33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
20120701
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 20120701 20120701 false ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI. 100.913 Section 100.913 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI....
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
20140701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
20130701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
20100701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
33 CFR 100.913  ACORA Garwood Classic Offshore Race, Algonac, MI.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
20110701
... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.913 ACORA Garwood... stopping at the point of origin. (NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations. The regulations of §...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Gregorich, Edward G.; Elberling, Bo; Hopkins, David W.; Sparrow, Ashley D.; Novis, Philip M.; Greenfield, Lawrence G.; Simpson, Myrna J.
20101101
Despite its harsh environmental conditions, terrestrial Antarctica contains a relatively large microbial biomass. Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lakederived algae and cyanobacteria. Here we employed two complementary analytical techniques, biomarker measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solutionstate 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to provide further information at a molecularlevel about the composition and possible source of SOM in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. The predominance of branched alkanes and shortchain lipids in the solvent extracts indicates that the primary contribution to the SOM was microbialderived. Chemical structures in the NaOH extracts from soils were also dominated by amide, peptides, and a CH 3dominating aliphatic region that were characteristic of microbial signatures. Furthermore, the SOM in the Garwood Valley contained compounds that were different from those in the cyanobacteriadominated mat from a nearby lake (including monoethyl alkanes and enriched sidechain protons). This observation suggests that easily degradable carbon sources from the nearby lake did not dominate the SOM, which is consistent with a fast turnover of the matderived organic matter found in the valley. This study highlights the important role of native soil microbes in the carbon transformation and biogeochemistry in terrestrial Antarctica.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, J.; Fountain, A. G.; O'Connor, J. E.
20111201
The cold, polar desert environmental conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys serve as an analog for the physical processes thought to affect Mars. Garwood Valley, one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78°S, 164°E) has a mean annual temperature of ~255 K and experiences <50 mm of waterequivalent snowfall per year (most of which sublimates). During the last glacial maximum, the West Antarctic/Ross Ice Sheet ice filled and blocked the lower end of Garwood Valley. Despite surface temperatures ~12 K lower than at present (243 K average), alpine glacier and ice sheet melt in Garwood Valley was sufficient to form a lake in the resulting closed basin, which partly filled with a thick (>8 m) stack of deltaic and lacustrine sediments. In places, the delta sediments overlie remnants of the valleyfilling ice plug. The delta sediments are found in a complex composed of three stepped surfaces that suggest sequential lowering of the lake level via incision through the valleyfilling ice plug. The delta stratigraphy has been exposed by erosion, driven by massive ice melt and lateral erosion by the modern Garwood River (an alpine glacierfed river that flows during austral summer). Garwood delta sediments contain LGMaged algal mats, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and diatomaceous biomarker beds. Fossil algal mats are largely concentrated in delta foreset/topset beds, while carbonate and diatombearing layers are common in bottomsets. Mean annual temperatures have remained well below 273 K in Garwood Valley since delta emplacement, resulting in preservation of the lake deposits as icecemented permafrost. Where the active layer (summer thawing) intersects massive buried ice deposits, deltaic and glacial drift sediments are mobilized to form gullies, providing modern examples of cold desert gully formation processes in a highpurity ice substrate. These Antarctic conditions are strongly analogous to the climate and hydrological environment anticipated at Holden and Eberswalde craters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clayman, Dee L.
19950101
Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CDROM pictorial dictionary…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrielli, Alessandro
20160801
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and actionangle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical rmatrices and exchange relations, nonultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (nonlinear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical rmatrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, SineGordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrielli, Alessandro
20160801
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and actionangle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical rmatrices and exchange relations, nonultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (nonlinear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical rmatrices: BelavinDrinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fandLevitanMarchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, SineGordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Tai L.
19950501
Bring Classical Mechanics To Life With a Realistic Software Simulation! You can enhance the thorough coverage of Chow's Classical Mechanics with a handson, realworld experience! John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is proud to announce a new computer simulation for classical mechanics. Developed by the Consortium for UpperLevel Physics Software (CUPS), this simulation offers complex, often realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Classical Mechanics Simulations (548812) is the perfect complement to Chow's text. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Other Important Features Include: * Six powerful simulations include: The Motion Generator, Rotation of ThreeDimensional Objects, Coupled Oscillators, Anharmonic Oscillators, Gravitational Orbits, and Collisions * Pascal source code for all programs is supplied and a number of exercises suggest specific ways the programs can be modified. * Simulations usually include graphical (often animated) displays. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine book/software simulations which comprise most of the undergraduate physics major's curriculum.
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlosshauer, Maximilian; Camilleri, Kristian
20110301
Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum—for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shed some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum—classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherenceinduced classicality and Bohr's classical concepts.
Quantum computing classical physics.
Meyer, David A
20020315
In the past decade, quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do soquantum latticegas automataand show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyer, Timothy H.
19850101
The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zeropoint spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.
19790101
The eight articles in this bulletin suggest methods of introducing classical literature into the English curriculum. Article titles are: "Ideas for Teaching Classical Mythology"; "What Novels Should High School Students Read?"; "Enlivening the Classics for Live Students"; "Poetry in Performance: The Value of Song and Oral Interpretation in…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valley, Lois
19890101
The SPS product, ClassicAda, is a software tool that supports objectoriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed ClassicAda to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, ClassicAda supports the objectoriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, ClassicAda, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide objectoriented design capabilities. The ClassicAda code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, readytorun, standard Ada. The ClassicAda toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of ClassicAda and the ClassicAda Browser were given at the workshop.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilburn, K.
19750101
Criticizes traditional reasons for Classics study and states that education is the initiation of a new generation into the skills and knowledge structures of an existing tradition. Aesthetics and philosophy, religion and morals, knowledge of self and others, and mathematics and science may be understood through Classics.
A Classical Science Transformed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kovalevsky, Jean
19790101
Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
19930101
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
Randomness: Quantum versus classical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
20160501
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory has led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g. quantum random generators. This development had stimulated a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is the elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of a quantum state. Closely related problem is the clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review, we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. We also discuss briefly “digital philosophy”, its role in physics (classical and quantum) and its coupling to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).
Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
Diagnosis of classical galactosaemia.
Monk, A M; Mitchell, A J; Milligan, D W; Holton, J B
19770101
We report a child with classical galactosaemia whose diagnosis was missed until 12 weeks of age. The limitations of urine screening tests are discussed and the wider use of a qualitative enzyme assay for screening is recommended. Reference ranges for a quantitative enzyme assay using 14galacoste1phosphate as substrate are presented. PMID:606167
Classical Mechanics Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brosing, Juliet W.
20061201
At Pacific University we have included a lab with our upper division Classical Mechanics class. We do a combination of physical labs (air resistance, harmonic motion, amusement park physics), Maple labs (software), and projects. Presentation of some of the labs, results and challenges with this course will be included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camic, Charles
20080101
They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles
19940101
Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
20050101
America's few Black classics professors have overcome contempt and criticism to contribute a unique perspective to the study of the ancient world. Dr. Patrice Rankine, an associate professor from Purdue University, has grown used to the irony. As one of the few Black classicists teaching at an American university, he has drawn plenty of skepticism…
Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.
Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.
19730101
Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huddleston, Gregory H.
19930101
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.
19830101
The articles in this journal issue suggest techniques for classroom use of literature that has "withstood the test of time." The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Storytelling Connection for the Classics" (Mary Ellen Martin); (2) "Elizabeth Bennet: A Liberated Woman" (Geneva Marking); (3) "Hawthorne: A Study in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanashvily, G. A.
20141201
We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Ibram
20080101
As a 26yearold English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…
Entanglement with classical fields
Lee, K.F.; Thomas, J.E.
20040501
We experimentally demonstrate a simple classicalfield optical heterodyne method which employs postselection to reproduce the polarization correlations of a fourparticle entangled state. We give a heuristic argument relating this method to the measurement of multiple quantum fields by correlated homodyne detection. We suggest that using multiple classical fields and postselection, one can reproduce the polarization correlations obtained in quantum experiments which employ multiple singlephoton sources and linear optics to prepare multiparticle entangled states. Our experimental scheme produces four spatially separated beams which are separately detected by mixing with four independent optical local oscillators (LO) of variable polarization. Analog multiplication of the four beat signals enables projection onto a fourparticle polarizationstate basis. Appropriate band pass filtering is used to produce a signal proportional to the projections of the maximally entangled fourfield polarization state, H{sub 1})H{sub 2})H{sub 3})H{sub 4})+V{sub 1})V{sub 2})V{sub 3})V{sub 4}), onto the product of the four LO polarizations. Since the data from multiple observers is combined prior to postselection, this method does not constitute a test of nonlocality. However, we reproduce the polarization correlations of the 32 elements in the truth table from the quantum mechanical GreenbergerHorneZeilinger experiments on the violation of local realism. We also demonstrate a form of classical entanglement swapping in a fourparticle basis.
Stark, Julian; Brandner, Kay; Saito, Keiji; Seifert, Udo
20140411
We introduce a simple model for an engine based on the Nernst effect. In the presence of a magnetic field, a vertical heat current can drive a horizontal particle current against a chemical potential. For a microscopic model invoking classical particle trajectories subject to the Lorentz force, we prove a universal bound 32√2≃0.172 for the ratio between the maximum efficiency and the Carnot efficiency. This bound, as the slightly lower one 1/6 for efficiency at maximum power, can indeed be saturated for a large magnetic field and small fugacity.
Semiclassical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestone, John
20160301
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semiclassical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.
20120101
We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atomlaser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atomlaser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The AutlerTownes splitting due to the atomlaser interaction is analogous to the…
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
19960101
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but nonperturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
Nucleosynthesis in classical novae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita; Iliadis, Christian
20061001
Classical novae are dramatic stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and gammaray bursts. These unique cataclysmic events constitute a crucible where different scientific disciplines merge, including astrophysics, nuclear and atomic physics, cosmochemistry, highenergy physics or computer science. In this review, we focus on the nucleosynthesis accompanying nova outbursts. Theoretical predictions are compared with the elemental abundances inferred from observations of the nova ejecta as well as with the isotopic abundance ratios measured in meteorites. Special emphasis is given to the interplay between nova outbursts and the Galactic abundance pattern and on the synthesis of radioactive nuclei for which γray signals are expected. Finally, we analyze the key role played by nuclear physics in our understanding of the nova phenomenon by means of recent experiments and a thorough account of the impact of nuclear uncertainties.
Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Meter, Rodney
20140801
Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediatescale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the same time, those classical computers continue to advance, but those advances are now constrained by thermodynamics, and will soon be limited by the discrete nature of atomic matter and ultimately quantum effects. Technological advances benefit both quantum and classical machinery, altering the competitive landscape. Can we build quantum computing systems that outcompute classical systems capable of some logic gates per month? This article will discuss the interplay in these competing and cooperating technological trends.
Extended symmetrical classical electrodynamics.
Fedorov, A V; Kalashnikov, E G
20080301
In this paper, we discuss a modification of classical electrodynamics in which "ordinary" point charges are absent. The modified equations contain additional terms describing the induced charges and currents. The densities of the induced charges and currents depend on the vector k and the vectors of the electromagnetic field, E and B . It is shown that the vectors E and B can be defined in terms of two fourpotentials and the components of k are the components of a fourtensor of the third rank. The Lagrangian of the modified electrodynamics is defined. The conditions are derived at which only one fourpotential determines the behavior of the electromagnetic field. It is also shown that static modified electrodynamics can describe the electromagnetic field in the inner region of an electric monopole. In the outer region of the electric monopole the electric field is governed by the Maxwell equations. It follows from boundary conditions at the interface between the inner and outer regions of the monopole that the vector k has a discrete spectrum. The electric and magnetic fields, energy, and angular momentum of the monopole are found for different eigenvalues of k .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniello, P.; Ciaglia, F. M.; Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; PérezPardo, J. M.
20161001
We propose a new point of view regarding the problem of time in quantum mechanics, based on the idea of replacing the usual time operator T with a suitable realvalued function T on the space of physical states. The proper characterization of the function T relies on a particular relation with the dynamical evolution of the system rather than with the infinitesimal generator of the dynamics (Hamiltonian). We first consider the case of classical hamiltonian mechanics, where observables are functions on phase space and the tools of differential geometry can be applied. The idea is then extended to the case of the unitary evolution of pure states of finitelevel quantum systems by means of the geometric formulation of quantum mechanics. It is found that T is a function on the space of pure states which is not associated with any selfadjoint operator. The link between T and the dynamical evolution is interpreted as defining a simultaneity relation for the states of the system with respect to the dynamical evolution itself. It turns out that different dynamical evolutions lead to different notions of simultaneity, i.e., the notion of simultaneity is a dynamical notion.
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
20091201
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910674; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910692; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910709. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:13921406.
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
20091201
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910674; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910692; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s1199900910709. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:13921406. PMID:19727989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
20070101
M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million lightyears from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. Xray data from NASA's Chandra Xray Observatory reveals pointlike sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue).
The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jumpstarting the process by which stars form.
Innovation: the classic traps.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss
20061101
Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in costcutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of realworld examplesincluding AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businessesthereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendaswhich Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovationfor instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding
Classical electrodynamic systems interacting with classical electromagnetic random radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Daniel C.
19900201
In the past, a few researchers have presented arguments indicating that a statistical equilibrium state of classical charged particles necessarily demands the existence of a temperatureindependent, incident classical electromagnetic random radiation. Indeed, when classical electromagnetic zeropoint radiation is included in the analysis of problems with macroscopic boundaries, or in the analysis of charged particles in linear force fields, then good agreement with nature is obtained. In general, however, this agreement has not been found to hold for charged particles bound in nonlinear force fields. The point is raised here that this disagreement arising for nonlinear force fields may be a premature conclusion on this classical theory for describing atomic systems, because past calculations have not directed strict attention to electromagnetic interactions between charges. This point is illustrated here by examining the classical hydrogen atom and showing that this problem has still not been adequately solved.
Classic African American Children's Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNair, Jonda C.
20100101
The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
20120101
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohn, Jack
19800101
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter
19890101
Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
20160701
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRSTBFV and BV (or fieldantifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRSTBFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRSTBFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial nondegenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Topological spectrum of classical configurations
Nettel, Francisco; Quevedo, Hernando
20071114
For any classical field configuration or mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom we introduce the concept of topological spectrum. It is based upon the assumption that for any classical configuration there exists a principle fiber bundle that contains all the physical and geometric information of the configuration. The topological spectrum follows from the investigation of the corresponding topological invariants. Examples are given which illustrate the procedure and the significance of the topological spectrum as a discretization relationship among the parameters that determine the physical meaning of classical configurations.
Classical Foundations: Leah Rochel Johnson
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
20050101
This article discusses the accomplishments of Leah Rochel Johnson, Assistant Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies and History, Pennsylvania State University. It provides insight into her values and beliefs and testimony from those who work most closely with her.
Classical theory of radiating strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
19900101
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
The classical microwave frequency standards
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; LaurentGuy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.
19900101
Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.
Quantum money with classical verification
Gavinsky, Dmitry
20141204
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries  this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, A. M.; Plastino, A.
20160901
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semiclassic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantumclassic transition. The socalled mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the BandtPompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semiclassical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit.
Classical anomalies for spinning particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail
19980201
We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D BerezinMarinov (BM), BarducciCasalbuoniLusanna (BCL) and CortésPlyushchayVelázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, Tinvariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s =  {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odddimensional spacetime, but describe different quantum systems in even spacetime dimensions.
Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denny, Mark
20090101
The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…
Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...
Classical picture of postexponential decay
Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Martorell, J.; Sprung, D. W. L.
20100415
Postexponential decay of the probability density of a quantum particle leaving a trap can be reproduced accurately, except for interference oscillations at the transition to the postexponential regime, by means of an ensemble of classical particles emitted with constant probability per unit time and the same halflife as the quantum system. The energy distribution of the ensemble is chosen to be identical to the quantum distribution, and the classical point source is located at the scattering length of the corresponding quantum system. A onedimensional example is provided to illustrate the general argument.
Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langacker, Ronald W.
19750101
Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)
Quantization of Inequivalent Classical Hamiltonians.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Ian K.
19790101
Shows how the quantization of a Hamiltonian which is not canonically related to the energy is ambiguous and thereby results in conflicting physical interpretations. Concludes that only the Hamiltonian corresponding to the total energy of a classical system or one canonically related to it is suitable for consistent quantization. (GA)
Classical and molecular genetic mapping
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A brief history of classical genetic mapping in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is described. Detailed descriptions are given of the development of molecular genetic linkage maps based upon various types of DNA markers Like many plant and animal species, the first molecular map of soybean was bas...
Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
20130101
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…
Classical Music as Enforced Utopia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeechWilkinson, Daniel
20160101
In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…
Identity from classical invariant theory
Stein, P.R.
19820101
A simple derivation is given of a wellknown relation involving the socalled Cayley Operator of classical invariant theory. The proof is inductionfree and independent of Capelli's identity; it makes use only of a knowntheorem in the theory of determinants and some elementary combinatorics.
No return to classical reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew
20160101
At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurementuncertainty, measurementdisturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the nocloning theorem and the collapse of the wavepacket) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding  the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finitedimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the PuseyBarrettRudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.
Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, MinHsiu
20150801
In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the wellstudied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the GácsKörner common information.
Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities.
Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim de; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira
20150101
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis.
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo
20080615
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, ChernSimons, and twodimensional YangMills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under areapreserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.
Classical music and the teeth.
Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo
20130101
Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth. PMID:23691776
Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*
de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira
20150101
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294
Quantum fields with classical perturbations
Dereziński, Jan
20140715
The main purpose of these notes is a review of various models of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) involving quadratic Lagrangians. We discuss scalar and vector bosons, spin 1/2 fermions, both neutral and charged. Beside free theories, we study their interactions with classical perturbations, called, depending on the context, an external linear source, masslike term, current or electromagnetic potential. The notes may serve as a first introduction to QFT.
The origins of classical homoeopathy?
Campbell, A
19990601
Writers on homoeopathy frequently refer to classical homoeopathy, usually with the implication that this is the most complete and authoritative version of Hahnemann's views. However, such claims do not correspond with the historical facts. Homoeopathy arrived in the USA early in the 19th century and there underwent considerable modifications at the hands of its most influential adherents, who were deeply influenced by the ideas of Emanuel Swedenborg. J.T. Kent is particularly important in this respect and he also introduced ideas from other sources. The 'extremist' character of Kentian homoeopathy goes far to explain the gulf that has separated homoeopathy from orthodox medicine until comparatively recently. Kentian views were brought to Britain by Margaret Tyler early in the 20th century and became dominant after the First World War, to give rise to what is called classical homoeopathy today. This is not only a considerable modification of Hahnemann's teaching, but it fails to take account of Hahnemann's late ideas which he developed in his Paris years and incorporated in the sixth edition of 'The Organon', published posthumously in 1920. Whatever one's opinion of the value of classical homoeopathy, it cannot be legitimately represented as a purely Hahnemannian teaching.
Entanglement in the classical limit: Quantum correlations from classical probabilities
Matzkin, A.
20110815
We investigate entanglement for a composite closed system endowed with a scaling property which allows the dynamics to be kept invariant while the effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} of the system is varied. Entanglement increases as ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{yields}0. Moreover, for sufficiently low ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} the evolution of the quantum correlations, encapsulated, for example, in the quantum discord, can be obtained from the mutual information of the corresponding classical system. We show this behavior is due to the local suppression of path interferences in the interaction that generates the entanglement.
Three approaches to classical thermal field theory
Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.
20110415
Research Highlights: > Classical thermal field theory admits three equivalent path integral formulations. > Classical Feynman rules can be derived for all three formulations. > Quantum Feynman rules reduce to classical ones at high temperatures. > Classical Feynman rules become much simpler when superfields are introduced.  Abstract: In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three wellknown different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closedtime path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Classical dynamics on Snyder spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignemi, S.
20150401
We study the classical dynamics of a particle in Snyder spacetime, adopting the formalism of constrained Hamiltonian systems introduced by Dirac. We show that the motion of a particle in a scalar potential is deformed with respect to special relativity by terms of order βE2. A remarkable result is that in the relativistic Snyder model a consistent choice of the time variable must necessarily depend on the dynamics. This is a consequence of the nontrivial mixing between position and momentum coordinates intrinsic to the Snyder model.
Classical analog of quantum phase
Ord, G.N.
19920701
A modified version of the Feynman relativistic chessboard model (FCM) is investigated in which the paths involved are spirals in the spacetime. Portions of the paths in which the particle`s proper time is reversed are interpreted in terms of antiparticles. With this intepretation the particleantiparticle field produced by such trajectories provides a classical analog of the phase associated with particle paths in the unmodified FCM. It is shwon that in the nonrelativistic limit the resulting kernel is the correct Dirac propagator and that particleantiparticle symmetry is in this case responsible for quantum interference. 7 refs., 3 figs.
Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
20130901
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a WiFi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.
Classical command of quantum systems.
Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh
20130425
Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantummechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics.
Classical command of quantum systems.
Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh
20130425
Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantummechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics. PMID:23619692
Fluctuations in classical sum rules.
Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven
20101001
Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sumrule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phasespace sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the HannayOzorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the PollicottRuelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phasespace volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.
Classical Mechanics: A Modern Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCall, Martin W.
20001201
Classical Mechanics is a clear introduction to the subject, combining a userfriendly style with an authoritative approach, whilst requiring minimal prerequisite mathematics  only elementary calculus and simple vectors are presumed. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications  including gravitational orbits, rigid body dynamics and mechanics in rotating frames  are deferred until after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. The examples given throughout are often unusual for an elementary text, although they are made accessible through discussion and diagrams. Complete revision summaries are given at the end of each chapter, together with problems designed to be both illustrative and challenging. Features: * Comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics and relativity * Many novel examples, e.g. stability of the universe, falling cats, crickets bats and snooker * Includes many problems with numerical answers * Revision notes at the end of each chapter
Noise and the classical musician.
McBride, D.; Gill, F.; Proops, D.; Harrington, M.; Gardiner, K.; Attwell, C.
19920101
OBJECTIVESTo test the hypothesis that noise exposure may cause hearing loss in classical musicians. DESIGNComparison of hearing levels between two risk groups identified during the study by measuring sound levels. SETTINGSymphony orchestra and occupational health department in the west Midlands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESHearing level as measured by clinical pure tone audiometry. RESULTSTrumpet and piccolo players received a noise dose of 160% and 124%, respectively, over mean levels during part of the study. Comparison of the hearing levels of 18 woodwind and brass musicians with 18 string musicians matched for age and sex did not show a significant difference in hearing, the mean difference in the hearing levels at the high (2, 4, and 8 KHz) audiometric frequencies being 1.02 dB (95% confidence interval 2.39 to 4.43). CONCLUSIONSThis study showed that there is a potential for occupational hearing loss in classical orchestral musicians. Images p1561a p1562a PMID:1286387
Introducing the Classics to Reluctant Readers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazarus, Lissa J.
Using the pocket classics can be a painless way to introduce the classics to eighthgrade students. Condensed versions of the classics can take the sting out of the reading, stimulate students' interest, and help prepare them for high school. To offer students in one eighthgrade class some control over their own learning, a contract system was…
Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asia, Daniel
20100101
How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…
Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.
Galley, Chad R
20130426
Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a longstanding gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733
Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ömer, Bernhard
20050701
The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control, and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables, and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how nonclassical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the nonobservability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.
Classical Liquids in Fractal Dimension.
Heinen, Marco; Schnyder, Simon K; Brady, John F; Löwen, Hartmut
20150828
We introduce fractal liquids by generalizing classical liquids of integer dimensions d=1,2,3 to a noninteger dimension dl. The particles composing the liquid are fractal objects and their configuration space is also fractal, with the same dimension. Realizations of our generic model system include microphase separated binary liquids in porous media, and highly branched liquid droplets confined to a fractal polymer backbone in a gel. Here, we study the thermodynamics and pair correlations of fractal liquids by computer simulation and semianalytical statistical mechanics. Our results are based on a model where fractal hard spheres move on a nearcritical percolating lattice cluster. The predictions of the fractal PercusYevick liquid integral equation compare well with our simulation results.
Unrenormalized classical electromagnetism
Ibison, Michael . Email: ibison@earthtech.org
20060215
This paper follows in the tradition of directaction versions of electromagnetism having the aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. However, the directaction approach ultimately failed in that respect because its initial exclusion of selfaction was later found to be untenable in the relativistic domain. Pursing the same end, this paper examines instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and selfaction is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point charges in a positroniumlike arrangement for which the orbits are found to be selfsustaining and naturally quantized.
Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal
20100501
Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in precollege science classes, or in public science education setting.
DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics
Not Available
19920601
The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.
Classical vs. nonclassical pathways of mineral formation (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Yoreo, J. J.
20131201
Recent chemical analyses, microscopy studies and computer simulations suggest many minerals nucleate through aggregation of prenucleation clusters and grow by particlemediated processes that involve amorphous or disordered precursors. Still other analyses, both experimental and computational, conclude that even simple mineral systems like calcium carbonate form via a barrierfree process of liquidliquid separation, which is followed by dehydration of the ionrich phase to form the solid products. However, careful measurements of calcite nucleation rates on a variety of ionized surfaces give results that are in complete agreement with the expectations of classical nucleation theory, in which clusters growing through ionbyion addition overcome a free energy barrier through the natural microscopic density fluctuations of the system. Here the challenge of integrating these seemingly disparate observations and analyses into a coherent picture of mineral formation is addressed by considering the energy barriers to calcite formation predicted by the classical theory and the changes in those barriers brought about by the introduction of interfaces and clusters, both stable and metastable. Results from a suite of in situ TEM, AFM, and optical experiments combined with simulations are used to illustrate the conclusions. The analyses show that the expected barrier to homogeneous calcite nucleation is prohibitive even at concentrations exceeding the solubility limit of amorphous calcium carbonate. However, as demonstrated by experiments on selfassembled monolayers, the introduction of surfaces that moderately decrease the interfacial energy associated with the forming nucleus can reduce the magnitude of the barrier to a level that is easily surmounted under typical laboratory conditions. In the absence of such surfaces, experiments that proceed by continually increasing supersaturation with time can easily bypass direct nucleation of calcite and open up pathways through
Classical randomness in quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Lo Presti, Paoloplacido; Perinotti, Paolo
20050701
Similarly to quantum states, also quantum measurements can be 'mixed', corresponding to a random choice within an ensemble of measuring apparatuses. Such mixing is equivalent to a sort of hidden variable, which produces a noise of purely classical nature. It is then natural to ask which apparatuses are indecomposable, i.e. do not correspond to any random choice of apparatuses. This problem is interesting not only for foundations, but also for applications, since most optimization strategies give optimal apparatuses that are indecomposable. Mathematically the problem is posed describing each measuring apparatus by a positive operatorvalued measure (POVM), which gives the statistics of the outcomes for any input state. The POVMs form a convex set, and in this language the indecomposable apparatuses are represented by extremal points—the analogous of 'pure states' in the convex set of states. Differently from the case of states, however, indecomposable POVMs are not necessarily rankone, e.g. von Neumann measurements. In this paper we give a complete classification of indecomposable apparatuses (for discrete spectrum), by providing different necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality of POVMs, along with a simple general algorithm for the decomposition of a POVM into extremals. As an interesting application, 'informationally complete' measurements are analysed in this respect. The convex set of POVMs is fully characterized by determining its border in terms of simple algebraic properties of the corresponding POVMs.
Crystallization of classical multicomponent plasmas
Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew
20100315
We develop a method for calculating the equilibrium properties of the liquidsolid phase transition in a classical, ideal, multicomponent plasma. Our method is a semianalytic calculation that relies on extending the accurate fitting formulas available for the one, two, and threecomponent plasmas to the case of a plasma with an arbitrary number of components. We compare our results to those of C. J. Horowitz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 75, 066101 (2007)], who used a moleculardynamics simulation to study the chemical properties of a 17species mixture relevant to the oceancrust boundary of an accreting neutron star at the point where half the mixture has solidified. Given the same initial composition as Horowitz et al., we are able to reproduce to good accuracy both the liquid and solid compositions at the halffreezing point; we find abundances for most species within 10% of the simulation values. Our method allows the phase diagram of complex mixtures to be explored more thoroughly than possible with numerical simulations. We briefly discuss the implications for the nature of the liquidsolid boundary in accreting neutron stars.
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism.
Carati, A; Benfenati, F; Galgani, L
20110601
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
20110601
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo
20160901
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), a key immuneinhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ Tcell exhaustion and tumor immuneescape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique Bcell malignancy in the sense that malignant ReedSternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and EpsteinBarr virus infection and by interacting with PD1 promote an immunesuppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immunerelated adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used.
Classical universes are perfectly predictable!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Jan Hendrik
I argue that in a classical universe, all the events that ever happen are encoded in each of the universe's parts. This conflicts with a statement which is widely believed to lie at the basis of relativity theory: that the events in a spacetime region R determine only the events in R's domain of dependence but not those in other spacetime regions. I show how, from this understanding, a new prediction method (which I call the 'Smoothness Method') can be obtained which allows us to predict future events on the basis of local observational data. Like traditional prediction methods, this method makes use of socalled ' ceteris paribus clauses', i.e. assumptions about the unobserved parts of the universe. However, these assumptions are used in a way which enables us to predict the behaviour of open systems with arbitrary accuracy, regardless of the influence of their environmentwhich has not been achieved by traditional methods. In a sequel to this paper (Schmidt, 1998), I will prove the Uniqueness and Predictability Theorems on which the Smoothness Method is based, and comment in more detail on its mathematical properties.
Open questions in classical gravity
Mannheim, P.D. )
19940401
In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard secondorder NewtonEinstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard secondorder Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar secondorder Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its secondorder covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourthorder theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.
Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional Walgebras
Suh, Uhi Rinn
20150115
We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine Walgebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine Walgebras can be considered as quasiclassical limits of quantum affine Walgebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional Walgebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional Walgebra has two compatible λbrackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional Walgebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λbrackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional Walgebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.
Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics
Nikolic, Hrvoje
20071203
All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantumlike interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classicallike interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics.
Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.
19850101
Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)
Classical teleportation of a quantum Bit
Cerf; Gisin; Massar
20000313
Classical teleportation is defined as a scenario where the sender is given the classical description of an arbitrary quantum state while the receiver simulates any measurement on it. This scenario is shown to be achievable by transmitting only a few classical bits if the sender and receiver initially share local hidden variables. Specifically, a communication of 2.19 bits is sufficient on average for the classical teleportation of a qubit, when restricted to von Neumann measurements. The generalization to positiveoperatorvalued measurements is also discussed.
Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.
PiñaOviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A
20160901
Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NSCHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Bsymptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NSCHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/ReedSternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NSCHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal nonHLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal nonHLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL. PMID:27441757
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
Gray, S.K.
19820801
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..>.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..>.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..>.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..>.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup / is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)
From quantum ladder climbing to classical autoresonance
Marcus, G.; Friedland, L.; Zigler, A.
20040101
The autoresonance phenomenon allows excitation of a classical, oscillatory nonlinear system to high energies by using a weak, chirped frequency forcing. Ladder climbing is its counterpart in quantum mechanics. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, conditions for the transition from the quantum to the classical regimes are outlined. The similarities and differences between the two approaches are presented.
Factors Influencing the Learning of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
19800101
Describes a study investigating the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. The purpose was to (1) describe preinstructional knowledge and skills; (2) correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics; and (3) develop hypothesis about relationships between these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartledge, Paul
20050101
Classics is in the newsor on the screen: "Gladiator" a few years ago, "Troy" very recently, "Alexander" as I write. How significant is this current Hollywood fascination with the ancient Greeks and Romans? Or should we take far more seriously the decline of the teaching of the Classical languages in schools, a decline so grave as to prompt a…
Teaching the Classics in High School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shelley, Anne Crout
19980101
Discusses why the classics can be difficult to teach in high schools. Offers suggestions for making difficult literature more approachable for high school students by scaffolding students' engagement with classic texts; building background knowledge; developing vocabulary; facilitating the reading of the text; and through enrichment an extension.…
The Classical Performing Arts of India.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtiss, Marie Joy
A monograph of the numerous activities that have contributed to the current renaissance of India's classical performing arts covers the theoretical aspects, musical instruments, the main schools of classical dance, and drama. Besides the basic research described, the total project produced a set of 300 slides with annotated listing, picturing the…
Unification of quantum theory and classical physics
Stapp, H.P.
19850701
A program is described for unifying quantum theory and classical physics on the basis of the Copenhageninterpretation idea of external reality and a recently discovered classical part of the electromagnetic field. The program effects an integration of the intuitions of Heisenberg, Bohr, and Einstein.
On entanglementassisted classical capacity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holevo, A. S.
20020901
We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglementassisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglementassisted and unassisted classical capacities.
Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asia, Daniel
20100101
A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…
Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.
20160701
Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almostideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.
New Classical and New Keynesian Macroeconomics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vane, Howard; Snowdon, Brian
19920101
Summarizes underlying tenets and policy implications of new classical and new Keynesian macroeconomics. Compares new approaches with orthodox Keynesian and monetarist schools of thought. Identifies the fundamental difference between new classical and new Keynesian models as the assumption regarding the speed of wage and price adjustment following…
The Classics Major and Liberal Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liberal Education, 2009
20090101
Over the course of eighteen months, a project based at the Center for Hellenic Studies in Washington, DC, studied undergraduate programs in classics with the goal of developing a better sense of how a major in classics fit within the broader agenda of liberal education. The study adopted a studentcentered approach, employing a team of six…
Classic and HardBoiled Detective Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reilly, John M.
Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hardboiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…
Rediscovering the Classics: The Project Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Ruth; Lubell, Marcia
Focusing on seven classics of literature that are most challenging for teachers and students, but which are also a part of the high school literary canon, this book shares ways to create a learnercentered classroom for the study of literature. For each of the seven classics, the book "walks teachers through" the teachinglearning process,…
Modal analysis of a classical guitar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, David; Rossing, Thomas D.
20021101
Using holographic interferometry, we have determined the modes of vibration of a classical guitar (by the first author) having an asymmetricallybraced top plate and a crossed braced back of unique design. The vibrational modes and acoustical properties are compared with other classical guitars.
The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallant, Clifford J.
A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…
Classical and QuantumMechanical State Reconstruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
20120101
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tauber, Robert T.
19900101
Classical conditioning is responsible for students' positive and negative feelings, whether directed toward subject matter, peers, teachers, or education in general. This article explains how educators can use classical conditioning principles (such as reinforcement, extinction, and paired stimuli) to create an anxietyfree learning environment.…
Classical transport in disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papaioannou, Antonios
This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in onedimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the longtime regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surfacetovolume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the
NUCLEAR THERMOMETERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE
Downen, Lori N.; Iliadis, Christian; Jose, Jordi; Starrfield, Sumner
20130110
Classical novae are stellar explosions occurring in binary systems, consisting of a white dwarf and a mainsequence companion. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of massive white dwarfs, consisting of oxygen and neon, are believed to reach peak temperatures of several hundred million kelvin. These temperatures are strongly correlated with the underlying white dwarf mass. The observational counterparts of such models are likely associated with outbursts that show strong spectral lines of neon in their shells (neon novae). The goals of this work are to investigate how useful elemental abundances are for constraining the peak temperatures achieved during these outbursts and determine how robust 'nova thermometers' are with respect to uncertain nuclear physics input. We present updated observed abundances in neon novae and perform a series of hydrodynamic simulations for several white dwarf masses. We find that the most useful thermometers, N/O, N/Al, O/S, S/Al, O/Na, Na/Al, O/P, and P/Al, are those with the steepest monotonic dependence on peak temperature. The sensitivity of these thermometers to thermonuclear reaction rate variations is explored using postprocessing nucleosynthesis simulations. The ratios N/O, N/Al, O/Na, and Na/Al are robust, meaning they are minimally affected by uncertain rates. However, their dependence on peak temperature is relatively weak. The ratios O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al reveal strong dependences on temperature and the poorly known {sup 30}P(p, {gamma}){sup 31}S rate. We compare our model predictions to neon nova observations and obtain the following estimates for the underlying white dwarf masses: 1.341.35 M {sub Sun} (V838 Her), 1.181.21 M {sub Sun} (V382 Vel), {<=}1.3 M {sub Sun} (V693 CrA), {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (LMC 1990 no. 1), and {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (QU Vul).
On classical cloning and nocloning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, Nicholas J.
20120201
It is part of information theory folklore that, while quantum theory prohibits the generic (or universal) cloning of states, such cloning is allowed by classical information theory. Indeed, many take the phenomenon of nocloning to be one of the features that distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical mechanics. In this paper, we argue that pace conventional wisdom, in the case where one does not include a machine system, there is an analog of the nocloning theorem for classical systems. However, upon adjoining a nontrivial machine system (or ancilla) one finds that, pace the quantum case, the obstruction to cloning disappears for pure states. We begin by discussing some conceptual points and categorytheoretic generalities having to do with cloning, and proceed to discuss nocloning in both the case of (nonstatistical) classical mechanics and classical statistical mechanics.
Detecting multipartite classical states and their resemblances
Chen Lin; Modi, Kavan; Vacanti, Giovanni; Chitambar, Eric
20110215
We study various types of multipartite states lying near the quantumclassical boundary. The socalled classical states are precisely those in which each party can perfectly identify a locally held state without disturbing the global state, a task known as nondisruptive local state identification (NDLID). We show NDLID to be closely related local broadcasting, and we introduce a class of states called generalized classical states which allow for both NDLID and multipartite broadcasting when the most general quantum measurements are permitted. Simple analytical methods and a physical criterion are given for detecting whether a multipartite state is classical or generalized classical. For deciding the latter, a semidefinite programming algorithm is presented which may find use in other fields such as signal processing.
Applying classical geometry intuition to quantum spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durfee, Dallin S.; Archibald, James L.
20160901
Using concepts of geometric orthogonality and linear independence, we logically deduce the form of the Pauli spin matrices and the relationships between the three spatially orthogonal basis sets of the spin1/2 system. Rather than a mathematically rigorous derivation, the relationships are found by forcing expectation values of the different basis states to have the properties we expect of a classical, geometric coordinate system. The process highlights the correspondence of quantum angular momentum with classical notions of geometric orthogonality, even for the inherently nonclassical spin1/2 system. In the process, differences in and connections between geometrical space and Hilbert space are illustrated.
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benet, L.; Flores, J.; HernándezSaldaña, H.; Izrailev, F. M.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.
20030201
Quantumclassical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are wellknown facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillet, Olivier; Fefferman, Andrew; Gazizulin, Rasul; Godfrin, Henri; Bourgeois, Olivier; Collin, Eddy; ULT Grenoble Team
Decoherence can be viewed either in its quantum picture, where it stands for the loss of phase coherence of a superposition state, or as its classical equivalent, where the phase of an oscillating signal is smeared due to frequency fluctuations. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using in particular classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. Here we report on a model experiment in which the coherence of a high quality siliconnitride mechanical resonator is defined in the classical picture. Its intrinsic properties are characterized over an unprecedentedly large dynamic range. By engineering frequency fluctuations, we can create artificial pure dephasing and study its effects on the dynamics of the system. Finally, we develop the methods to characterize pure dephasing that can be applied to a wide range of mechanical devices.
Artist at Work: Illustrating the Classics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moser, Barry
19870101
An illustrator who specializes in children's classics, such as "Alice in Wonderland" and the "Wonderful Wizard of Oz" describes his work process, reveals his ideas about art, and considers some of the projects he has worked on. (NKA)
Classical and Quantum Spreading of Position Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farina, J. E. G.
19770101
Demonstrates that the standard deviation of the position probability of a particle moving freely in one dimension is a function of the standard deviation of its velocity distribution and time in classical or quantum mechanics. (SL)
Classic Phenylketonuria: Diagnosis Through Heterozygote Detection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Robert F.; Elsas, Louis J.
19750101
In an attempt to improve the identification of the asymptomatic carrier of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) 59 male and female normal control Ss were differentiated from 18 males and females heterozgous for PKU. (DB)
Classical dynamics of the relativistic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, S. V.
20161101
This paper aims at a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of the classical relativistic oscillator. Numerical integration of its dynamical equations permits a thorough treatment of its motion. Both the onedimensional and twodimensional cases are considered.
Equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, Andrea; Mussardo, Giuseppe
20160601
We study the equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories at a finite energy density, with a time evolution that starts from initial conditions far from equilibrium. These classical field theories may be regarded as quantum field theories in the regime of high occupation numbers. This observation permits to recover the classical quantities from the quantum ones by taking a proper \\hslash \\to 0 limit. In particular, the time averages of the classical theories can be expressed in terms of a suitable version of the LeClairMussardo formula relative to the generalized Gibbs ensemble. For the purposes of handling time averages, our approach provides a solution of the problem of the infinite gap solutions of the inverse scattering method.
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; VillasBoas, C. J.
20160701
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Shela
19860101
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; VillasBoas, C. J.
20161001
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
The Copernican Revolution in the Classics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jennings, Arnold
19760101
It is argued that the purpose of the study of the classics should be to learn about the ancient Greeks and Romans as they were rather than as an end in itself. Traditional methods of teaching are evaluated. (RM)
Classical Proofs' Essence and Diagrammatic Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lescanne, Pierre; Žunić, Dragiša
20110901
We present a congruence relation on classical proofs represented in the sequent calculus, which identifies proofs up to trivial rule permutation. The study is performed in the framework of *X calculus, designed to provide a CurryHoward correspondence for classical logic, and the diagrammatic calculus. We show that each congruence class has a single diagrammatic representation. Congruence equations are given explicitly and induce a congruence relation on terms so that reducing modulo this relation, on terms, corresponds to diagram reduction.
Understanding singularities — Classical and quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konkowski, Deborah A.; Helliwell, Thomas M.
20160101
The definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed. Examples are given of both as well as their utility in general relativity. In particular, the classical and quantum singularity structure of certain interesting conformally static spherically symmetric spacetimes modeling scalar field collapse are reviewed. The spacetimes include the Roberts spacetime, the HusainMartinezNuñez spacetime and the Fonarev spacetime. The importance of understanding spacetime singularity structure is discussed.
Quantum and Classical Electrostatics Among Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerr, T. P.; Obolensky, O. I.; Ogurtsov, A. Y.; Yu, YiKuo
Quantum theory has been unquestionably successful at describing physics at the atomic scale. However, it becomes more difficult to apply as the system size grows. On the other hand, classical physics breaks down at sufficiently short length scales but is clearly correct at larger distances. The purpose of methods such as QM/MM is to gain the advantages of both quantum and classical regimes: quantum theory should provide accuracy at the shortest scales, and classical theory, with its somewhat more tractable computational demands, allows results to be computed for systems that would be inaccessible with a purely quantum approach. This strategy will be most effective when one knows with good accuracy the length scale at which quantum calculations are no longer necessary and classical calculations are sufficient. To this end, we have performed both classical and quantum calculations for systems comprising a small number of atoms for which experimental data is also available. The classical calculations are fully exact; the quantum calculations are at the MP4(SDTQ)/augccpV5Z and CCSD(T)/augccpV5Z levels. The precision of both sets of calculations along with the existence of experimental results allows us to draw conclusions about the range of utility of the respective calculations. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NLM and utilized the computational resources of the NIH HPC Biowulf cluster.
Nonclassical light for quantum information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldschmidt, Elizabeth Anne
Nonclassical light is both easily encoded with quantum information and robust against decoherence, making it a key resource that enables many quantum information applications including quantum computing, quantum communication, and quantum metrology. We present a wide range of experimental and theoretical research toward the generation, detection, characterization, and storage of nonclassical states of light with an eye toward quantum information applications. To provide a basis for the rest of the work, we begin by discussing theoretically the role of photon number statistics in optical quantum information and the use of secondorder optical coherence to characterize nonclassical light. Building on that, we present an original tool for the difficult problem of reconstructing the underlying mode distribution of multimode optical fields using simple measurements of higherorder optical coherence. We then move on to the problem of generating and storing single photons. We do this in a solidstate medium, a rareearth iondoped crystal, with a longlived spin transition ideal for storing quantum information. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by showing correlations between the optical fields that herald storage and retrieval of collective excitations. This scheme can be used for the two important and distinct applications of generating single photons ondemand and storing quantum information and entanglement. The detection of nonclassical light is a task as important as its generation. To this end, we study detectors with near unity detection efficiency and photon number resolution for use in quantumenabled metrology. We use such a detector to experimentally demonstrate compression of spatial fringes and investigate the possibility of improving measurement resolution with classical and nonclassical light. Finally, we report a set of experiments using photon number statistics to characterize classical and nonclassical light. We
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness.
MartinMayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
20150101
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as 'DWave' chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional 'classical' computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spinglass theory that recognize 'temperature chaos' as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the DWave Two chip on different temperaturechaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, W.; Tape, C.
20131201
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor 'model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model (Aki and Richards, 1980), an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector, and the Lame elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple. A compilation of full moment tensors from the literature reveals large deviations in Poisson's ratio as implied by the classical model. Either the classical model is inadequate or the published full moment tensors have very large uncertainties. We question the common interpretation of the isotropic component as a volume change in the source region.
Trading Classical and Quantum Computational Resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravyi, Sergey; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.
20160401
We propose examples of a hybrid quantumclassical simulation where a classical computer assisted by a small quantum processor can efficiently simulate a larger quantum system. First, we consider sparse quantum circuits such that each qubit participates in O (1 ) twoqubit gates. It is shown that any sparse circuit on n +k qubits can be simulated by sparse circuits on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time 2O (k )poly (n ) . Second, we study Paulibased computation (PBC), where allowed operations are nondestructive eigenvalue measurements of n qubit Pauli operators. The computation begins by initializing each qubit in the socalled magic state. This model is known to be equivalent to the universal quantum computer. We show that any PBC on n +k qubits can be simulated by PBCs on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time 2O (k )poly (n ). Finally, we propose a purely classical algorithm that can simulate a PBC on n qubits in a time 2α npoly (n ) , where α ≈0.94 . This improves upon the bruteforce simulation method, which takes time 2npoly (n ). Our algorithm exploits the fact that n fold tensor products of magic states admit a lowrank decomposition into n qubit stabilizer states.
Effective dynamics of a classical point charge
Polonyi, Janos
20140315
The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoffdependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoffdependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landaupole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.  Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.
Quantumclassical crossover in electrodynamics
Polonyi, Janos
20060915
A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Diracsea can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple oneloop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantumclassical crossover and the AbrahamLorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other charges in the macroscopic or the microscopic side, respectively. The functional form of the quantum renormalization group, the generalization of the renormalization group method for the density matrix, is proposed to follow the scale dependence through the quantumclassical crossover in a systematical manner.
Vibrational predissociation quasiclassical tunnelling and classical diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karni, Y.; Nikitin, E. E.
A comparative study of vibrational predissociation dynamics is presented Two collinear models of the van der Waals complex are used with a realistic medium strength coupling parameter The predissociation rates are calculated by four different approaches an accurate quantum mechanical method by the complex scaling technique first order approximations in the diabatic FOD and adiabatic FOA basis and purely classically It is shown that FOA within the improved semiclassical Landau method provides an excellent description of the dynamical tunnelling of the system from all the quasibound states into continuum at the same time FOD yields noticeably higher rates though the transition probabilities are very low At low excitation energies of the van der Waals bond the classical description yields zero rates in accord with the KAM theorem At higher excitation energies the classical rates are higher than the quasiclassical rates since the classical system dissociates via the diffusion through the holes in the phase space which are still too narrow to let the quantum system escape A simple explanation of a parallelism between quantum and classical rates is suggested under a condition when the first order quantum treatment is applicable
Quantum entanglement capacity with classical feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Alan W.
20080101
For any quantum discrete memoryless channel, we define a quantity called quantum entanglement capacity with classical feedback (EB) , and we show that this quantity lies between two other wellstudied quantities. These two quantities—namely the quantum capacity assisted by twoway classical communication (Q2) and the quantum capacity with classical feedback (QB) —are widely conjectured to be different: There exists a quantum discrete memoryless channel for which Q2>QB . We then present a general scheme to convert any quantum errorcorrecting codes into adaptive protocols for this newly defined quantity of the quantum depolarizing channel, and illustrate with the repetition code and Shor code. We contrast the present notion with entanglement purification protocols by showing that, whilst the LeungShor protocol can be applied directly, recurrence methods need to be supplemented with other techniques but at the same time offer a way to improve the aforementioned repetition code. For the quantum depolarizing channel, we prove a formula that gives lower bounds on the quantum capacity with classical feedback from any EB protocols. We then apply this formula to the EB protocols that we discuss to obtain lower bounds on the quantum capacity with classical feedback of the quantum depolarizing channel.
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness.
MartinMayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
20151020
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as 'DWave' chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional 'classical' computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spinglass theory that recognize 'temperature chaos' as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the DWave Two chip on different temperaturechaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip.
Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG
Ramsey, Scott D.; Hendon, Raymond Cori
20150112
The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electronion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.
Classical approach to multichromophoric resonance energy transfer.
Duque, Sebastián; Brumer, Paul; Pachón, Leonardo A
20150911
A classical formulation of the quantum multichromophoric theory of resonance energy transfer is developed on the basis of classical electrodynamics. The theory allows for the identification of a variety of processes of different order in the interactions that contribute to the energy transfer in molecular aggregates with intracoupling in donors and acceptor chromophores. Enhanced rates in multichromophoric resonance energy transfer are shown to be well described by this theory. Specifically, in a coupling configuration between N_{A} acceptors and N_{D} donors, the theory correctly predicts an enhancement of the energy transfer rate dependent on the total number of donoracceptor pairs. As an example, the theory, applied to the transfer rate in light harvesting II, gives results in excellent agreement with experiment. Finally, it is explicitly shown that as long as linear response theory holds, the classical multichromophoric theory formally coincides with the quantum formulation.
NonClassical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase
Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert
20160101
Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoformspecific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamidebased compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to offtarget inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamidebased compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also nonclassical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of nonclassical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoformspecific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828
Quantum dynamics simulation with classical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, John S.; Eisfeld, Alexander
20131201
In a previous paper [J. S. Briggs and A. Eisfeld, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050294710.1103/PhysRevA.85.052111 85, 052111 (2012)] we showed that the time development of the complex amplitudes of N coupled quantum states can be mapped by the time development of positions and velocities of N coupled classical oscillators. Here we examine to what extent this mapping can be realized to simulate the “quantum,” properties of entanglement and qubit manipulation. By working through specific examples, e.g., of quantum gate operation, we seek to illuminate quantum and classical differences which hitherto have been treated more mathematically. In addition, we show that important quantum coupled phenomena, such as the LandauZener transition and the occurrence of Fano resonances can be simulated by classical oscillators.
Classical approach to multichromophoric resonance energy transfer.
Duque, Sebastián; Brumer, Paul; Pachón, Leonardo A
20150911
A classical formulation of the quantum multichromophoric theory of resonance energy transfer is developed on the basis of classical electrodynamics. The theory allows for the identification of a variety of processes of different order in the interactions that contribute to the energy transfer in molecular aggregates with intracoupling in donors and acceptor chromophores. Enhanced rates in multichromophoric resonance energy transfer are shown to be well described by this theory. Specifically, in a coupling configuration between N_{A} acceptors and N_{D} donors, the theory correctly predicts an enhancement of the energy transfer rate dependent on the total number of donoracceptor pairs. As an example, the theory, applied to the transfer rate in light harvesting II, gives results in excellent agreement with experiment. Finally, it is explicitly shown that as long as linear response theory holds, the classical multichromophoric theory formally coincides with the quantum formulation. PMID:26406811
Coexistence of peptides with classical neurotransmitters.
Hökfelt, T; Millhorn, D; Seroogy, K; Tsuruo, Y; Ceccatelli, S; Lindh, B; Meister, B; Melander, T; Schalling, M; Bartfai, T
19870715
In the present article the fact is emphasized that neuropeptides often are located in the same neurons as classical transmitters such as acetylcholine, 5hydroxytryptamine, catecholamines, gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) etc. This raises the possibility that neurons produce, store and release more than one messenger molecule. The exact functional role of such coexisting peptides is often difficult to evaluate, especially in the central nervous system. In the periphery some studies indicate apparently meaningful interactions of different types with the classical transmitter, but other types of actions including trophic effects have been observed. More recently it has been shown that some neurons contain more than one classical transmitter, e.g. 5HT plus GABA, further underlining the view that transfer of information across synapses may be more complex than perhaps hitherto assumed. PMID:2885215
Classical analogs of double electromagnetically induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang
20130301
Double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in a fourlevel atomic system with tripodtype energylevel configuration is modeled by using two classical systems. The first is a set of three coupled harmonic oscillators subject to frictional forces and external drives and the second is a set of three coupled RLC circuits with electric resistors and alternating voltage sources. It is shown that both of the two classical systems have absorption spectra of DEIT similar to that of the fourlevel tripodtype atomic system. These classical analogies provide simple and intuitive physical description of quantum interference processes and can be used to illustrate experimental observations of the DEIT in quantum systems.
Quantum and classical opticsemerging links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eberly, J. H.; Qian, XiaoFeng; Qasimi, Asma Al; Ali, Hazrat; Alonso, M. A.; GutiérrezCuevas, R.; Little, Bethany J.; Howell, John C.; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A. N.
20160601
Quantum optics and classical optics are linked in ways that are becoming apparent as a result of numerous recent detailed examinations of the relationships that elementary notions of optics have with each other. These elementary notions include interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement. All of them are present in both quantum and classical optics. They have historic origins, and at least partly for this reason not all of them have quantitative definitions that are universally accepted. This makes further investigation into their engagement in optics very desirable. We pay particular attention to effects that arise from the mere coexistence of separately identifiable and readily available vector spaces. Exploitation of these vectorspace relationships are shown to have unfamiliar theoretical implications and new options for observation. It is our goal to bring emerging quantumclassical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work will promote discussion and lead to unified understanding.
Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschieri, Federico
20101201
In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive LearningBased Realizability". Our realizers are selfcorrecting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a onetoone correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully detailed constructive analysis of learning as it arises in learning based realizability for HA+EM1, Avigad's update procedures and epsilon substitution method for Peano Arithmetic PA. We present new constructive techniques to bound the length of learning processes and we apply them to reprove  by means of our theory  the classic result of Godel that provably total functions of PA can be represented in Godel's system T. Last, we give an axiomatization of the kind of learning that is needed to computationally interpret Predicative classical second order Arithmetic. Our work is an extension of Avigad's and generalizes the concept of update procedure to the transfinite case. Transfinite update procedures have to learn values of transfinite sequences of non computable functions in order to extract witnesses from classical proofs.
Observable signatures of a classical transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Matthew C.; Lin, Wei
20160301
Eternal inflation arising from a potential landscape predicts that our universe is one realization of many possible cosmological histories. One way to access different cosmological histories is via the nucleation of bubble universes from a metastable false vacuum. Another way to sample different cosmological histories is via classical transitions, the creation of pocket universes through the collision between bubbles. Using relativistic numerical simulations, we examine the possibility of observationally determining if our observable universe resulted from a classical transition. We find that classical transitions produce spatially infinite, approximately open FriedmanRobertsonWalker universes. The leading set of observables in the aftermath of a classical transition are negative spatial curvature and a contribution to the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature quadrupole. The level of curvature and magnitude of the quadrupole are dependent on the position of the observer, and we determine the possible range of observables for two classes of singlescalar field models. For the first class, where the inflationary phase has a lower energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generally falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows to a constant. For the second class, where the inflationary phase has a higher energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generically falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows without bound. We find that the magnitude of the quadrupole and curvature grow with increasing centre of mass energy of the collision, and explore variations of the parameters in the scalar field lagrangian.
Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems
Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.
20141215
The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.
The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.
Tscherne, H
20130901
This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s119990133011x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).
Classical dynamics on curved Snyder space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivetić, B.; Meljanac, S.; Mignemi, S.
20140501
We study the classical dynamics of a particle in nonrelativistic Snyderde Sitter space. We show that for spherically symmetric systems, parameterizing the solutions in terms of an auxiliary time variable, which is a function only of the physical time and of the energy and angular momentum of the particles, one can reduce the problem to the equivalent one in classical mechanics. We also discuss a relativistic extension of these results, and a generalization to the case in which the algebra is realized in flat space.
Are Volume Plasmons Excitable by Classical Light?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke
20090801
Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the freeelectron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.
Are volume plasmons excitable by classical light?
Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke
20090821
Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the freeelectron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.
Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.
20141201
The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac's formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.
20111214
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a wellestablished method with an analysis of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
19940401
The key ideas of the environmentinduced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
The molecular mechanisms of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Felberbaum, Rachael S.
20050101
Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the appearance of giant abnormal cells called Hodgkin and ReedSternberg (HRS) cells. HRS cells arise from germinal center B lymphocytes and in about 50 percent of patients, are infected with EpsteinBarr Virus. In addition, HRS cells show constitutive NFkappaB activation and are resistant to apoptosis. This paper reviews several recent studies that for the first time implicate specific molecules in the pathogenesis of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Targeting these molecules could lead to the development of novel therapies for this disease. PMID:16720015
Classical communication cost of quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sainz, Ana Belén; Aolita, Leandro; Brunner, Nicolas; Gallego, Rodrigo; Skrzypczyk, Paul
20160701
Quantum steering is observed when performing appropriate local measurements on an entangled state. Here we discuss the possibility of simulating classically this effect, using classical communication instead of entanglement. We show that infinite communication is necessary for exactly simulating steering for any pure entangled state, as well as for a class of mixed entangled states. Moreover, we discuss the communication cost of steering for general entangled states, as well as approximate simulation. Our findings reveal striking differences between Bell nonlocality and steering and provide a natural way of measuring the strength of the latter.
Enhancing nonclassicality in mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Gröblacher, Simon; Paternostro, Mauro
20130301
We study the effects of postselection measurements on both the nonclassicality of the state of a mechanical oscillator and the entanglement between two mechanical systems that are part of a distributed optomechanical network. We address the cases of both Gaussian and nonGaussian measurements, identifying in which cases simple photon counting and Geigerlike measurements are effective in distilling a strongly nonclassical mechanical state and enhancing the purely mechanical entanglement between two elements of the network.
Classical swine fever in China: a minireview.
Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, HuaJi
20140801
Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an OIElisted, highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine worldwide. Currently, the disease is controlled by prophylactic vaccination in China and many other countries using the modified live vaccines derived from Cstrain, which was developed in China in the mid1950s. This minireview summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control and challenges of CSF in China. Though CSF is essentially under control, complete eradication of CSF in China remains a challenging task and needs longterm, joint efforts of stakeholders.
Classic papers in Solar Energy: Solar distillation
Howe, E.D.
19900601
The following Classic Paper was presented by Professor Howe at the first international Conference on Solar Energy at Tucson, Arizona, USA in 1955. That conference was sponsored by the Association of Applied solar Energy (AFASE), the precursor of ISES. Although this paper does not represent the many developments in solar distillation later applied by Professor Howe in the South Pacific, it is a classic paper because it presents Professor Howe's pioneering work in setting up the Seawater Conversion Laboratory in Richmond for the University of California at Berkeley, US. The research of Professor Howe and his colleagues at the Seawater Conversion Laboratory formed the foundation of contemporary solar energy desalination and distillation systems.
Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer
20110101
Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technologyassisted language learning led 8…
Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.
Mendonça, J T
20080528
Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W
20160101
Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a metaanalysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of highdose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybinassisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600
The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markvorsen, Steen
20080101
Using only fairly simple and elementary considerationsessentially from first year undergraduate mathematicswe show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the…
Multitime equations, classical and quantum
Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich
20140101
Multitime equations are evolution equations involving several time variables, one for each particle. Such equations have been considered for the purpose of making theories manifestly Lorentz invariant. We compare their status and significance in classical and quantum physics. PMID:24711721
The Strange World of Classical Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, David
20100101
We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…
Foreign Language, the Classics, and College Admissions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaFleur, Richard A.
19930101
This article reports the results of a survey, funded by the American Classical League (ACL) and conducted during 199091, that assessed attitudes toward high school foreignlanguage study, in particular the study of Latin and Greek, in the college admissions process. (21 references) (VWL)
Classical Physics Experiments in the Amusement Park
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bagge, Sara; Pendrill, AnnMarie
20020101
An amusement park is a large physics laboratory, full of rotating and accelerated coordinate systems. The forces are experienced throughout the body and can be studied with simple equipment or with electronics depending on age and experience. In this paper, we propose adaptations of classical physics experiments for use on traditional rides.…
Classical physics experiments in the amusement park
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagge, Sara; Pendrill, AnnMarie
20021101
An amusement park is a large physics laboratory, full of rotating and accelerated coordinate systems. The forces are experienced throughout the body and can be studied with simple equipment or with electronics depending on age and experience. In this paper, we propose adaptations of classical physics experiments for use on traditional rides.
Studying the Leaders of Classical Antiquity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moritz, Helen E.
This paper describes a graduate seminar for educational administrators, using works of ancient Greek and Roman literature as bases for the consideration of organization and leadership problems identified in theoretical literature. The seminar was team taught by professors from the Departments of Educational Administration and Classics at the…
Classical "Topoi" and the Academic Commonplace.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Musgrove, Laurence E.
An investigation of the various ways the term "topos" is used in classical rhetoric reveals the limited range of invention strategies offered by academic discourse pedagogy. Donald Bartholmae's work on basic writing addresses the relationship of the commonplace to topical invention within academic discourse. Investigation of the history of…
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
20090101
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Classical Pragmatism on Mind and Rationality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maattanen, Pentti
20050101
One of the major changes in twentieth century philosophy was the socalled linguistic turn, in which natural and formal languages became central subjects of study. This meant that theories of meaning became mostly about linguistic meaning, thinking was now analyzed in terms of symbol manipulation, and rules of classical logic formed the nucleus of…
Classical and quantum Kummer shape algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odzijewicz, A.; Wawreniuk, E.
20160701
We study a family of integrable systems of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators on the classical and quantum levels. We show that the integrability of these systems follows from their symmetry characterized by algebras, here called Kummer shape algebras. The resolution of identity for a wide class of reproducing kernels is found. A number of examples, illustrating this theory, are also presented.
Zeno's arrow and classical phase space logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westmoreland, Michael D.; Schumacher, Benjamin W.
19940601
We analyze the Zeno's familiar paradox of the arrow using recently developed nonBoolean derived logics for classical systems. We show that the paradox depends upon a premise that is identically false in such logics, so that the language of experimental propositions is immune to the paradox.
Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald
20050101
This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…
Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.
This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…
Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connors, Robert J., Ed.; And Others
Noting the rediscovery by composition scholars of the tradition of classical rhetoric, this collection of essays explores the resurgence in the teaching of written discourse in college English departments. The 18 articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Revival of Rhetoric in America," by Robert Connors, Lisa Ede, and Andrea Lunsford;…
Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Nussenzveig, P.
20020101
We present a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In a system of just two coupled harmonic oscillators subject to a harmonic driving force, we reproduce the phenomenology observed in EIT. We also describe a simple experiment with two linearly coupled RLC circuits which can be incorporated into an undergraduate laboratory.
Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients
20130101
Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a dietindependent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841
On the emergence of classical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larjo, Klaus
In this thesis I will discuss how certain black holes arise as an effective, thermodynamical description from nonsingular microstates in string theory. This provides a possible solution to the information paradox, and strengthens the case for treating black holes as thermodynamical objects. I will characterize the data defining a microstate of a black hole in several settings, and demonstrate that most of the data is unmeasurable for a classical observer. I will further show that the data that is measurable is universal for nearly all microstates, making it impossible for a classical observer to distinguish between microstates, thus giving rise to an effective statistical description for the black hole. In the first half of the thesis I will work with two specific systems: the halfBPS sector of [Special characters omitted.] = 4 super YangMills the and the conformal field theory corresponding to the D1/D5 system; in both cases the high degree of symmetry present provides great control over potentially intractable computations. For these systems, I will further specify the conditions a quantum mechanical microstate must satisfy in order to have a classical description in terms of a unique metric, and define a 'metric operator' whose eigenstates correspond to classical geometries. In the second half of the thesis I will consider a much broader setting, general [Special characters omitted.] = I superconformal quiver gauge the= ories and their dual gravity theories, and demonstrate that a similar effective description arises also in this setting.
Entanglement in QuantumClassical Hybrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
20110101
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, nonclassical systems such as quantumclassical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantuminspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the HamiltonJacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Nonlocality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of nonlocality in physics.
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W
20160101
Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a metaanalysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of highdose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybinassisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.
Priority in the Classical Conditioning of Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windholz, George; Lamal, P. A.
19860101
Contrary to widely held belief, Watons and Rayner's (1920) experiment with Little Albert is not first reported case of classical conditioning of a child. Their work was preceded by that of Bogen and of Krasnogorskii. Mateer's work either preceded or coincided with Watons and Rayner's. This article clarifies chronology of these early studies of…
The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.
19900101
Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CSUS contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)
Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.
19910101
The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)
Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnabei, Fred; And Others
This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttestonly design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…
Unified classical path theories of pressure broadening.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bottcher, C.
19710101
Derivation of a unified classical path theory of pressure broadening, using only elementary concepts. It is shown that the theory of Smith, Cooper and Vidal (1969) is only correct at all frequencies to first order in the number density of perturbers.
Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peslak, John, Jr.
19790101
Comparisons are made for the particleinabox, the harmonic oscillator, and the oneelectron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantummechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)
Classical Linguistics in the United States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poultney, James W.
19880101
Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)
Arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, YiPing; Hwang, Tzonelih
20140101
This paper points out design confusion existing in all the arbitrated quantum signatures (AQS) that require public discussions over authenticated classical channels. Instead, an AQS scheme of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels is proposed here. A cryptographic hash function is used in combine with quantum mechanics to check the existence of an eavesdropping or to verify a signature. In addition, by using only single photons, this scheme provides higher efficiency both in quantum transmissions and generations. The proposed AQS scheme is shown to be immune to several wellknown attacks, i.e., the Trojanhorse attacks and the existential forgery attack.
Classical Photogrammetry and Uav  Selected Ascpects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikrut, S.
20160601
The UAV technology seems to be highly futureoriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow  Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV  System FT03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial preprocessing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side
Stereodynamics of chemical reactions: quasiclassical, quantum and mixed quantumclassical theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wenwu; Zhao, Guangjiu
20120401
In this review, some benchmark works by Han and coworkers on the stereodynamics of typical chemical reactions, triatomic reactions H + D2, Cl + H2 and O + H2 and polyatomic reaction Cl+CH4/CD4, are presented by using the quasiclassical, quantum and mixed quantumclassical methods. The product alignment and orientation in these A+BC model reactions are discussed in detail. We have also compared our theoretical results with experimental measurements and demonstrated that our theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method ignores some quantum effects like the tunneling effect and zeropoint energy. The quantum method will be very timeconsuming. Moreover, the mixed quantumclassical method can take into account some quantum effects and hence is expected to be applicable to large systems and widely used in chemical stereodynamics studies.
Classical and Quantum Probability for Biologists  Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei.
20100101
The aim of this review (oriented to biologists looking for applications of QM) is to provide a detailed comparative analysis of classical (Kolmogorovian) and quantum (Diracvon Neumann) models. We will stress differences in the definition of conditional probability and as a consequence in the structures of matrices of transition probabilities, especially the condition of double stochasticity which arises naturally in QM. One of the most fundamental differences between two models is deformation of the classical formula of total probability (FTP) which plays an important role in statistics and decision making. An additional term appears in the QMversion of FTP  so called interference term. Finally, we discuss Bell's inequality and show that the common viewpoint that its violation induces either nonlocality or "death of realism" has not been completely justified. For us it is merely a sign of nonKolmogorovianity of probabilistic data collected in a few experiments with incompatible setups of measurement devices.
Hearing loss among classicalorchestra musicians.
Toppila, Esko; Koskinen, Heli; Pyykkö, Ilmari
20110101
This study intended to evaluate classical musicians' risk of hearing loss. We studied 63 musicians from four Helsinki classical orchestras. We measured their hearing loss with an audiometer, found their prior amount of exposure to sound and some individual susceptibility factors with a questionnaire, measured their present sound exposure with dosimeters, and tested their blood pressure and cholesterol levels, then compared their hearing loss to ISO 19991990's predictions. The musicians' hearing loss distribution corresponded to that of the general population, but highly exposed musicians had greater hearing loss at frequencies over 3 kHz than lessexposed ones. Their individual susceptibility factors were low. Music deteriorates hearing, but by less than what ISO 19991990 predicted. The low number of individual susceptibility factors explained the difference, but only reduced hearing loss and not the prevalence of tinnitus.
Effective dynamics of a classical point charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polonyi, Janos
20140301
The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The AbrahamLorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoffdependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoffdependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landaupole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.
Radiative corrections in symmetrized classical electrodynamics
Van Meter JR; Kerman; Chen; Hartemann
20001201
The physics of radiation reaction for a point charge is discussed within the context of classical electrodynamics. The fundamental equations of classical electrodynamics are first symmetrized to include magnetic charges: a double fourpotential formalism is introduced, in terms of which the field tensor and its dual are employed to symmetrize Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force equation in covariant form. Within this framework, the symmetrized DiracLorentz equation is derived, including radiation reaction (selfforce) for a particle possessing both electric and magnetic charge. The connection with electromagnetic duality is outlined, and an indepth discussion of nonlocal fourmomentum conservation for the waveparticle system is given.
Hidden invariance of the free classical particle
Garcia, S. )
19940601
A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group [ital G] is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semiinvariance under [ital G] leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by [ital U](1) leads to quantum mechanics.
CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS REQUIRE ENHANCED MASS LOSS
Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Izzard, Robert; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Ed
20121120
Measurements of rates of period change of Classical Cepheids probe stellar physics and evolution. Additionally, better understanding of Cepheid structure and evolution provides greater insight into their use as standard candles and tools for measuring the Hubble constant. Our recent study of the period change of the nearest Cepheid, Polaris, suggested that it is undergoing enhanced mass loss when compared to canonical stellar evolution model predictions. In this work, we expand the analysis to rates of period change measured for about 200 Galactic Cepheids and compare them to population synthesis models of Cepheids including convective core overshooting and enhanced mass loss. Rates of period change predicted from stellar evolution models without mass loss do not agree with observed rates, whereas including enhanced mass loss yields predicted rates in better agreement with observations. This is the first evidence that enhanced mass loss as suggested previously for Polaris and {delta} Cephei must be a ubiquitous property of Classical Cepheids.
Crossover from quantum to classical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morr, Dirk K.
20160101
Understanding the crossover from quantum to classical transport has become of fundamental importance not only for technological applications due to the creation of sub10nm transistors  an important building block of our modern life  but also for elucidating the role played by quantum mechanics in the evolutionary fitness of biological complexes. This article provides a basic introduction into the nature of charge and energy transport in the quantum and classical regimes. It discusses the characteristic transport properties in both limits and demonstrates how they can be connected through the loss of quantum mechanical coherence. The salient features of the crossover physics are identified, and their importance in opening new transport regimes and in understanding efficient and robust energy transport in biological complexes are demonstrated.
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
20150501
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Glenn S.
19970801
A fundamental and thorough description of classical electromagnetic radiation, this book is a balance of physical and mathematical explanation and includes over 300 illustrations. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the author demonstrates how fundamental concepts are applied in a wide variety of examples from areas such as classical optics, antenna analysis, and electromagnetic scattering. An interweaving of theoretical and experimental results gives insight into the physical and historical foundations of the subject. The book gives equal footing to the radiation of pulses and the more conventional time harmonic signals. With more than 140 problems, it can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering and physics, and will also be of interest to scientists and engineers working in applied electromagnetics. A solutions manual is available for instructors.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
IbarraSierra, V.G.; AnzaldoMeneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; HernándezSaldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; RoaNeri, J.A.E.
20130815
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail.  Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
Coherently enhanced measurements in classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Daniel; Popescu, Sandu
20140801
In all quantitative sciences, it is common practice to increase the signaltonoise ratio of noisy measurements by measuring identically prepared systems N times and averaging the measurement results. This leads to a scaling of the sensitivity as 1/√N, known in quantum measurement theory as the "standard quantum limit" (SQL). It is known that if one puts the N systems into an entangled state, a scaling as 1/N can be achieved, the socalled "Heisenberg limit" (HL), but decoherence problems have so far prevented implementation of such protocols for large N. Here we show that a method of coherent averaging inspired by a recent entanglementfree quantum enhanced measurement protocol is capable of achieving a sensitivity that scales as 1/N in a purely classical setup. This may substantially improve the measurement of very weak interactions in the classical realm, and, in particular, open a novel route to measuring the gravitational constant with enhanced precision.
The classical geometrization of the electromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Araujo Duarte, Celso
20150801
Following the line of the history, if by one side the electromagnetic theory was consolidated on the 19th century, the emergence of the special and the general relativity theories on the 20th century opened possibilities of further developments, with the search for the unification of the gravitation and the electromagnetism on a single unified theory. Some attempts to the geometrization of the electromagnetism emerged in this context, where these first models resided strictly on a classical basis. Posteriorly, they were followed by more complete and embracing quantum field theories. The present work reconsiders the classical viewpoint, with the purpose of showing that at firstorder of approximation the electromagnetism constitutes a geometric structure aside other phenomena as gravitation, and that magnetic monopoles do not exist at least up to this order of approximation. Even though being limited, the model is consistent and offers the possibility of an experimental test of validity.
Monodisperse cluster crystals: Classical and quantum dynamics.
DíazMéndez, Rogelio; Mezzacapo, Fabio; Cinti, Fabio; Lechner, Wolfgang; Pupillo, Guido
20151101
We study the phases and dynamics of a gas of monodisperse particles interacting via softcore potentials in two spatial dimensions, which is of interest for softmatter colloidal systems and quantum atomic gases. Using exact theoretical methods, we demonstrate that the equilibrium lowtemperature classical phase simultaneously breaks continuous translational symmetry and dynamic spacetime homogeneity, whose absence is usually associated with outofequilibrium glassy phenomena. This results in an exotic selfassembled cluster crystal with coexisting liquidlike longtime dynamical properties, which corresponds to a classical analog of supersolid behavior. We demonstrate that the effects of quantum fluctuations and bosonic statistics on clusterglassy crystals are separate and competing: Zeropoint motion tends to destabilize crystalline order, which can be restored by bosonic statistics. PMID:26651695
Time in classical and in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elçi, A.
20100701
This paper presents an analysis of the time concept in classical mechanics from the perspective of the invariants of a motion. The analysis shows that there is a conceptual gap concerning time in the DiracHeisenbergvon Neumann formalism and that Bohr's complementarity principle does not fill the gap. In the DiracHeisenbergvon Neumann formalism, a particle's properties are represented by Heisenberg matrices. This axiom is the source of the time problem in quantum mechanics.
Classical Analogs of a Diatomic Chain
Gutierrez, L.; DiazdeAnda, A.; MendezSanchez, R. A.; Morales, A.; Flores, J.; Monsivais, G.
20101221
Using one dimensional rods with different configurations classical analogs of quantum mechanical systems frequently used in solid state physics can be obtained. Among this analogs we have recently discussed locally periodic rods which lead to band spectra; the effect of a topological defect, and the Wannier Stark ladders. In this paper, we present an elastic analog of the diatomic chain and show how the acoustical and optical bands emerge, as well of the nature of the wave amplitudes.
New variables for classical and quantum gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
19860101
A Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity based on certain spinorial variables is introduced. These variables simplify the constraints of general relativity considerably and enable one to imbed the constraint surface in the phase space of Einstein's theory into that of YangMills theory. The imbedding suggests new ways of attacking a number of problems in both classical and quantum gravity. Some illustrative applications are discussed.
INCLINATION MIXING IN THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT
Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu
20110720
We investigate the longterm evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low and highinclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the lowinclination population may have been in the highinclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the sizeinclination and colorinclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than nonbinary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higherorder mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as nonresonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the nonresonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.
Quantumclassical transitions in complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javarone, Marco Alberto; Armano, Giuliano
20130401
The inherent properties of specific physical systems can be used as metaphors for investigation of the behavior of complex networks. This insight has already been put into practice in previous work, e.g., studying the network evolution in terms of phase transitions of quantum gases or representing distances among nodes as if they were particle energies. This paper shows that the emergence of different structures in complex networks, such as the scalefree and the winnertakesall networks, can be represented in terms of a quantumclassical transition for quantum gases. In particular, we propose a model of fermionic networks that allows us to investigate the network evolution and its dependence on the system temperature. Simulations, performed in accordance with the cited model, clearly highlight the separation between classical random and winnertakesall networks, in full correspondence with the separation between classical and quantum regions for quantum gases. We deem this model useful for the analysis of synthetic and real complex networks.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
20131201
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor `model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model, an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector and the Lamé elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus doublecouple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple.
Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Nicholas
20150501
Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek  it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates  and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560  4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.
Large classical universes emerging from quantum cosmology
PintoNeto, Nelson
20090415
It is generally believed that one cannot obtain a large universe from quantum cosmological models without an inflationary phase in the classical expanding era because the typical size of the universe after leaving the quantum regime should be around the Planck length, and the standard decelerated classical expansion after that is not sufficient to enlarge the universe in the time available. For instance, in many quantum minisuperspace bouncing models studied in the literature, solutions where the universe leaves the quantum regime in the expanding phase with appropriate size have negligible probability amplitude with respect to solutions leaving this regime around the Planck length. In this paper, I present a general class of moving Gaussian solutions of the WheelerDeWitt equation where the velocity of the wave in minisuperspace along the scale factor axis, which is the new large parameter introduced in order to circumvent the abovementioned problem, induces a large acceleration around the quantum bounce, forcing the universe to leave the quantum regime sufficiently big to increase afterwards to the present size, without needing any classical inflationary phase in between, and with reasonable relative probability amplitudes with respect to models leaving the quantum regime around the Planck scale. Furthermore, linear perturbations around this background model are free of any transPlanckian problem.
Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.
Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping
20120301
Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibratofree tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Longtermaverage spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. PMID:21621380
The Strange World of Classical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, David
20100201
We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of classical physics yield equally strange (or arguably even stranger) results if the observer happens to be in a very high velocity reference frame. This article addresses two questions: In Part I we examine what the world would look like if relativity was not in effect and you happened to be in a reference frame traveling at a high percentage of the speed of light or faster than light (perfectly allowable in this model), a conceptual world that existed on a foundation of Newtonian physics and the aether. It turns out that this is a weirder place than is generally realized. In Part II we see that classical physics in these frames is selfcontradictory. Neither the consideration of Maxwell's equations nor the MichelsonMorley experiment is necessary to see these contradictions; they are implicit in the logic of the physics itself.
Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.
Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping
20120301
Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibratofree tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Longtermaverage spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level.
Local Refinements in Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fackeldey, Konstantin; Weber, Marcus
20140301
Quantum mechanics provide a detailed description of the physical and chemical behavior of molecules. However, with increasing size of the system the complexity rises exponentially, which is prohibitive for efficient dynamical simulation. In contrast, classical molecular dynamics procure a coarser description by using less degrees of freedom. Thus, it seems natural to seek for an adequate tradeoff between accurateness and computational feasibility in the simulation of molecules. Here, we propose a novel method, which combines classical molecular simulations with quantum mechanics for molecular systems. For this we decompose the state space of the respective molecule into subsets, by employing a meshfree partition of unity. We show, that this partition allows us to localize an empirical force field and to run locally constrained classical trajectories. Within each subset, we compute the energy on the quantum level for a fixed number of spatial states (ab initio points). With these energy values from the ab initio points we have a local scattered data problem, which can be solved by the moving least squares method.
Gaugefields and integrated quantumclassical theory
Stapp, H.P.
19860101
Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantumclassical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantumclassical connection. 17 refs.
Realization of Hardy’s thought experiment using classical light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiong; Sun, Yifan; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong
20160901
We report the realization of Hardy’s thought experiment in classical optical systems. Two different classical optical experiments are implemented. One is based on orbital angular momentum and polarization correlation in a classical optical beam, and the other is based on nonlocal classical correlation from two separated classical optical beams. All experimental results show that they are analogous to Hardy’s paradox experiments. This means that Hardy’s nonlocality proof without inequalities, which is usually used in a quantum system, can also be achieved in classical optical systems.
NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE
Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi
20131110
Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a mainsequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electrondegenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the mainsequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo postprocessing network calculations with temperaturedensity evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.
Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.
20121201
The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on reallife people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300306. doi:10.1002/wea.765
Classical chaos in nonseparable wave propagation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, David R.; Brown, Michael G.; Tappert, Frederick D.; Bezdek, Hugo F.
19880601
Numerical calculations show that acoustic ray paths in a weakly rangedependent deterministic ocean model exhibit chaotic behavior, that is, have an exponentially sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Since the ray equations define a nonautonomous Hamiltonian system with one degree of freedom, these results may be understood in terms of recent advances in classical chaos. The Hamiltonian structure of ray equations in general suggests that chaotic ray trajectories will be present in all types of linear wave motion in geophysics when variables do not separate, as in laterally inhomogeneous media.
Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Chong, Yooyoung; Han, Sung Joon; Rhee, Youn Ju; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Na, Myung Hoon
20160101
A 50yearold female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance. PMID:27734006
Selected Studies in Classical and Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saotome, Ryo
This thesis is composed of two parts, one corresponding to classical and the other to quantum gravitational phenomena. In the classical part, we focus on the behavior of various classical scalar fields in the presence of black holes. New fundamental results discussed include the first confirmation of the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, and Lifschitz (BKL) conjecture for an asymptotically flat spacetime, where we find that the dynamics of a canonical test scalar field near a black hole singularity are dominated by terms with time derivatives. We also perform a numerical simulation of the gravitational collapse of a noncanonical scalar field showing that signals can escape black holes in the kessence dark energy model and find numerical confirmation that the accretion of various scalar fields onto a black hole from generic initial conditions is stationary. In the second part, we focus on the long distance behavior of perturbative quantum gravity. New results discussed include a proof of the cancellation of collinear divergences to all orders in the amplitudes of the theory as well as a characterization of all infrared divergent diagrams. In particular, we find that the only diagrams that can have soft divergences are ladder and crossed ladder diagrams, and that the only collinearly divergent diagrams are those with only three point vertices and no internal jet loops. Also presented is a construction of a double copy relation between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes similar to that conjectured by Bern, Carrasco, and Johansson for the case where there is no hard momentum exchange in the scattering, which we find implies a squaring relation between the classical shockwave solutions of the two theories as well. Finally, the first calculation of a gravitational scattering amplitude through the nexttoleading eikonal order is performed. We find that this correction to the scattering amplitude exponentiates, and that these power corrections probe smaller impact parameters
Hybridizing matterwave and classical accelerometers
Lautier, J.; Volodimer, L.; Hardin, T.; Merlet, S.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Landragin, A.
20141006
We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performance without any isolation platform. Second, a servolock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely, the dead times between consecutive measurements.
Born rule in quantum and classical mechanics
Brumer, Paul; Gong Jiangbin
20060515
Considerable effort has been devoted to deriving the Born rule [i.e., that {psi}(x){sup 2}dx is the probability of finding a system, described by {psi}, between x and x+dx] in quantum mechanics. Here we show that the Born rule is not solely quantum mechanical; rather, it arises naturally in the Hilbertspace formulation of classical mechanics as well. These results provide insights into the nature of the Born rule, and impact on its understanding in the framework of quantum mechanics.
Classical problems in computational aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.
19960101
In relation to the expected problems in the development of computational aeroacoustics (CAA), the preliminary applications were to classical problems where the known analytical solutions could be used to validate the numerical results. Such comparisons were used to overcome the numerical problems inherent in these calculations. Comparisons were made between the various numerical approaches to the problems such as direct simulations, acoustic analogies and acoustic/viscous splitting techniques. The aim was to demonstrate the applicability of CAA as a tool in the same class as computational fluid dynamics. The scattering problems that occur are considered and simple sources are discussed.
Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.
20160801
We take a soliton solution of a classical nonlinear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its nonlinearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the postquench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sineGordon and nonlinear Schrödinger integrable equations.
Electroweak Baryogenesis from a Classical Force
Joyce, M.; Prokopec, T.; Turok, N.
19950828
We describe a new effect that produces baryons at a first order electroweak phase transition. It operates when there is a {ital CP}violating field present on propagating bubble walls. The novel aspect is that it involves a purely classical force, which alters the motion of particles across the wall and through diffusion creates a chiral asymmetry in front of the wall. We develop a technique for computing the baryon asymmetry using the Boltzmann equation, and a fluid approximation which allows us to model strong scattering effects. The final formula for the baryon asymmetry has a remarkably simple form.
Classical dynamics of free electromagnetic laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, S.; Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.
20160201
We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum sourcefree Maxwell field equations as models for multi and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in lasermatter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Landé and Podolsky.
Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.
20160801
In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.
Hybridizing matterwave and classical accelerometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lautier, J.; Volodimer, L.; Hardin, T.; Merlet, S.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Landragin, A.
20141001
We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performance without any isolation platform. Second, a servolock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely, the dead times between consecutive measurements.
Will the digital computer transform classical mathematics?
Rotman, Brian
20030815
Mathematics and machines have influenced each other for millennia. The advent of the digital computer introduced a powerfully new element that promises to transform the relation between them. This paper outlines the thesis that the effect of the digital computer on mathematics, already widespread, is likely to be radical and farreaching. To articulate this claim, an abstract model of doing mathematics is introduced based on a triad of actors of which one, the 'agent', corresponds to the function performed by the computer. The model is used to frame two sorts of transformation. The first is pragmatic and involves the alterations and progressive colonization of the content and methods of enquiry of various mathematical fields brought about by digital methods. The second is conceptual and concerns a fundamental antagonism between the infinity enshrined in classical mathematics and physics (continuity, real numbers, asymptotic definitions) and the inherently real and material limit of processes associated with digital computation. An example which lies in the intersection of classical mathematics and computer science, the P=NP problem, is analysed in the light of this latter issue.
Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartumeus, F.; Catalan, J.
20091001
Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically reevaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.
Classical helium atom with radiation reaction
Camelio, G.; Carati, A.; Galgani, L.
20120615
We study a classical model of helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models, most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zerodipole manifold that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole approximation). We finally study numerically the invariant measure naturally induced by the timeevolution on such a manifold, and this corresponds to studying the formation process of the atom. Indications are given that such a measure may be singular with respect to that of Lebesgue.
Nanoplasmonics: classical down to the nanometer scale.
Duan, Huigao; FernándezDomínguez, Antonio I; Bosman, Michel; Maier, Stefan A; Yang, Joel K W
20120314
We push the fabrication limit of gold nanostructures to the exciting subnanometer regime, in which lightmatter interactions have been anticipated to be strongly affected by the quantum nature of electrons in metals. Doing so allows us to (1) evaluate the validity of classical electrodynamics to describe plasmonic effects at this length scale and (2) witness the gradual (instead of sudden) evolution of plasmon modes when two gold nanoprisms are brought into contact. Using electron energyloss spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope imaging, we investigated nanoprisms separated by gaps of only 0.5 nm and connected by conductive bridges as narrow as 3 nm. Good agreement of our experimental results with electromagnetic calculations and LC circuit models evidence the gradual evolution of the plasmonic resonances toward the quantum coupling regime. We demonstrate that down to the nanometer length scales investigated classical electrodynamics still holds, and a full quantum description of electrodynamics phenomena in such systems might be required only when smaller gaps of a few angstroms are considered. Our results show also the gradual onset of the chargetransfer plasmon mode and the evolution of the dipolar bright mode into a 3λ/2 mode as one literally bridges the gap between two gold nanoprisms.
Classical helium atom with radiation reaction.
Camelio, G; Carati, A; Galgani, L
20120601
We study a classical model of helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models, most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zerodipole manifold that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole approximation). We finally study numerically the invariant measure naturally induced by the timeevolution on such a manifold, and this corresponds to studying the formation process of the atom. Indications are given that such a measure may be singular with respect to that of Lebesgue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.
20071201
The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sedimenttype named loess, a finegrained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "nonclassical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) tradewind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anticlockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these nonclassical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or subvertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.
Extending classical molecular theory with polarization.
Keyes, Tom; Napoleon, Raeanne L
20110127
A classical, polarizable, electrostatic theory of shortranged atomatom interactions, incorporating the smeared nature of atomic partial charges, is presented. Detailed models are constructed for CO monomer and for CO interacting with an iron atom, as a first step toward heme proteins. A good representation is obtained of the bondlengthdependent dipole of CO monomer from fitting at the equilibrium distance only. Essential features of the binding of CO to myoglobin (Mb) and model heme compounds, including the binding energy, the position of the minimum in the FeC potential, the FeC frequency, the bending energy, the linear geometry of FeCO, and the increase of the Stark tuning rate and IR intensity, are obtained, suggesting that a substantial part of the FeCO interaction consists of a classical, noncovalent, "electrostatic bond ". The binding energy is primarily polarization energy, and the polarization energy of an OH pair in water is shown to be comparable to the experimental hydrogen bond energy.
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.
Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
20150801
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the LennardJones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
20150801
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3 σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the LennardJones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
How quantum are classical spin ices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingras, Michel J. P.; Rau, Jeffrey G.
The pyrochlore spin ice compounds Dy2TiO7 and Ho2Ti2O7 are well described by classical Ising models down to low temperatures. Given the empirical success of this description, the question of the importance of quantum effects in these materials has been mostly ignored. We argue that the common wisdom that the strictly Ising moments of noninteracting Dy3+ and Ho3+ ions imply Ising interactions is too naive and that a more complex argument is needed to explain the close agreement between the classical Ising model theory and experiments. By considering a microscopic picture of the interactions in rareearth oxides, we show that the highrank multipolar interactions needed to induce quantum effects in these two materials are generated only very weakly by superexchange. Using this framework, we formulate an estimate of the scale of quantum effects in Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7, finding it to be well below experimentally relevant temperatures. Published as: PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 144417 (2015).
Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaezi, MohammadSadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar
20160501
We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.
Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
20150801
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the LennardJones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26382410
Observables in classical canonical gravity: Folklore demystified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pons, J. M.; Salisbury, D. C.; Sundermeyer, K. A.
20100401
We give an overview of some conceptual difficulties, sometimes called paradoxes, that have puzzled for years the physical interpetation of classical canonical gravity and, by extension, the canonical formulation of generally covariant theories. We identify these difficulties as stemming form some terminological misunderstandings as to what is meant by "gauge invariance", or what is understood classically by a "physical state". We make a thorough analysis of the issue and show that all purported paradoxes disappear when the right terminology is in place. Since this issue is connected with the search of observables  gauge invariant quantities  for these theories, we formally show that time evolving observables can be constructed for every observer. This construction relies on the fixation of the gauge freedom of diffeomorphism invariance by means of a scalar coordinatization. We stress the condition that the coordinatization must be made with scalars. As an example of our method for obtaining observables we discuss the case of the massive particle in AdS spacetime.
Measurements of classical transport of fast ions
Zhao, L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.
20050515
To study the fastion transport in a well controlled background plasma, a 3cm diameter rf ion gun launches a pulsed, {approx}300 eV ribbon shaped argon ion beam parallel to or at 15 deg. to the magnetic field in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at UCLA. The parallel energy of the beam is measured by a twogrid energy analyzer at two axial locations (z=0.32 m and z=6.4 m) from the ion gun in LAPD. The calculated ion beam slowingdown time is consistent to within 10% with the prediction of classical Coulomb collision theory using the LAPD plasma parameters measured by a Langmuir probe. To measure crossfield transport, the beam is launched at 15 deg. to the magnetic field. The beam then is focused periodically by the magnetic field to avoid geometrical spreading. The radial beam profile measurements are performed at different axial locations where the ion beam is periodically focused. The measured crossfield transport is in agreement to within 15% with the analytical classical collision theory and the solution to the FokkerPlanck kinetic equation. Collisions with neutrals have a negligible effect on the beam transport measurement but do attenuate the beam current.
Quantumclassical dynamics of wave fields.
Sergi, Alessandro
20070221
An approach to the quantumclassical mechanics of phase space dependent operators, which has been proposed recently, is remodeled as a formalism for wave fields. Such wave fields obey a system of coupled nonlinear equations that can be written by means of a suitable nonHamiltonian bracket. As an example, the theory is applied to the relaxation dynamics of the spinboson model. In the adiabatic limit, a good agreement with calculations performed by the operator approach is obtained. Moreover, the theory proposed in this paper can take nonadiabatic effects into account without resorting to surfacehopping approximations. Hence, the results obtained follow qualitatively those of previous surfacehopping calculations and increase by a factor of (at least) 2, the time length over which nonadiabatic dynamics can be propagated with small statistical errors. Moreover, it is worth to note that the dynamics of quantumclassical wave fields proposed here is a straightforward nonHamiltonian generalization of the formalism for nonlinear quantum mechanics that Weinberg introduced recently.
Evaluating the TD model of classical conditioning.
Ludvig, Elliot A; Sutton, Richard S; Kehoe, E James
20120901
The temporaldifference (TD) algorithm from reinforcement learning provides a simple method for incrementally learning predictions of upcoming events. Applied to classical conditioning, TD models suppose that animals learn a realtime prediction of the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the basis of all available conditioned stimuli (CSs). In the TD model, similar to other errorcorrection models, learning is driven by prediction errorsthe difference between the change in US prediction and the actual US. With the TD model, however, learning occurs continuously from moment to moment and is not artificially constrained to occur in trials. Accordingly, a key feature of any TD model is the assumption about the representation of a CS on a momenttomoment basis. Here, we evaluate the performance of the TD model with a heretofore unexplored range of classical conditioning tasks. To do so, we consider three stimulus representations that vary in their degree of temporal generalization and evaluate how the representation influences the performance of the TD model on these conditioning tasks.
Relational Quadrilateralland i: the Classical Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Edward
20141201
Relational particle mechanics models bolster the relational side of the absolute versus relational motion debate. They are additionally toy models for the dynamical formulation of general relativity (GR) and its problem of time (PoT). They cover two aspects that the more commonly studied minisuperspace GR models do not: (1) by having a nontrivial notion of structure and thus of cosmological structure formation and of localized records. (2) They have linear as well as quadratic constraints, which is crucial as regards modeling many PoT facets. I previously solved relational triangleland classically, quantum mechanically and as regards a local resolution of the PoT. This rested on triangleland's shape space being 𝕊2 with isometry group SO(3), allowing for use of widelyknown geometry, methods and atomic/molecular physics analogies. I now extend this work to the relational quadrilateral, which is far more typical of the general Nagon, represents a "diagonal to nondiagonal Bianchi IX minisuperspace" stepup in complexity, and encodes further PoT subtleties. The shape space now being ℂℙ2 with isometry group SU(3)/ℤ3, I now need to draw on geometry, shape statistics and particle physics to solve this model; this is therefore an interdisciplinary paper. This Paper treats quadrilateralland at the classical level, and then paper II provides a quantum treatment.
Classical Influence on the Founding of the American Republic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molanphy, Helen M.
The founding fathers of the United States were products of a classical education, and they used the Greek and Roman classics as republican models and classical virtues. In their writings, the founders frequently associated liberty and republicanism with the ancient commonwealths. John Adams spoke on three separate occasions of the need to reflect…
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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
20100414
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HST observations of faint Cold Classical KBOs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David E.; Grundy, Will
20161001
The size distribution of the known Kuiper Belt Objects has been described by a double power law, with a break at R magnitude 25. There are two leading interpretations to this break: 1) It is the result of the collisional evolution, with the objects smaller than the break being the population most affected by collisional erosion. 2) The size distribution break is primordial, set during the Kuiper Belt formation.The low inclination KBOs, the Cold Classical population, is thought to have been dynamically isolated since the formation of the Solar System, and thus only collisions between Cold Classicals would have affected their size distribution. If the distribution is collisional, it probes parameters of the Kuiper Belt history: strengths of the bodies, impact energies and frequency, and the the number of objects. If the distribution is primordial, it reveals parameters of the Kuiper Belt accretion, as well as limits on its subsequent collisional history.We obtained HST observations of 16 faint Cold Classicals, which we combine with archival HST observations of 20 others, to examine the distribution of two properties of the smallest KBOs: colors and binary fraction. These properties can differentiate between a primordial and a collisional origin of the size distribution break. If the smaller bodies have been through extensive collisional evolution, they will have exposed materials from their interiors, which has not been exposed to weathering, and thus should be bluer than the old surfaces of the larger bodies. Another constraint can be derived from the fraction of binary objects: the angular momentum of the observed binaries is typically too high to result from collisions, thus a collisionallyevolved population would have a lower binary fraction, due to the easier separation of binaries, compared to the disruption of similarsized bodies, and the easier disruption of the binary components, due to the smaller size.We present the constraints to the color and binary
[Classical and nonclassical taxonomy: where does the boundary pass?].
Pavlinov, I Ia
20060101
Rise of nonclassical science during XX century had certain influence upon development of biological taxonomy. Scientific pluralism (especially normative naturalism of Laudan), contrary to positivist and early postpositivist treatments, made taxonomy acknowledged scientific discipline of its own right. The present state of some schools of taxonomy makes it possible to consider them as a part of nonclassical science and constituting the nonclassical taxonomy. The latter is characterized by the following most important features. Ontological substantiation of both classificatory approaches and particular classifications is requested which invalidates such formal approaches as nominalistic and phenetic (numerical) schools. This substantiation takes a form of contentwise background preferably causal models which include certain axioms and presumptions about taxonomic diversity being studied, together with its causes, and thus define initial conditions of classificatory procedures. From this viewoint, phylogenetic classificatory approach is the most developed part of nonclassical taxonomy. The entire taxonomic diversity is structured into several aspects of different levels of generality, each being outlined by a particular consideration aspect. The latter makes personal knowledge constituting an irremovable part of any scientific statement about taxonomic diversity, thus opposition of "objectively" and "subjectively" elaborated classifications becomes vague. Interrelation of various species concepts corresponding to its different consideration aspects is described by uncertainty relation principle. Classificatory algorithms are to be compatible with the conditions of a background model to ensure particular classifications obtained by their means are interpretable within the same model: this is provided by the correspondence principle. Classification is considered as a taxonomic hypothesis, i.e. a conjectural judgement about structure of particular fragment of
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
20100910
We consider the security of continuousvariable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave.
Eyeblink classical conditioning in the preweanling lamb.
Johnson, Timothy B; Stanton, Mark E; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Timothy A
20080601
Classical conditioning of eyeblink responses has been one of the most important models for studying the neurobiology of learning, with many comparative, ontogenetic, and clinical applications. The current study reports the development of procedures to conduct eyeblink conditioning in preweanling lambs and demonstrates successful conditioning using these procedures. These methods will permit application of eyeblink conditioning procedures in the analysis of functional correlates of cerebellar damage in a sheep model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which has significant advantages over more common laboratory rodent models. Because sheep have been widely used for studies of pathogenesis and mechanisms of injury with many different prenatal or perinatal physiological insults, eyeblink conditioning can provide a wellstudied method to assess postnatal behavioral outcomes, which heretofore have not typically been pursued with ovine models of developmental insults.
Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, P. J. D.; Äńurić, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.
20141001
Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations that an open system can support and degrade the power of such adiabatic computation. We quantify this effect by allowing the system to evolve over a restricted set of quantum states, providing a link between physically inspired classical optimization algorithms and quantum adiabatic optimization. This perspective allows us to develop benchmarks to bound the quantum correlations harnessed by an adiabatic computation. We apply these to the DWave Vesuvius machine with revealing—though inconclusive—results.
Classical acoustic waves in damped media.
Albuquerque, E L; Mauriz, P W
20030501
A Green function technique is employed to investigate the propagation of classical damped acoustic waves in complex media. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of problem. Both the displacement and the gradient displacement Green functions are determined. All deformations in the media are supposed to be negligible, so the motions considered here are purely acoustic waves. The damping term gamma is included in a phenomenological way into the wave vector expression. By using the fluctuationdissipation theorem, the power spectrum of the acoustic waves is also derived and has interesting properties, the most important of them being a possible relation with the analysis of seismic reflection data.
On energy absorption in classical electromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goedecke, G. H.
20010201
Using only classical electromagnetic energy conservation laws and causality, we show that the net average power absorbed by any mechanically isolated illuminated medium in steady state must be zero, but that for linear model media it is nonzero. This contradiction implies that all media must behave inelastically. We also show in general that the average power absorbed at an incident frequency, which is equal to the total taken from an incident wave minus that scattered elastically, is also equal to the average power scattered inelastically plus that carried off mechanically, if any. Finally, we infer that while the conventional linear theory cannot predict the spectral distribution of inelastic scattering, it may be applied as always to predict the propagation, absorption, and elastic scattering of weak illumination in passive media.
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
20100910
We consider the security of continuousvariable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave. PMID:20867556
Classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis
Haaland, David M.
20020101
An improved classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis method that adds spectral shapes describing noncalibrated components and system effects (other than baseline corrections) present in the analyzed mixture to the prediction phase of the method. These improvements decrease or eliminate many of the restrictions to the CLStype methods and greatly extend their capabilities, accuracy, and precision. One new application of PACLS includes the ability to accurately predict unknown sample concentrations when new unmodeled spectral components are present in the unknown samples. Other applications of PACLS include the incorporation of spectrometer drift into the quantitative multivariate model and the maintenance of a calibration on a drifting spectrometer. Finally, the ability of PACLS to transfer a multivariate model between spectrometers is demonstrated.
Interaction vertex for classical spinning particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempel, Trevor; Freidel, Laurent
20160801
We consider a model of the classical spinning particle in which the coadjoint orbits of the Poincaré group are parametrized by two pairs of canonically conjugate fourvectors, one representing the standard position and momentum variables, and the other encoding the spinning degrees of freedom. This "dual phase space model" is shown to be a consistent theory of both massive and massless particles and allows for coupling to background fields such as electromagnetism. The onshell action is derived and shown to be a sum of two terms, one associated with motion in spacetime, and the other with motion in "spin space." Interactions between spinning particles are studied, and a necessary and sufficient condition for consistency of a threepoint vertex is established.
A new theory of simple classical fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, Y.; Ashcroft, N. W.
19790101
The paper presents a unified structural and thermodynamic theory of simple classical fluids in which the interactions between the particles can be represented by spherically symmetric pairwise potentials. Both the excess entropy and the gross features of the radial distribution function are determined mainly by excluded volume effects, which are in turn governed by a hardcore property intrinsic to any pair potential. The potential beyond this effective hard core is considered relatively weak and can be treated as a perturbation. It is also considered essential to sum all subclasses of diagrams to infinite order. The basic form of a diagrammatic scheme which allows both summation and the determination of the structure and excess entropy is presented, and a statement of universality is derived. The statement has been confirmed within the accuracy of presentday computer simulations, and a possible procedure for calculating both the structure and thermodynamics of every physically conceivable pair potential is presented.
Chiral fermions as classical massless spinning particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duval, C.; Horváthy, P. A.
20150201
Semiclassical chiral fermion models with Berry term are studied in a symplectic framework. In the free case, the system can be obtained from Souriau's model for a relativistic massless spinning particle by "enslaving" the spin. The Berry term is identified with the classical spin twoform of the latter model. The Souriau model carries a natural Poincaré symmetry that we highlight, but spin enslavement breaks the boost symmetry. However the relation between the models allows us to derive a Poincaré symmetry of unconventional form for chiral fermions. Then we couple our system to an external electromagnetic field. For gyromagnetic ratio g =0 we get curious superluminal Halltype motions; for g =2 and in a pure constant magnetic field in particular, we find instead spiraling motions.
Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.
Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, JeanMarie; Streuli, Isabelle
20160101
Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of longterm medical management of endometriosis.
Classical and quantum physics of hydrogen clusters.
Mezzacapo, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
20090422
We present results of a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the low temperature (T) properties of clusters of parahydrogen (pH(2)), both pristine as well as doped with isotopic impurities (i.e., orthodeuterium, oD(2)). We study clusters comprising up to N = 40 molecules, by means of quantum simulations based on the continuousspace Worm algorithm. Pristine pH(2) clusters are liquidlike and superfluid in the [Formula: see text] limit. The superfluid signal is uniform throughout these clusters; it is underlain by long cycles of permutation of molecules. Clusters with more than 22 molecules display solidlike, essentially classical behavior at temperatures down to T∼1 K; some of them are seen to turn liquidlike at sufficiently low T (quantum melting).
QuantumClassical Hybrid for Information Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
20110101
Based upon quantuminspired entanglement in quantumclassical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of nonintentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantumclassical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the xcoordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source
Galactic kinematics derived from classical cepheids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zi
On the basis of radial velocity and Hipparcos proper motion data, we have analyzed the galactic kinematics of classical Cepheids. Using the 3D OgorodnikovMilne model we have determined the rotational velocity of the Galaxy to be V0 = 240.5 ± 10.2 km/s, on assuming a glactocentric distance of the Sun of R0 = 8.5 kpc. The results clearly indicate a contracting motion in the solar neighbourhood of (∂V θ∂θ)/R = 2.60 ± 1.07 km s 1 kpc 1, along the direction of galactic rotation. Possible reason for this motion is discussed. The solar motion found here is S⊙ = 18.78 ± 0.86 km/s in the direction l⊙ = 54.4° ± 2.9° and b⊙ = +26.6° ± 2.6°.
Nonlinear quantum equations: Classical field theory
RegoMonteiro, M. A.; Nobre, F. D.
20131015
An exact classical field theory for nonlinear quantum equations is presented herein. It has been applied recently to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and it is shown herein to hold also for a nonlinear generalization of the KleinGordon equation. These generalizations were carried by introducing nonlinear terms, characterized by exponents depending on an index q, in such a way that the standard, linear equations, are recovered in the limit q→ 1. The main characteristic of this field theory consists on the fact that besides the usual Ψ(x(vector sign),t), a new field Φ(x(vector sign),t) needs to be introduced in the Lagrangian, as well. The field Φ(x(vector sign),t), which is defined by means of an additional equation, becomes Ψ{sup *}(x(vector sign),t) only when q→ 1. The solutions for the fields Ψ(x(vector sign),t) and Φ(x(vector sign),t) are found herein, being expressed in terms of a qplane wave; moreover, both field equations lead to the relation E{sup 2}=p{sup 2}c{sup 2}+m{sup 2}c{sup 4}, for all values of q. The fact that such a classical field theory works well for two very distinct nonlinear quantum equations, namely, the Schrödinger and KleinGordon ones, suggests that this procedure should be appropriate for a wider class nonlinear equations. It is shown that the standard global gauge invariance is broken as a consequence of the nonlinearity.
Excitation energy transfer in a classical analogue of photosynthetic antennae.
Mančal, Tomáš
20130926
We formulate a classical pure dephasing systembath interaction model in a full correspondence to the wellstudied quantum model of natural lightharvesting antennae. The equations of motion of our classical model not only represent the correct classical analogy to the quantum description of excitonic systems, but they also have exactly the same functional form. We demonstrate derivation of classical dissipation and relaxation tensor in second order perturbation theory. We find that the only difference between the classical and quantum descriptions is in the interpretation of the state and in certain limitations imposed on the parameters of the model by classical physics. The effects of delocalization, transfer pathway interference, and the transition from coherent to diffusive transfer can be found already in the classical realm. The only qualitatively new effect occurring in quantum systems is the preference for a downhill energy transfer and the resulting possibility of trapping the energy in the lowest energy state.
Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.
Dumond, D E; Muller, F
19720317
The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of PueblaTlaxcala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of redonbuff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause
[Interrelations of Buddhism and classical Indian medicine].
Butzenberger, K; Fedorova, M
19890101
In ancient India, two branches of knowledge are concerned with human suffering, trying to theoretically explain as well as to practically overcome its reasons: (practical) philosophy and medicine. In spite of being concerned with the same problem, both rest on different premises: philosophy on highly abstract insights into the core of the phenomenal world, the atman, which is a priori free from suffering; and classical ( classical as opposed to modern, westernized ) medicine on concrete daily manifestations of suffering. Both kinds of occupation with human suffering implicitly follow a common method, the abstract, i.e. structural investigation and expression of which we call methodology. This methodology being explicitly stated in medical texts, we speak of medical methodology, regardless of the (most probably inanswerable) question in what branch of knowledge this methodology has been originally developed. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the Buddha's denial of a transcendent atman is investigated with regard to its implications concerning the problem of human suffering. Not being able to accept the solution proposed in the Upanisads, the Buddha conceives a new explanation and solution of the problem. For that purpose, he explicitly reiterates the medical methodology, thus attaining a fourfold progressive method which consists in: (1) experience of suffering, (2) diagnosis, (3) prognosis, (4) solution. In account of this method's isomorphy to the medical method, Buddhism was regarded as a medical discipline. The second part of the article is focussed on the third step of the methodology, the prognosis. According to medical texts, the physician has to decide in advance whether an illness is curable or not; in the latter case, he is advised to refrain from treating it. Although this position might be justified from a pragmatic point of view, it remains unsatisfying when considered with regard to a categorial system of ethics as it is
Quantum and classical simulations of molecular clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xiao
to a fast discovery of accessible topological paths towards the global minimum. The ATMC can be readily linked to systems described by classical model potentials or systems described quantum mechanically. Serial and parallel versions of the ATMC have been implemented and applied for the structural optimization of classical LennardJones nanoclusters and Morse nanoclusters, and tightbinding calcium nanoclusters, crystallization of infinite LennardJones liquid, and optimization of the folding process leading to the native state of a polypeptide chain.
Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Prenucleation Clusters, Classical and NonClassical Nucleation
Zahn, Dirk
20150101
Recent observations of prenucleation species and multistage crystal nucleation processes challenge the longestablished view on the thermodynamics of crystal formation. Here, we review and generalize extensions to classical nucleation theory. Going beyond the conventional implementation as has been used for more than a century now, nucleation inhibitors, precursor clusters and nonclassical nucleation processes are rationalized as well by analogous concepts based on competing interface and bulk energy terms. This is illustrated by recent examples of species formed prior to/instead of crystal nucleation and multistep nucleation processes. Much of the discussed insights were obtained from molecular simulation using advanced sampling techniques, briefly summarized herein for both nucleationcontrolled and diffusioncontrolled aggregate formation. PMID:25914369
Classical and quantum superintegrability with applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Willard, Jr.; Post, Sarah; Winternitz, Pavel
20131001
A superintegrable system is, roughly speaking, a system that allows more integrals of motion than degrees of freedom. This review is devoted to finite dimensional classical and quantum superintegrable systems with scalar potentials and integrals of motion that are polynomials in the momenta. We present a classification of secondorder superintegrable systems in twodimensional Riemannian and pseudoRiemannian spaces. It is based on the study of the quadratic algebras of the integrals of motion and on the equivalence of different systems under coupling constant metamorphosis. The determining equations for the existence of integrals of motion of arbitrary order in real Euclidean space E2 are presented and partially solved for the case of thirdorder integrals. A systematic exposition is given of systems in two and higher dimensional space that allow integrals of arbitrary order. The algebras of integrals of motions are not necessarily quadratic but close polynomially or rationally. The relation between superintegrability and the classification of orthogonal polynomials is analyzed.
Necessary and sufficient factors in classical conditioning.
Damianopoulos, E N
19820101
The issue of necessary and sufficient factors (pairingcontiguity vs. contingencycorrelation) in classical (Pavlovian) excitatory conditioning is examined: first, in terms of definitional (logical) and manipulational requirements of "necessary" and "sufficient"; second, in terms of Boolean logic test models indicating experimental and control manipulations in tests of pairing and contingency as necessary and sufficient factors; and, third, by a selective review of reference experiments showing appropriate experimental and control manipulations of pairing and contingency indicated in the Boolean logic test models. Results of examination show pairingcontiguity as the sole necessary and sufficient factor for excitatory conditioning, while contingencycorrelation is conceptualized as a modulating factor controlling minimalmaximal effects of pairingcontiguity. Reservations and diagnostic experiments are indicated to assess effects of uncontrolled conditioned stimulusunconditioned stimulus (CSUS) probability characteristics (e.g., p (CSUS)/p (CSUS) in truly random (TR) schedule manipulations). Similar analysis of conditioned inhibition reveals insufficient evidence to support a choice among current alternatives.
New developments in classical chaotic scattering.
Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F
20130101
Classical chaotic scattering is a topic of fundamental interest in nonlinear physics due to the numerous existing applications in fields such as celestial mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics and fluid mechanics, among others. Many new advances in chaotic scattering have been achieved in the last few decades. This work provides a current overview of the field, where our attention has been mainly focused on the most important contributions related to the theoretical framework of chaotic scattering, the fractal dimension, the basins boundaries and new applications, among others. Numerical techniques and algorithms, as well as analytical tools used for its analysis, are also included. We also show some of the experimental setups that have been implemented to study diverse manifestations of chaotic scattering. Furthermore, new theoretical aspects such as the study of this phenomenon in timedependent systems, different transitions and bifurcations to chaotic scattering and a classification of boundaries in different types according to symbolic dynamics are also shown. Finally, some recent progress on chaotic scattering in higher dimensions is also described. PMID:23242261
The Directedness of Time in Classical Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartels, Andreas; Wohlfarth, Daniel
20140301
The aim of this paper is to show that a new understanding of fundamentality can be applied successfully in classical cosmology based on General Relativity. We are thereby able to achieve an account of cosmological time asymmetry as an intrinsic and fundamental property of the universe. First, we consider Price's arguments against the fundamental status of timeasymmetry (Price (1996, 2002, 2011)). We show that these arguments have some force, but their force depends on understanding fundamentality as lawlikeness. Second, we show that alternative approaches attempting to explain time directedness either by applying an anthropic strategy based on a multiverse approach, or by using the empirical fact of accelerated expansion of the universe, equally fail to provide a fundamental explanation of time directedness. In the third part, we present our own new concept of fundamentality based on properties of the solution space of fundamental laws. We demonstrate how this new concept of fundamentality is effective in understanding the cosmological asymmetry.
Comparison of timing and classical conditioning.
Holder, M D; Roberts, S
19850401
Four experiments with rats investigated if the timing of a stimulus (sound) correlated with the strength of a conditioned response (CR) to the stimulus. The timing (effective duration) of the stimulus was measured using the peak procedure, similar to a discretetrials fixedinterval procedure. The rats were trained so that their response rate reached a maximum about 40 s or 60 s after the onset of a light; the time of the maximum measured from the start of the light (peak time) was the measure of timing. On some trials, the light was preceded by a short (5 s) or long (20 s or 30 s) interval of sound. We assumed that the difference in peak time after long and short sounds reflected the timing of the soundif the sound was timed, the longer sound would produce a lower peak time; if the sound was not timed, the two durations of sound would produce the same peak time. The CR was leverpressing during the sound. The sound was treated in various ways: presented alone (Experiments 1, 3, and 4), followed by food (Experiments 1, 3, and 4), preceded by food (Experiment 3), and followed by food after 20 s (Experiment 4). Treatments that produced no timing of sound produced no CR, and treatments that increased (or diseased) timing also increased (or decreased) the CR. The results suggest that there is overlap between the mechanisms that produce time discrimination and the mechanisms that produce classical conditioning.
A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battefeld, Diana; Peter, Patrick
20150401
Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scaleinvariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary nonGaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be finetuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large nonGaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.
Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20050111
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20050726
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis
Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.
20040203
A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibrationaugmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, nonuniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new predictionaugmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.
Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.
20140101
We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Belltype inequalities or quantummechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665
Resolution of a paradox in classical electrodynamics
Pinto, Fabrizio
20060515
It is an early result of electrostatics in curved space that the gravitational mass of a charge distribution changes by an amount equal to U{sub es}/c{sup 2}, where U{sub es} is the internal electrostatic potential energy and c is the speed of light, if the system is supported at rest by external forces. This fact, independently rediscovered in recent years in the case of a simple dipole, confirms a very reasonable expectation grounded in the massenergy equivalency equation. However, it is an unsolved paradox of classical electrodynamics that the renormalized mass of an accelerated dipole calculated from the selfforces due to the distortion of the Coulomb field differs in general from that expected from the energy correction, U{sub es}/c{sup 2}, unless the acceleration is transversal to the orientation of the dipole. Here we show that this apparent paradox disappears for any dipole orientation if the selfforce is evaluated by means of Whittaker's exact solution for the field of the single charge in a homogeneous gravitational field described in the Rindler metric. The discussion is supported by computer algebra results, diagrams of the electric fields distorted by gravitation, and a brief analysis of the prospects for realistic experimentation. The gravitational correction to dipoledipole interactions is also discussed.
Renormalization from Classical to Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Arnab
The concept of renormalization was first introduced by Dirac to investigate the infinite self energy of an electron classically. This radical theory was probably the first time when an infinity occurring in a physical system was systematically investigated. This thesis presents a new perspective of renormalization by introducing methods from metric geometry to control divergences. We start by extending Dirac's work and analyzing how the radiation reaction due to the precision of the electron's magnetic moment affects its motion. This is followed by modeling scalar field theory on lattices of various kinds. Scale invariance, which plays a major role in the very few renormalizable theories in nature, is inbuilt in our formalism. We also use Wilson's ideas of effective theory and finite element methods to study continuum systems. Renormalization group transformations form the central theme in this picture. By incorporating finite element methods, an idea borrowed from mechanical engineering, we study scalar fields on triangular lattices in a hierarchal manner. In our case, the cotangent formula turns out to be a fixed point of the renormalization group transformations. We end our thesis by introducing a new metric for spacetime which emerges from the scalar field itself. The standard techniques used in the theory of renormalization so far attempt to redefine coupling constants of the theory to remove divergences at short distance scales. In our formalism, we deduce the distance scale itself. In our notion of distance, built from correlation functions of the fields, the divergences disappear.
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo
20160101
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), a key immuneinhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ Tcell exhaustion and tumor immuneescape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cHL) is a unique Bcell malignancy in the sense that malignant Reed–Sternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and Epstein–Barr virus infection and by interacting with PD1 promote an immunesuppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immunerelated adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used. PMID:27147112
Tachyons in classical de Sitter vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junghans, Daniel
20160601
We revisit the possibility of de Sitter vacua and slowroll inflation in type II string theory at the level of the classical twoderivative supergravity approximation. Previous attempts at explicit constructions were plagued by ubiquitous tachyons with a large η parameter whose origin has not been fully understood so far. In this paper, we determine and explain the tachyons in two setups that are known to admit unstable dS critical points: an SU(3) structure compactification of massive type IIA with O6planes and an SU(2) structure compactification of type IIB with O5/O7planes. We explicitly show that the tachyons are always close to, but never fully aligned with the sgoldstino direction in the considered examples and argue that this behavior is explained by a generalized version of a nogo theorem by Covi et al, which holds in the presence of large mixing in the mass matrix between the sgoldstino and the orthogonal moduli. This observation may also provide a useful stability criterion for general dS vacua in supergravity and string theory.
New developments in classical chaotic scattering.
Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F
20130101
Classical chaotic scattering is a topic of fundamental interest in nonlinear physics due to the numerous existing applications in fields such as celestial mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics and fluid mechanics, among others. Many new advances in chaotic scattering have been achieved in the last few decades. This work provides a current overview of the field, where our attention has been mainly focused on the most important contributions related to the theoretical framework of chaotic scattering, the fractal dimension, the basins boundaries and new applications, among others. Numerical techniques and algorithms, as well as analytical tools used for its analysis, are also included. We also show some of the experimental setups that have been implemented to study diverse manifestations of chaotic scattering. Furthermore, new theoretical aspects such as the study of this phenomenon in timedependent systems, different transitions and bifurcations to chaotic scattering and a classification of boundaries in different types according to symbolic dynamics are also shown. Finally, some recent progress on chaotic scattering in higher dimensions is also described.
Better relaxations of classical discrete optimization problems.
Lancia, Giuseppe; Konjevod, Goran; Carr, Robert D.; Parehk, Ojas
20080801
A mathematical program is an optimization problem expressed as an objective function of multiple variables subject to set of constraints. When the optimization problem has specific structure, the problem class usually has a special name. A linear program is the optimization of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints. An integer program is a linear program where some of the variables must take only integer values. A semidefinite program is a linear program where the variables are arranged in a matrix and for all feasible solutions, this matrix must be positive semidefinite. There are generalpurpose solvers for each of these classes of mathematical program. There are usually many ways to express a problem as a correct, say, linear program. However, equivalent formulations can have significantly different practical tractability. In this poster, we present new formulations for two classic discrete optimization problems, maximum cut (max cut) and the graphical traveling salesman problem (GTSP), that are significantly stronger, and hence more computationally tractable, than any previous formulations of their class. Both partially answer longstanding open theoretical questions in polyhedral combinatorics.
Generalized fluctuation theorems for classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Dattagupta, Sushanta
20151101
The fluctuation theorem has a very special place in the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of physical systems. The form in which it is used most extensively is the GallavotiCohen fluctuation theorem which is in terms of the distribution of the work p (W )/p (W )=exp(α W ) . We derive the general form of the fluctuation theorems for an arbitrary multidimensional Gaussian Markov process. Interestingly, the parameter α is by no means universal, hitherto taken for granted in the case of linear Gaussian processes. As a matter of fact, conditions under which α does become a universal parameter 1 /K T are found to be rather restrictive. As an application we consider fluctuation theorems for classical cyclotron motion of an electron in a parabolic potential. The motion of the electron is described by four coupled Langevin equations and thus is nontrivial. The generalized theorems are equally valid for nonequilibrium steady states and could be especially important in the presence of anisotropic diffusion.
Models of classical and recurrent novae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedjung, Michael; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.
19930101
The behavior of novae may be divided roughly into two separate stages: quiescence and outburst. However, at closer inspection, both stages cannot be separated. It should be attempted to explain features in both stages with a similar model. Various simple models to explain the observed light and spectral observations during post optical maximum activity are conceivable. In instantaneous ejection models, all or nearly all material is ejected in a time that is short compared with the duration of post optical maximum activity. Instantaneous ejection type 1 models are those where the ejected material is in a fairly thin shell, the thickness of which remains small. In the instantaneous ejection type 2 model ('Hubble Flow'), a thick envelope is ejected instantaneously. This envelope remains thick as different parts have different velocities. Continued ejection models emphasize the importance of winds from the nova after optical maximum. Ejection is supposed to occur from one of the components of the central binary, and one can imagine a general swelling of one of the components, so that something resembling a normal, almost stationary, stellar photosphere is observed after optical maximum. The observed characteristics of recurrent novae in general are rather different from those of classical novae, thus, models for these stars need not be the same.
High vacuum cells for classical surface techniques
Martinez, Imee Su; Baldelli, Steven
20100415
Novel glass cells were designed and built to be able to perform surface potential and surface tension measurements in a contained environment. The cells can withstand pressures of approximately 1x10{sup 6} Torr, providing a reasonable level of control in terms of the amounts of volatile contaminants during experimentation. The measurements can take several hours; thus the cells help maintain the integrity of the sample in the course of the experiment. To test for the feasibility of the cell design, calibration measurements were performed. For the surface potential cell, the modified TREK 6000B7C probe exhibited performance comparable to its unmodified counterpart. The correlation measurements between applied potential on the test surface and the measured potential showed Rvalues very close to 1 as well as standard deviation values of less than 1. Results also demonstrate improved measurement values for experiments performed in vacuum. The surface tension cell, on the other hand, which was used to perform the pendant drop method, was tested on common liquids and showed percentage errors of 0.5% when compared to literature values. The fabricated cells redefine measurements using classical surface techniques, providing unique and novel methods of sample preparation, premeasurement preparation, and sample analysis at highly beneficial expenditure cost.
The classic cadherins in synaptic specificity
Basu, Raunak; Taylor, Matthew R; Williams, Megan E
20150101
During brain development, billions of neurons organize into highly specific circuits. To form specific circuits, neurons must build the appropriate types of synapses with appropriate types of synaptic partners while avoiding incorrect partners in a dense cellular environment. Defining the cellular and molecular rules that govern specific circuit formation has significant scientific and clinical relevance because fine scale connectivity defects are thought to underlie many cognitive and psychiatric disorders. Organizing specific neural circuits is an enormously complicated developmental process that requires the concerted action of many molecules, neural activity, and temporal events. This review focuses on one class of molecules postulated to play an important role in target selection and specific synapse formation: the classic cadherins. Cadherins have a wellestablished role in epithelial cell adhesion, and although it has long been appreciated that most cadherins are expressed in the brain, their role in synaptic specificity is just beginning to be unraveled. Here, we review past and present studies implicating cadherins as active participants in the formation, function, and dysfunction of specific neural circuits and pose some of the major remaining questions. PMID:25837840
Indeterminism in Classical Dynamics of Particle Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory; Vishniac, Ethan; Lalescu, Cristian; Aluie, Hussein; Kanov, Kalin; Burns, Randal; Meneveau, Charles; Szalay, Alex
20130301
We show that ``God plays dice'' not only in quantum mechanics but also in the classical dynamics of particles advected by turbulent fluids. With a fixed deterministic flow velocity and an exactly known initial position, the particle motion is nevertheless completely unpredictable! In analogy with spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets which persists as external field is taken to zero, the particle trajectories in turbulent flow remain random as external noise vanishes. The necessary ingredient is a rough advecting field with a powerlaw energy spectrum extending to smaller scales as noise is taken to zero. The physical mechanism of ``spontaneous stochasticity'' is the explosive dispersion of particle pairs proposed by L. F. Richardson in 1926, so the phenomenon should be observable in laboratory and natural turbulent flows. We present here the first empirical corroboration of these effects in high Reynoldsnumber numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic fluid turbulence. Since powerlaw spectra are seen in many other systems in condensed matter, geophysics and astrophysics, the phenomenon should occur rather widely. Fast reconnection in solar flares and other astrophysical systems can be explained by spontaneous stochasticity of magnetic fieldline motion
Comparisons of classical and quantum dynamics for initially localized states
Davis, M.J.; Heller, E.J.
19840515
We compare the dynamics of quantum wave packets with the dynamics of classical trajectory ensembles. The wave packets are Gaussian with expectation values of position and momenta which centers them in phase space. The classical trajectory ensembles are generated directly from the quantum wave packets via the Wigner transform. Quantum and classical dynamics are then compared using several quantum measures and the analogous classical ones derived from the Wigner equivalent formalism. Comparisons are made for several model potentials and it is found that there is generally excellent classicalquantum correspondence except for certain specific cases of tunneling and interference. In general, this correspondence is also very good in regions of phase space where there is classical chaos.
Classicaldrivingassisted quantum speedup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, YingJie; Han, Wei; Xia, YunJie; Cao, JunPeng; Fan, Heng
20150301
We propose a method of accelerating the speed of evolution of an open system by an external classical driving field for a qubit in a zerotemperature structured reservoir. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the driving strength of the applied classical field, a speedup evolution of an open system can be achieved in both the weak systemenvironment couplings and the strong systemenvironment couplings. By considering the relationship between nonMakovianity of environment and the classical field, we can drive the open system from the Markovian to the nonMarkovian regime by manipulating the driving strength of the classical field. That is the intrinsic physical reason that the classical field may induce the speedup process. In addition, the role of this classical field on the variation of quantum evolution speed in the whole decoherence process is discussed.
Nondivergent classical response functions from uncertainty principle: quasiperiodic systems.
Kryvohuz, Maksym; Cao, Jianshu
20050101
Timedivergence in linear and nonlinear classical response functions can be removed by taking a phasespace average within the quantized uncertainty volume O(hn) around the microcanonical energy surface. For a quasiperiodic system, the replacement of the microcanonical distribution density in the classical response function with the quantized uniform distribution density results in agreement of quantum and classical expressions through Heisenberg's correspondence principle: each matrix element (u/alpha(t)/v) corresponds to the (uv)th Fourier component of alpha(t) evaluated along the classical trajectory with mean action (Ju+Jv)/2. Numerical calculations for one and twodimensional systems show good agreement between quantum and classical results. The generalization to the case of N degrees of freedom is made. Thus, phasespace averaging within the quantized uncertainty volume provides a useful way to establish the classicalquantum correspondence for the linear and nonlinear response functions of a quasiperiodic system.
Classical and quantum communication without a shared reference frame.
Bartlett, Stephen D; Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W
20030711
We show that communication without a shared reference frame is possible using entangled states. Both classical and quantum information can be communicated with perfect fidelity without a shared reference frame at a rate that asymptotically approaches one classical bit or one encoded qubit per transmitted qubit. We present an optical scheme to communicate classical bits without a shared reference frame using entangled photon pairs and linear optical Bell state measurements.
Polaractivation for classical zeroerror capacity of qudit channels
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
20141204
We introduce a new phenomenon for zeroerror transmission of classical information over quantum channels that initially were not able for zeroerror classical communication. The effect is called polaractivation, and the result is similar to the superactivation effect. We use the ChoiJamiolkowski isomorphism and the Schmidttheorem to prove the polaractivation of classical zeroerror capacity and define the polaractivator channel coding scheme.
Classical phase space and statistical mechanics of identical particles.
Hansson, T H; Isakov, S B; Leinaas, J M; Lindström, U
20010201
Starting from the quantum theory of identical particles, we show how to define a classical mechanics that retains information about the quantum statistics. We consider two examples of relevance for the quantum Hall effect: identical particles in the lowest Landau level, and vortices in the ChernSimons GinzburgLandau model. In both cases the resulting classical statistical mechanics is shown to be a nontrivial classical limit of Haldane's exclusion statistics.
Shear viscosity of the Φ4 theory from classical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homor, M. M.; Jakovac, A.
20151101
Shear viscosity of the classical Φ4 theory is measured using classical microcanonical simulation. To calculate the Kubo formula, we measure the energymomentum tensor correlation function and apply the GreenKubo relation. Given that this is a classical theory, the results depend on the cutoff, which should be chosen in the range of the temperature. Comparison with experimentally accessible systems is also performed.
On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles
Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.
20150610
Here, classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical pointparticle and coldfluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrodinger, Pauli, and KleinGordon particles.
Beyond quantumclassical analogies: high time for agreement?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrocco, Michele
Lately, many quantumclassical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantumclassical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantummechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.
Classical Dynamics Based on the Minimal Length Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang
20160201
In this paper we consider the quadratic modification of the Heisenberg algebra and its classical limit version which we call the βdeformed Poisson bracket for corresponding classical variables. We use the βdeformed Poisson bracket to discuss some physical problems in the βdeformed classical dynamics. Finally, we consider the ( α, β) deformed classical dynamics in which minimal length uncertainty principle is given by [ hat {x} , hat {p}] = i hbar (1 + α hat {x}2 + β hat {p}2 ) . For two small parameters α, β, we discuss the free fall of particle and a composite system in a uniform gravitational field.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
20160801
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantumcontrollednot and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the singleparticle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160101
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160501
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Computational quantumclassical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
20160101
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantumclassical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurementbased quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projectedentangledpairstate picture and the GottesmanKnill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a singlequbit completepositivetracepreserving noise, the computational quantumclassical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantumclassical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Classical novae and recurrent novae: General properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.
19930101
We describe the observable characteristics of classical novae and recurrent novae obtained by different techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, and imaging) in all the available spectral ranges. We consider the three stages in the life of a nova: quiescence (pre and postoutburst), outburst, final decline and nebular phase. We describe the photometric properties during the quiescent phase. We describe the photometric properties during outburst, the classification according the rate of decline (magnitudes per day), which permits us to define very fast, fast, intermediate, slow, and very slow novae and the correlation between luminosity and speed class. We report the scanty data on the spectra of the few known prenovae and those on the spectra of old novae and those of dwarf novae and novalike, which, however, are almost undistinguishable. We describe the typical spectra appearing from the beginning of the outburst, just before maximum, up to the nebular phase and the correlation between spectral type at maximum, expansional velocity, and speed class of the nova. We report the existing infrared observations, which permit us to explain some of the characteristics of the outburst light curve, and give evidence of the formation of a dust shell in slow and intermediate novae (with the important exception of the very slow nova HR Del 1967) and its absence or quasiabsence in fast novae. The ultraviolet and Xray observations are described. The X ray observations of novae, mainly from the two satellites EINSTEIN and EXOSAT, are reported. Observations of the final decline and of the envelopes appearing several months after outburst are also reported.
Classical and modern orbit determination for asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronchi, Giovanni F.
20050401
With the substantial improvements in observational techniques we have to deal with very big databases, consisting of a few positions of an object over a short time span; this is often not enough to compute a preliminary orbit with traditional tools. In this paper we first review a classical method by C.F. Gauss to compute a preliminary orbit for asteroids. This method, followed by a least squares fit to improve the orbit, still today gives successful results when we have at least three separate observations. Then we introduce the basics of a very recent orbit determination theory, that has been thought just to be used with modern sets of data. These data allow us in many cases to know the angular position and velocity of an asteroid at a given time, even though the radial distance and velocity (r,dot r), needed to compute its full orbit, are unknown. The variables (r,dot r) can be constrained to a compact set, that we call the admissible region(AR), whose definition requires that the body belongs to the Solar System, that it is not a satellite of the Earth, and that it is not a "shooting star" (i.e. very close and very small). We provide a mathematical description of the AR: its topological properties are surprisingly simple, in fact it turns out that the AR cannot have more than two connected components. A sampling of the AR can be performed by means of a Delaunay triangulation; a finite number of sixparameter sets of initial conditions are thus defined, with each node of the triangulation representing a possible orbit (a virtual asteroid).
Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almasy, Andrea A.
20091201
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from taudecay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the timelike experimental data with asymptotic spacelike results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the crosssection of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither twodimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.
Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.
Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor
20141001
This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of fullbody dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating fullbody dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, fullbody dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand fullbody dissection, but rather, fullbody dissection
BOOK REVIEW: QuantumClassical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, L.
20041101
In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author’s perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the noman’sland separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. ‘How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process)? 2. ‘How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process)?’ However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher’s description refers to this book as ‘an accessible entrée’, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand ‘quantumclassical correspondence’. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the FokkerPlanck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms ‘an infinitesimality condition’, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as
Supernovae in Binary Systems: An Application of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitalas, R.
19800101
Presents the supernova explosion in a binary system as an application of classical mechanics. This presentation is intended to illustrate the power of the equivalent onebody problem and provide undergraduate students with a variety of insights into elementary classical mechanics. (HM)
Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus
Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam
20150101
To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Crossreactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683
German Children's Classics: Heirs and Pretenders to an Eclectic Heritage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doderer, Klaus
19730101
There are no classic children's books, if by classics we mean books that will last forever. Instead, it is a matter of constant reevaluation. At most, we have older works that are still valuable today because they touch upon the human and artistic problems of our time. (Author/SJ)
The Bernoulli or Coanda Conundrum and Other Classical Demonstration Myths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stille, Dale
20091101
Lecture Demonstration professionals have recently taken a closer look at demonstrations that were traditionally labeled ``Bernoulli Demonstrations'' in most textbooks. This examination has shown that in most cases the Coanda Effect, Magnus Effect, and Entrainment may be better explanations for most of these classic demonstrations. A discussion of other similarly classic demonstrations and some of their problems or misconceptions will also be presented.
Turning Points in the Development of Classical Musicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabor, Elena
20110101
This qualitative study investigated the vocational socialization turning points in families of classical musicians. I sampled and interviewed 20 parentchild dyads, for a total of 46 interviews. Data analysis revealed that classical musicians' experiences were marked by 11 turning points that affected their identification with the occupation:…
In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.
20020101
Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)
Cicero: A Framework for Multimedia Projects for Classics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frischer, Bernard
19860101
This paper focuses on a short term plan for a computerized multimedia expert system in the field of the classics that is under development at the University of California at Los Angeles. Noting both increased enrollments in classics courses and the problems associated with finding textbooks for courses in ancient civilizations that cover a variety…
Planck's radiation law: is a quantumclassical perspective possible?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrocco, Michele
20160501
Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantumclassical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantummechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.
Inexpensive Books for Teaching the Classics: 19th Annual List.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenheim, Ursula
19680101
All the materials in this bibliography are designed for use in courses in classical literature in translation, classical civilization, and for supplementary reading in Latin and Greek courses. All the books are in English and are meant for grade levels seven and above. Books are grouped under subheadings which include (1) Authors, Texts,…
The Statistical Interpretation of Classical Thermodynamic Heating and Expansion Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartier, Stephen F.
20110101
A statistical model has been developed and applied to interpret thermodynamic processes typically presented from the macroscopic, classical perspective. Through this model, students learn and apply the concepts of statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and classical thermodynamics in the analysis of the (i) constant volume heating, (ii)…
Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Katherine Jane Roney
20120101
The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce…
Ghost imaging of phase objects with classical incoherent light
Shirai, Tomohiro; Setaelae, Tero; Friberg, Ari T.
20111015
We describe an optical setup for performing spatial Fourier filtering in ghost imaging with classical incoherent light. This is achieved by a modification of the conventional geometry for lensless ghost imaging. It is shown on the basis of classical coherence theory that with this technique one can realize what we call phasecontrast ghost imaging to visualize pure phase objects.
A new classical conjugate gradient coefficient with exact line search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiee, Norrlaili; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa
20160601
In this paper, we proposed a new classical conjugate gradient method. The global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results are presented based on number of iterations and CPU time. This numerical result shows that our method is performs better than classical CG method for a given standard test problems.
North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arya, Divya D.
20150101
This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…
DW3 Classical Music Resources: Managing Mozart on the Web.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fineman, Yale
20010101
Discusses the development of DW3 (Duke World Wide Web) Classical Music Resources, a vertical portal that comprises the most comprehensive collection of classical music resources on the Web with links to more than 2800 noncommercial pages/sites in over a dozen languages. Describes the hierarchical organization of subject headings and considers…
Perturbation theory via Feynman diagrams in classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penco, R.; Mauro, D.
20060901
In this paper we show how Feynman diagrams, which are used as a tool to implement perturbation theory in quantum field theory, can be very useful also in classical mechanics, provided we introduce also at the classical level concepts such as path integrals and generating functionals.
New Classical Curricula: An Exercise in Three Unknowns.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Else, Gerald F.
19650101
Questions involved in determining the content, timing, and relevance of classical curriculums in secondary schools and college language programs are raised here. A recommended type of classics program, designed to present Latin as a tool in understanding and enriching literature, culture, and civilization, is outlined. (JH)
The Classical Heritage in America: A Curriculum Resource. Tentative Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.
This curriculum resource is intended to help make students of Latin, Greek and other subjects more aware of America's classical heritage. It is designed to be used selectively by teachers to enrich the regular curriculum in classical languages in elementary and secondary schools. In providing background information for the teacher and suggestions…
A Guide to Classical Liberal Scholarship. Revised Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Tom G.
This booklet introduces students to a wide range of works of classical liberal scholarship. The works described can be used in researching term papers, theses, and dissertations; each book and article provides valuable insights and information that can make the difference between an "A" and a "B" paper. The tradition of classical liberalism…
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
20140101
We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…
Transferring a Classic Dog Laboratory To Videodisc: Cardiovascular Physiology
Terpstra, J.K.; Harris, T.M.
19890101
This demonstration presents the development process and intended uses of the Classic Laboratory Experiments in Basic Health Sciences: Cardiovascular Physiology videodisc containing over thirty experiments. This interactive videodisc is designed to teach the physiological effects of procedures and drugs on the cardiovascular system. The Cardiovascular Physiology program is the first in a series of classic dog laboratory videodiscs to be developed.
Semiclassical analysis and pseudospectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, E. B.
We prove an approximate spectral theorem for nonselfadjoint operators and investigate its applications to secondorder differential operators in the semiclassical limit. This leads to the construction of a twisted FBI transform. We also investigate the connections between pseudospectra and boundary conditions in the semiclassical limit.
78 FR 19988  Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
20130403
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Redundant Information and the QuantumClassical Transition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riedel, Charles Jess
20120101
A state selected at random from the Hilbert space of a manybody system is overwhelmingly likely to exhibit highly nonclassical correlations. For these typical states, half of the environment must be measured by an observer to determine the state of a given subsystem. The objectivity of classical realitythe fact that multiple observers can each…
Classical Dynamics of a Nucleon in Heavy Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Enguang; Zhuo, Yizhong; Wu, Xizhen; Zong, Hongshi
19980501
Within the framework of the twocenter shell model, the classically dynamical behaviour of a nucleon in heavy nuclei is investigated when nuclear shape parameters are changed systematically. It is found that there is a good quantumclassical correspondence of nucleonic regular (chaotic) motion so that Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit conjecture is confirmed once again.
The Classical Greek Program in the School District of Philadelphia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masciantonio, Rudolph
Classical Greek is taught as an elective to over 200 students in seven secondary schools of the School District of Philadelphia. In the past decade the restoration of Greek studies to the classical curriculum was called for, and in 1968 a Greek Curriculum Committee was established in Philadelphia to develop a program and instructional materials.…
Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fields, Chris
Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantummechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.
Classical integrable systems and KnizhnikZamolodchikovBernard equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminov, G.; Levin, A.; Olshanetsky, M.; Zotov, A.
20150501
The results obtained in the works supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 120200594) are briefly reviewed. We mainly focus on interrelations between classical integrable systems, PainlevéSchlesinger equations and related algebraic structures such as classical and quantum Rmatrices. The constructions are explained in terms of simplest examples.
[Mental disease in two classical music composers].
Rempelakos, L; PoulakouRebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D
20120101
A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions
[Mental disease in two classical music composers].
Rempelakos, L; PoulakouRebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D
20120101
A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions
Drumlins: A Classic Example of Pattern Formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Jeremy C.; Clark, Chris D.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hahn, Ute; Hughes, Anna L. C.
20140501
geomorphic phenomena can be equally attributed to drumlins and other subglacial bedforms, providing a conceptual framework for understanding their formation. Equally, we suggest that drumlins represent a classic example of pattern formation within the geosciences, and hence provide exciting opportunities for studying the dynamics of pattern formation.
Fate of classical solitons in onedimensional quantum systems.
Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.
20151123
We study onedimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the wellknown solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classicaltoquantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the LiebLiniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum onedimensional systems with a welldefined classical limit described by the KdV equation.
Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.
20150501
Categorytheoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.
Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fry, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.
20101201
Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the 'nonclassical immune cell'.
Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, NaiJen; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam
20151001
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect 'nonclassical immune cells', which comprise a significant constituency of cells that reside outside of those defined as 'classical immune cells' from myeloid or lymphoid origin. Here we address the influence of specific 'nonclassical immune cells' in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, glia and neurons and downstream cellular responses that often dictate immune regulation and disease outcome are discussed. Functional integration and synergy between 'classical' and 'nonclassical immune cells' are highlighted as critical for determining optimal immune outcomes that favour the host. PMID:25801479
Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linck, Rebecca A.
Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeemanlike frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.
Proton transport in barium stannate: classical, semiclassical and quantum regimes.
Geneste, Grégory; Ottochian, Alistar; Hermet, Jessica; Dezanneau, Guilhem
20150715
Densityfunctional theory calculations are performed to investigate proton transport in BaSnO3. Structural optimizations in the stable and saddle point configurations for transfer (hopping) and reorientation allow description of the hightemperature classical and semiclassical regimes, in which diffusion occurs by overbarrier motion. At lower temperature (typically below 300 K), we describe the thermallyassisted quantum regime, in which protonic motion is of quantum nature and occurs in "coincidence" configurations favored by thermal fluctuations of the surrounding atoms. Both the nonadiabatic and the adiabatic limits are examined. In the adiabatic limit, the protonic energy landscape in the coincidence configuration is very flat. Pathintegral molecular dynamics simulations of the proton in the coincidence potential reveal, in the transfer case, that the density of probability of H(+) has its maximum at the saddle point, because the zeropoint energy exceeds the coincidence barrier. Arguments are given that support the adiabatic picture for the transfer mechanism. In the case of reorientation, the time scales for the existence of the coincidence and for protonic motion, as estimated from the timeenergy uncertainty principle by using a simple onedimensional model, are of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the adiabatic limit is not reached. Protonic transfer and reorientation in this oxide are therefore governed by different mechanisms below room temperature. PMID:26126772
PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; ClementeGallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
20070701
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his lifelong activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J ClementeGallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan
A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)  
L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)  
I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching
A wave equation interpolating between classical and quantum mechanics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Schleich, W. P.; Greenberger, D. M.; Kobe, D. H.; Scully, M. O. 20151001 We derive a ‘master’ wave equation for a family of complexvalued waves {{Φ }}\\equiv R{exp}[{{{i}}S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }}] whose phase dynamics is dictated by the HamiltonJacobi equation for the classical action {S}({cl)}. For a special choice of the dynamics of the amplitude R which eliminates all remnants of classical mechanics associated with {S}({cl)} our wave equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation. In this case the amplitude satisfies a Schrödinger equation analogous to that of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field where the roles of the scalar and the vector potentials are played by the classical energy and the momentum, respectively. In general this amplitude is complex and thereby creates in addition to the classical phase {S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }} a quantum phase. Classical statistical mechanics, as described by a classical matter wave, follows from our wave equation when we choose the dynamics of the amplitude such that it remains real for all times. Our analysis shows that classical and quantum matter waves are distinguished by two different choices of the dynamics of their amplitudes rather than two values of Planck’s constant. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Richard Lewis Arnowitt—a pioneer of manybody theory, a path finder at the interface of gravity and quantum mechanics, and a true leader in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum field theory. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J. Email: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed 20100715 We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in BR color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the BR color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the BR color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects. Interpretation neutrality in the classical domain of quantum theory NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Rosaler, Joshua 20160201 I show explicitly how concerns about wave function collapse and ontology can be decoupled from the bulk of technical analysis necessary to recover localized, approximately Newtonian trajectories from quantum theory. In doing so, I demonstrate that the account of classical behavior provided by decoherence theory can be straightforwardly tailored to give accounts of classical behavior on multiple interpretations of quantum theory, including the Everett, de BroglieBohm and GRW interpretations. I further show that this interpretationneutral, decoherencebased account conforms to a general view of intertheoretic reduction in physics that I have elaborated elsewhere, which differs from the oversimplified picture that treats reduction as a matter of simply taking limits. This interpretationneutral account rests on a general threepronged strategy for reduction between quantum and classical theories that combines decoherence, an appropriate form of Ehrenfest's Theorem, and a decoherencecompatible mechanism for collapse. It also incorporates a novel argument as to why branchrelative trajectories should be approximately Newtonian, which is based on a littlediscussed extension of Ehrenfest's Theorem to open systems, rather than on the more commonly cited but less germane closedsystems version. In the Conclusion, I briefly suggest how the strategy for quantumclassical reduction described here might be extended to reduction between other classical and quantum theories, including classical and quantum field theory and classical and quantum gravity. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations. Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; VelázquezAhumada, María C; FernándezPrieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán 20160624 A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along metersize transmissionline circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:27391707 Comparison of quantum and classical relaxation in spin dynamics. Wieser, R 20130401 The classical LandauLifshitz equation with a damping term has been derived from the time evolution of a quantum mechanical wave function under the assumption of a nonHermitian Hamilton operator. Further, the trajectory of a classical spin (S) has been compared with the expectation value of the spin operator (Ŝ). A good agreement between classical and quantum mechanical trajectories can be found for Hamiltonians linear in Ŝ or S, respectively. Quadratic or higher order terms in the Hamiltonian result in a disagreement. Classical theory for secondharmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles Zeng Yong; Liu Jinjie; Moloney, Jerome V.; Hoyer, Walter; Koch, Stephan W. 20090615 In this paper, we develop a classical electrodynamic theory to study the optical nonlinearities of metallic nanoparticles. The quasi free electrons inside the metal are approximated as a classical Coulombinteracting electron gas, and their motion under the excitation of an external electromagnetic field is described by the plasma equations. This theory is further tailored to study secondharmonic generation. Through detailed experimenttheory comparisons, we validate this classical theory as well as the associated numerical algorithm. It is demonstrated that our theory not only provides qualitative agreement with experiments but it also reproduces the overall strength of the experimentally observed secondharmonic signals. Models on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics. Hooft, Gerard 't 20150801 Arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there cannot be physical laws that require 'conspiracy'. It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In this report, several such counterexamples are shown. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. So now the question is asked: how can such a model feature 'conspiracy', and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations? Arguments concerning Bell's theorem are further sharpened. Models on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics. Hooft, Gerard 't 20150801 Arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there cannot be physical laws that require 'conspiracy'. It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In this report, several such counterexamples are shown. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. So now the question is asked: how can such a model feature 'conspiracy', and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations? Arguments concerning Bell's theorem are further sharpened. PMID:26124246 Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz 20091115 The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat FriedmannRobertsonWalker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown. Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T. 20140315 The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the BoseEinstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the FermiDirac statistics. Quantized Eigenstates of a Classical Particle in a Ponderomotive Potential I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch 20041221 The average dynamics of a classical particle under the action of a highfrequency radiation resembles quantum particle motion in a conservative field with an effective de Broglie wavelength ë equal to the particle average displacement on a period of oscillations. In a "quasiclassical" field, with a spatial scale large compared to ë, the guiding center motion is adiabatic. Otherwise, a particle exhibits quantized eigenstates in a ponderomotive potential well, can tunnel through classically forbidden regions and experience reflection from an attractive potential. Discrete energy levels are also found for a "crystal" formed by multiple ponderomotive barriers. Classical models of the spin 1/2 system NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) SalazarLazaro, Carlos H. We proposed a Quaternionic mechanical system motivated by the Foucault pendulum as a classical model for the dynamics of the spin ½ system. We showed that this mechanical system contains the dynamics of the spin state of the electron under a uniform magnetic field as it is given by the SchrodingerPauliEquation (SPE). We closed with a characterization of the dynamics of this generalized classical system by showing that it is equivalent with the dynamics of the Schrodinger Pauli Equation as long as the solutions to the generalized classical system are roots of the Lagrangian, that is the condition Arbiter as the Third Man in Classical and Quantum Games NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Pykacz, Jarosław; FraÇkiewicz, Piotr 20101201 We study the possible influence of a not necessarily sincere arbiter on the course of classical and quantum 2×2 games and we show that this influence in the quantum case is much bigger than in the classical case. Extreme sensitivity of quantum games on initial states of quantum objects used as carriers of information in a game shows that a quantum game, contrary to a classical game, is not defined by a payoff matrix alone but also by an initial state of objects used to play a game. Therefore, two quantum games that have the same payoff matrices but begin with different initial states should be considered as different games.
