps of soft Bosons. For spin2 theories this is the quantum portrait of what in the classical limit are known as black holes. We emphasize the importance of this quantum picture which liberates us from the artifacts of the classical geometric limit and allows to scan a much wider landscape of experimentallyinteresting quantum theories. We identify a phenomenologicallyviable class of spin2 theories for which the growth of classicalon production cross section can be as efficient as to compete with QCD cross section already at 100TeV energy, signaling production of quantum black holes with graviton occupation number N ∼ 10{sup 4}.
CLASSSTRONG: Classical simulations of strong field processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciappina, M. F.; PérezHernández, J. A.; Lewenstein, M.
20140101
A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in strong field physics, namely highorder harmonic generation (HHG) and abovethreshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the NewtonLorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Like in the Strong Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA was proven to be an essential tool in strong field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only dependent on time, including spatial nonhomogeneous fields and spatial and temporal synthesized fields. Spatial nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems interact with strong and short laser pulses and temporal synthesized fields are routinely generated in attosecond laboratories around the world. Temporal and spatial synthesized fields have received special attention nowadays because they would allow to exceed considerably the conventional harmonic and electron energy frontiers. Classical simulations are an invaluable tool to explore exhaustively the parameters domain at a cheap computational cost, before massive quantum mechanical calculations, absolutely indispensable for the detailed analysis, are performed.
Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krovi, Hari; Devetak, Igor
20070701
Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the oneway distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classicalquantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.
Local Refinements in Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fackeldey, Konstantin; Weber, Marcus
20140301
Quantum mechanics provide a detailed description of the physical and chemical behavior of molecules. However, with increasing size of the system the complexity rises exponentially, which is prohibitive for efficient dynamical simulation. In contrast, classical molecular dynamics procure a coarser description by using less degrees of freedom. Thus, it seems natural to seek for an adequate tradeoff between accurateness and computational feasibility in the simulation of molecules. Here, we propose a novel method, which combines classical molecular simulations with quantum mechanics for molecular systems. For this we decompose the state space of the respective molecule into subsets, by employing a meshfree partition of unity. We show, that this partition allows us to localize an empirical force field and to run locally constrained classical trajectories. Within each subset, we compute the energy on the quantum level for a fixed number of spatial states (ab initio points). With these energy values from the ab initio points we have a local scattered data problem, which can be solved by the moving least squares method.
Complex Classical Mechanics of a QES Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhabani Prasad, Mandal; Sushant, S. Mahajan
20151001
We study a combined parity (P) and time reversal (T) invariant nonHermitian quasiexactly solvable (QES) potential, which exhibits PT phase transition, in the complex plane classically to demonstrate different quantum effects. The particle with real energy makes closed orbits around one of the periodic wells of the complex potential depending on the initial condition. However interestingly the particle escapes to an open orbits even with real energy if it is placed beyond a certain distance from the center of the well. On the other hand when the particle energy is complex the trajectory is open and the particle tunnels back and forth between two wells which are separated by a classically forbidden path. The tunneling time is calculated for different pair of wells and is shown to vary inversely with the imaginary component of energy. Our study reveals that spontaneous PT symmetry breaking does not affect the qualitative features of the particle trajectories in the analogous complex classical model. Support from Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India under SERC Project Sanction Grant No. SR/S2/HEP0009/2012
Mesoscopic systems: classical irreversibility and quantum coherence.
Barbara, Bernard
20120928
Mesoscopic physics is a subdiscipline of condensedmatter physics that focuses on the properties of solids in a size range intermediate between bulk matter and individual atoms. In particular, it is characteristic of a domain where a certain number of interacting objects can easily be tuned between classical and quantum regimes, thus enabling studies at the border of the two. In magnetism, such a tuning was first realized with largespin magnetic molecules called singlemolecule magnets (SMMs) with archetype Mn(12)ac. In general, the mesoscopic scale can be relatively large (e.g. micrometresized superconducting circuits), but, in magnetism, it is much smaller and can reach the atomic scale with rare earth (RE) ions. In all cases, it is shown how quantum relaxation can drastically reduce classical irreversibility. Taking the example of mesoscopic spin systems, the origin of irreversibility is discussed on the basis of the LandauZener model. A classical counterpart of this model is described enabling, in particular, intuitive understanding of most aspects of quantum spin dynamics. The spin dynamics of mesoscopic spin systems (SMM or RE systems) becomes coherent if they are well isolated. The study of the damping of their Rabi oscillations gives access to most relevant decoherence mechanisms by different environmental baths, including the electromagnetic bath of microwave excitation. This type of decoherence, clearly seen with spin systems, is easily recovered in quantum simulations. It is also observed with other types of qubits such as a single spin in a quantum dot or a superconducting loop, despite the presence of other competitive decoherence mechanisms. As in the molecular magnet V(15), the leading decoherence terms of superconducting qubits seem to be associated with a nonMarkovian channel in which shortliving entanglements with distributions of twolevel systems (nuclear spins, impurity spins and/or charges) leading to 1/f noise induce τ(1)like
Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.
20121201
The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on reallife people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300306. doi:10.1002/wea.765
NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE
Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi
20131110
Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a mainsequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electrondegenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the mainsequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo postprocessing network calculations with temperaturedensity evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.
Mycosis fungoides: classic disease and variant presentations.
Howard, M S; Smoller, B R
20000601
Mycosis fungoides is a peripheral nonHodgkin's Tcell neoplastic process, representing the most common type of primary cutaneous malignant lymphoma. Neoplastic lesions classically show skin predilection and characteristic clinical and histologic features in patch, plaque, and tumor stages. In addition, several clinicopathologic variants of mycosis fungoides have been delineated, including poikiloderma atrophicans vasculare (parapsoriasis variegata), Sézary syndrome, granulomatous mycosis fungoides, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, folliculocentric mycosis fungoides, syringotropic mycosis fungoides, and Woringer Kolopp disease. We will review the salient features of patch, plaque, and tumor stage mycosis fungoides in this article and follow with a discussion of these variant clinicopathologic presentations and of therapeutic modalities. PMID:10892710
Hybridizing matterwave and classical accelerometers
Lautier, J.; Volodimer, L.; Hardin, T.; Merlet, S.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Landragin, A.
20141006
We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performance without any isolation platform. Second, a servolock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely, the dead times between consecutive measurements.
Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.
20160801
We take a soliton solution of a classical nonlinear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its nonlinearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the postquench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sineGordon and nonlinear Schrödinger integrable equations.
Classical codes in quantum state space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Mark
20151201
We present a construction of Hermitian operators and quantum states labelled by strings from a finite field. The distance between these operators or states is then simply related (typically, proportional) to the Hamming distance between their corresponding strings. This allows a straightforward application of classical coding theory to find arrangements of operators or states with a given distance distribution. Using the simplex or extended ReedSolomon code in our construction recovers the discrete Wigner function, which has important applications in quantum information theory.
Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.
20160801
In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.
Classical dynamics of free electromagnetic laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, S.; Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.
20160201
We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum sourcefree Maxwell field equations as models for multi and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in lasermatter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Landé and Podolsky.
Electroweak Baryogenesis from a Classical Force
Joyce, M.; Prokopec, T.; Turok, N.
19950828
We describe a new effect that produces baryons at a first order electroweak phase transition. It operates when there is a {ital CP}violating field present on propagating bubble walls. The novel aspect is that it involves a purely classical force, which alters the motion of particles across the wall and through diffusion creates a chiral asymmetry in front of the wall. We develop a technique for computing the baryon asymmetry using the Boltzmann equation, and a fluid approximation which allows us to model strong scattering effects. The final formula for the baryon asymmetry has a remarkably simple form.
Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.
20160601
In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.
Non Breakable Data Encryption With Classical Information?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Heszler, Peter
20051101
With the KishSethuraman (KS) cipher an attempt was made, by using special operators and communication, to reach absolutely secure classical communication. First the message is bounced back with additional encryption by the Receiver and then the original encryption is removed and the message is resent by the Sender. The mechanical analogy of this operation is using two padlocks; one by the Sender and one by the Receiver. Klappenecker has pointed out that finding an efficient software realization of the operators is equivalent of proving the P ≠ NP problem. Various open problems are discussed.
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
20150801
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3 σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the LennardJones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.
Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
20150801
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the LennardJones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26382410
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.
20071201
The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sedimenttype named loess, a finegrained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "nonclassical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) tradewind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anticlockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these nonclassical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or subvertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.
How quantum are classical spin ices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingras, Michel J. P.; Rau, Jeffrey G.
The pyrochlore spin ice compounds Dy2TiO7 and Ho2Ti2O7 are well described by classical Ising models down to low temperatures. Given the empirical success of this description, the question of the importance of quantum effects in these materials has been mostly ignored. We argue that the common wisdom that the strictly Ising moments of noninteracting Dy3+ and Ho3+ ions imply Ising interactions is too naive and that a more complex argument is needed to explain the close agreement between the classical Ising model theory and experiments. By considering a microscopic picture of the interactions in rareearth oxides, we show that the highrank multipolar interactions needed to induce quantum effects in these two materials are generated only very weakly by superexchange. Using this framework, we formulate an estimate of the scale of quantum effects in Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7, finding it to be well below experimentally relevant temperatures. Published as: PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 144417 (2015).
Classical gauged massless RaritaSchwinger fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
20151001
We show that, in contrast to known results in the massive case, a minimally gauged massless RaritaSchwinger field yields a consistent classical theory, with a generalized fermionic gauge invariance realized as a canonical transformation. To simplify the algebra, we study a twocomponent left chiral reduction of the massless theory. We formulate the classical theory in both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian form for a general nonAbelian gauging and analyze the constraints and the RaritaSchwinger gauge invariance of the action. An explicit wave front calculation for Abelian gauge fields shows that wavelike modes do not propagate with superluminal velocities. An analysis of RaritaSchwinger spinor scattering from gauge fields shows that adiabatic decoupling fails in the limit of zero gauge field amplitude, invalidating various "nogo" theorems based on "onshell" methods that claim to show the impossibility of gauging RaritaSchwinger fields. Quantization of RaritaSchwinger fields, using many formulas from this paper, is taken up in the following paper.
Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaezi, MohammadSadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar
20160501
We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.
Relational Quadrilateralland i: the Classical Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Edward
20141201
Relational particle mechanics models bolster the relational side of the absolute versus relational motion debate. They are additionally toy models for the dynamical formulation of general relativity (GR) and its problem of time (PoT). They cover two aspects that the more commonly studied minisuperspace GR models do not: (1) by having a nontrivial notion of structure and thus of cosmological structure formation and of localized records. (2) They have linear as well as quadratic constraints, which is crucial as regards modeling many PoT facets. I previously solved relational triangleland classically, quantum mechanically and as regards a local resolution of the PoT. This rested on triangleland's shape space being 𝕊2 with isometry group SO(3), allowing for use of widelyknown geometry, methods and atomic/molecular physics analogies. I now extend this work to the relational quadrilateral, which is far more typical of the general Nagon, represents a "diagonal to nondiagonal Bianchi IX minisuperspace" stepup in complexity, and encodes further PoT subtleties. The shape space now being ℂℙ2 with isometry group SU(3)/ℤ3, I now need to draw on geometry, shape statistics and particle physics to solve this model; this is therefore an interdisciplinary paper. This Paper treats quadrilateralland at the classical level, and then paper II provides a quantum treatment.
Observables in classical canonical gravity: Folklore demystified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pons, J. M.; Salisbury, D. C.; Sundermeyer, K. A.
20100401
We give an overview of some conceptual difficulties, sometimes called paradoxes, that have puzzled for years the physical interpetation of classical canonical gravity and, by extension, the canonical formulation of generally covariant theories. We identify these difficulties as stemming form some terminological misunderstandings as to what is meant by "gauge invariance", or what is understood classically by a "physical state". We make a thorough analysis of the issue and show that all purported paradoxes disappear when the right terminology is in place. Since this issue is connected with the search of observables  gauge invariant quantities  for these theories, we formally show that time evolving observables can be constructed for every observer. This construction relies on the fixation of the gauge freedom of diffeomorphism invariance by means of a scalar coordinatization. We stress the condition that the coordinatization must be made with scalars. As an example of our method for obtaining observables we discuss the case of the massive particle in AdS spacetime.
Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartumeus, F.; Catalan, J.
20091001
Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically reevaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.
Marech, Ilaria; Leporini, Christian; Ammendola, Michele; Porcelli, Mariangela; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ranieri, Girolamo
20160928
Angiogenesis is sustained by classical and nonclassical proangiogenic factors (PFs) acting in tumor microenvironment and these factors are also potential targets of antiangiogenic therapies. All PFs induce the overexpression of several signaling pathways that lead to migration and proliferation of endothelial cells contributing to tumor angiogenesis and survival of cancer cells. In this review, we have analyzed each PF with its specific receptor/s and we have summarized the available antiangiogenic drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies) targeting these PFs, some of these agents have already been approved, others are currently in development for the treatment of several human malignancies. PMID:26238184
Classical Influence on the Founding of the American Republic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molanphy, Helen M.
The founding fathers of the United States were products of a classical education, and they used the Greek and Roman classics as republican models and classical virtues. In their writings, the founders frequently associated liberty and republicanism with the ancient commonwealths. John Adams spoke on three separate occasions of the need to reflect…
75 FR 19250  Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
20100414
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625AA00 Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ AGENCY..., Arizona for the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Speedboat Club is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic, which is held on the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
20140601
The problem of the compression of classical information when a receiver has access only to side quantum states associated with classical states of a source, which are not available directly, is examined. For the receiver to be able to reconstruct the entire information of the source, a certain additional amount of side classical information is required. A bound on the minimum necessary amount of side classical information has been obtained by simple means.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham
20080101
The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…
QuantumClassical Hybrid for Information Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
20110101
Based upon quantuminspired entanglement in quantumclassical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of nonintentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantumclassical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the xcoordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source
Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisniacki, Diego A.; Schlagheck, Peter
20151201
When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties
Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonances.
Wisniacki, Diego A; Schlagheck, Peter
20151201
When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties. PMID:26764790
Relativistic like structure of classical thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quevedo, Hernando; Sánchez, Alberto; Vázquez, Alejandro
20150401
We analyze in the context of geometrothermodynamics a Legendre invariant metric structure in the equilibrium space of an ideal gas. We introduce the concept of thermodynamic geodesic as a succession of points, each corresponding to a state of equilibrium, so that the resulting curve represents a quasistatic process. A rigorous geometric structure is derived in which the thermodynamic geodesics at a given point split the equilibrium space into two disconnected regions separated by adiabatic geodesics. This resembles the causal structure of special relativity, which we use to introduce the concept of adiabatic cone for thermodynamic systems. This result might be interpreted as an alternative indication of the interrelationship between relativistic physics and classical thermodynamics.
Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in the Preweanling Lamb
Johnson, Timothy B.; Stanton, Mark E.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Cudd, Timothy A.
20100101
Classical conditioning of eyeblink responses has been one of the most important models for studying the neurobiology of learning, with many comparative, ontogenetic, and clinical applications. The current study reports the development of procedures to conduct eyeblink conditioning in preweanling lambs and demonstrates successful conditioning using these procedures. These methods will permit application of eyeblink conditioning procedures in the analysis of functional correlates of cerebellar damage in a sheep model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which has significant advantages over more common laboratory rodent models. Because sheep have been widely used for studies of pathogenesis and mechanisms of injury with many different prenatal or perinatal physiological insults, eyeblink conditioning can provide a wellstudied method to assess postnatal behavioral outcomes, which heretofore have not typically been pursued with ovine models of developmental insults. PMID:18513143
Interaction vertex for classical spinning particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempel, Trevor; Freidel, Laurent
20160801
We consider a model of the classical spinning particle in which the coadjoint orbits of the Poincaré group are parametrized by two pairs of canonically conjugate fourvectors, one representing the standard position and momentum variables, and the other encoding the spinning degrees of freedom. This "dual phase space model" is shown to be a consistent theory of both massive and massless particles and allows for coupling to background fields such as electromagnetism. The onshell action is derived and shown to be a sum of two terms, one associated with motion in spacetime, and the other with motion in "spin space." Interactions between spinning particles are studied, and a necessary and sufficient condition for consistency of a threepoint vertex is established.
Unpolarized light: Classical and quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehner, J.; Leonhardt, U.; Paul, H.
19960401
We give a general definition of unpolarized light that rests on invariance properties rather than specific values of secondorder field correlations or, equivalently, the Stokes parameters. It turns out that to require invariance with respect to rotation around the propagation axis and symmetry with respect to left and righthanded circular polarization is not sufficient to fully characterize completely unpolarized light, such as natural light. Actually, a third requirement demanding invariance with respect to phase retardation is needed. Depending on whether it is satisfied or not, we speak of type I or type II unpolarized light, and we specify the general form of both classical distribution functions and density operators consistent with the respective conditions.
Monogamy properties of quantum and classical correlations
Giorgi, Gian Luca
20111115
In contrast with entanglement, as measured by concurrence, in general, quantum discord does not possess the property of monogamy; that is, there is no tradeoff between the quantum discord shared by a pair of subsystems and the quantum discord that both of them can share with a third party. Here, we show that, as far as monogamy is considered, quantum discord of pure states is equivalent to the entanglement of formation. This result allows one to analytically prove that none of the pure threequbit states belonging to the subclass of W states is monogamous. A suitable physical interpretation of the meaning of the correlation information as a quantifier of monogamy for the total information is also given. Finally, we prove that, for rank 2 twoqubit states, discord and classical correlations are bounded from above by singlequbit von Neumann entropies.
A Classic Clinical Case: Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis
Copaescu, AnaMaria; Castilloux, JeanFrançois; ChababiAtallah, Myrna; Sinave, Christian; Bertrand, Janie
20130101
Background Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a rare condition described mostly in adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. When it affects the facial region, it can mimic cellulitis and delay the diagnostic, thus proper recognition is essential. Objective This article describes a classic case of NEH. We will review the diagnostic, the differential diagnostic (mostly cellulitis) and the management of this condition. Methods After a literature review, the patient's file was properly studied in order to portray a clear picture of this condition. Medical photographs and appropriate physical examination upon presentation are also included. Results The diagnostic for NEH was suggested by the clinical presentation and confirmed histopathologically (skin biopsy). Conclusion The diagnostic of NEH is essential in order to prevent multiple unnecessary antibiotics. PMID:24474918
Classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis
Haaland, David M.
20020101
An improved classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis method that adds spectral shapes describing noncalibrated components and system effects (other than baseline corrections) present in the analyzed mixture to the prediction phase of the method. These improvements decrease or eliminate many of the restrictions to the CLStype methods and greatly extend their capabilities, accuracy, and precision. One new application of PACLS includes the ability to accurately predict unknown sample concentrations when new unmodeled spectral components are present in the unknown samples. Other applications of PACLS include the incorporation of spectrometer drift into the quantitative multivariate model and the maintenance of a calibration on a drifting spectrometer. Finally, the ability of PACLS to transfer a multivariate model between spectrometers is demonstrated.
Classical chromodynamics and heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappi, T.
20050501
This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a doctoral dissertation also containing the articles hepph/0303076, hepph/0409328 and hepph/0409058. The paper focuses on the calculation of particle production in a relativistic heavy ion collision using the McLerranVenugopalan model. The main part of the paper summarizes the background of these numerical calculations. First we relate this calculation of the initial stage af a heavy ion collision to our understanding of the whole collision process. Then we discuss the saturation physics of the small x wavefunction of a hadron or a nucleus. The classical field model of Kovner, McLerran and Weigert is then introduced before moving to discuss the numerical algorithms used to compute gluon and quark pair production in this model. Finally we shortly review the results on gluon and quarkantiquark production obtained in the three articles mentioned above.
Theory of the classical electron gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guernsey, R. L.
19780101
In a previous paper Cohen and Murphy (1969) used the Meeron resummation (1958) of the Mayer diagrams (1950) to calculate the pair correlation for the classical electron gas in thermal equilibrium. They found that successive terms in the expression for the pair correlation were more and more singular for small interparticle spacing, actually dominating the DebyeHueckel result for sufficiently small distances. This led to apparent divergence in the higher order contributions to the internal energy. The present paper shows that the apparent anomalies in the CohenMurphy results can be removed without further resummation by a more careful treatment of the region of small interparticle spacing. It is shown that there is really no anomalous behavior at short range in any order and all integrals in the expression for the internal energy converge.
Classical medicine v alternative medical practices.
Kottow, M H
19920101
Classical medicine operates in a climate of rational discourse, scientific knowledge accretion and the acceptance of ethical standards that regulate its activities. Criticism has centred on the excessive technological emphasis of modern medicine and on its social strategy aimed at defending exclusiveness and the privileges of professional status. Alternative therapeutic approaches have taken advantage of the eroded public image of medicine, offering treatments based on holistic philosophies that stress the nonrational, nontechnical and nonscientific approach to the unwell, disregarding traditional diagnostic categories and concentrating on enhancing subjective comfort and wellbeing, but remaining oblivious to the organic substrate of disease. This leads to questionable ethics in terms of false hopes and lost opportunities for effective therapy. PMID:1573644
Observational selection among classical novae in outburst.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, H.; Politano, M. J.; Livio, M.; Webbink, R. F.
The authors investigate to what extent observational selection can account for the prevalence of massive white dwarfs among classical novae as was originally proposed by Truran and Livio (1986). For this the authors elaborate on their approach by taking into account a detailed model distribution function for the masses of newlyformed cataclysmic binaries from Politano (1988, 1990), an improved ignition condition for the thermonuclear runaway, as well as effects of the secular evolution of the systems and flux limitation of the observations (including interstellar absorption). The results agree qualitatively with those obtained by Truran and Livio (1986). However, since Politano's model calculations do not take into account the formation of ONeMg white dwarfs, the authors cannot make any quantitative prediction as to their expected abundance among observed novae.
Nonlinear quantum equations: Classical field theory
RegoMonteiro, M. A.; Nobre, F. D.
20131015
An exact classical field theory for nonlinear quantum equations is presented herein. It has been applied recently to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and it is shown herein to hold also for a nonlinear generalization of the KleinGordon equation. These generalizations were carried by introducing nonlinear terms, characterized by exponents depending on an index q, in such a way that the standard, linear equations, are recovered in the limit q→ 1. The main characteristic of this field theory consists on the fact that besides the usual Ψ(x(vector sign),t), a new field Φ(x(vector sign),t) needs to be introduced in the Lagrangian, as well. The field Φ(x(vector sign),t), which is defined by means of an additional equation, becomes Ψ{sup *}(x(vector sign),t) only when q→ 1. The solutions for the fields Ψ(x(vector sign),t) and Φ(x(vector sign),t) are found herein, being expressed in terms of a qplane wave; moreover, both field equations lead to the relation E{sup 2}=p{sup 2}c{sup 2}+m{sup 2}c{sup 4}, for all values of q. The fact that such a classical field theory works well for two very distinct nonlinear quantum equations, namely, the Schrödinger and KleinGordon ones, suggests that this procedure should be appropriate for a wider class nonlinear equations. It is shown that the standard global gauge invariance is broken as a consequence of the nonlinearity.
Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.
Dumond, D E; Muller, F
19720317
The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of PueblaTlaxcala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of redonbuff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause
Immunomodulation of classical and nonclassical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.
Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D
20160501
Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/downregulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and nonclassical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in nonclassical HLAI molecules. PMID:27113815
New developments in classical chaotic scattering.
Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F
20130101
Classical chaotic scattering is a topic of fundamental interest in nonlinear physics due to the numerous existing applications in fields such as celestial mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics and fluid mechanics, among others. Many new advances in chaotic scattering have been achieved in the last few decades. This work provides a current overview of the field, where our attention has been mainly focused on the most important contributions related to the theoretical framework of chaotic scattering, the fractal dimension, the basins boundaries and new applications, among others. Numerical techniques and algorithms, as well as analytical tools used for its analysis, are also included. We also show some of the experimental setups that have been implemented to study diverse manifestations of chaotic scattering. Furthermore, new theoretical aspects such as the study of this phenomenon in timedependent systems, different transitions and bifurcations to chaotic scattering and a classification of boundaries in different types according to symbolic dynamics are also shown. Finally, some recent progress on chaotic scattering in higher dimensions is also described. PMID:23242261
Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20040203
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20050111
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20050726
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Krakatau 1883: A classic geophysical event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simkin, Tom; Fiske, Richard S.
This week marks the 100th anniversary of Krakatau's 1883 eruption, perhaps the most famous volcanic event in recorded history. During a 23hour period on August 26 and 27, 1883, more than 18 km3 of volcanic debris thundered upward from Krakatau, resulting in the death of more than 36,000 people and causing widespread devastation to the surrounding area. Moreover, the 1883 events at Krakatau caused geophysical phenomena that were observed around the world, making it (at least up until Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption) the household word for a classic volcanic catastrophe.One hundred years ago, Krakatau was a 5×9 km island in the Sunda Straits, between Java and Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. It was a familiar landmark, both to the tens of thousands of nearby coastal residents and to the crews of thousands of ships from Europe and the Americas that passed through the Straits each year on their way to and from the far east. The volcano had last erupted in 1681 and was not regarded as a likely site for renewed and catastrophic activity.
Models of classical and recurrent novae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedjung, Michael; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.
19930101
The behavior of novae may be divided roughly into two separate stages: quiescence and outburst. However, at closer inspection, both stages cannot be separated. It should be attempted to explain features in both stages with a similar model. Various simple models to explain the observed light and spectral observations during post optical maximum activity are conceivable. In instantaneous ejection models, all or nearly all material is ejected in a time that is short compared with the duration of post optical maximum activity. Instantaneous ejection type 1 models are those where the ejected material is in a fairly thin shell, the thickness of which remains small. In the instantaneous ejection type 2 model ('Hubble Flow'), a thick envelope is ejected instantaneously. This envelope remains thick as different parts have different velocities. Continued ejection models emphasize the importance of winds from the nova after optical maximum. Ejection is supposed to occur from one of the components of the central binary, and one can imagine a general swelling of one of the components, so that something resembling a normal, almost stationary, stellar photosphere is observed after optical maximum. The observed characteristics of recurrent novae in general are rather different from those of classical novae, thus, models for these stars need not be the same.
Resolution of a paradox in classical electrodynamics
Pinto, Fabrizio
20060515
It is an early result of electrostatics in curved space that the gravitational mass of a charge distribution changes by an amount equal to U{sub es}/c{sup 2}, where U{sub es} is the internal electrostatic potential energy and c is the speed of light, if the system is supported at rest by external forces. This fact, independently rediscovered in recent years in the case of a simple dipole, confirms a very reasonable expectation grounded in the massenergy equivalency equation. However, it is an unsolved paradox of classical electrodynamics that the renormalized mass of an accelerated dipole calculated from the selfforces due to the distortion of the Coulomb field differs in general from that expected from the energy correction, U{sub es}/c{sup 2}, unless the acceleration is transversal to the orientation of the dipole. Here we show that this apparent paradox disappears for any dipole orientation if the selfforce is evaluated by means of Whittaker's exact solution for the field of the single charge in a homogeneous gravitational field described in the Rindler metric. The discussion is supported by computer algebra results, diagrams of the electric fields distorted by gravitation, and a brief analysis of the prospects for realistic experimentation. The gravitational correction to dipoledipole interactions is also discussed.
Quantumclassical lifetimes of Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junginger, Andrej; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter
20130401
A remarkable property of Rydberg atoms is the possibility of creating molecules formed by one highly excited atom and another atom in the ground state. The first realization of such a Rydberg molecule has opened an active field of physical investigations, and showed that its basic properties can be described within a simple model regarding the ground state atom as a small perturber that is bound by a lowenergy scattering process with the Rydberg electron (Greene et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 2458). Besides the good agreement between theory and the experiment concerning the vibrational states of the molecule, the experimental observations yield the astonishing feature that the lifetime of the molecule is clearly reduced as compared to the bare Rydberg atom (Butscher et al 2011 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44 184004). With focus on this yet unexplained observation, we investigate in this paper the vibrational ground state of the molecule in a quantumclassical framework. We show that the Rydberg wavefunction is continuously detuned by the presence of the moving ground state atom and that the timescale on which the detuning significantly exceeds the natural linewidth is in good agreement with the observed reduced lifetimes of the Rydberg molecule.
Classical probability model for Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
20140401
We show that by taking into account randomness of realization of experimental contexts it is possible to construct common Kolmogorov space for data collected for these contexts, although they can be incompatible. We call such a construction "Kolmogorovization" of contextuality. This construction of common probability space is applied to Bell's inequality. It is well known that its violation is a consequence of collecting statistical data in a few incompatible experiments. In experiments performed in quantum optics contexts are determined by selections of pairs of angles (θi,θ'j) fixing orientations of polarization beam splitters. Opposite to the common opinion, we show that statistical data corresponding to measurements of polarizations of photons in the singlet state, e.g., in the form of correlations, can be described in the classical probabilistic framework. The crucial point is that in constructing the common probability space one has to take into account not only randomness of the source (as Bell did), but also randomness of contextrealizations (in particular, realizations of pairs of angles (θi, θ'j)). One may (but need not) say that randomness of "free will" has to be accounted for.
High vacuum cells for classical surface techniques
Martinez, Imee Su; Baldelli, Steven
20100415
Novel glass cells were designed and built to be able to perform surface potential and surface tension measurements in a contained environment. The cells can withstand pressures of approximately 1x10{sup 6} Torr, providing a reasonable level of control in terms of the amounts of volatile contaminants during experimentation. The measurements can take several hours; thus the cells help maintain the integrity of the sample in the course of the experiment. To test for the feasibility of the cell design, calibration measurements were performed. For the surface potential cell, the modified TREK 6000B7C probe exhibited performance comparable to its unmodified counterpart. The correlation measurements between applied potential on the test surface and the measured potential showed Rvalues very close to 1 as well as standard deviation values of less than 1. Results also demonstrate improved measurement values for experiments performed in vacuum. The surface tension cell, on the other hand, which was used to perform the pendant drop method, was tested on common liquids and showed percentage errors of 0.5% when compared to literature values. The fabricated cells redefine measurements using classical surface techniques, providing unique and novel methods of sample preparation, premeasurement preparation, and sample analysis at highly beneficial expenditure cost.
The classic cadherins in synaptic specificity
Basu, Raunak; Taylor, Matthew R; Williams, Megan E
20150101
During brain development, billions of neurons organize into highly specific circuits. To form specific circuits, neurons must build the appropriate types of synapses with appropriate types of synaptic partners while avoiding incorrect partners in a dense cellular environment. Defining the cellular and molecular rules that govern specific circuit formation has significant scientific and clinical relevance because fine scale connectivity defects are thought to underlie many cognitive and psychiatric disorders. Organizing specific neural circuits is an enormously complicated developmental process that requires the concerted action of many molecules, neural activity, and temporal events. This review focuses on one class of molecules postulated to play an important role in target selection and specific synapse formation: the classic cadherins. Cadherins have a wellestablished role in epithelial cell adhesion, and although it has long been appreciated that most cadherins are expressed in the brain, their role in synaptic specificity is just beginning to be unraveled. Here, we review past and present studies implicating cadherins as active participants in the formation, function, and dysfunction of specific neural circuits and pose some of the major remaining questions. PMID:25837840
An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.
19920501
We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibrationrotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.
Tachyons in classical de Sitter vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junghans, Daniel
20160601
We revisit the possibility of de Sitter vacua and slowroll inflation in type II string theory at the level of the classical twoderivative supergravity approximation. Previous attempts at explicit constructions were plagued by ubiquitous tachyons with a large η parameter whose origin has not been fully understood so far. In this paper, we determine and explain the tachyons in two setups that are known to admit unstable dS critical points: an SU(3) structure compactification of massive type IIA with O6planes and an SU(2) structure compactification of type IIB with O5/O7planes. We explicitly show that the tachyons are always close to, but never fully aligned with the sgoldstino direction in the considered examples and argue that this behavior is explained by a generalized version of a nogo theorem by Covi et al, which holds in the presence of large mixing in the mass matrix between the sgoldstino and the orthogonal moduli. This observation may also provide a useful stability criterion for general dS vacua in supergravity and string theory.
Critical viscosity exponent for classical fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Hong; Ferrell, Richard A.; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
20050201
A selfconsistent modecoupling calculation of the critical viscosity exponent zη for classical fluids is performed by including the memory effect and the vertex corrections. The incorporation of the memory effect is through a selfconsistency procedure that evaluates the order parameter and shear momentum relaxation rates at nonzero frequencies, thereby taking their frequency dependence into account. This approach offers considerable simplification and efficiency in the calculation. The vertex corrections are also demonstrated to have significant effects on the numerical value for the critical viscosity exponent, in contrast to some previous theoretical work which indicated that the vertex corrections tend to cancel out from the final result. By carrying out all of the integrations analytically, we have succeeded in tracing the origin of this discrepancy to an error in earlier work. We provide a thorough treatment of the twoterm epsilon expansion, as well as a complete threedimensional analysis of the fluctuating orderparameter and transverse hydrodynamic modes. The study of the interactions of these modes is carried out to high order so as to arrive at zη=0.0679±0.0007 for comparison with the experimentally observed value, 0.0690±0.0006 .
Generalized fluctuation theorems for classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Dattagupta, Sushanta
20151101
The fluctuation theorem has a very special place in the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of physical systems. The form in which it is used most extensively is the GallavotiCohen fluctuation theorem which is in terms of the distribution of the work p (W )/p (W )=exp(α W ) . We derive the general form of the fluctuation theorems for an arbitrary multidimensional Gaussian Markov process. Interestingly, the parameter α is by no means universal, hitherto taken for granted in the case of linear Gaussian processes. As a matter of fact, conditions under which α does become a universal parameter 1 /K T are found to be rather restrictive. As an application we consider fluctuation theorems for classical cyclotron motion of an electron in a parabolic potential. The motion of the electron is described by four coupled Langevin equations and thus is nontrivial. The generalized theorems are equally valid for nonequilibrium steady states and could be especially important in the presence of anisotropic diffusion.
The Directedness of Time in Classical Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartels, Andreas; Wohlfarth, Daniel
20140301
The aim of this paper is to show that a new understanding of fundamentality can be applied successfully in classical cosmology based on General Relativity. We are thereby able to achieve an account of cosmological time asymmetry as an intrinsic and fundamental property of the universe. First, we consider Price's arguments against the fundamental status of timeasymmetry (Price (1996, 2002, 2011)). We show that these arguments have some force, but their force depends on understanding fundamentality as lawlikeness. Second, we show that alternative approaches attempting to explain time directedness either by applying an anthropic strategy based on a multiverse approach, or by using the empirical fact of accelerated expansion of the universe, equally fail to provide a fundamental explanation of time directedness. In the third part, we present our own new concept of fundamentality based on properties of the solution space of fundamental laws. We demonstrate how this new concept of fundamentality is effective in understanding the cosmological asymmetry.
Symmetry constraints on the classical skyrmion
Samiullah, M.; Rolnick, P.
19950401
We derive the constraints on the solutions of the classical SU(2) Skyrme model imposed by requiring that angular momentum ({bold J}) and isospin ({bold I}) be well defined under the general symmetry ({ital aI}{sub 3}+{ital bJ}{sub 3}). We show that for all nontrivial solutions ({ital aI}{sub 3}+{ital bJ}{sub 3}) must be 0, {ital a}/{ital b} must be an integer, and for {ital b}{ne}0 the profile function must be of the form {bold F}({bold r})={ital F}((1{minus}{ital A}{sup 2}){sup 1/2}{cflx z}+{ital A} {l_brace}{cflx x}cos[({ital a}/{ital b}){phi}+{ital B}]+{cflx y}sin[({ital a}/{ital b}){phi}]+{ital B}{r_brace})({cflx x},{cflx y},{cflx z} are Cartesian unit vectors; {ital r},{theta},{phi} are the usual spherical polar coordinates; {ital F}, {ital A}, {ital B} are undetermined functions of {ital r},{theta}).
Treatment regimens of classical and newer taxanes.
Joerger, Markus
20160201
The classical taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel), the newer taxane cabazitaxel and the nanoparticlebound nabpaclitaxel are among the most widely used anticancer drugs. The taxanes share the characteristics of extensive hepatic metabolism and biliary excretion, the need for dose adaptation in patients with liver dysfunction, and a substantial pharmacokinetic variability even after taking into account known covariates. Data from clinical studies suggest that optimal scheduling of the taxanes is dependent not only on the specific taxane compound, but also on the tumor type and line of treatment. Still, the optimal dosing regimen (weekly vs 3 weekly) and optimal dose of the taxanes are controversial, as is the value of pharmacological personalization of taxane dosing. In this article, an overview is given on the pharmacological properties of the taxanes, including metabolism, pharmacokineticspharmacodynamics and aspects in the clinical use of taxanes. The latter includes the ongoing debate on the most active and safe regimen, the recommended initial dose and the issue of therapeutic drug dosing. PMID:26589792
Local thermonuclear runaways among classical novae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orio, Marina; Shaviv, Giora
19930401
A classical nova may accrete a nonhomogeneous envelope, which can result in the ignition of a local thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. We studied the propagation of thermal flows along the meridian in the hydrogen rich envelope, to find the conditions under which a thermonuclear runaway is not spherically symmetric. We included mass accretion and tested the effect of temperature inhomogeneities in the secular evolution of the envelope, supposing perturbations with different wavelengths, ranging from very small to comparable with the radius of the white dwarf. The calculations were stopped at the onset of a thermonuclear runaway, when the hydrodynamic expansion starts. We found the ranges of accretion rates and masses of white dwarfs for which the runaway ignites locally. The propagation time of the runaway along the meridian may be as long as days and weeks. 'Local' thermonuclear runaways can explain the asymmetries and inhomogeneities of the nova shells and account for the slow rise time to maximum (about one week) of many novae.
A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battefeld, Diana; Peter, Patrick
20150401
Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scaleinvariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary nonGaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be finetuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large nonGaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.
Indeterminism in Classical Dynamics of Particle Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory; Vishniac, Ethan; Lalescu, Cristian; Aluie, Hussein; Kanov, Kalin; Burns, Randal; Meneveau, Charles; Szalay, Alex
20130301
We show that ``God plays dice'' not only in quantum mechanics but also in the classical dynamics of particles advected by turbulent fluids. With a fixed deterministic flow velocity and an exactly known initial position, the particle motion is nevertheless completely unpredictable! In analogy with spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets which persists as external field is taken to zero, the particle trajectories in turbulent flow remain random as external noise vanishes. The necessary ingredient is a rough advecting field with a powerlaw energy spectrum extending to smaller scales as noise is taken to zero. The physical mechanism of ``spontaneous stochasticity'' is the explosive dispersion of particle pairs proposed by L. F. Richardson in 1926, so the phenomenon should be observable in laboratory and natural turbulent flows. We present here the first empirical corroboration of these effects in high Reynoldsnumber numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic fluid turbulence. Since powerlaw spectra are seen in many other systems in condensed matter, geophysics and astrophysics, the phenomenon should occur rather widely. Fast reconnection in solar flares and other astrophysical systems can be explained by spontaneous stochasticity of magnetic fieldline motion
Classical and quantum superintegrability with applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Willard, Jr.; Post, Sarah; Winternitz, Pavel
20131001
A superintegrable system is, roughly speaking, a system that allows more integrals of motion than degrees of freedom. This review is devoted to finite dimensional classical and quantum superintegrable systems with scalar potentials and integrals of motion that are polynomials in the momenta. We present a classification of secondorder superintegrable systems in twodimensional Riemannian and pseudoRiemannian spaces. It is based on the study of the quadratic algebras of the integrals of motion and on the equivalence of different systems under coupling constant metamorphosis. The determining equations for the existence of integrals of motion of arbitrary order in real Euclidean space E2 are presented and partially solved for the case of thirdorder integrals. A systematic exposition is given of systems in two and higher dimensional space that allow integrals of arbitrary order. The algebras of integrals of motions are not necessarily quadratic but close polynomially or rationally. The relation between superintegrability and the classification of orthogonal polynomials is analyzed.
Classical and quantum routes to linear magnetoresistance.
Hu, Jingshi; Rosenbaum, T F
20080901
The hallmark of materials science is the ability to tailor the microstructure of a given material to provide a desired response. Carbon mixed with iron provides the steel of buildings and bridges; impurities sprinkled in silicon single crystals form the raw materials of the electronics revolution; pinning centres in superconductors let them become powerful magnets. Here, we show that either adding a few parts per million of the proper chemical impurities to indium antimonide, a wellknown semiconductor, or redesigning the material's structure on the micrometre scale, can transform its response to an applied magnetic field. The former approach is purely quantum mechanical; the latter a classical outgrowth of disorder, turned to advantage. In both cases, the magnetoresistive responseat the heart of magnetic sensor technologycan be converted to a simple, large and linear function of field that does not saturate. Harnessing the effects of disorder has the further advantage of extending the useful applications range of such a magnetic sensor to very high temperatures by circumventing the usual limitations imposed by phonon scattering. PMID:18719705
Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V
20140101
We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Belltype inequalities or quantummechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665
Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.
20140101
We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Belltype inequalities or quantummechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665
Classical oscillators in the control of quantum tunneling: Numerical experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
20160601
The dynamics of a classical anharmonic oscillator is exploited to control the tunneling dynamics of a quantum particle to which the classical oscillator is coupled. The mixed quantum classical problem is investigated at a meanfield like level. The anharmonic strength (λ) , particle mass (Mc) and harmonic stiffness (ωc) of the classical controller are explored as possible control parameters for the tunneling dynamics. The strength, the type of coupling between the quantum system and classical controller and the effective frequency of the controller emerge as crucial factors in shaping the nature and extent of the control. A whole spectrum of possibilities starting from enhancement, suppression to complete destruction of tunneling emerge depending on values assigned to the control parameters, the type of coupling and the control configuration used. When classical controller is replaced by a quantum controller, the control landscape becomes much simpler.
On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles
Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.
20150610
Here, classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical pointparticle and coldfluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrodinger, Pauli, and KleinGordon particles.
Polaractivation for classical zeroerror capacity of qudit channels
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
20141204
We introduce a new phenomenon for zeroerror transmission of classical information over quantum channels that initially were not able for zeroerror classical communication. The effect is called polaractivation, and the result is similar to the superactivation effect. We use the ChoiJamiolkowski isomorphism and the Schmidttheorem to prove the polaractivation of classical zeroerror capacity and define the polaractivator channel coding scheme.
On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles
Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.
20151001
Classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical pointparticle and coldfluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrodinger, Pauli, and KleinGordon particles. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.
20151001
Classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical pointparticle and coldfluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrödinger, Pauli, and KleinGordon particles.
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160101
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Classical Dynamics Based on the Minimal Length Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang
20160201
In this paper we consider the quadratic modification of the Heisenberg algebra and its classical limit version which we call the βdeformed Poisson bracket for corresponding classical variables. We use the βdeformed Poisson bracket to discuss some physical problems in the βdeformed classical dynamics. Finally, we consider the ( α, β) deformed classical dynamics in which minimal length uncertainty principle is given by [ hat {x} , hat {p}] = i hbar (1 + α hat {x}2 + β hat {p}2 ) . For two small parameters α, β, we discuss the free fall of particle and a composite system in a uniform gravitational field.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
20160401
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantumcontrollednot and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the singleparticle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
20160801
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantumcontrollednot and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the singleparticle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160101
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Beyond quantumclassical analogies: high time for agreement?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrocco, Michele
Lately, many quantumclassical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantumclassical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantummechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160501
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe
Gattobigio, G. L.; Couvert, A.; Georgeot, B.; GueryOdelin, D.
20111216
We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantumclassical correspondence.
Classical novae and recurrent novae: General properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.
19930101
We describe the observable characteristics of classical novae and recurrent novae obtained by different techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, and imaging) in all the available spectral ranges. We consider the three stages in the life of a nova: quiescence (pre and postoutburst), outburst, final decline and nebular phase. We describe the photometric properties during the quiescent phase. We describe the photometric properties during outburst, the classification according the rate of decline (magnitudes per day), which permits us to define very fast, fast, intermediate, slow, and very slow novae and the correlation between luminosity and speed class. We report the scanty data on the spectra of the few known prenovae and those on the spectra of old novae and those of dwarf novae and novalike, which, however, are almost undistinguishable. We describe the typical spectra appearing from the beginning of the outburst, just before maximum, up to the nebular phase and the correlation between spectral type at maximum, expansional velocity, and speed class of the nova. We report the existing infrared observations, which permit us to explain some of the characteristics of the outburst light curve, and give evidence of the formation of a dust shell in slow and intermediate novae (with the important exception of the very slow nova HR Del 1967) and its absence or quasiabsence in fast novae. The ultraviolet and Xray observations are described. The X ray observations of novae, mainly from the two satellites EINSTEIN and EXOSAT, are reported. Observations of the final decline and of the envelopes appearing several months after outburst are also reported.
Classical Novae in the Swift Era
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starrfield, Sumner; SwiftNovaCV Group
20080301
One of the highlights of Swift is that it is a remarkably responsive spacecraft both because of its design and because Neil Gehrels, the PI, is attuned to the great science that can be done with Targets of Opportunity. As a result, we have made important and significant discoveries about the Xray evolution of Cataclysmic Variables (CV) in general and both Classical (CN) and Recurrent Novae (RN) in particular. Before Swift, both CN and RN were known to emit in both hard and soft Xrays but observations were few, with only a small number of CNe followed through their Xray bright phase. We have now extended Xray observations to many more CNe which has answered some questions and, at least as important, posed new questions about the evolution of the explosion. I emphasize that Xray observations are the only means of following the evolution of the nuclearburning white dwarf during the outburst. I will review our observations of CN and concentrate on the SSS phase in which the Xray emission is coming from hot, nuclearburning, white dwarf outer layers and atmosphere. I will present a brief summary of our results on the 2006 outburst of RS Oph in which a RN was detected with the BAT and then, later, we observed the turnon of the SSS phase some 26 days into outburst. Finally, I will discuss V723 Cas (1995) which now holds the record for the longest CN observed in outburst in Xrays. I gratefully acknowledge partial support from NSF and NASA grants to ASU and to the members of the SwiftNOVACV working group who obtained, extracted, and analyzed the data that I will be presenting.
[Mental disease in two classical music composers].
Rempelakos, L; PoulakouRebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D
20120101
A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions
Drumlins: A Classic Example of Pattern Formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Jeremy C.; Clark, Chris D.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hahn, Ute; Hughes, Anna L. C.
20140501
geomorphic phenomena can be equally attributed to drumlins and other subglacial bedforms, providing a conceptual framework for understanding their formation. Equally, we suggest that drumlins represent a classic example of pattern formation within the geosciences, and hence provide exciting opportunities for studying the dynamics of pattern formation.
The Statistical Interpretation of Classical Thermodynamic Heating and Expansion Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartier, Stephen F.
20110101
A statistical model has been developed and applied to interpret thermodynamic processes typically presented from the macroscopic, classical perspective. Through this model, students learn and apply the concepts of statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and classical thermodynamics in the analysis of the (i) constant volume heating, (ii)…
Supernovae in Binary Systems: An Application of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitalas, R.
19800101
Presents the supernova explosion in a binary system as an application of classical mechanics. This presentation is intended to illustrate the power of the equivalent onebody problem and provide undergraduate students with a variety of insights into elementary classical mechanics. (HM)
Ghost imaging of phase objects with classical incoherent light
Shirai, Tomohiro; Setaelae, Tero; Friberg, Ari T.
20111015
We describe an optical setup for performing spatial Fourier filtering in ghost imaging with classical incoherent light. This is achieved by a modification of the conventional geometry for lensless ghost imaging. It is shown on the basis of classical coherence theory that with this technique one can realize what we call phasecontrast ghost imaging to visualize pure phase objects.
Algorithms for Computerized Test Construction Using Classical Item Parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adema, Jos J.; van der Linden, Wim J.
19890101
Two zeroone linear programing models for constructing tests using classical item and test parameters are given. These models are useful, for instance, when classical test theory must serve as an interface between an item response theorybased item banking system and a test constructor unfamiliar with the underlying theory. (TJH)
Geometric angles in cyclic evolutions of a classical system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Sen, Tanaji
19880101
A perturbative method, using Lie transforms, is given for calculating the Hannay angle for slow, cyclic evolutions of a classical system, taking into account the finite rate of change of the Hamiltonian. The method is applied to the generalized harmonic oscillator. The classical AharonovAnandan angle is also calculated. The interpretational ambiguity in the definitions of geometrical angles is discussed.
Extracting classical correlations from a bipartite quantum system
Hamieh, S.; Qi, J.; Siminovitch, D.; Ali, M.K.
20030101
In this paper, we discuss the problem of splitting of the total correlations for a bipartite quantum state described by the Von Neumann mutual information into classical and quantum parts. We propose a measure of the classical correlations as the difference between the Von Neumann mutual information and the relative entropy of entanglement. We compare this measure with different measures proposed in the literature.
Planck's radiation law: is a quantumclassical perspective possible?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrocco, Michele
20160501
Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantumclassical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantummechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.
Redundant Information and the QuantumClassical Transition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riedel, Charles Jess
20120101
A state selected at random from the Hilbert space of a manybody system is overwhelmingly likely to exhibit highly nonclassical correlations. For these typical states, half of the environment must be measured by an observer to determine the state of a given subsystem. The objectivity of classical realitythe fact that multiple observers can each…
The Classical Heritage in America: A Curriculum Resource. Tentative Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.
This curriculum resource is intended to help make students of Latin, Greek and other subjects more aware of America's classical heritage. It is designed to be used selectively by teachers to enrich the regular curriculum in classical languages in elementary and secondary schools. In providing background information for the teacher and suggestions…
78 FR 19988  Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
20130403
... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625AA00 Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ AGENCY..., Arizona for the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic. This temporary safety zone is necessary...
The Bernoulli or Coanda Conundrum and Other Classical Demonstration Myths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stille, Dale
20091101
Lecture Demonstration professionals have recently taken a closer look at demonstrations that were traditionally labeled ``Bernoulli Demonstrations'' in most textbooks. This examination has shown that in most cases the Coanda Effect, Magnus Effect, and Entrainment may be better explanations for most of these classic demonstrations. A discussion of other similarly classic demonstrations and some of their problems or misconceptions will also be presented.
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
20140101
We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…
In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.
20020101
Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)
Inexpensive Books for Teaching the Classics: 19th Annual List.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenheim, Ursula
19680101
All the materials in this bibliography are designed for use in courses in classical literature in translation, classical civilization, and for supplementary reading in Latin and Greek courses. All the books are in English and are meant for grade levels seven and above. Books are grouped under subheadings which include (1) Authors, Texts,…
German Children's Classics: Heirs and Pretenders to an Eclectic Heritage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doderer, Klaus
19730101
There are no classic children's books, if by classics we mean books that will last forever. Instead, it is a matter of constant reevaluation. At most, we have older works that are still valuable today because they touch upon the human and artistic problems of our time. (Author/SJ)
Semiclassical analysis and pseudospectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, E. B.
We prove an approximate spectral theorem for nonselfadjoint operators and investigate its applications to secondorder differential operators in the semiclassical limit. This leads to the construction of a twisted FBI transform. We also investigate the connections between pseudospectra and boundary conditions in the semiclassical limit.
Cicero: A Framework for Multimedia Projects for Classics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frischer, Bernard
19860101
This paper focuses on a short term plan for a computerized multimedia expert system in the field of the classics that is under development at the University of California at Los Angeles. Noting both increased enrollments in classics courses and the problems associated with finding textbooks for courses in ancient civilizations that cover a variety…
Classical and thermodynamic limits for generalised quantum spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffield, N. G.
19900101
We prove that the rescaled upper and lower symbols for arbitrary generalised quantum spin systems converge in the classical limit. For a large class of models this enables us to derive the asyptotics of quantum free energies in the classical and in the thermodynamic limit.
North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arya, Divya D.
20150101
This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…
A new classical conjugate gradient coefficient with exact line search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiee, Norrlaili; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa
20160601
In this paper, we proposed a new classical conjugate gradient method. The global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results are presented based on number of iterations and CPU time. This numerical result shows that our method is performs better than classical CG method for a given standard test problems.
The Classical Greek Program in the School District of Philadelphia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masciantonio, Rudolph
Classical Greek is taught as an elective to over 200 students in seven secondary schools of the School District of Philadelphia. In the past decade the restoration of Greek studies to the classical curriculum was called for, and in 1968 a Greek Curriculum Committee was established in Philadelphia to develop a program and instructional materials.…
Turning Points in the Development of Classical Musicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabor, Elena
20110101
This qualitative study investigated the vocational socialization turning points in families of classical musicians. I sampled and interviewed 20 parentchild dyads, for a total of 46 interviews. Data analysis revealed that classical musicians' experiences were marked by 11 turning points that affected their identification with the occupation:…
A Guide to Classical Liberal Scholarship. Revised Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Tom G.
This booklet introduces students to a wide range of works of classical liberal scholarship. The works described can be used in researching term papers, theses, and dissertations; each book and article provides valuable insights and information that can make the difference between an "A" and a "B" paper. The tradition of classical liberalism…
Quantumclassical equivalence and groundstate factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouie, Jahanfar; Sepehrinia, Reza
20160201
We have performed an analytical study of quantumclassical equivalence for quantum XYspin chains with arbitrary interactions to explore the classical counterpart of the factorizing magnetic fields that drive the system into a separable ground state. We demonstrate that the factorizing line in the parameter space of a quantum model is equivalent to the socalled natural boundary that emerges in mapping the quantum XYmodel onto the twodimensional classical Ising model. As a result, we show that the quantum systems with the nonfactorizable ground state could not be mapped onto the classical Ising model. Based on the presented correspondence we suggest a promising method for obtaining the factorizing field of quantum systems through the commutation of the quantum Hamiltonian and the transfer matrix of the classical model.
Fate of classical solitons in onedimensional quantum systems.
Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.
20151123
We study onedimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the wellknown solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classicaltoquantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the LiebLiniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum onedimensional systems with a welldefined classical limit described by the KdV equation.
Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass
Fry, J.L.; Musielak, Z.E.
20101215
Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.
Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.
20150501
Categorytheoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.
Comparision of laserinduced and classical ultasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niederhauser, Joel J.; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin
20030601
A classical medical ultrasound system was combined with a pulsed laser source to allow laserinduced ultrasound imaging (optoacoustics). Classical ultrasound is based on reflection and scattering of an incident acoustic pulse at internal tissue structures. Laserinduced ultrasound is generated in situ by heating optical absorbing structures, such as blood vessels, with a 5 ns laser pulse (few degrees or fraction of degree), which generates pressure transients. Laserinduced ultrasound probes optical properties and therefore provides much higher contrast and complementary information compared to classical ultrasound. An ultrasound array transducer in combination with a commercial medical imaging system was used to record acoustic transients of both methods. Veins and arteries in a human forearm were identified in vivo using classical color doppler and oxygenation dependent optical absorption at 660 nm and 1064 nm laser wavelength. Safety limits of both methods were explored. Laserinduced ultrasound seems well suited to improve classical ultrasound imaging of subcutaneous regions.
Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linck, Rebecca A.
Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeemanlike frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.
Nonclassical polarization dynamics in classicallike states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luis, Alfredo; Sanz, Ángel S.
20150801
Quantum polarization is investigated by means of a trajectory picture based on the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. Relevant examples of classicallike twomode field states are thus examined, namely, Glauber and SU(2) coherent states. Although these states are often regarded as classical, the analysis here shows that the corresponding electricfield polarization trajectories display topologies very different from those expected from classical electrodynamics. Rather than incompatibility with the usual classical model, this result demonstrates the dynamical richness of quantum motions, determined by local variations of the system quantum phase in the corresponding (polarization) configuration space, absent in classicallike models. These variations can be related to the evolution in time of the phase, but also to its dependence on configurational coordinates, which is the crucial factor to generate motion in the case of stationary states like those considered here. In this regard, for completeness these results are compared with those obtained from nonclassical NOON states.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the 'nonclassical immune cell'.
Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, NaiJen; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam
20151001
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect 'nonclassical immune cells', which comprise a significant constituency of cells that reside outside of those defined as 'classical immune cells' from myeloid or lymphoid origin. Here we address the influence of specific 'nonclassical immune cells' in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, glia and neurons and downstream cellular responses that often dictate immune regulation and disease outcome are discussed. Functional integration and synergy between 'classical' and 'nonclassical immune cells' are highlighted as critical for determining optimal immune outcomes that favour the host. PMID:25801479
Proton transport in barium stannate: classical, semiclassical and quantum regimes.
Geneste, Grégory; Ottochian, Alistar; Hermet, Jessica; Dezanneau, Guilhem
20150715
Densityfunctional theory calculations are performed to investigate proton transport in BaSnO3. Structural optimizations in the stable and saddle point configurations for transfer (hopping) and reorientation allow description of the hightemperature classical and semiclassical regimes, in which diffusion occurs by overbarrier motion. At lower temperature (typically below 300 K), we describe the thermallyassisted quantum regime, in which protonic motion is of quantum nature and occurs in "coincidence" configurations favored by thermal fluctuations of the surrounding atoms. Both the nonadiabatic and the adiabatic limits are examined. In the adiabatic limit, the protonic energy landscape in the coincidence configuration is very flat. Pathintegral molecular dynamics simulations of the proton in the coincidence potential reveal, in the transfer case, that the density of probability of H(+) has its maximum at the saddle point, because the zeropoint energy exceeds the coincidence barrier. Arguments are given that support the adiabatic picture for the transfer mechanism. In the case of reorientation, the time scales for the existence of the coincidence and for protonic motion, as estimated from the timeenergy uncertainty principle by using a simple onedimensional model, are of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the adiabatic limit is not reached. Protonic transfer and reorientation in this oxide are therefore governed by different mechanisms below room temperature. PMID:26126772
PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; ClementeGallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
20070701
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his lifelong activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J ClementeGallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan
A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)  
L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)  
I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching
The Thermodynamics Of Calcite Nucleation On Organic Surfaces: Classical Vs. NonClassical Pathways NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Nielsen, M.; Hu, Q.; Hamm, L. M.; Lee, J. R.; Becker, U.; Dove, P. M.; De Yoreo, J. 20121201 Nucleation in the natural world often occurs at organic surfaces. During biomineralization, living organisms use macromolecular matrices to direct nucleation of a variety of inorganic materials by controlling the timing, polymorphism, morphology, and crystallographic orientation of mineral nuclei. In geochemical settings, mineral surfaces, which are often covered with organic layers or biofilms, surround the volume within which nucleation occurs. Despite the importance of nucleation phenomena in these natural settings, our understanding of the reaction dynamics and energetics of the process is limited. Issues such as the role of prenucleation clusters, formation of amorphous precursors, and polymorph selection during the initial stages of nucleation, as well as the structural relationships between the organic matrix and the emerging nucleus are poorly understood. Using selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols as simple models for macromolecular matrices and organic films, we address the gaps in our understanding by employing a suite of in situ methods to investigate CaCO3 nucleation. From optical measurements of calcite nucleation rates on alkanethiol SAMs, we find that for two carboxylterminated alkanethiol SAMs with odd (mercaptoundecanoic acid) and even (mercaptohexadecanoic acid) carbon chains, the rate exhibits the supersaturation dependence expected from classical theory and the effective interfacial energy is reduced from about 109 mJ/m2 in bulk solution to 81 mJ/m2 and 72 mJ/m2, respectively. Theoretical analysis shows that the corresponding free energy barrier is reduced from 105kT for homogeneous nucleation in bulk solution to 27KT and 19kT, respectively. The results demonstrate that calcite nucleation on these carboxyl SAMs is described well in purely classical terms through a reduction in the thermodynamic barrier due to decreased interfacial free energy. In addition, although amorphous particles form prior to crystal nucleation on hydroxyl
