Science.gov

Sample records for acorn woodpecker testing

  1. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Walter D.; Walters, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  2. Acorns and acorn woodpeckers: ups and downs in a long-term relationship

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Johannes M.H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Acorn woodpeckers are one of the most conspicuous and abundant birds in California oak forests due to their unique dependence on acorns, a food resource eaten directly and stored in specialized structures on their territories for later use when acorns are no longer present on trees. Parallel long-term studies of the demography and behavior of this species and of...

  3. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior.

  4. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  5. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  6. Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Walter D.; Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Haydock, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal data are inevitably biased toward short-distance events, often highly so. We illustrate this problem using our long-term study of Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in central coastal California. Estimating the proportion of birds disappearing from the study area and correcting for detectability within the maximum observable distance are the first steps toward achieving a realistic estimate of dispersal distributions. Unfortunately, there is generally no objective way to determine the fates of birds not accounted for by these procedures, much less estimating the distances they may have moved. Estimated mean and root-mean-square dispersal distances range from 0.22-2.90 km for males and 0.53-9.57 km for females depending on what assumptions and corrections are made. Three field methods used to help correct for bias beyond the limits of normal study areas include surveying alternative study sites, expanding the study site (super study sites), and radio-tracking dispersers within a population. All of these methods have their limitations or can only be used in special cases. New technologies may help alleviate this problem in the near future. Until then, we urge caution in interpreting observed dispersal data from all but the most isolated of avian populations.

  7. Foraging patterns of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Douglas G; Alfaro, Victor Ryan; Sork, Victoria L; Grivet, Delphine; Martinez, Edith; Papp, Jeannette; Pluess, Andrea R; Koenig, Walter D; Smouse, Peter E

    2011-05-01

    Landscape characteristics and social behavior can affect the foraging patterns of seed-dependent animals. We examine the movement of acorns from valley oak (Quercus lobata) trees to granaries maintained by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in two California oak savanna-woodlands differing in the distribution of Q. lobata within each site. In 2004, we sampled Q. lobata acorns from 16 granaries at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County and 18 granaries at Hastings Reserve in Monterey County. Sedgwick has lower site-wide density of Q. lobata than Hastings as well as different frequencies of other Quercus species common to both sites. We found acorn woodpeckers foraged from fewer Q. lobata seed source trees (K(g) = 4.1 ± 0.5) at Sedgwick than at Hastings (K(g) = 7.6 ± 0.6) and from fewer effective seed sources (N(em)* = 2.00 and 5.78, respectively). The differences between sites are due to a greater number of incidental seed sources used per granary at Hastings than at Sedgwick. We also found very low levels of seed source sharing between adjacent granaries, indicating that territoriality is strong at both sites and that each social group forages on its own subset of trees. We discovered an interesting spatial pattern in the location of granaries. At Sedgwick, acorn woodpeckers situated their granaries within areas of higher-than-average tree density, while at Hastings, they placed them within areas of lower-than-average tree density, with the outcome that granaries at the two sites were located in areas of similar valley oak density. Our results illustrate that landscape characteristics might influence the number of trees visited by acorn woodpeckers and the locations of territories, while woodpecker social behavior, such as territoriality, shapes which trees are visited and whether they are shared with other social groups.

  8. Acorn storage alternatives tested on Oregon white oak

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington; Joseph M. Kraft

    2010-01-01

    We assessed various combinations of storage factors: bag type, temperature, duration, and antifungal pre-storage treatments for white oak acorn storage, using Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook. [Fagaceae]) acorns from 7 seed sources. Acorn viability remained high (84%), even after 2 y of refrigerated storage, but the majority of...

  9. Acoustic sensor networks for woodpecker localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, C. E.; Ali, A.; Asgari, S.; Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Estrin, D.; Taylor, C.

    2005-08-01

    Sensor network technology can revolutionize the study of animal ecology by providing a means of non-intrusive, simultaneous monitoring of interaction among multiple animals. In this paper, we investigate design, analysis, and testing of acoustic arrays for localizing acorn woodpeckers using their vocalizations. Each acoustic array consists of four microphones arranged in a square. All four audio channels within the same acoustic array are finely synchronized within a few micro seconds. We apply the approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method to synchronized audio channels of each acoustic array for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of woodpecker vocalizations. The woodpecker location is estimated by applying least square (LS) methods to DOA bearing crossings of multiple acoustic arrays. We have revealed the critical relation between microphone spacing of acoustic arrays and robustness of beamforming of woodpecker vocalizations. Woodpecker localization experiments using robust array element spacing in different types of environments are conducted and compared. Practical issues about calibration of acoustic array orientation are also discussed.

  10. Acorn Caching in Tree Squirrels: Teaching Hypothesis Testing in the Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEuen, Amy B.; Steele, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an exercise for a university-level ecology class that teaches hypothesis testing by examining acorn preferences and caching behavior of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.). This exercise is easily modified to teach concepts of behavioral ecology for earlier grades, particularly high school, and provides students with a theoretical basis for…

  11. Acorn Caching in Tree Squirrels: Teaching Hypothesis Testing in the Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEuen, Amy B.; Steele, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an exercise for a university-level ecology class that teaches hypothesis testing by examining acorn preferences and caching behavior of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.). This exercise is easily modified to teach concepts of behavioral ecology for earlier grades, particularly high school, and provides students with a theoretical basis for…

  12. An experimental test of interspecific competition for red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Robert G. Hooper

    1997-01-01

    To test whether the presence of nest boxes near red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis) cavity trees reduced cavity use by other species and improved RCW reproductive success on the Francis Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina, the authors placed 3 nest bows in each of 62 experimenta1 boxes clusters and designated 61 clusters as controls....

  13. Acorns Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; Vickers, Valerie; Patrick, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a lesson plan on the role of the acorn and its complex community of biotic relationships between animal and fungal organisms. Introduces students to ecological concepts through acorn investigations including dissection of acorns and exploring the organisms' interaction web. (YDS)

  14. Storing acorns

    Treesearch

    Kristina. Connor

    2004-01-01

    We examined changes that occurred in acorns during storage at different temperatures and moisture contents over a period of 3 y. In general, we found that to achieve optimum viability, acorns must be stored fully hydrated. Acorns also survived longer and sprouted less while in storage if stored at –2 °C (28 °F) instead of the usual 4 °C (39 °F). However, we suspect...

  15. How to manage oak forests for acorn production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1994-03-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and water-fowl. The population and health and wildlife often rise, and fall with the cyclic production of acorns. Acorns' importance to wildlife is related to several factors including their widespread occurrence, palatability, nutritiousness, and availability during the critical fall and winter period.

  16. How to Manage Oak Forests for Acorn Production

    Treesearch

    Paul Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oaks forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and waterfowl. The population and health of wildlife often rise and fall with the...

  17. Karuk Acorn Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    A description of how the Karuk Indians of northwestern California gathered and prepared acorns for food includes illustrations and Karuk words for utensils and processes. The booklet explains how women of the tribe gathered, dried, stored, cracked, ground, leached, and cooked acorns to make acorn soup. Illustrations supplement descriptions of…

  18. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  19. Lewis's Woodpecker: Melanerpes lewis

    Treesearch

    Bret W. Tobalske; Kerri T. Vierling; Victoria A. Saab

    2013-01-01

    During the historic Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis wrote on 20 July 1805, "I saw a black woodpecker (or crow) today it is a distinct species of woodpecker; it has a long tail and flys a good deal like the jay bird" (sic, Thwaites 1905). Subsequent observations of flight and vocalization reminded him of the Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes...

  20. Not only size matters: Acorn selection by the European jay ( Garrulus glandarius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Josep; Pausas, Juli G.

    2007-05-01

    A strong selection for acorn characteristics is expected to have evolved in the mutualistic relationship between the European jay ( Garrulus glandarius) and the oak ( Quercus spp.). Bossema's pioneer work suggested that jays do not select acorns randomly, but rather they preferentially select some size and species. Preference for some seeds over others may have implications on plant community dynamics by conferring advantages (or disadvantages) on the selected (avoided) seed characteristics. In this paper we test to what extent jays select acorns by species and/or by size and the relation between these two traits in Mediterranean oak species. The experiments consist of a set of field tests in which acorns from four different coexisting Mediterranean oak species ( Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Quercus suber, and Quercus coccifera) were placed in artificial feeders accessible to wild jays. The acorns were previously measured to control individual acorn characteristics. Using video-recording techniques, we followed jay activity and the fate of each acorn (sequence of acorn selection and method of transport). Q. ilex acorns were preferred over other acorns, and Q. coccifera acorns were avoided when other acorns were available. Preference for Q. faginea and Q. suber acorns was intermediate, that is, they were preferred over Q. coccifera acorns but not over Q. ilex acorns. Large acorns were also preferred although acorn species selection was stronger than size selection. Jays selected species and size both by visual means and by using acorn area as an indicator of size. Acorns wider than 17-19 mm were carried in the bill because of throat limitation. Our results confirm Bossema's study on temperate oaks and extend it to Mediterranean oak species, revealing implications on mixed oak forest dynamics.

  1. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  2. Relative hippocampal volume in relation to food-storing behavior in four species of woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Grubb, T C; Schuett, K C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those food-storing birds of the order Passeriformes that remember the locations of their caches have relatively larger hippocampal complexes than do non-storing passerines. Woodpeckers constitute a different avian order (Piciformes), which also includes some food-storing species. We compared hippocampal volume, relative to the volume of the rest of the telencephalon, across four species of woodpeckers with disparate caching behavior. Red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) are "scatter hoarders'. During the fall and winter they cache acorns or beechnuts in dispersed sites throughout a large territory. Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) also store nuts but in central "larders' on their small territories which they fiercely defend. Caching is absent or much reduced in hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) and downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), both of which forage on a variety of foods within large winter home ranges. The relative volume of the hippocampal complex in the scatter hoarder was larger than in the larder hoarder, suggesting that red-bellied woodpeckers, like passerine scatter hoarders, rely on memory to recover their caches. Surprisingly, the relative hippocampal volumes in the two non-storing Picoides woodpeckers were most similar to the scatter hoarder of the other genus. In passerine birds, hippocampal volume and telencephalon volume are highly correlated in storing species but not in non-storers. We found that the volumes of these two brain areas were highly correlated in both Melanerpes species, uncorrelated in the hairy woodpeckers, and more weakly correlated in the downy woodpeckers. The unexpectedly large hippocampal complexes in the Picoides species suggests they may engage in some behavior, other than food-storing, that selects for this trait. Conversely, our results concerning the relationship between hippocampal and telencephalon volumes may indicate that a weak correlation is

  3. Storing Red Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1973-01-01

    Cherrybark, Shumard, and water oak acorns can be stored for 3 years or longer if kept at a moisture content of at least 30 percent of fresh weight and at a temperature of 37F. Polyethylene bags are good containers.

  4. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  5. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  6. Acorn production in red oak

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    Manipulation of stand stocking through thinning can increase the amount of oak in the upper crown classes and enhance individual tree characteristics that promote good acorn production. Identification of good acorn producers before thinning or shelterwood harvests can be used to retain them in a stand. Stocking charts can be used to time thinnings and to estimate acorn...

  7. Techniques for monitoring pileated woodpeckers.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L Bull; Richard S. Holthausen; Marie G. Henjum

    1990-01-01

    Methods of locating pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) are described, including imitating pileated woodpecker vocalizations, identifying nest and roost trees, and finding foraging signs. Populations of pileated woodpeckers can be monitored by using (1) density of breeding pairs, (2) reproduction, and (3) presence or absence of birds. The...

  8. A test of a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) using an independent nuclear gene, beta-fibrinogen intron 7.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Amy C; Moore, William S

    2002-02-01

    A conservative estimate of the species tree for the woodpecker genus Picoides based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes is tested using sequences of an independently evolving nuclear intron, beta-fibrinogen intron 7. The mitochondrial gene-based topology and the intron-based topology are concordant, and a partition-homogeneity statistical test did not detect phylogenetic heterogeneity. The intron evolves more slowly than the mitochondrial sequences and tends not to resolve relationships among recently evolved species. However, the intron is superior over mitochondrial genes in resolving older bifurcations in the phylogeny. The two data sets were combined resulting in a robust estimate of the Picoides species tree in which most every node is statistically supported by bootstrap proportions. The Picoides species tree clearly shows that many morphological and behavioral characters used to lump species into this single genus have evolved by convergent evolution. Picoides is considered the largest genus of woodpeckers, but the molecular-based species tree suggests that Picoides is actually a conglomerate of several smaller groups.

  9. ACORN: a review.

    PubMed

    Yao, J X; Dodson, E J; Wilson, K S; Woolfson, M M

    2006-08-01

    The ACORN system was originally developed as a means of ab initio solution of protein structures when atomic resolution data were available. The first step is to obtain a starting set of phases, which must be at least slightly better than random. These may be calculated from a fragment of the structure, which can be anything from a single metal atom to a complete molecular-replacement model. A number of standard procedures are available in ACORN to orientate and position such a fragment. The fragment provides initial phases that give the first of a series of maps that are iteratively refined by a dynamic density-modification (DDM) process. Another FFT-based procedure is Sayre-equation refinement (SER), which modifies phases better to satisfy the Sayre equation. With good-quality atomic resolution data, the final outcome of applying DDM and SER is a map similar in appearance to that found from a refined structure, which is readily interpreted by automated procedures. Further development of ACORN now enables structures to be solved with less than atomic resolution data. A critical part of this development is the artificial extension of the data from the observed limit to 1 A resolution. These extended reflections are allocated unit normalized structure amplitudes and then treated in a similar way to observed reflections except that they are down-weighted in the calculation of maps. ACORN maps, especially at low resolution, tend to show C atoms less well, in particular C(alpha) atoms which fall within the first diffraction minimum of their three neighbours. Two new density-modification procedures (DDM1 and DDM2) and a density-enhancement procedure (ENH) have been devised to counter this problem. It is demonstrated that high-quality maps showing individual atoms can be produced with the new ACORN. ACORN has also been demonstrated to be very effective in refining phase sets derived from physical processes such as those using anomalous scattering or isomorphous

  10. Using X-Ray Image Analysis to Assess the Viability of Northern Red Oak Acorns: Implications for Seed Handlers

    Treesearch

    Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs; Robert P. Karrfalt

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential to use X-ray image analysis as a rapid and nondestructive test of viability of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns and the methodology to do so. Acorns are sensitive to desiccation and lose viability as moisture content (MC) decreases, so we examined X-ray images for cotyledon damage in dried acorns to...

  11. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  12. Do downy woodpeckers migrate?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal movement and migration of Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) are indicated in several sources in the literature. Analyses of 3784 recoveries of banded birds, with other data, indicate that the species is resident, and that movements of a few individuals may indicate dispersal.

  13. Incorporating Cache Management Behavior into Seed Dispersal: The Effect of Pericarp Removal on Acorn Germination

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Zhang, Mingming; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Dong, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Selecting seeds for long-term storage is a key factor for food hoarding animals. Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) remove the pericarp and scatter hoard sound acorns of Quercus mongolica over those that are insect-infested to maximize returns from caches. We have no knowledge of whether these chipmunks remove the pericarp from acorns of other species of oaks and if this behavior benefits seedling establishment. In this study, we tested whether Siberian chipmunks engage in this behavior with acorns of three other Chinese oak species, Q. variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, and how the dispersal and germination of these acorns are affected. Our results show that when chipmunks were provided with sound and infested acorns of Quercus variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, the two types were equally harvested and dispersed. This preference suggests that Siberian chipmunks are incapable of distinguishing between sound and insect-infested acorns. However, Siberian chipmunks removed the pericarp from acorns of these three oak species prior to dispersing and caching them. Consequently, significantly more sound acorns were scatter hoarded and more infested acorns were immediately consumed. Additionally, indoor germination experiments showed that pericarp removal by chipmunks promoted acorn germination while artificial removal showed no significant effect. Our results show that pericarp removal allows Siberian chipmunks to effectively discriminate against insect-infested acorns and may represent an adaptive behavior for cache management. Because of the germination patterns of pericarp-removed acorns, we argue that the foraging behavior of Siberian chipmunks could have potential impacts on the dispersal and germination of acorns from various oak species. PMID:24647670

  14. Anaphylactic reaction to ingestion of Quercus ilex acorn nut.

    PubMed

    Vega, A; Domínguez, C; Cosmes, P; Martínez, A; Bartolomé, B; Martínez, J; Palacios, R

    1998-06-01

    A patient experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating acorn nuts, fruit of the holm oak (Quercus ilex), one of the most abundant trees in Spain. Several urticaria episodes upon ingestion of peanuts were also referred. To assess the hypersensitivity reaction to acorn and to characterize the allergenic proteins involved. Cutaneous tests were performed using the skin-prick technique, using a large variety of grass, tree and weed pollens as well as fresh nuts and nut extracts. Specific IgE determination was assessed by RAST. IgE binding bands were determined by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. Skin-prick tests were strongly positive with acorn and peanut. Olea europaea, Quercus alba, Quercus ilex and grass pollens also elicited a weal higher than negative control. Patient serum had measurable levels of IgE antibodies especially to acorn, peanut and grass pollens. Only one protein band, of 17.9 kDa molecular mass, showed IgE-binding properties in the acorn extract. The possible homology of this strong allergenic protein with the group 1 tree pollen allergens was evidenced by the partial inhibition of the western blot with Bet v 1. We present a case of anaphylaxis to acorn ingestion as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro results. A 17.9 kDa IgE-binding band, showing some homology to group 1 pollen tree allergens, was recognized by patient serum.

  15. Insects of bur oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1971-01-01

    During 1961-1969, the insects found damaging acorns of bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michauxii, in their order of importance were the weevils: Curculio pardalis (Chittenden), C. strictus (Casey), C. sulcatulus (Casey), C. iowensis (Casey), C. proboscideus...

  16. Transferability of habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers associated with wildfire

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Vicki Saab; Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfire, forest managers are challenged with meeting both socioeconomic demands (e.g., salvage logging) and mandates requiring habitat conservation for disturbance-associated wildlife (e.g., woodpeckers). Habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers can be informative, but tests of model transferability are needed to understand how broadly...

  17. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pierson; Fred W. Allendorf; Vicki Saab; Pierre Drapeau; Michael K. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define...

  18. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  19. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  20. Are pileated woodpeckers attracted to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; James R. McCormick

    2002-01-01

    Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) cause damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in the form of cavity enlargement or other excavations on the surface of the pine tree. However, it is not known whether Pileated Woodpeckers excavate more frequently on Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees than on...

  1. Pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; D. Craig Rudolph

    1998-01-01

    The authors surveyed all known red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees (n = 514) in the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas for pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) damage. They compared the frequency of pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat to damage in loblolly (P....

  2. Effects of cavity-entrance restrictors on red-cockaded woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raulston, B.E.; James, D.A.; Johnson, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has installed restrictors on cavity entrances of red-cockaded woodpeckers to limit access by larger cavity-dwelling competitors. This study tested the hypothesis that restrictors have no adverse effects on red-cockaded woodpeckers. Entrance restrictors were placed on openings to 20 cavities used by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers, and 20 were left nonrestricted in the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. No difference was found between treatments in subsequent cavity use by red-cockaded woodpeckers. We examined possible effects on bill wear of birds using cavities with the metal restrictors. We recorded evidence of damage to bills and measured bill lengths of 14 birds captured from cavities with restrictor plates compared to 20 birds from cavities without restrictors. No significant difference was found. These data indicate restrictors do not negatively affect red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  3. How woodpecker avoids brain injury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. W.; Zhu, Z. D.; Zhang, W.

    2015-07-01

    It has long been recognized that woodpecker is an excellent anti-shock organism, as its head and brain can bear high deceleration up to 1500 g under fast pecking. To investigate the mechanism of brain protection of woodpecker, we built a finite element model of a whole woodpecker using computed topography scanning technique and geometry modeling. Numerical results show that the periodical changing Young's modulus around the skull affects the stress wave propagation in head and makes the stress lowest at the position of the brain. Modal analysis reveals the application of pre-tension force to the hyoid bone can increase the natural frequency of woodpecker's head. The large gap between the natural and working frequencies enable the woodpecker to effectively protect its brain from the resonance injury. Energy analyses indicate the majority of the impact energy (99.7%) is stored in the bulk of body and is utilized in the next pecking. There is only a small fraction of it enters into the head (0.3%). The whole body of the woodpecker gets involved in the energy conversion and forms an efficient anti-shock protection system for the brain.

  4. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  5. Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6–7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury. PMID:22046293

  6. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Treesearch

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  7. Simple tool for planting acorns

    Treesearch

    William R. Beaufait

    1957-01-01

    A handy, inexpensive tool for planting acorns has been developed at the Delta Research Center of the Southern Forest Experiment Station and used successfully in experimental plantings. One of its merits is that it ensures a planting hole of eactly the desired depth.

  8. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  9. Woodpecker damage to STS-70 External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The power and persistence of Nature is demonstrated anew on man- made, space age technology. At Launch Pad 39B, Flicker Woodpeckers apparently decided to test the suitability of the Space Shuttle Discovery's external tank for a future home. Their 'survey' resulted in about 71 holes ranging in size from 1/2 to 4 inches (1.27-10 cm.) in diameter in the tank's thermal protection foam insulation. Managers are assessing the damage and will determine what repairs need to be made. Discovery was slated for a liftoff on June 8 on Mission STS-70.

  10. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.W. Rumsey; G.E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field tests. Such conservative predictions of falling loads...

  11. Adapting and testing a brief intervention to reduce maternal anxiety during pregnancy (ACORN): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Esther L; O'Mahen, Heather A; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; King, Dorothy X; Greenfield, Geva; Dunkley-Bent, Jacqueline; Ericksen, Jennifer; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2016-03-22

    National guidelines in the UK, United States of America, Canada, and Australia have recently stressed the importance of identifying and treating antenatal anxiety and depression. However, there is little research into the most effective and acceptable ways of helping women manage their symptoms of anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Research indicates the necessity to consider the unique needs and concerns of perinatal populations to ensure treatment engagement, highlighting the need to develop specialised treatments which could be integrated within routine antenatal healthcare services. This trial aims to develop a brief intervention for antenatal anxiety, with a focus on embedding the delivery of the treatment within routine antenatal care. This study is a two-phase feasibility trial. In phase 1 we will develop and pilot a brief intervention for antenatal anxiety, blended with group support, to be led by midwives. This intervention will draw on cognitive behavioural principles and wider learning from existing interventions that have been used to reduce anxiety in expectant mothers. The intervention will then be tested in a pilot randomised controlled trial in phase 2. The following outcomes will be assessed: (1) number of participants meeting eligibility criteria, (2) number of participants consenting to the study, (3) number of participants randomised, (4) number of sessions completed by those in the intervention arm, and (5) number of participants completing the post-intervention outcome measures. Secondary outcomes comprise: detailed feedback on acceptability, which will guide further development of the intervention; and outcome data on symptoms of maternal and paternal anxiety and depression, maternal quality of life, quality of couple relationship, mother-child bonding, infant temperament and infant sleep. The study will provide important data to inform the design of a future full-scale randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention for anxiety during

  12. Effects of flood duration and season on germination of black, cherrybark, northern red, and water oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Brian R. Lockhart

    1998-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and season (winter and spring) on acorn germination were tested for two upland oaks [black and northern red oak (Quercus velutina Lam. and Q. rubra L.)] and two bottomland oaks [cherrybark and water oak (Q. pagoda Raf. and Q. nigra L.)]. Acorns...

  13. Masting mediated by summer drought reduces acorn predation in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Espelta, Josep Maria; Cortés, Pilar; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Retana, Javier

    2008-03-01

    Temporally variable production of seed crops by perennial plants (masting) has been hypothesized to be a valuable mechanism in the reduction of seed predation by satiating and starving seed consumers. To achieve these benefits, coexisting species subjected to the same predator would benefit from a similar pattern of seeding fluctuation over time that could lead to a reduction in predation at the within-species level. We tested for the existence of an environmental factor enforcing synchrony in acorn production in two sympatric Mediterranean oaks (Quercus ilex and Q. humilis) and the consequences on within-species and between-species acorn predation, by monitoring 15 mixed forests (450 trees) over seven years. Acorn production in Q. ilex and Q. humilis was highly variable among years, with high population variability (CVp) values. The two species exhibited a very different pattern across years in their initial acorn crop size (sum of aborted, depredated, and sound acorns). Nevertheless, interannual differences in summer water stress modified the likelihood of abortion during acorn ripening and enforced within- and, particularly, between-species synchrony and population variability in acorn production. The increase in CVp from initial to mature acorn crop (after summer) accounted for 33% in Q. ilex, 59% in Q. humilis, and 60% in the two species together. Mean yearly acorn pre-dispersal predation by invertebrates was considerably higher in Q. humilis than in Q. ilex. Satiation and starvation of predators was recorded for the two oaks, and this effect was increased by the year-to-year variability in the size of the acorn crop of the two species combined. Moreover, at a longer time scale (over seven years), we observed a significant reduction in the mean proportion of acorns depredated for each oak and the variability in both species' acorn production combined. Therefore, our results demonstrate that similar patterns of seeding fluctuation over time in coexisting

  14. Foraging ecology of Nuttall's Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    William M. Block

    1991-01-01

    I studied relative abundances, foraging behavior, and foraging habitats of Nuttall's Woodpeckers (Picoides nuttallii# at three California locations. Population sizes at two areas in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were larger than the population in the Tehachapi Mountains. These differences were attributed to habitat and weather differences. The two areas in...

  15. The coexistence of acorns with different maturation patterns explains acorn production variability in cork oak.

    PubMed

    Pons, Josep; Pausas, Juli G

    2012-07-01

    In dry areas such as Mediterranean ecosystems, fluctuations in seed production are typically explained by resource (water) availability. However, acorn production in cork oak (Quercus suber) populations shows a very low relationship to weather. Because cork oak trees produce acorns with different maturation patterns (annual and biennial), we hypothesized that acorn production in coexisting individuals with a different dominant acorn maturation type should respond differently to climatic factors and that disaggregating the trees according to their acorn-maturation pattern should provide a more proximal relation to weather factors. We assessed acorn production variability in fragmented cork oak populations of the eastern Iberian Peninsula by counting the total number of acorns in 155 trees during an 8-year period. An initial assessment of acorn production variability in relation to weather parameters yielded very low explained variance (7%). However, after the trees were grouped according to their dominant acorn maturation pattern, weather parameters were found to account for 44% of the variability in acorn crops, with trees with annual acorns exhibiting mast fruiting in years with reduced spring frost and shorter summer droughts and trees with biennial acorns showing the opposite pattern. Thus, conditions that negatively affect annual production could be beneficial for biennial production (and vice versa). The results highlight the importance of the resource-matching hypothesis for explaining acorn production in Quercus suber and suggest that different seed maturation types within a population may allow the species to deal with highly variable weather conditions. They also emphasize the importance of understanding acorn maturation patterns for interpreting masting cycles.

  16. Insects that damage white oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson; Lester P. Gibson

    1972-01-01

    To grow oak trees--either in forests or for shade trees--crops of good acorns are needed. Yet in some places and at some times, acorn crops are destroyed or badly damaged by insects. To prevent this we need to know, first of all, which insects do the damage.

  17. Acorn storage: Can you really fool Mother Nature?

    Treesearch

    Kristina Connor

    2009-01-01

    Moisture levels in acorns before storage are critical. Two years after being dried before storage, water oak (Quercus nigra) acorns had 17% to 25% germination, while cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda) acorns were dead. Acorns stored fully hydrated faired far better after 2 years in storage, with germination ranging from 48% to 53% in water...

  18. Twelve-year acorn yield in Southern Appalachian Oaks

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1977-01-01

    A 12-year sample from Southern Appalachian oak stands showed acorns to be a valuable though inconsistent source of wildlife food. At least moderate amounts of acorns were produced in 9 of the years, with 4 years being exceptionally good. In 3 of the years, acorn production was very low. There were distinct differences in the production of acorns by the five species...

  19. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  20. Response of insects to damaged and undamaged germinating acorns

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford; Deloris Weiss-Cottrill

    1991-01-01

    Damaged germinating northern red oak, Quercus rubra L., acorns in pitfall traps were significantly more attractive to two species of acorn insects than undamaged germinating acorns. Significantly more adults of the weevil Conotrachelus posticatus ohe em an and the sap beetle Stelidota octomaculata (Say) were caught in traps containing germinating acorns cut into halves...

  1. Survivorship of Pileated Woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival of the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is essential in managing viable populations of the species. In eight study areas in northeastern Oregon, survivorship of adult Pileated Woodpeckers was 0.60 after 6 mo, 0.47 after 12 me, and 0.35 after 18 mo. Of three juveniles radio-tagged in late summer or fall, two...

  2. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  3. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  4. Woodpecker-inspired shock isolation by microgranular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Roh, Jin-Eep; Lyug Kim, Ki

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a woodpecker-inspired shock isolation (SI) using a microgranular bed to protect micromachined electronic devices (MEDs) for high-g military applications where mechanical excitations reach up to tens of thousands of gs and several hundreds of kHz. The shock isolating phenomenon in the microgranular bed within a metal housing, biomimetically inspired from a spongy bone within a skull of the woodpecker, controls unwanted high-frequency mechanical excitations so that their adverse effects on the embedded MEDs are kept within acceptable limit. The microgranular bed composed of close-packed microglass beads reduces the mechanical excitations transmitted to the MEDs through kinetic energy absorption. Two kinds of tests, a laboratory test and a 60 mm air-gun test, have been made. The laboratory test using a vibration exciter up to 25 kHz has demonstrated that the cut-off frequency (2.2-15.8 kHz) and roll-off steepness (-155.0 to -78.7 dB decade-1) are inversely proportional to the diameter of the close-packed microglass beads (68-875 µm), whereas the vibration absorptivity (0.23-0.87) is proportional. The 60 mm air-gun test under high-g environments of up to 60 000 g has verified that the woodpecker-inspired SI is superior in improving the shock survivability of the MEDs to the conventional one using hard resin.

  5. Insects that damage northern red oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1982-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964 and in 1979, the insects found damaging acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in their relative order of abundance were: Curculio proboscideus F., C. sulcatulus (Casey), Melissopus latiferreanus (Wals.), C. nasicus (Say), C. orthorhynchus...

  6. Suspected acorn toxicity in nine horses.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Naylor, R J; Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Cahalan, S D; Fews, D; Dunkel, B

    2015-09-01

    Acorn toxicity has been anecdotally reported to cause fatal colitis and colic in horses but reports in the scientific literature are sparse. This study reports the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and outcome of 9 cases with suspected acorn toxicity admitted to 2 referral hospitals. Retrospective case series. Case records from 2004 to 2013 were reviewed. Horses were included in the study if they met 3 of 4 criteria: exposure to acorns; clinical and laboratory data suggesting alimentary or renal dysfunction; acorn husks in the faeces or gastrointestinal tract; and necropsy and histopathological findings consistent with acorn toxicity. Data collected included case history, clinical presentation, clinicopathological data, ultrasonographic findings, case progression, and necropsy and histopathological findings. Nine horses met the inclusion criteria. Five cases presenting with haemorrhagic diarrhoea deteriorated rapidly and were subjected to euthanasia or died. Four cases showed signs of colic with gas distension, displacement of the large colon and diarrhoea. Three of these (33%) survived with medical management, the fourth was subjected to euthanasia. Post mortem examination of 6 cases demonstrated submucosal oedema of the large intestine and caecum (n = 6), acute tubular nephrosis (n = 6), diffuse necrohaemorrhagic and ulcerative typhlocolitis and enteritis (n = 4), and small intestinal oedema (n = 3). Acorn ingestion may be associated with typhylocolitis leading to diarrhoea, colic and acute renal tubular nephrosis. Recovery is possible in mildly affected cases; more severe cases show hypovolaemia, intractable pain, renal dysfunction and cardiovascular failure, and often succumb to the disease process. Disease is only seen in a small proportion of the population exposed to acorns and there seems to be an increased occurrence in certain years. Further investigation into factors predisposing to disease is required, but limiting exposure to acorns in the autumn seems

  7. Do woodpecker finches acquire tool-use by social learning?

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, S.; Taborsky, M.; Fessl, B.; Blomqvist, D.

    2001-01-01

    Tool-use is widespread among animals, but except in primates the development of this behaviour is poorly known. Here, we report on the first experimental study to our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of tool-use in a bird species. The woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida, endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is a famous textbook example of tool-use in animals. This species uses modified twigs or cactus spines to pry arthropods out of tree holes. Using nestlings and adult birds from the field, we tested experimentally whether woodpecker finches learn tool-use socially. We show that social learning is not essential for the development of tool-use: all juveniles developed tool-use regardless of whether or not they had a tool-using model. However, we found that not all adult woodpecker finches used tools in our experiments. These non-tool-using individuals also did not learn this task by observing tool-using conspecifics. Our results suggest that tool-use behaviour depends on a very specific learning disposition that involves trial-and-error learning during a sensitive phase early in ontogeny. PMID:11674865

  8. Evaluation of an approach to improve acorn production during thinning

    Treesearch

    W.E. Drake

    1991-01-01

    Large poletimber size, mixed oak (Quercus spp.) stands in Centre County, Pennsylvania were thinned to determine whether acorn production could be improved by retaining the best acorn producing oaks as compared with conventional thinning practices.

  9. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  10. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  11. Acorn production in northern red oak stands in northwestern Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; Russell S. Walters

    1993-01-01

    Northern red oak acorn production was measured in 21 maturing stands on good sites in northwestern Pennsylvania. The number of acorns produced per acre varied from a low of 7,000 to nearly 273,000. Acorns were produced in all years. In no year was there consistently good acorn production at all areas, nor was there a good crop for more than two consecutive years at any...

  12. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    PubMed

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  13. Insect and Disease Impacts on Blue Oak Acorns and Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Richard A. Arnold

    1991-01-01

    We studied the impacts of diseases and arthropods on acorns and naturally occurring seedlings of blue oak, Quercus douglasii, in northern California. Damage levels were always significantly higher in acorns collected from the ground than those picked from the tree. Accurate assessments of damage levels could only be made by dissecting acorns, since...

  14. Water Uptake and Germination of Red Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1968-01-01

    When pericarps were intact, water was absorbed by Nuttall, pin, cherrybark, and northern red oak acorns, mainly through the vascular openings of the cup scar. Uptake through the pericarp was greater for acorns with a thin waxy coating on the pericarp than for acorns with a heavy waxy coating. Splitting or removing the pericarp greatly speeded uptake. Osmotically...

  15. Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking.

    PubMed

    Pons, Josep; Pausas, Juli G

    2007-10-01

    Bird-dispersed seeds are difficult to track, especially in the case of long-distance dispersal events. To estimate the oak dispersal distance and the seed shadow generated by the European jay (Garrulus glandarius), we inserted radio-transmitters in 239 acorns, placed them in bird-feeders and then located them by radio-tracking. Using this methodology we located the exact caching site of 94 Quercus ilex and 54 Q. suber acorns and determined the caching habitat characteristics (vegetation type, distance, spatial distribution). The results show that: (1) there is no differences in the dispersal distance distribution between the different acorn species or sizes, (2) dispersal distances range from approximately 3 m up to approximately 550 m (mean = 68.6 m; median = 49.2 m), (3) recently abandoned fields and forest tracks were the sites preferred by jays to cache acorns, whereas fields and shrublands were avoided and (4) seed shadows showed acorn aggregation zones (i.e. clusters of caches) close to the feeder as well as isolated caches at longer distances. The results also suggest that radio-transmitters are a cheap and reliable way to determine seed shadows and quantify both seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation for medium to large seeds.

  16. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  17. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  18. Improving Germination of Nuttall Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1967-01-01

    Under simulated field conditions the best treatment for germination of acorns of Quercus nuttallii Palmer was a combination of sowing 1 inch below soil surface, under litter, and in partial shade. Supplemental watering was also advantageous. The most important factor was depth of sowing.

  19. Gypsy moth impacts on oak acorn production

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth outbreaks can have drastic effects on many f a s t resources and uses. Because gypsy moth prefers oak foliage, oak stands are the most susceptible to defoliation and resultant damage. The value of oak mast for many wildlife species is high. The high carbohydrate content of acorns provides the energy necessary for winter survival. Loss of mast crops due to...

  20. Field Germination of Nuttall Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1970-01-01

    In newly cleared plots on Sharkey clay near Stoneville, Mississippi, germination was as high as 79 percent for Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) acorns sown unstratified in January and 86 percent for those stratified and sown in April. Most seedlings appeared in June and July , when soil temperatures were usually between 80° and 90° F....

  1. Reasoning about Natural Selection: Diagnosing Contextual Competency Using the ACORNS Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Opfer, John E.; Ha, Minsu

    2012-01-01

    Studies of students' thinking about natural selection have revealed that the scenarios in which students reason evoke different types, magnitudes, and arrangements of knowledge elements and misconceptions. Diagnostic tests are needed that probe students' thinking across a representative array of evolutionary contexts. The ACORNS is a diagnostic…

  2. Effectiveness of flying squirrel excluder devices on red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb

    1996-01-01

    The author tested the effectiveness of squirrel excluder devices (SQED?s) in deterring southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from using artificial red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities by placing them on approximately one-half of the cavities in 14 inactive recruitment clusters on the Savannah River Site, SC. SQED?s consisted of 2 pieces of 35.5-...

  3. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  4. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with Curculio that survived the fire had 20 percent lower germination rates than unburned acorns.

  5. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection.

    PubMed

    O'Daniels, Sean T; Kesler, Dylan C; Mihail, Jeanne D; Webb, Elisabeth B; Werner, Scott J

    2017-03-02

    Most diurnal birds are presumed visually sensitive to near ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, however, controlled behavioral studies investigating UV sensitivity remain few. Although woodpeckers are important as primary cavity excavators and nuisance animals, published work on their visual systems is limited. We developed a novel foraging-based behavioral assay designed to test UV sensitivity in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). We acclimated 21 wild-caught woodpeckers to foraging for frozen mealworms within 1.2m sections of peeled cedar (Thuja spp.) poles. We then tested the functional significance of UV cues by placing frozen mealworms behind UV-reflective covers, UV-absorptive covers, or decayed red pine substrates within the same 1.2m poles in independent experiments. Behavioral responses were greater toward both UV-reflective and UV-absorptive substrates in three experiments. Study subjects therefore reliably differentiated and attended to two distinct UV conditions of a foraging substrate. Cue-naïve subjects showed a preference for UV-absorptive substrates, suggesting that woodpeckers may be pre-disposed to foraging from such substrates. Behavioral responses were greater toward decayed pine substrates (UV-reflective) than sound pine substrates suggesting that decayed pine can be a useful foraging cue. The finding that cue-naïve subjects selected UV-absorbing foraging substrates has implications for ecological interactions of woodpeckers with fungi. Woodpeckers transport fungal spores, and communication methods analogous to those of plant-pollinator mutualisms (i.e. UV-absorbing patterns) may have evolved to support woodpecker-fungus mutualisms.

  6. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  7. Sweep-net sampling acorns in forested wetlands

    Treesearch

    Mitch D. Weegman; Richard M. Kaminski; Guiming Wang; Michael L. Schummer; Andrew W. Ezell; Theodor D. Leininger

    2010-01-01

    We are unaware of any previous studies to evaluate using a sweep net to estimate abundance of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.) after they fall from tree crowns, sink to the ground in flooded bottomlands (i.e., sound acorns), and become potential food for animals or propagules for seedlings. We placed known numbers of white-painted red oak acorns of 3 size classes and used...

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Oleanolic Triterpenes from Chinese Acorns.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Li, Chuan; Wang, Xinluan; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-05-20

    Acorns play an important role in human history and are a source of food and recipes for many cultures around the world. In this study, eleven oleanolic triterpenes, one of which was novel, were isolated from Chinese acorns (Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata). The chemical structure of the novel triterpene, which was identified as 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-24-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), was established based on the interpretation of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR experiments (¹H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, ¹H-¹H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compared with the positive control drug indomethacin (IC50 = 47.4 μM), compounds 1, 3, 6 and 8 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 5.4, 7.8, 4.0 and 8.9 μM, respectively. Besides, compounds 2, 4, 7 and 9 also showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 10.1, 13.0, 20.1 and 17.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, Compound 1 could inhibit TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in MH7A cells.

  9. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Nancy E. Koerth

    2007-01-01

    We studied Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to examine the effect of status and gender on foraging behavior. Foraging behavior of breeding pairs extended beyond separation by foraging height to include zones (bole, trunk in crown, primary limb, secondary limb) of the tree used and foraging methods (scaling, probing, excavating). Helper...

  10. Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown; Richard N. Conner

    2000-01-01

    This familiar, eastern U.S. woodpecker is an active and vocal species, with a preference for humid forests dominated by pines or hardwoods, or a mixture of both. It seldom excavates wood for insects; instead, depending on season, it forages opportunistically for a wide range of fruit, mast, seeds and arboreal arthropods. It is also known to take small or young...

  11. Burning and chopping for woodpeckers and wiregrass?

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Walker; Brian P. van Eerden; David Robinson; Mike Hausch

    2004-01-01

    To restore red-cockaded woodpecker habitat managers must reduce hardwoods while maintaining native ground cover. Fire, chemical, and mechanical methods are used alone or in combination to reduce oaks. Previous studies have reported selected single treatment effects (e.g., Outcalt and Lewis 1990, Robbins and Myers 1992, Glitzenstein et al. 1995, Provencher et al. 2001...

  12. Looking out for the pileated woodpecker.

    Treesearch

    Noreen Parks

    2009-01-01

    The pileated woodpecker is a species of conservation concern and a keystone species in mature and old forests of the Pacific Northwest. In the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon, researchers from the PNW Research Station in La Grande, Oregon, studied the effects of natural and human-caused disturbance on pileated populations and their habitat over a period spanning...

  13. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  14. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  15. Testing putative hemichordate homologues of the chordate dorsal nervous system and endostyle: expression of NK2.1 (TTF-1) in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata, Ptychoderidae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, Carter M.; Moy, Vanessa N.; Peterson, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic investigations have confirmed that hemichordates and echinoderms are sister taxa. However, hemichordates share several cardinal characterstics with chordates and are thus an important taxon for testing hypotheses of homology between key chordate characters and their putative hemichordate antecedents. The chordate dorsal nervous system (DNS) and endostyle are intriguing characters because both hemichordate larval and adult structures have been hypothesized as homologues. This study attempts to test these purported homologies through examination of the expression pattem of a Ptychodera flava NK2 gene, PfNK2.1, because this gene is expressed both in the DNS and endostyle/thyroid in a wide range of chordate taxa. We found that PfNK2.1 is expressed in both neuronal and pharyngeal structures, but its expression pattem is broken up into distinct embryonic and juvenile phases. During embryogenesis, PfNK2.1 is expressed in the apical ectoderm, with transcripts later detected in presumable neuronal structures, including the apical organ and ciliated feeding band. In the developing juvenile we detected PfNK2.1 signal throughout the pharynx, including the stomochord, and later in the hindgut. We conclude that the similar utilization of NK2.1 in apical organ development and chordate DNS is probably due to a more general role for NK2.1 in neurogenesis and that hemichordates do not possess a homologue of the chordate DNS. In addition, we conclude that P. flava most likely does not possess a true endostyle; rather during the evolution of the endostyle NK2.1 was recruited from its more general role in pharynx development.

  16. Testing putative hemichordate homologues of the chordate dorsal nervous system and endostyle: expression of NK2.1 (TTF-1) in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata, Ptychoderidae).

    PubMed

    Takacs, Carter M; Moy, Vanessa N; Peterson, Kevin J

    2002-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic investigations have confirmed that hemichordates and echinoderms are sister taxa. However, hemichordates share several cardinal characterstics with chordates and are thus an important taxon for testing hypotheses of homology between key chordate characters and their putative hemichordate antecedents. The chordate dorsal nervous system (DNS) and endostyle are intriguing characters because both hemichordate larval and adult structures have been hypothesized as homologues. This study attempts to test these purported homologies through examination of the expression pattem of a Ptychodera flava NK2 gene, PfNK2.1, because this gene is expressed both in the DNS and endostyle/thyroid in a wide range of chordate taxa. We found that PfNK2.1 is expressed in both neuronal and pharyngeal structures, but its expression pattem is broken up into distinct embryonic and juvenile phases. During embryogenesis, PfNK2.1 is expressed in the apical ectoderm, with transcripts later detected in presumable neuronal structures, including the apical organ and ciliated feeding band. In the developing juvenile we detected PfNK2.1 signal throughout the pharynx, including the stomochord, and later in the hindgut. We conclude that the similar utilization of NK2.1 in apical organ development and chordate DNS is probably due to a more general role for NK2.1 in neurogenesis and that hemichordates do not possess a homologue of the chordate DNS. In addition, we conclude that P. flava most likely does not possess a true endostyle; rather during the evolution of the endostyle NK2.1 was recruited from its more general role in pharynx development.

  17. A mono harvest of California black oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode

    2017-01-01

    In about 1925 or 1926, Margaret Baty, a tribal member of Big Sandy Rancheria, displayed a collection of acorns from California black oak (Quercus kelloggii, wi-yap' in Mono) and an acorn cooking basket. This photograph, taken by George Holt and courtesy of the Flegal Collection of the Jesse Peter Museum at Santa Rosa Junior College,...

  18. Acorn size effects seedling size at the Penn Nursery

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2005-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Penn Nursery, located in Spring Mills, PA, was 1 of 4 nurseries participating in a study to determine the effect of acorn sizing on production of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and white oak (Q. alba L.). It is hypothesized that larger acorns would produce...

  19. Acorn production and utilization in the Republic of Korea

    Treesearch

    Shawn Overstreet; Seongmin Choi; Chan-Ryul Park; Dowon Lee; Thomas Gradziel

    2015-01-01

    Oak acorns have historically provided food for humans and animals in cultures across Asia, North Africa, Europe, and North America. The advent of the twentieth-century saw acorns become marginalized as a food crop in the United States and most of the world, but they have remained a constant part of the cuisine of the Korean Peninsula. Consequently, Korea is often cited...

  20. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    Treesearch

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger

    2013-01-01

    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  1. Effect of Acorn Planting Depth on Depredation, Emergence, and Survival of Valley and Blue Oak

    Treesearch

    William D. Tietje; Sherryl L. Nives; Jennifer A. Honig; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    During 1989 in east-central San Luis Obispo County, California, we studied the relationship of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and blue oak (Q. douglasii) acorn planting depth and number of acorns per planting site to acorn depredation, seedling emergence, survival, and height. Acorns were planted at three depths (1.3, 5.1, and 10.2 cm...

  2. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts

    Treesearch

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce

    1971-01-01

    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  3. Individual variation in acorn production by five species of southern Appalachian oaks

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    Acorns are an important wildlife food resource and seed source for oak regeneration. Most acorn production studies note wide and consistent differences in acorn productivity among individuals, but none clearly demonstrate determinants of productivity. Acorn production by black, northern red, scarlet, chestnut, and white oak was measured from 1993 to 1997 in the...

  4. Northern Red Oak From Acorns to Acorns in 8 Years or Less

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn Kormanik; Tom Tibbs; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    The intrinsic factors affecting acorn production in oak trees need further study. Common knowledge holds that an oak requires a minimum number of years to begin flowering, with 30 to 50 most frequently reported. Recently, the Institute of Tree Root Biology has been studying the development of northern red oak ( L.) in the nursery and in...

  5. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  6. Decadal Drought Effects on Endangered Woodpecker Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Griffin, R. Daniel; Spond, Mark D.; Fye, Falko K.; Culpepper, R. Brian; Patton, David

    2006-03-01

    The critically endangered ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) apparently has been rediscovered in old-growth bald cypress (Taxodium distichum, Figure 1) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) forests of Bayou DeView, located seven kilometers northwest of Brinkley, Ark. [Fitzpatrick et al., 2005]. The evaluation of the impact of drought on forest history and wildlife population levels is critical to the conservation of the ivory billed woodpecker and other similarly endangered species. Tree ring chronologies have been developed from old-growth forests at Bayou DeView to aid in this assessment. This article also describes a conceptual model that has proven useful for the discovery of other noncommercial old-growth cypress-tupelo remnants in the Southeast. These relict cypress-tupelo stands may be candidates for conservation, restoration, and perhaps the eventual reintroduction of the ivory bill and other increasingly rare species native to this ecosystem.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Downy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the downy woodpecker (Picoides eubescens). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Constructing Artifical Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities

    Treesearch

    David H. Allen

    1991-01-01

    A complete guide is provided for excavating red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities. A hole 4 inches wide by 10 inches high by 6 inches deep is cut from a live pine(Pinusspp.) tree with a chainsaw, and a prefabricated cavity is inserted. Cavities can be excavated in pines of any age, but the diameter of the tree at the height of insertion must be greater...

  11. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  12. Diet of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers at three locations

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Donald Lipscomb; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a 2-yr study of the nestling diet of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at three locations to determine how it varied among sites. We photographed 5939 nest visits by adult woodpeckers delivering food items for nestlings. In 1994, we located cameras near three nest cavities on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina and near...

  13. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  14. Fall movements of Red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2013-01-01

    Fall migration of Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) can be erratic, with departure rates, directions, and distances varying among populations and individuals. We report fall migration departure dates, rates, and routes, and the size of fall home ranges of 62 radio-tagged Red-headed Woodpeckers in western South Carolina. Rates of fall migration...

  15. Foraging ecology of pileated woodpeckers in coastal forests of Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.M. Raley; K.B. Aubry

    2006-01-01

    Providing habitat for pileated woodpeckers in the Pacific Northwest has been a key component of forest management strategies for over 20 years. We investigated the diet of pileated woodpeckers, and selection by birds of both individual structure and site characteristics for foraging. Birds foraged amost exclusively in closed-canopy habitats and selected relatively tall...

  16. Coming home to roost: the pileated woodpecker as ecosystem engineer.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1994, the pileated woodpecker was a management indicator species (MIS) of mature and old-growth forest conditions on 16 of 19 national forests in the Pacific Northwest Region. This status required each of those national forests to establish pileated woodpecker habitat areas that included tracts of mature and old-growth forest with minimum densities of large,...

  17. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  18. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  19. Potential woodpecker nest trees through artificial inoculation of heart rots

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson; J. Howard Williamson

    1983-01-01

    We suggest that the fungus Spongipellis pachyodon might be used to artificially create suitable hardwood nest trees for woodpeckers in both young and older trees and when supplies of potential nest trees are limited. Sizes of trees suitable for inoculation, inoculation heights, and densities of snags are suggested for six species of woodpeckers.

  20. Species using red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    Because of its ability to excavate cavities in living pines, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the tire-disclimax, pine ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Many species representing multiple taxonomic classes are dependent on this woodpecker species for the cavities it creates. We examined the...

  1. Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis): A technical conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Abele; Victoria A. Saab; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) is a locally common but patchily distributed woodpecker species usually seen in open forests of western North America. The combination of its sporadic distribution, its diet of adult-stage free-living insects (primarily aerial), its preference to nest in burned landscapes, and its variable migratory behavior...

  2. Netguns: a technique for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Eric M. Seckinger; Thomas M. Juntti; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Effective capture techniques are essential for studying bird populations, but commonly used techniques have proven ineffective for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) during the nonbreeding period. As a result, little is known about the winter ecology of Black-backed Woodpeckers. We used two netguns, one powered with a 0.308 cartridge and another...

  3. Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Bernard; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in three species of woodpeckers was estimated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of the summed electrical activity of auditory neurons. For all species, the ABR waveform showed at least two, and sometimes three prominent peaks occurring within 10 ms of stimulus onset. Also ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased as a function of increasing sound pressure levels. Results showed no significant differences in overall auditory abilities between the three species of woodpeckers. The average ABR audiogram showed that woodpeckers have lowest thresholds between 1.5 and 5.7 kHz. The shape of the average woodpecker ABR audiogram was similar to the shape of the ABR-measured audiograms of other small birds at most frequencies, but at the highest frequency data suggest that woodpecker thresholds may be lower than those of domesticated birds, while similar to those of wild birds.

  4. Proton detection at aCORN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Melanie; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The aCORN experiment will measure the electron-antineutrino angular correlation parameter in neutron beta-decay. Our method relies on proton time-of-flight information and electron spectroscopy. This presentation will focus on proton transport and detection. When neutrons decay inside our fiducial volume, emitted protons are directed to the top of the apparatus by an electrostatic mirror, which also pre-accelerates them. A uniform axial magnetic field then guides protons with low transverse momentum through a set of circular apertures. The protons are then accelerated towards a cooled silicon surface barrier detector by a high voltage focusing system, which boosts their energy to a detectable level, ensures they hit the active region of the detector, and deflects incoming electrons. The silicon detector is located off-axis to further minimize electron scattering. Our current design ensures high voltage stability; corona and sparking are reduced with better geometry and a locally lower magnetic field. A new dovetail support structure and separate reference jig allows easy installation with reproducible electrode positioning. Our silicon detector preamp was redesigned from the ground up to minimize noise, improve gain, and operate reliably in the aCORN environment. Special thanks for support from the NSF and NIST.

  5. Effects of radio-transmitter methods on pileated woodpeckers: an improved technique for large woodpeckers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We captured and radio-marked 64 Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)in bottomland hardwood forests from February 2007 to June 2010. At least 12 (35.3%) of the first 34 birds radio-tagged died within 43 d of capture (x¯ = 8.2 d). Thus, we adjusted our radio-attachment techniques adaptively from a...

  6. The red-cockaded woodpecker: interactions with fire, snags, fungi, rat snakes and pileated woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) adaptation to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has involved several important interactions: (1) the reduction of hardwood frequency in the pine ecosystem because of frequent tires, (2) the softening of pine heartwood by red heart fungus (Phellinus pini) that hastens cavity...

  7. Effects of Flood Duration and Depth on Germination of Cherrybark, Post, Southern, White and Willow Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and depth (10 and 100 centimeters below a water surface) on acorn germination were tested for two bottomland oaks (cherrybark oak [Quercus pagoda Raf.] and willow oak [Q. phellos L.]) and three upland oaks (post oak [Q. stellata Wang.], southern red oak [

  8. Effects of the Forest Floor and Acorn Placement on Establishment and Early Development of Water Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; B.R. Lockhart

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the forest floor (0, 10, 20, 30,40, and 50 Mg/ha) and acorn placement (buried 1.5 cm below the soil surface, pressed into the soil surface, and placed within the forest floor) on establishment and early development of water oak (Quercus nigra L.) seedlings were tested in a 6 x 3 factorial study in southeastern Arkansas. Increasing...

  9. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L.; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006–2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings. PMID:27874099

  10. Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns in the left panels and olive branches with olives in right. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  11. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  12. Characterization of the cork oak transcriptome dynamics during acorn development.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Andreia; de Vega-Bartol, José; Marum, Liliana; Chaves, Inês; Santo, Tatiana; Leitão, José; Varela, Maria Carolina; Miguel, Célia M

    2015-06-25

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) has a natural distribution across western Mediterranean regions and is a keystone forest tree species in these ecosystems. The fruiting phase is especially critical for its regeneration but the molecular mechanisms underlying the biochemical and physiological changes during cork oak acorn development are poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome of the cork oak acorn, including the seed, was characterized in five stages of development, from early development to acorn maturation, to identify the dominant processes in each stage and reveal transcripts with important functions in gene expression regulation and response to water. A total of 80,357 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were de novo assembled from RNA-Seq libraries representative of the several acorn developmental stages. Approximately 7.6 % of the total number of transcripts present in Q. suber transcriptome was identified as acorn specific. The analysis of expression profiles during development returned 2,285 differentially expressed (DE) transcripts, which were clustered into six groups. The stage of development corresponding to the mature acorn exhibited an expression profile markedly different from other stages. Approximately 22 % of the DE transcripts putatively code for transcription factors (TF) or transcriptional regulators, and were found almost equally distributed among the several expression profile clusters, highlighting their major roles in controlling the whole developmental process. On the other hand, carbohydrate metabolism, the biological pathway most represented during acorn development, was especially prevalent in mid to late stages as evidenced by enrichment analysis. We further show that genes related to response to water, water deprivation and transport were mostly represented during the early (S2) and the last stage (S8) of acorn development, when tolerance to water desiccation is possibly critical for acorn viability. To our knowledge this work

  13. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  14. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  15. Acquired melanosis caused by acorn ingestion in the Nero Siciliano pig.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, G; Marino, F; Laganà, G; Bellocco, E; Barreca, D; Liotta, L; Sfacteria, A; Macrì, B

    2009-03-01

    In this study, an acquired pigmentation in Nero Siciliano pigs is reported and evaluated by a multidisciplinary approach to support the hypothesis it is caused by an ingested material. A total of 18 pigs were studied. Fourteen conventionally slaughtered animals showed black discoloration of lymph nodes. The lymph nodes were normal in size and shape but showed diffuse black discoloration of the cortex and medulla. Melanosis of fat was observed in 2 animals and was limited to the back. Histochemical tests performed on tissues enabled identification and differentiation of the pigment. Immunohistochemical staining for macrophage markers showed macrophages containing a variable amount of melanin-like granules. Stains for human melanoma, as well as S-100 protein, did not show any reaction. Histochemical methods for tyrosinase showed colorimetric patterns that confirmed the presence of the enzyme in acorns. The activity was mostly latent. A high tannin content was demonstrated, reaching about 76% of the total phenolic compounds. Our data, and the well-known steps on melanin formation, permit us to hypothesize that swine tyrosinase could act on phenolic substances found in acorns. Tyrosinase activation could take place in genetically predisposed swine after acorns are eaten, and this event could increase the biosynthesis and the anomalous storage of melanin.

  16. Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Guo; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    1999-11-01

    An evergreen oak species, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, and a deciduous oak species, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata were grown from acorns under two light levels (full sunlight and shade at about 18 % of full sunlight, simulating the light intensities in forest clearings and gaps, respectively) for one growing season. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) the deciduous species grows faster than the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings; (ii) the deciduous species responds more strongly in terms of growth and morphology to variation in light climate than the evergreen species; and (iii) seedling size is positively correlated to acorn size. The results showed: (i) at both light levels, the deciduous seedlings gained significantly more growth in biomass and height than the evergreen seedlings; (ii) both species produced significantly more biomass in full sunlight than in shade, without showing any significant difference in height between treatments. Increase in light intensity improved the growth of the deciduous seedlings more strongly; (iii) at a similar age, the deciduous seedlings showed a greater response in leaf morphology and biomass allocation to variation in light levels, but when compared at a similar size, biomass allocation patterns did not differ significantly between species; (iv) bigger acorns tended to produce larger seedlings, larger leaf sizes and more leaf area, between and within species. These differences demonstrate that the deciduous species is gap-dependent and has the advantage over the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings.

  17. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Allendorf, Fred W; Saab, Victoria; Drapeau, Pierre; Schwartz, Michael K

    2010-05-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers.

  18. Woodpecker cavity aeration: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Ar, Amos; Barnea, Anat; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Mersten-Katz, Cynthia

    2004-12-15

    We studied characteristics of the Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) cavities in the field and a laboratory model, and rates of gas exchange in the laboratory. Night temperature of occupied cavities is 4.3 degrees C higher than empty ones, representing energy savings of approximately 24%. Oxygen conductance (GNO2) of an empty cavity is 7.1 ml[STPD] (Torr h)(-1), and is affected by winds at velocities up to 0.8 m/s. Day and night body temperatures were 42.0 and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. Steady-state O2 consumption rates (MO2) were 3.49 +/- 0.49 and 2.53 +/- 0.26 ml[STPD] (g h)(-1) during day and night respectively -- higher than predicted by allometry. A mathematical model describing PO2 in a cavity, taking into consideration MO2, GNO2, heat convection and wind speed, from the moment birds inhabit it, was developed. It shows that on the average, one woodpecker staying in its cavity at night does not encounter hypoxic conditions. However, in nest cavities with below the average GNO2, with more inhabitants (e.g. during the breeding season), hypoxia may become a problem.

  19. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Research at ERDC/CERL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    program placed on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis ) in the period from 1994 through 2000. The studies included here fall into three categories: noise, maneuver, and fog oil effects.

  20. Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462). Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker. PMID:17362504

  1. White oak seedling survival and vigor following acorn removal and water stress

    Treesearch

    E.R. Thorn; W.M. Tzilkowski

    1991-01-01

    A lack of viable acorns, due to rodent depredation, may be the primary cause of advanced regeneration failure of oak in Pennsylvania. White oak (Quercus alba) acorns germinate immediately upon falling.

  2. A rapid hard-mast index from acorn presence-absence tallies

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Gordon S. Warburton

    2007-01-01

    We used 21 years of acorn data from visual surveys of oak (Quercus spp.) trees (n ¼ 20,113) conducted in western North Carolina, USA, to develop predictive equations for hard-mast indices (HMIs) based on the proportion of trees bearing acorns (PBA). We calculated PBA using visual estimates of the percentage of oak crown with acorns (PCA), assigning acorn presence if...

  3. The upside of the emerald ash borer catastrophe: a feast for woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    David Cappaert; Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland

    2005-01-01

    Under the most favorable conditions, woodpeckers reduce larval EAB density as effectively as the best pesticides. Woodpeckers work over the entire core region for free and are always more popular than spray trucks.

  4. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  5. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Treesearch

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  6. Fate of the 2001 acorn crop at Clear Creek State Forest, Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Patrick. Brose

    2011-01-01

    One of the key steps in the oak regeneration process is the successful germination of acorns into new seedlings. Several factors can greatly reduce or entirely destroy a red oak acorn crop between seed fall in the autumn and germination the following spring. In 2001, a bumper acorn crop occurred on Clear Creek State Forest in Jefferson County, PA. This event coincided...

  7. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Treesearch

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  8. Acorn Production Prediction Models for Five Common Oak Species of the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Todd M. Fearer

    2011-01-01

    Acorn production varies considerably among oak (Quercus) species, individual trees, years, and locations, which directly affects oak regeneration and populations of wildlife species that depend on acorns for food. Hard mast indices provide a relative ranking and basis for comparison of within- and between-year acorn crop size at a broad scale, but do...

  9. Forecasting long-term acorn production with and without oak decline using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Chad E. Keyser; Leah C. Rathburn; Anita K. Rose; Todd M. Fearer; Henry W. McNab

    2013-01-01

    Acorns are important as wildlife food and for oak regeneration, but production is highly variable, posing a challenge to forest managers targeting acorn production levels. Forest managers need tools to predict acorn production capability tailored to individual landscapes and forest management scenarios, adjusting for oak mortality and stand development over time. We...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Weeviled Acorns within a Northern Red oak Seedling Orchard

    Treesearch

    D.R. Miller; S.E. Scharbaum

    2004-01-01

    Acorn insects can have a severe impact on mass production and regeneration. Gibson (1972) reported losses of 10 to 100 percent of acorn crops in stands of white oak, whereas Gibson (1982) reported losses of up to 96 percent in stands of northern red oak. Acorn insects can be divided into two groups: primary and secondary insects. The primary insects include the...

  11. Iterative ACORN as a high throughput tool in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Selvanayagam, S; Velmurugan, D; Yamane, T

    2006-08-01

    High throughput macromolecular structure determination is very essential in structural genomics as the available number of sequence information far exceeds the number of available 3D structures. ACORN, a freely available resource in the CCP4 suite of programs is a comprehensive and efficient program for phasing in the determination of protein structures, when atomic resolution data are available. ACORN with the automatic model-building program ARP/wARP and refinement program REFMAC is a suitable combination for the high throughput structural genomics. ACORN can also be run with secondary structural elements like helices and sheets as inputs with high resolution data. In situations, where ACORN phasing is not sufficient for building the protein model, the fragments (incomplete model/dummy atoms) can again be used as a starting input. Iterative ACORN is proved to work efficiently in the subsequent model building stages in congerin (PDB-ID: lis3) and catalase (PDB-ID: 1gwe) for which models are available.

  12. Evidence of Red-cockaded Woodpecker nestling displacement by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) are unique among woodpeckers in that they excavate their roost and nest cavities entirely within living pines (Ligon 1970). A number of secondary cavity nesters and other vertebrates are dependent on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers for the cavities they create (Rudolph et al. 1990, Loeb 1993, LaBranche and...

  13. 75 FR 41886 - Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis...-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This final recovery plan includes criteria and measures that... measures. Prior to European settlement, the ivory-billed woodpecker appeared to be ] widely...

  14. Heartwood, sapwood, and fungal decay associated with red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    Provision of suitable sites for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picotdes borealis) cavity excavation is essential for successful management of the woodpecker. To evaluate internal characteristics of pines used by the woodpecker, we increment-cored longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) to determine heartwood diameter, sapwood thickness, and...

  15. Effects of midstory reduction and thinning in red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree clusters

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker's (Picoides borealis) preference for open pine forest is well known (U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. 1985). Encroachment of hardwood midstory within redcockaded woodpecker clusters (colonies, aggregations of cavity trees used by groups of woodpeckers, see Walters et al. 1988) is believed to cause cluster abandonment (Hopkins and Lynn 1971,...

  16. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Deanna L. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus, exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  18. Influence of artificial cavity age on red-cockaded woodpecker translocation success

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Dawn K. Carrie; M. Stephen Best

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) translocations have been used to bolster woodpecker populations and to fill breeding vacancies. Artificial, insert cavities have been used to offset cavity shortages in woodpecker clusters and are the primary cavity type used in recruitment clusters in Texas and Arkansas, but inserts may lose their...

  19. Common, but Commonly Overlooked: Red-bellied Woodpeckers as Songbird Nest Predators

    Treesearch

    Kirsten R. Hazler; Dawn E.W. Drumtra; Matthew R. Marshall; Robert J. Cooper; Paul B. Hamel

    2004-01-01

    Woodpeckers in North America are not widely recognized as nest predators. In this paper, we describe several eyewitness accounts of songbird nest predation by Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), document evidence that songbirds recognize woodpeckers as nest predators, and show that our observations are consistent with previously published...

  20. Density and abundance of black-backed woodpeckers in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are usually associated with forest disturbance resulting in recently killed trees. While black-backed woodpeckers are attracted to areas affected by these disturbances, in the Black Hills they exist during interim disturbance periods in largely undisturbed forests. In 2012, a petition for listing black-backed woodpeckers in...

  1. Numerical study of the impact response of woodpecker's head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao Dan; Ma, Guo Jun; Wu, Cheng Wei; Chen, Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Woodpecker can beat trees 20-25 times per second and lasts for several seconds, with a 1200 g deceleration, but it appears that they never get brain concussion. How does the stress wave propagate from the beak tip to brain and how does a woodpecker protect itself from brain damage? In this paper, we establish a finite element model of typical woodpecker head based on its X-ray tomography images and conduct the numerical analysis of the impact response of the woodpecker's head by using a viscoelasticity material model. Especially, the woodpecker head response to an impact speed of 7 m/s is investigated to explore the stress concentration zone and how the stress wave propagates in its head. The numerical results show that the stress wave in the head propagates from the upper beak to back skull and is reduced by the specific structure of hyoid and viscoelasticity of biomaterials. The maximum stresses in skull and brain are both below the safe level. The stress in skull almost disappears before the next impact. The stress in brain lasts for a little longer but shows smaller value with little variation. The stress is impossible to accumulate in the limited pecking time, so the brain damage can be avoided.

  2. Maturation of Acorns of Cherrybark, Water, and Willow Oaks

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    Acorns of cherrybark, water, and willow oaks grew slowly but steadily in July and August and reached maximum size in September, when fats and carbohydrates, the major storage foods, accumulated rapidly. At physiological maturity in late October or early November, crude fat levels were 15 to 20 percent of seed dry weight and carbohydrates totaled 25 percent.

  3. Users guide to ACORn: a comprehensive Ozark regeneration simulator.

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Michael Ter-Mikaelian; Paul S. Johnson; Stephen R. Shifley

    1996-01-01

    Describes how to use the ACORn computer program for predicting number of trees per acre and stocking percent by species and diameter classes 21 years after complete overstory removal of oak stands in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri and adjacent States.

  4. ACORN's Accelerated Income Redistribution Project: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Russell, Daniel; Fisher, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now's (ACORN) efforts to increase the uptake of families claiming the earned income tax credit through door-to-door canvassing and managing free tax preparation clinics in three pilot cities. Method: The mixed-method program evaluation included administrative…

  5. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  6. ACORN's Accelerated Income Redistribution Project: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Russell, Daniel; Fisher, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now's (ACORN) efforts to increase the uptake of families claiming the earned income tax credit through door-to-door canvassing and managing free tax preparation clinics in three pilot cities. Method: The mixed-method program evaluation included administrative…

  7. Acorn Yield During 1988 and 1989 on California's Central Coast

    Treesearch

    Sergio L. Garcia; Wayne A. Jensen; William H. Weitkamp; William D. Tietje

    1991-01-01

    In 1988, a study was began to evaluate acorn yield of valley oak (Quercus lobata), coast live oak (Q. agrifolia), and blue oak (Q. douglasii) in three of California's central coast counties: Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and San Benito. The purpose of the study was to examine the degree and variability of...

  8. Oaks, Acorns, Climate and Squirrels, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the units is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. In this particular unit, oaks and acorns are the vehicle…

  9. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators. PMID:24455161

  10. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators.

  11. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Penick, Clint A; Dunn, Robert R; Diamond, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3-5°C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants. Experimental winter warming significantly altered thermal performance for running speed at high (26 and 36°C) but not low test temperatures (6 and 16°C). Although we saw little differentiation in thermal performance at cooler test temperatures, we saw a marked increase in running speed at the hotter test temperatures for ants that experienced warmer winters compared with those that experienced cooler winters. Our results provide evidence that overwintering temperatures can substantially influence organismal performance, and suggest that we cannot ignore overwintering effects when forecasting organismal responses to environmental changes in temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships of the red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) beak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nayeon; Horstemeyer, M F; Rhee, Hongjoo; Nabors, Ben; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2014-07-06

    We experimentally studied beaks of the red-bellied woodpecker to elucidate the hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships. At the macroscale, the beak comprises three structural layers: an outer rhamphotheca layer (keratin sheath), a middle foam layer and an inner bony layer. The area fraction of each layer changes along the length of the beak giving rise to a varying constitutive behaviour similar to functionally graded materials. At the microscale, the rhamphotheca comprises keratin scales that are placed in an overlapping pattern; the middle foam layer has a porous structure; and the bony layer has a big centre cavity. At the nanoscale, a wavy gap between the keratin scales similar to a suture line was evidenced in the rhamphotheca; the middle foam layer joins two dissimilar materials; and mineralized collagen fibres were revealed in the inner bony layer. The nano- and micro-indentation tests revealed that the hardness (associated with the strength, modulus and stiffness) of the rhamphotheca layer (approx. 470 MPa for nano and approx. 320 MPa for micro) was two to three times less than that of the bony layer (approx. 1200 MPa for nano and approx. 630 MPa for micro). When compared to other birds (chicken, finch and toucan), the woodpecker's beak has more elongated keratin scales that can slide over each other thus admitting dissipation via shearing; has much less porosity in the bony layer thus strengthening the beak and focusing the stress wave; and has a wavy suture that admits local shearing at the nanoscale. The analysis of the woodpeckers' beaks provides some understanding of biological structural materials' mechanisms for energy absorption.

  13. Delayed reproduction of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Brent Burt

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pairs of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers were translocated to the Angelina National Forest from 21 October 1998 to 17 December 1998. Five breeding pairs (consisting of at least one trnnslocated bird) produced eggs/nestlings within the first breeding season after translocation. Clutch initiation dates for all five pairs were later than those of resident breeders. The...

  14. How does a woodpecker work? An impact dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Yu, Tongxi; Tao, Jiawei; Cheng, Ze

    2015-04-01

    To understand how a woodpecker is able accelerate its head to such a high velocity in a short amount of time, a multi-rigid-segment model of a woodpecker's body is established in this study. Based on the skeletal specimen of the woodpecker and several videos of woodpeckers pecking, the parameters of a three-degree-of-freedom system are determined. The high velocity of the head is found to be the result of a whipping effect, which could be affected by muscle torque and tendon stiffness. The mechanism of whipping is analyzed by comparing the response of a hinged rod to that of a rigid rod. Depending on the parameters, the dynamic behavior of a hinged rod is classified into three response modes. Of these, a high free-end velocity could be achieved in mode II. The model is then generalized to a multihinge condition, and the free-end velocity is found to increase with hinge number, which explains the high free-end velocity resulting from whipping. Furthermore, the effects of some other factors, such as damping and mass distribution, on the velocity are also discussed.

  15. Exertional myopathy in pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Noel, Brandon L; Bednarz, James C; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe coagulative necrosis, consistent with capture myopathy.

  16. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  17. White-headed woodpecker nesting ecology after wildfire

    Treesearch

    Catherine S. Wightman; Victoria A. Saab; Chris Forristal; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Amy Markus

    2010-01-01

    Within forests susceptible to wildfire and insect infestations, land managers need to balance dead tree removal and habitat requirements for wildlife species associated with snags. We used Mahalanobis distance methods to develop predictive models of white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus) nesting habitat in postfire ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-dominated...

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker recovery: An integrated strategy

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2004-01-01

    Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have experienced massive declines since European colonization of North America. This is due to extensive habitat loss and alteration. Logging of old-growth pine forests and alteration of the fire regime throughout the historic range of the species were the primary causes of population decline. Listing of...

  19. Silvicultural systems and red-cockaded woodpecker management: another perspective

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Hedrick; Robert G. Hooper; Dennis L. Krusac; Joseph M. Dabney

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 Rudolph and Conner maintained that a modified even-aged silvicultural system using irregular shelterwood as the method of regenerating new stands provides greater benefits for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) than uneven-aged systems. Their argument was confined to loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. ecbinata) pine forest types and emphasized...

  20. Woodpecker woes: the right tree can be hard to find

    Treesearch

    Natasha Vizcarra; Teresa. Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Woodpeckers and other cavity-excavating birds worldwide are keystone species. These birds excavate their nests out of solid wood, and because their nests are often well protected against predators and the environment, other species use and compete for their old, vacant nests. The presence of cavity-excavating birds in forests has far-reaching effects on species...

  1. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; David L. Kulhavy; Ann E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over a 13-year period we examined the mortality of cavity trees (n = 453) used by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on national forests in eastern Texas. Bark beetles (53%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality. Bark beetles were the major cause of mortality in loblolly (Pinus taeda...

  2. Forest Stands Selected by Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Richard F. Harlow

    1986-01-01

    Selection of forest stands by 18 clans of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers was studied in their year-round home ranges. The foraging use of 276 stands relative to their availability within the home ranges was compared to several stand characteristics. Selection among stands with similar characteristics was highly vairable and red-cockadeds foraged in stands with a...

  3. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.L. Rumsey; George E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field rests. Such conservative predictions of failing loads...

  4. Resource selection by black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis) in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Chadwick P. Lehman; Stanley H. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus, [BBWO]) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis, [ATTW]) are uncommon inhabitants of conifer forests and are sympatric in some areas, including the Black Hills. Both species exhibit genetic characteristics associated with isolated populations, are species of special management concern, and for which data...

  5. Genetic signals of demographic expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the last North American glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín-R, Paulo C; Burg, Theresa M

    2012-01-01

    The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species' range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene.

  6. Genetic Signals of Demographic Expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the Last North American Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Pulgarín-R, Paulo C.; Burg, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species’ range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:22792306

  7. Isolation of bioactive polysaccharide from acorn and evaluation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tadayoni, Mehrnoosh; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential and some functional properties of polysaccharides isolated from acorn fruit. The FTIR spectrum of isolated acorn polysaccharide (IAP) showed the typical bands corresponding to sugars and polysaccharides. The IAP was resistant to simulated acidic and enzymatic digestion even more than Inulin (In). The prebiotic activity, which was tested using IAP as a carbon source, showed significant increase in the growth and viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (probiotic). Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 in IAP and In supplemented media was stable even after 72 h, whereas in glucose supplemented medium, bacterial growth showed a notable decrease after 24h. Lipid absorption capacity (LAC) and water holding capacity (WHC) of IAP were 5.44 ± 0.02 (g oil/g DM) and 4.33 ± 0.03 (g water/g DM), respectively, which were comparable to some dietary fibers and were more than In. IAP scavenged DPPH radicals by 82.24%. IAP was found to have a high scavenging ability compared to the reference prebiotic (In), giving a scavenging ability of about 20%. Therefore, due to prebiotic capability, high WHC, LAC and good antioxidant activity, IAP can be a suitable candidate for technological applications and health improving effects in functional food.

  8. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  9. Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert C; Kirchman, Jeremy J; Dumbacher, John P; Bevier, Louis; Dove, Carla; Rotzel, Nancy C; Edwards, Scott V; Lammertink, Martjan; Miglia, Kathleen J; Moore, William S

    2006-09-22

    We used ancient DNA analysis of seven museum specimens of the endangered North American ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) and three specimens of the species from Cuba to document their degree of differentiation and their relationships to other Campephilus woodpeckers. Analysis of these mtDNA sequences reveals that the Cuban and North American ivory bills, along with the imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) of Mexico, are a monophyletic group and are roughly equidistant genetically, suggesting each lineage may be a separate species. Application of both internal and external rate calibrations indicates that the three lineages split more than one million years ago, in the Mid-Pleistocene. We thus can exclude the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced North American ivory-billed woodpeckers to Cuba. Our sequences of all three woodpeckers also provide an important DNA barcoding resource for identification of non-invasive samples or remains of these critically endangered and charismatic woodpeckers.

  10. Mechanical Evaluation of the Skeletal Structure and Tissue of the Woodpecker and Its Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Juhachi; Sakamoto, Jiro; Sakano, Kenichi

    A woodpecker strikes its beak toward a tree repeatedly. But, the damage of brain or the brain concussion doesn’t occur by this action. Human cannot strike strongly the head without the damage of a brain. Therefore, it is predicted that the brain of a woodpecker is protected from the shock by some methods and that the woodpecker has the original mechanism to absorb a shock. In this study, the endoskeltal structure, especially head part structure of woodpecker is dissected and the impact-proof system is analyzed by FEM and model experiment. From the results, it is obvious that the woodpecker has the original impact-proof system as the unique states of hyoid bone, skull, tissue and brain. Moreover it is considered that woodpecker has the advanced impact-proof system relating with not only the head part but also with the whole body.

  11. Hoarding decisions by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco): the responses to seed size and germination schedule in acorns.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gang; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2009-09-01

    Co-varying traits in acorns such as seed size and germination schedule are important to influence the behavioural decisions of hoarding rodents. Using acorn pairs from cork oak (Quercus variabilis) (large size and short germination schedules) serrate oak (Q. serrata) (small size and short germination schedule) and qinggang (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) (small size and long germination schedule) with contrasting seed size and germination schedule, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate hoarding preferences in response to seed size and germination schedule by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco) in semi-natural enclosures. We found that the seed size hypothesis was consistently supported: both rodent species ate more small acorns but hoarded more large ones regardless of germination schedules. However, the germination schedule hypothesis was also supported when similar sized acorns were simultaneously provided, e.g. Q. serrata versus C. glauca or germinating versus non-germinating Q. variabilis. Our results, contrary to the studies from North America, indicate that seed size is more important than germination schedules in determining whether the tested animals eat or hoard a given seed.

  12. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  13. Biomechanism of impact resistance in the woodpecker's head and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiZhen; Lu, Shan; Liu, XiaoYu; Niu, XuFeng; Wang, Chao; Ni, YiKun; Zhao, MeiYa; Feng, ChengLong; Zhang, Ming; Fan, YuBo

    2013-08-01

    The woodpecker does not suffer head/eye impact injuries while drumming on a tree trunk with high acceleration (more than 1000×g) and high frequency. The mechanism that protects the woodpecker's head has aroused the interest of ornithologists, biologists and scientists in the areas of mechanical engineering, material science and electronics engineering. This article reviews the literature on the biomechanisms and materials responsible for protecting the woodpecker from head impact injury and their applications in engineering and human protection.

  14. An Exploration of the Effects of Genetic Drift on the Endangered Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    David L. (1995). Improved installation of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers. The Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23(1). Baker, James B...cavities for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 18(3). Copeyon, C. K., J. R. Walters, J. H. Carter III. (1991). Induction...Woodpecker nest cavities. Journal of Field Ornithology 68(2). Franklin, Ian Robert. Evolutionary change in small populations. (1980). In M. E. Soule

  15. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  16. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed 2995 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data (nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND2 genes), using parsimony and model-based approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships of the woodpeckers and allies, yielding novel hypotheses for several critical gaps in the knowledge of picid phylogeny. We tested the monophyly of sub-families within the Picidae, and sampled from widely distributed and diverse genera (Celeus, Colaptes, Dryocopus, Melanerpes, Picoides, Picumnus, Sasia, Piculus, and Picus). Relationships of three poorly known Southeast Asian genera (Dinopium, Reinwardtipicus, and Blythipicus) were also examined, revealing unexpected sister relationships. All phylogenetic approaches recovered largely congruent topologies, supporting a monophyletic Picinae and paraphyletic Picumninae, with the monotypic piculet, Nesoctites micromegas, as sister to the Picinae. We report paraphyly for Celeus and Piculus, whereas the broadly distributed genera Picumnus and Dryocopus were supported as monophyletic. Our phylogenetic results indicate a complex geographic history for the Picidae, with multiple disjunct sister lineages distributed between the New World and Asia. The relationships and geographic distribution of basal picid lineages indicates an Old World origin of the Picidae; however, the geographic origin of the Picinae remains equivocal, as the sister relationship between the Caribbean N. micromegas and the true woodpeckers presents the possibility of a New World origin for the Picinae.

  17. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, Thomas S; Loeb, Susan C

    2004-12-31

    Risch, Thomas S., and Susan C. Loeb. 2004. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 504-505. Abstract: Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a significant negative impact on red-cockades woodpeckers (Picoides borealsi) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels directly usurp red-cockaded woodpecker s from cavities, or simply occupy cavities previously abandoned by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ridley et al. (1997) observed the displacement of a red-cockaded woodpecker by a southern flying squirrel that was released after being captured. Observations of nocturnal displacements of red-cockaded woodpeckers by flying squirrels, however, are lacking. Due to the difficulty of observing interspecific interactions, determining the mechanisims by which flying squirrels impact red-cockaded woodpeckers is problematic.

  18. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. and a review of the haemoproteids from the Picidae (woodpeckers).

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Mandal, A K; Nandi, N C

    1977-08-01

    Haemoproteus velans Coatney and Roudabush 1937 and H. borgesi Tendeiro 1947 are redescribed and illustrated. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. is described. Haemoproteid records from woodpeckers are listed.

  19. Survey and host fitness effects of red-cockaded woodpecker blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Carlile, L D; Whitlock, J; Vives, S P; Durden, L A; Spadgenske, E

    2000-06-01

    Blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods associated with the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were surveyed and the impact of blood-feeding arthropods on woodpecker fitness traits was assessed. Five woodpeckers (8%) were infected with unidentified microfilariae, and 1 woodpecker (2%) was infected with 2 species of haemoproteid (Haemoproteus velans and Haemoproteus borgesi). This is the first record of haemoproteids in this species and the first observation of H. borgesi in North America. We collected representatives of at least 6 families of mites and 12 families of primarily commensal insects from woodpecker cavities. Only a few specimens of blood-feeding insects were recovered. The mite Androlaelaps casalis was the most common hematophagous arthropod (prevalence = 76%, mean density = 51+/-7 mites/cavity). The number of A. casalis mites increased with cavity age but there was no association between the number of mites and the number of woodpecker eggs laid or the number of hatchlings or fledglings. In conclusion, the prevalence of blood parasites in the red-cockaded woodpecker is low, woodpecker cavities are not heavily infested with blood-feeding insects, and there is no evidence that A. casalis mites affect woodpecker fitness.

  20. Effect of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Catharine D. Cook; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Taryn L. Kormanik

    2006-01-01

    White oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) acorns were collected locally or from seed orchards in October 2002. Mean acorn moisture content (MC) was 48 percent for white oak and 39 percent for northern red oak. These acorns were air dried to different MCs before being sown into nursery beds in early December...

  1. Group size and nest success in red-cockaded woodpeckers in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: helpers make a difference

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) group size and nest productivity. Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size was positively correlated with fledging success. Although the relationships between woodpecker group size and nest productivity measures were nor statistically significant, a pattern of...

  2. Competition for red-cockaded woodpecker roost and nest cavities: effects of resin age and entrance diameter

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Janet Turner

    1990-01-01

    Competition for roost and nest cavities was investigated in a Texas population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat. Twenty-two percent of all examined cavities were occupied by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, and 46% were occupied by other species. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers did not roost in the open or...

  3. Does red-cockaded woodpecker excavation of resin wells increase risk of bark beetle infestation of cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy; Robert N. Coulson

    2001-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is unique among North American woodpeckers in that it nests and roosts almost exclusively in living pines (Pinus spp.) The red-cockaded woodpecker makes daily excavations at small wounds, termed "resin wells," around the cavity entrance and on the bole of the cavity tree...

  4. Grafting influences on early acorn production in swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Wild.)

    Treesearch

    Mark V. Coggeshall; J.W. Van Sambeek; H.E. Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Early fruiting of swamp white oak planting stock has been observed. The potential to exploit this trait for wildlife enhancement purposes was evaluated in a grafting study. Scions from both precocious and non-precocious ortets were grafted onto a series of related seedling rootstock sources. Acorn production was recorded through age 4 years. Acorn productivity of the...

  5. Influence of weather on pollination and acorn production in two species of Missouri oaks

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Cecich

    1997-01-01

    The process by which oak pistillate flowers become acorns is reasonably understood from an anatomical perspective; however, the way that various factors influence this process is still unclear. This study examined acorn production in a small population of white oak and black oak trees in central Missouri, from 1990 to 1995, in relation to weather variables (maximum and...

  6. Evaluating desiccation sensitivity of northern red oak acorns using x-ray image analysis

    Treesearch

    Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    Desiccation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns can have a major influence on seed viability. Recalcitrant behavior of northern red oak acorns was studied to examine the effects of moisture content (MC) on germination and early growth. Because it is rapid and non-destructive, X-ray image analysis was chosen to assess cotyledon damage in...

  7. The effect of storage temperature and duration on northern red oak acorn viability and vigour

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Noland; Andree E. Morneault; Daniel C. Dey; Dave. Deugo

    2013-01-01

    Three separate collections of Ontario sources of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns were made to determine the effects of long-term cold storage at +2°C, -1°C, and -2°C on their viability and vigour. We measured acorn moisture content, percent germination during storage, speed of germination and total germination...

  8. White oak epicotyl emergence and 1-0 seedling growth from surgically altered germinating acorns

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2010-01-01

    Open-pollinated white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns were collected and stored at 4 °C in November 2004. Three days before sowing in early December, we treated germinating acorns in five ways: no surgery (C); one half of the radical cut off (HR); whole radicle cut off (WR); one cotyledonary petiole severed (OP); and both cotyledonary petioles severed,...

  9. Mammal caching of oak acorns in a red pine and a mixed oak stand

    Treesearch

    E.R. Thorn; W.M. Tzilkowski

    1991-01-01

    Small mammal caching of oak (Quercus spp.) acorns in adjacent red pine (Pinus resinosa) and mixed-oak stands was investigated at The Penn State Experimental Forest, Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania. Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and mice (Peromyscus spp.) were the most common acorn-caching...

  10. A Comparison of Trap Versus Ground Collection of Acorns to Assess Insect Infestation

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; Alex. Mangini

    1997-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) species are a significant portion of the forest in the Eastern United States. Oaks provide valuable timber products and habitat for many wildlife species. Acorns are essential for oak regeneration and are a major food source for more than 186 species of birds and mammals. Great variation in annual acorn production causes dramatic fluctuations in seed...

  11. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Desiccating White Oak and Cherrybark Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; Sharon Sowa

    2004-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of white oak (Quercus alba L.) and cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed longevity, viability, and biochemistry. Acorns of both species were fully hydrated and then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative...

  12. How does prolonged exposure to natural conditions affect acorn moisture and viability?

    Treesearch

    Kristina Connor; Jillian Donahoo; Gretchen Schafer

    2006-01-01

    After placing acorns on a lab bench to dry, we saw changes in moisture content, germination, and seed biochemistry in as few as 3 days. As drying progressed, we found that irrevocable damage to membrane lipids and protein secondary structure occurred in just 5 days. However, we did not know if these experiments mimic what happens to acorns in the field. We cleared an...

  13. Oak mast production and animal impacts on acorn survival in the central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kenneth F. Kellner; Jeffery K. Riegel; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment we measured mast production in white (Quercus alba) and black (Q. velutina) oak, and quantified the impacts of seed predators on acorn survival over a 3-year period. Specifically, we measured the proportion of acorns of each species infested with weevils (Curculio spp...

  14. Viability of litter-stored Quercus falcata Michx. acorns after simulated prescribed winter burns

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Partially stratified (11 days) southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.) acorns were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to simulated prescribed winter burns. Within the forest floor, acorns were placed within the L layer, at the upper-F/ lower-F interface, and at the lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Winds for a...

  15. Effect of acorn size on development of northern red oak 1-0 seedlings

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; T.L. Kormanik; S.E. Schlarbaum; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acorn size on seedling development was determined for 20 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) mother tree selections from the USDA Forest Service's Eastern Tennessee Watauga seed orchard. Acorns from each mother tree were visually separated into three size groups, weighed, and sown separately in forest nurseries located in Georgia,...

  16. Does the shelterwood method to regenerate oak forests affect acorn production and predation?

    Treesearch

    M.I. Bellocq; C. Jones; D.C. Dey; J.J. Turgeon

    2005-01-01

    The shelterwood system is one of the primary methods currently used to encourage regeneration of oak forests; yet, little is known about its influence on acorn production and predation. We compared acorn production, and predation by insects and mammals in stands of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) that were regenerated by the shelterwood method (50% canopy...

  17. Dynamics of acorn production by five species of Southern Appalachian oaks

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2002-01-01

    The management implications of fluctuations in acorn crop size underscore the need to better understand their patterns, causal factors, and predictability (both within a year and long term). Acorn yield has a demonstrable influence on the population dynamics of many wildlife species, both game (Eiler et al. 1989, Wentworth et al. 1992) and nongame (Hannon et al. 1987,...

  18. Acorn Size as a Factor in Early Seedling Growth of Blue Oaks

    Treesearch

    Jerry Tecklin; Douglas D. McCreary

    1991-01-01

    Field performance was evaluated for blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. & Am.) acorns of different size classes (weights) and from different trees which produced predominantly small, medium, or large acorns. Emergence, height, and survival were monitored for two growing seasons. A parallel evaluation, mainly of root characteristics, was conducted...

  19. Planting depth effects and water potential effects on oak seedling emergence and acorn germination

    Treesearch

    Wayne A. Smiles; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    The effects of four planting depths (0, 3, 7, 11 cm) and acorn size on the percentage seedling emergence of red, pin, and black oak were determined. In a complimentary study, the effects of five water potential treatments (0, -.2, -.4, -.6, -1.0 MPa) on the percentage germination of red, pin, and black oak acorns were measured.

  20. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  1. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  2. Patterns of tanoak acorn production in Phytophthora ramorum infested and uninfested stands in Big Sur, California, with insights from girdled tanoaks

    Treesearch

    Leila Hadj-Chikh; Kerri Frangioso; Keyt Fischer; Sarah Bergemann; Ebba Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Although tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) acorns are a valuable source of food for many species of wildlife few data on tanoak acorn production exist. We conducted studies of acorn production in tanoaks to understand the potential impact of Phytophthora ramorum on acorn availability to wildlife. In 2002 we established 3-ha seed-...

  3. DOMELAND WILDERNESS, DOMELAND ADDITION, AND WOODPECKER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergquist, Joel R.; Spear, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Domeland Wilderness and the contiguous Domeland Addition and Woodpecker Roadless Areas delineated areas of substantiated and probable mineral-resource potential. The areas of substantiated resource potential are in the Woodpecker Roadless Area where alluvial gravel in Rockhouse Basin and on Upper Trout Creek contains small, irregular, low-grade deposits of placer gold. There is a probable resource potential for very small deposits of uranium in fractures in granitic rocks west of the South Fork of the Kern River in the Domeland Wilderness. Geochemical data indicate a probable potential for a porphyry-molybdenum deposit at the southern end of the Domeland Wilderness, and for very small deposits of tungsten, copper-lead-zinc, tin, silver, and molybdenum at several places in the wilderness and roadless areas. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

  4. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  5. Range expansion of pileated woodpecker in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural history writings from explorers such as M. Lewis, W. Clark, J. J. Audubon, S. F. Baird, and E. Coues failed to mention the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus ) in North Dakota throughout the 1800's. The first published reference to the species was in the early 1900's in the valley of the Red River of the North, part of the Agassiz Lake Plain of eastern North Dakota. Sightings increased in the Agassiz Lake Plain in the mid-1900's but remained rare west of the Agassiz Lake Plain until the late 1900's. Ornithologists suggest that the species has recently established small, permanent populations in the Turtle Mountains, Devils Lake area, and along the Sheyenne River, especially in the Sheyenne National Grassland. I present information that supports the idea that the pileated woodpecker is establishing populations in the aforementioned areas and is moving even farther west. I also document the presence of the pileated woodpecker along the James River and the first record for Stutsman County.

  6. Status of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker in Texas, 1985-1987

    Treesearch

    Brent Ortego; Richard N. Conner; Craig Rudolph

    1988-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was once a common species across the Southeastern United States. The species is specialized to live in old growth, open, park-like stands of pine. As the virgin pine forests in Texas were harvested, Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations declined (Hooper et al. 1980).

  7. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2010-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinusspp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in...

  8. An unusually large number of eggs laid by a breeding red-cockaded woodpecker female

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; James R. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species that typically uses a single cavity for nesting (Ligon 1970, Walters et al. 1988). A single tree, or aggregation of cavity trees, termed the cluster, is inhabited by a group of woodpeckers that includes a single breeding pair and up to several helpers, which are...

  9. Composition of mixed-species foraging flocks associated with red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis are known to be regular members of mixed species foraging flocks. We censused avian species associated with foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat and in mixed loblolly pine (P. taeda)-shortleaf pine (P. echinata...

  10. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocols for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.

  11. Red-cockaded woodpecker nutritional status in relation to habitat: Evidence from ptilochronology and body mass

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Sexual divergence in foraging behavior exhibited by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) should reduce intersexual competition for foraging sites. Males tend to forage at greater heights and on smaller stem diameters than females. It is well known that red-cockaded woodpeckers have an aversion to a well-developed stratum of midstory...

  12. Red-cockaded woodpecker nesting success, forest structure, and southern flying squirrels in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior in relation to midstory vegetation

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) nest and forage in pine-dominated forests. Research indicates that substantial hardwood midstory encroachment is detrimental to Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations, although the exact mechanisms are unknown. We examined foraging behavior in relation to midstory between August 1989 and February 1990. Red...

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    John C. Kilgo; Mark Vukovich

    2012-01-01

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006¨C2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in...

  15. Use of external nesting boxes by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    William E. Taylor; Robert G. Hooper

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) roost year-round in cavities they excavate in living pine trees. Cavity excavation is a lengthy process (Conner and Rudolph 1995a) and sometimes a member of a family group does not have an available cavity for roosting within its resident cluster of cavity trees. Woodpeckers without a cavity either roost...

  16. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Treesearch

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker use of seed-tree/shelterwood cuts in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Ann E. Snow; Kathleen A. O' Halloran

    1991-01-01

    Establishment or maintenance of suitable habitat for any wildlife species is an important aspect of its management, especially for endangered species such as the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker are declining over much of the bird's current range, most likely because of the lack of...

  18. Rainfall, El Niño, and reproduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) reproduction and rainfall during May when group members are provisioning nestlings with food. Patterns of variation over a 4-year period of approximately 30 woodpecker groups suggested that the mean number of hatchling deaths was positively related to...

  19. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  20. Red-cockaded woodpeckers vs rat snakes: the effectiveness of the resin barrier

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Howard Kyle; Richard N. Conner

    1990-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) excavate resin wells in the immediate vicinity of roost and nest cavity entrances. Resin wells are worked regularly, resulting in a copious and persistent resin flow that coats the tree trunk, especially below cavity entrances. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers also scale loose bark from cavity trees and closely adjacent trees....

  1. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  2. Long-distance dispersal of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species indigenous to the mature pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Continued loss and fragmentation of the mature forests of the South have increased the isolation of extant woodpecker groups throughout the range of this endangered species. The authors discuss long-distance...

  3. A Mobile Aviary to Enhance Translocation Success of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Charles A. Dachelet; Webb M. Smathers

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker is a federally endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States. The Federal Red-cockaded Woodpecker Recovery Plan emphasized restoration ofpopulations within physiographic provinces throughout their range to provide for region-wide, long-term survival. Restoration efforts included habitat enhancement and...

  4. Detection probabilities of woodpecker nests in mixed conifer forests in Oregon

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...

  5. Cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers in relation to tree age

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    We aged over 1350 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees and a comparable number of randomly selected trees. Resulting data strongly support the hypothesis that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers preferentially select older trees. Ages of recently initiated cavity trees in the Texas study areas generally were similar to those of cavity trees...

  6. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Treesearch

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  7. A forest model relevant to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides Borealis)

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; C.C. Rewerts; N.J. Hess

    2005-01-01

    Most forest models are created with timber production as the implied primacy. For many land managers, timber production is less important than production of habitat for wildlife. Red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) are one of the priorites for management of the forests at Ft. Benning army installation. To aid management, a model that integrates a red-cockaded woodpecker...

  8. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  9. Foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forest burns of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

    2012-01-01

    We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used...

  10. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2003-01-01

    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  11. Avian community response to southern pine ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) management on nontarget birds is not widely known. Intensive managentcnt for pine specialists such as the Red-cockaded Woodpecker may negatively impact both Nearctic-Neotropical and Temperate Zone migrants associated with hardwood vegetation. To evaluate possible positive and...

  12. aCORN: An experiment to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietfeldt, F. E.; Byrne, J.; Collett, B.; Dewey, M. S.; Jones, G. L.; Komives, A.; Laptev, A.; Nico, J. S.; Noid, G.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stern, I.; Trull, C.; Yerozolimsky, B. G.

    2009-12-01

    The aCORN experiment is designed to make a precision ( <1%) measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation ( a-coefficient) in neutron beta decay. It uses a new method proposed in 1996 by Yerozolimsky and Mostovoy. Electrons and recoil protons from neutron decay in a cold beam are detected in coincidence. The momenta of the particles are selected so that the protons form two kinematically distinct time-of-flight groups as a function of electron energy. The count rate asymmetry in these two groups is proportional to the a-coefficient. Precision spectroscopy of the protons is not required. The apparatus is currently under construction. It will be integrated and tested at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) and then moved to the NIST Center for Neutron Research for the initial physics run.

  13. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  14. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Mari, Yvett; Smathers, Webb

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W., Yvette Mari, and Webb Smathers. 2004. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 335-336. Abstract: Because translocations of male red-cockaded woodpeckers have been less successful (Costa and Kennedy 1994) and because translocations of females are dependent on the availability of established males, a technique to increase the success of translocations would be an important contribution to conservation efforts. Researchers from the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station hypothesized that by maintaining red-cockaded woodpeckers in an aviary prior to release the birds would develop an affinity for, and possibly imprint (Scott and Carpenter 1987) on their surroundings, and that this would increase their likelyhood of remaining in the cluster upon their release.

  15. The aCORN backscatter-suppressed beta spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. T.; Bateman, F.; Collett, B.; Darius, G.; DeAngelis, C.; Dewey, M. S.; Jones, G. L.; Komives, A.; Laptev, A.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Nico, J. S.; Noid, G.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stern, I.; Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    2017-09-01

    Backscatter of electrons from a beta detector, with incomplete energy deposition, can lead to undesirable effects in many types of experiments. We present and discuss the design and operation of a backscatter-suppressed beta spectrometer that was developed as part of a program to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient in neutron beta decay (aCORN). An array of backscatter veto detectors surrounds a plastic scintillator beta energy detector. The spectrometer contains an axial magnetic field gradient, so electrons are efficiently admitted but have a low probability for escaping back through the entrance after backscattering. The design, construction, calibration, and performance of the spectrometer are discussed.

  16. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Predict Woodpecker Presence at the Landscape Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Vierling, L. A.; Vierling, K.; Hudak, A. T.; Strand, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    Biodiversity assessments are increasingly important components of effective ecosystem management plans. Woodpeckers are considered a keystone species whose presence has been shown to be indicative of overall forest bird diversity at the landscape scale. This relationship likely exists because woodpeckers can provide nesting and foraging resources for other avian species, where few or none would otherwise exist. However, different woodpecker species are sensitive to different forest structural conditions (e.g. minimum tree diameter, proportion of snags to live trees). Current methods to identify specific locations of woodpecker presence rely on field observations which are time and resource intensive, and typically limited to the forest stand scale. Therefore, systematic assessments of potential woodpecker presence and overall forest bird diversity at broad scales require the use of remote sensing data. We used small footprint airborne lidar, large footprint satellite lidar from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), and woodpecker field survey data to predict the presence of woodpeckers in a coniferous forest in northwestern Idaho. We conducted woodpecker surveys at 72 sites coincident with airborne and GLAS lidar footprints across six forest structural stages modeled using airborne lidar. Vertical (e.g. mean and maximum canopy height) and horizontal (e.g. canopy closure) forest structure were quantified from lidar derived metrics and used with published habitat preferences of six woodpecker species to predict their presence. Similar vegetation structural metrics derived from collocated airborne lidar were used to quantify the accuracy of GLAS lidar vegetation metrics. Results indicate that while six woodpecker species were present in four of six structural classes, there is strong evidence to suggest preference for forests characterized by young and mature multistory structure, as opposed to forests characterized by stand initiation or understory

  17. Population differentiation in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of red-cockaded woodpeckers Picoides borealis.

    PubMed

    Haig, S M; Rhymer, J M; Heckel, D G

    1994-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) phenotypes generated by 13 primers were scored for 101 individuals in 14 populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis. Although no population-specific markers were found, the frequencies of several markers differed significantly among populations. Application of the recently developed AMOVA method (analysis of molecular variance; Excoffier, Smouse & Quattro 1992) showed that more than 90% of phenotypic variance occurred among individuals within populations; of the remaining variance, half was attributed among groups of geographically adjacent populations and half among populations within those groups. The statistical significance of these patterns was supported by Monte Carolo sampling simulations and permutation tests. Estimation of allele frequencies from phenotypes provided somewhat weaker evidence for population structure, although among-population variance in allele frequencies was detectable (Fst = 0.19; chi 2(169) = 509.3, P < 0.0001). UPGMA cluster analyses based on Rogers' (1972) genetic distance revealed grouping of some geographically proximate populations. A Mantel test indicated a positive (r = 0.16), although not significant, correlation between geographic and genetic distances. We compared a subset of our RAPD data with data from a previous study that used allozymes (Stangel, Lennartz & Smith 1992). RAPD (n = 75) and allozyme (n = 245) results based on samples from the same ten populations showed similar patterns. Our study indicates that RAPDs can be helpful in differentiating populations at the phenotypic level even when small sample sizes, estimation bias, and inability to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium complicate the genotypic interpretation. Lack of large differences among populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers may allow flexibility in interpopulation translocations, provided factors such as habitat preference, latitudinal direction of translocation, and status of donor

  18. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  19. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-01-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment. PMID:28378822

  20. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-05

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  1. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  2. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (< 1%). Diets of Golden-fronted Woodpecker nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  3. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  4. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    PubMed

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  5. Urbanization Level and Woodland Size Are Major Drivers of Woodpecker Species Richness and Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Myczko, Łukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species. PMID:24740155

  6. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  7. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat and Timber Management Production Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Roise; Joosang Chung; Richard Lancia; Mike Lennartz

    1990-02-01

    In order to mitigate the impact of longer rotations for the red-cockaded woodpecker on timber production, a multi-objective linear programming model was used. Various streams of habitat in relation to timber management were examined. Large areas immediately set aside for habitat may, in fact, lead to long term declines as a result of poor initial stand conditions. Timber production, harvesting and various silvicultural activities will have a short term impact but lead to long-term sustainable habitat condition for this species.

  8. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Acorn Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo to inform you that on March 10, 2010, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York issued the attached opinion, declaratory judgment, and permanent injunction in Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN).

  9. Context dependence of acorn handling by the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, D.; Morán-López, T.; Torre, I.; Navarro-Castilla, Á.; Barja, I.; Díaz, M.

    2017-10-01

    Perceived predation risk and competition for acorns are expected to affect scatter-hoarding decisions by Algerian mice (Mus spretus). We manipulated both factors by means of predator fecal scents and ungulate exclosures. We hypothesized that high-risk perception and ungulate presence would promote acorn dispersal. In the former case, it would stimulate acorn mobilization to safe microhabitats rather than in situ consumption. In the latter, increased competition for acorns would promote their storage for later consumption. We also expected that mice would adapt their foraging behavior to previous experience modulating the strength of these effects. In the presence of ungulates, mice focused their foraging activities on food acquisition at the expenses of vigilant behaviors. However, a more efficient foraging did not entail enhanced dispersal services. Lack of anti-predatory cover in tree surroundings may have deterred mice from transporting seeds outside canopies. Increased risk interacted with previous experience. In control trees (no predator odor), mice confidence increased throughout the night resulting in decreased vigilance and enhanced acorn mobilization rates. In contrast, in risky conditions (trees with predator odor) mice maintained a base-line vigilant behavior. Contrary to our expectations, increased risk did not result in higher acorn mobilization, but the opposite. Again, the scarcity of safe microhabitats for mobilization may have been the underlying cause of this behavior. Our results show that successful acorn dispersal depends, at least partly, on plant-animal relationships that are beyond the oak-rodent mutualism. Thus, any conservation policy aimed at restoring natural regeneration of oaks should take into account the interaction network in which oak-rodent encounters are embedded. In addition, they suggest that mice incorporate direct and indirect cues of risks (habitat structure) through recent experience. A better understanding of this process

  10. Acorn Production on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites: Pre-treatment Data

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Vangilder

    1997-01-01

    In the pre-treatment phase of a study to determine if even- and uneven-aged forest management affects the production of acorns on the Missourt Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites, acorn production was measured on the nine study sites by randomly placing from 2 to 6 plots in each of four ecological land type (ELT) groupings (N=130 plots). A split-plot...

  11. In vitro antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of crude ethyle alcohole extract of Quercus brantii L. acorn and subsequent fractions.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Karimi, Ali; Alidadi, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cell resistance to widely used chemotherapeutic agents is gradually developed. Natural products, mainly isolated from medicinal plants, have been considered as valuable sources for herbal anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of crude ethyle alcohole extract and four fractions of Q. brantii acorn. Crude ethyle alcohole extract of Q. brantii acorn was prepared and subjected to fractionation with different polarity. Subsequently, the extract and the fractions wereevaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity in two cancerous (Hela and AGS) and one normal (HDFs) cell lines using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2ol) 2, 5 diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. To determine whether the cytotoxicity of these compounds involved the induction of apoptosis, Hela cells were treated with IC50 concentrations of test compounds, stained with both propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the cell viability was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with crude ethyle alcohole extract and Cholophorm and n-Butanol fractions. Based on the probit regression model, antiproliferative activities of crude ethyle alcohole extract, Cholophorm fraction, and n-Butanol fraction on Hela and AGS cells and HDFs cells were significantly different (P < 0.001). The results of flow cytometric analysis showed that crude ethyle alcohole extract and two fractions of Q. brantii acorn induced early apoptotic cell death. These findings suggest that crude ethyle alcohole extract and Cholophorm and n-Butanol fractions of Q. brantii acorn suppress the proliferation of cancer cells through induction of early apoptosis.

  12. Electron microscopy and composition of raw acorn starch in relation to in vivo starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Alesso, Giuseppe Andrea; Nieddu, Giuseppa; Sanna, Marina; Pinna, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The structure and composition of starch play an important role as co-factors affecting raw starch digestibility: such features were investigated in raw acorn starch from the most diffused oak trees in the Mediterranean basin. A total of 620 whole ripe acorns from Holm (Quercus ilex L., n = 198), Downy (Quercus pubescens Willd., n = 207) and Cork (Quercus suber L., n = 215) oaks sampled on the Sardinia Isle (40° 56' 0'' N; 9° 4' 0'' E; 545 m above the mean sea level) in the same geographical area, were analyzed for their chemical composition. The starch contents ranged between 51.2% and 53.5% of dry matter. The starch granules displayed a spheroid/ovoid and cylindrical shape; on scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses, a bimodal distribution of starch granule size was observed both for Holm and Cork oak acorns, whereas the starch granules of Downy oak acorns showed diameters between 10.2 and 13.8 μm. The specific amylose to amylopectin ratio of acorn starch was 25.8%, 19.5% and 34.0% in the Holm, Downy and Cork oaks, respectively. The (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal analysis displayed a pivotal spectrum for the identification of the amylose peaks in raw acorn starch, as a basis for the amylose to amylopectin ratio determination.

  13. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  14. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  15. Lethal Procyrnea infection in a black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) from California.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rodney B; Bond, Monica L; Wilkerson, Robert L; Barr, Bradd C; Gardiner, Chris H; Kinsella, John M

    2012-06-01

    The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is a species of management concern in California. As part of a study of black-backed woodpecker home range size and foraging ecology, nine birds in Lassen National Forest (Shasta and Lassen Counties, California) were radio-tracked during the 2011 breeding season. One of the marked birds was found dead after being tracked for a 10-wk period in which it successfully nested. A postmortem examination of the dead bird revealed that it was emaciated and autolyzed, with the presumptive cause being numerous spiruroid nematodes of the genus Procyrnea in the gizzard. This first observation of Procyrnea nematodes in a black-backed woodpecker is notable because the Procyrnea infection was considered lethal and because Procyrnea has been implicated in substantial die-offs in other bird species, including woodpeckers.

  16. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  17. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  18. Relation of ramet size to acorn production in five oak species of xeric upland habitats in south-central Florida.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

    2002-01-01

    This study examined variation in two components of acorn production. Percentage of bearing ramets (stems) and number of acorns per bearing ramet were examined in five clonal oaks in three xeric habitats of south-central peninsular Florida in relation to ramet size within and between species and vegetative associations. Counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and three red oaks (Q. inopina, Q. laevis, and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually from 1969 to 1996 (except in 1991) on permanent grids in southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, and scrubby flatwoods associations at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA. Percentage of bearing individuals and mean number of acorns per bearing individual increased with increasing ramet size for all species across all vegetation associations. However, in Q. geminata and Q. myrtifolia, acorn production declined in the largest size class (>3.2 m), implying that larger individuals of these clonal species may become senescent. All oak species in sand pine scrub, which had a nearly closed overstory, had lower frequencies of bearing oaks and mean numbers of acorns compared with similar-sized individuals of the same species in the more open-canopied southern ridge sandhill and scrubby flatwoods associations, suggesting light limitation. The annual production of acorns by a given oak species was correlated across vegetative associations and annual acorn production of oak species was correlated for species within the same section. Intermediate-size class oaks contributed the most acorns per unit area, suggesting that stands managed with short fire-return times will provide fewer acorns to wildlife than stands managed to produce more variable distributions of oak size classes. However, our study suggests that long-unburned stands, such as those studied here, will maintain relatively constant levels of acorn production as a consequence of ramet replacement within the clones of these shrubby oaks

  19. The response of adult red-cockaded woodpeckers to a fallen nestling

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    The response of adult Red-cockaded Woodpeckers to a fallen nestling- On 31 May 1990, while watching a pair of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) feeding two 20- day-old nestlings, we observed the following behavior. At 6:30 DST, the adult male flew to the entrance of the nest cavity with prey. He did not immediately offer the prey to the...

  20. A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James M. McCormick; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    During a study of red cockaded woodpecker (P icoides borealis) nesting in eastern Texas, we discovered a single breeding pair of woodpeckers with two simultaneous nests in nest trees that were 24 m apart. Incubation of eggs in each nest tree was at least 13 d and may have been as long as 16 d. The breeding male incubated and fed a nestling in one...

  1. Woodpecker abundance and habitat use in three forest types in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    Woodpeckers were censused in 60 fixed-radius (300 m) circular plots (divided into eight 45B-arc pie-shaped sectors) in mature forests (60 to 80 years-old) of three forest types (20 plots per type) in eastern Texas: bottomland hardwood forest; longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savanna; and mixed pine-hardwood forest. A total of 2,242 individual woodpeckers of eight...

  2. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).

    PubMed

    Dylewski, Łukasz; Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine.

  3. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine. PMID:28584699

  4. Genetic evidence for kin aggregation in the intertidal acorn barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides).

    PubMed

    Veliz, David; Duchesne, Pierre; Bourget, Edwin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2006-11-01

    It is generally assumed that larvae of benthic species are thoroughly mixed in the plankton and distributed randomly at settlement. Yet, it has also been hypothesized that a combination of larval gregarious behaviour coupled with particular oceanographic conditions may prevent larvae from mixing completely, and result in nonrandom spatial distributions following settlement. Using microsatellite markers, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of statistical connections between relatedness and settlement in the intertidal acorn barnacle from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that patches of kin-related individuals came from a common parental site. Our results indicated that a significant number of barnacles within a given sample were more closely related than expected by chance despite the enormous potential for admixture during the planktonic phase. Thus, eight out of 37 samples analysed had relatedness values significantly higher than expected from random settlement. Moreover, analyses of sibship network construction and network complexity tests provided evidence for the occurrence of networks within several samples that were characterized by strong connections among individuals. Thus, nonrandom planktonic dispersal associated with relatively stable oceanic currents, as well as additional ecological factors to be rigorously investigated (e.g. behavioural mechanisms), may be more important in determining patterns of genetic structure in marine benthic invertebrates than generally assumed. Therefore, documenting genetic patterns associated with kin aggregation should be a fruitful and an important avenue for future studies in marine invertebrates.

  5. Dung Beetles Eat Acorns to Increase Their Ovarian Development and Thermal Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Casas, José L.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects. PMID:20404931

  6. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Verdú, José R; Casas, José L; Lobo, Jorge M; Numa, Catherine

    2010-04-09

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  7. The Insect Guild of White Oak Acorns: Its Effect on Mast Quality in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Mangini; Roger W. Perry

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Hardwood regeneration, especially of oaks, is an essential component of ecosystem management in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. In addition, oak mast is an important wildlife food. Several species of insects inhabit and consume acorns. Data on the insect guild inhabiting white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns...

  8. Acorn Production Characteristics of Southern Appalachian Oaks: A Simple Method to Predict Within-Year Crop Size

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2000-01-01

    We examined acorn production from 1993-97 by black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) in the Southern Appalichians to determine how frequency of acorn...

  9. Impact of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Acorn quality is an integral part of artificial oak regeneration. Progeny from individual mother trees of similar geographic areas frequently exhibited a wide range of germination percentage. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of acorn moisture content (MC) at sowing on germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  10. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Filbert Weevil Infested Acorns in an Oak Woodland in Marin County, California

    Treesearch

    Vernard R. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred shoots contained within randomly selected locations from each of thirty-six coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, trees were sampled to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of acorns infested by the filbert weevil, Curculio occidentis in northern California during 1989. The seasonal abundance of infested acorns...

  11. Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

    2008-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees.

  12. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  13. Isolation and characterization of agglutinins from the hemolymph of an acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Muramoto, K; Goto, R

    1987-01-01

    Two agglutinins, MVA-1 and MVA-2, were isolated from the hemolymph of the acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano. They agglutinated human erythrocytes irrespective of the ABO blood group and also rabbit and sheep blood cells. Lactose and fetuin strongly inhibited the hemagglutinating activity. D-galactose, D-arabinose and N-acetylneuraminic acid were also moderate inhibitors. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both MVA-1 and MVA-2 gave a single band corresponding to 38,000 daltons. It split into one major band with a molecular weight of 23,000 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The two agglutinins showed the same apparent molecular weight of 116,000 by gel filtration. In isoelectric focusing MVA-1 showed one band at pH 4.8, whereas MVA-2 gave a main band at pH 4.4 with few faint ones in the range between pH 4.0 and 4.8. The agglutinins were glycoproteins containing D-mannose and L-fucose as carbohydrate components. No precipitation reaction was observed in Ouchterlony immuno-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera against the agglutinins from the phylogenetically related Megabalanus rosa.

  14. Stable genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments: balance between asymmetrical dispersal and selection in the acorn barnacle.

    PubMed

    Véliz, D; Duchesne, P; Bourget, E; Bernatchez, L

    2006-03-01

    Elucidating the processes responsible for maintaining polymorphism at ecologically relevant genes is intimately related to understanding the interplay between selection imposed by habitat heterogeneity and a species' capacity for dispersal in the face of environmental constraints. In this paper, we used a model-based approach to solve equilibria of balanced polymorphism, given values of fitness and larval dispersal among different habitats in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides from the Gulf of St Lawrence. Our results showed that allele frequencies observed at both MPI* and GPI* loci represented stable equilibria, given empirical estimates of fitness values, and that considerably more larvae dispersed from one region (north) to the other (south) than vice versa. Dispersal conditions were predicted to be similar for the maintenance of polymorphism at both loci. Moreover, the values of asymmetrical dispersal required by the model to reach stable equilibria were compatible with empirical estimates of larval dispersal and oceanic circulation documented in this system. Overall, this study illustrated the usefulness of a modified and computable version of Bulmer's model (1972) in order to test hypotheses of balanced polymorphism resulting from interactions between spatial selection and asymmetrical dispersal.

  15. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Treesearch

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  16. Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas.

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 89: 315-321, 2004. To determine the prevalence of Phellinus pini in pines generally and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees specifically, we dissected 24 loblolly pines (...

  17. Injection of 2,4-D to remove hardwood midstory within red-cockaded woodpecker colony areas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner

    1989-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984 to 1986, after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2,4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the...

  18. Comparison of arthropod prey of red-cockaded woodpeckers on the boles of long-leaf and loblolly pines

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of most southern pines. Woodpeckers may select trees based on arthropod availability, yet no published studies have evaluated differences in arthropod abundance on different species of pines. We used knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf (Pinus palustris...

  19. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  20. Success of intensive management of a critically imperiled population of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    By late 1985, the population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoider borealis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, had declined to a low of four individuals. Because of extensive timber harvesting prior to thr 1950s,the older live pine trees that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers require for cavity construction were limited. We monitored the response of the population to...

  1. Nest success of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forests with mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2008-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are burned-forest specialists that rely on beetles (Coleoptera) for food. In the Black Hills, South Dakota, standing dead forests resulting from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks offer food resources for Black-backed Woodpeckers, in addition to providing habitat...

  2. Short-term effects of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon—a pilot study.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Abe A. Clark; Jay F. Shepherd

    2005-01-01

    To determine the short-term effects (1 to 3 years posttreatment) of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in northeastern Oregon, we compared measures of abundance of logs, snags, stumps, and of woodpecker foraging in mixed-conifer stands that had undergone the following treatments: prescribed burning after mechanical fuel...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of the woodpecker genera Colaptes and Piculus, and implications for the history of woodpecker diversification in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, William S; Overton, Lowell C; Miglia, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    The woodpecker genus Colaptes (flickers) has its highest diversity in South America and the closely related genus Piculus is restricted to South and Central America. Two species of flickers occur in North America, and one species is endemic to Cuba. We conducted a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial encoded genes (cyt b, COI, 12S rRNA) and confirmed that the two genera are paraphyletic. Three species historically classified as Piculus are actually flickers. We found that the Cuban endemic C. fernandinae is the most basal species within the flickers and that the Northern Flicker is the next most basal species within the Colaptes lineage. The South American clade is most derived. The age of the South American diversification is estimated to be 3.6MY, which is synchronous with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. The pattern of diversification of South American flickers is common among South American woodpeckers. Although woodpeckers have their greatest diversity in South America, we hypothesize that woodpeckers (Family Picidae) originated in Eurasia, dispersed to North America via the Bering land bridge, and multiple lineages entered South America as the Isthmus approached its final closing.

  4. Acorn mast drives long-term dynamics of rodent and songbird populations.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Pedersen, Amy B; Cranford, Jack A; Ram, Nilam; Snajdr, Eric A; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2007-12-01

    Resource pulses can have cascading effects on the dynamics of multiple trophic levels. Acorn mast is a pulsed resource in oak-dominated forests that has significant direct effects on acorn predators and indirect effects on their predators, prey, and pathogens. We evaluated changes in acorn mast, rodent abundance, raptor abundance, and reproductive success of a ground-nesting songbird over a 24-year period (1980-2004) in the southern Appalachian Mountains in an effort to determine the relationships among the four trophic levels. In particular, we examined the following: acorn mast from red oaks (Quercus rubra) and white oaks (Q. alba), abundance of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and deer mice (P. maniculatus), population estimates of seven raptor species from three feeding guilds, and nest failure and number of juveniles of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). Finally, we recorded seasonal temperature and precipitation to determine the effects of weather on each trophic level. We found that weather patterns had delayed effects of up to 3 years on these trophic interactions. Variation in acorn mast, the keystone resource in this community, was explained by weather conditions as far back as 2 years before the mast event. Acorn mast, in turn, was a strongly positive predictor of rodent abundance the following year, whereas spring and summer temperature and raptor abundance negatively affected rodent abundance. Dark-eyed junco nests were more likely to fail in years in which there were more rodents and raptors. Nest failure rate was a strong predictor of the number of juvenile juncos caught at the end of the summer. Our results improve our understanding of the complex ecological interactions in oak-dominated forests by illustrating the importance of abiotic and biotic factors at different trophic levels.

  5. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field.

  6. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  7. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  8. Trade-offs between vegetative growth and acorn production in Quercus lobata during a mast year: the relevance of crop size and hierarchical level within the canopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Sork, Victoria L; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2011-05-01

    The concept of trade-offs between reproduction and other fitness traits is a fundamental principle of life history theory. For many plant species, the cost of sexual reproduction affects vegetative growth in years of high seed production through the allocation of resources to reproduction at different hierarchical levels of canopy organization. We have examined these tradeoffs at the shoot and branch level in an endemic California oak, Quercus lobata, during a mast year. To determine whether acorn production caused a reduction in vegetative growth, we studied trees that were high and low acorn producers, respectively. We observed that in both low and high acorn producers, shoots without acorns located adjacent to reproductive shoots showed reduced vegetative growth but that reduced branch-level growth on acorn-bearing branches occurred only in low acorn producers. The availability of local resources, measured as previous year growth, was the main factor determining acorn biomass. These findings show that the costs of reproduction varied among hierarchical levels, suggesting some degree of physiological autonomy of shoots in terms of acorn production. Costs also differed among trees with different acorn crops, suggesting that trees with large acorn crops had more available resources to allocate for growth and acorn production and to compensate for immediate local costs of seed production. These findings provide new insight into the proximate mechanisms for mast-seeding as a reproductive strategy.

  9. Acorn consumption improves the immune response of the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Verdú, José R; Casas, José L; Cortez, Vieyle; Gallego, Belén; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO) content, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness.

  10. Leaf Biomass and Acorn Production in a Thinned 30-Year-Old Cherrybark Oak Plantation

    Treesearch

    Erika L. Stelzer; Jim L. Chamgers; James S. Meadows; Kenneth F. Ribbeck

    2004-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of two levels of thinning on leaf biomass and acorn production of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.). To evaluate the effects of thinning 2 years after treatment, treatment plots were selected and blocked on the basis of initial stocking levels. Two levels of stocking and a control were...

  11. Influence of weather at time of pollenation on acorn production of Quercus alba and Quercus velutina

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Cecich; Neal H. Sullivan

    1999-01-01

    Pistillate flower development and acorn production were observed in small populations of white oak (Quercus alba L.) and black oak (Quercus velurina Lam.) in central Missouri from 1990 to 1997. There were significant year-year differences in the size of flower crops for both species and significant tree-tree differences in black...

  12. Pin oak acorn production and regeneration as affected by stand density, structure and flooding

    Treesearch

    Leon S. Minckler; Robert E. McDermott

    1960-01-01

    Pin oak (Quercus palustris Muench.) is an important tree species common on wet, heavy soils in the Central States region. Until recently, however, the silvics of this species has been neglected (Minckler, 1957). In an effort to provide some of the missing information, a study was begun several years ago to find our more about pin oak acorn production...

  13. Acorn Production and Tree Growth of Nuttall Oak in a Green-Tree Reservoir

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1983-01-01

    Green-tree reservoirs, created by flooding live timber stands, provide resting places and food for wintering waterfowl. The effects of winter flooding in terms of acorn production and growth of Nuttall oaks were studied in a reservoir which had been flooded annually for 15 years and in a nearby unflooded site. The study, which lasted for 5 years, included four tree...

  14. Acorn Consumption Improves the Immune Response of the Dung Beetle Thorectes lusitanicus

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Casas, José L.; Cortez, Vieyle; Gallego, Belén; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO) content, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness. PMID:23874934

  15. Effects of desiccation on the physiology and biochemistry of Quercus alba acorns

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; Sharon Sowa

    2003-01-01

    Seeds that lose viability when dried to a water content of less than 12% are said to be recalcitrant. We subjected acorns of Quercus alba L., a species with recalcitrant seeds, to desiccation to determine the effects of drying on lipids, proteins and carbohydrates of the embryonic axis and cotyledon tissues. Samples of fresh seed and seed dried for...

  16. Determinants of Acorn Productivity Among Five Species of Oaks in Central Coastal California

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; William J. Carmen; Mark T. Stanback; Mumme Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    We measured acorn production of five species of oaks (genus Quercus) over a ten year period (1980-1989) at Hastings Reservation in Monterey County, California. Crop production was highly variable and generally asynchronous between species. Variance in crop size decreased directly with increasing species diversity across sub-areas within the study...

  17. Attraction of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana (lepidoptera:tortricidae) to pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    J.W. Peacock; S.L. Wright; J.R. Galford

    1988-01-01

    Males of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana are attracted to an equilibrium mixture of the four isomers of 8, I10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate, the virgin female-produced pheromone. Trap height relative to the height of trees in which traps are placed seems to be a significant factor influencing moth catches at attractant-baited traps. In an oak woodlot...

  18. The effect of small rodents on northern red oak acorns in north-central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Gribko; David M. Hix

    1993-01-01

    The effects of small mammals on surface-sown northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorns was assessed in highly productive Appalachian hardwood stands. Study plots were established in October 1990 on excellent (average site index of 89 feet for red oak) and good (average site index of 72 feet) sites. Each plot included: 1) a rodent-proof exclosure, 2) an exclosure...

  19. Tannin extraction pretreatment and very high gravity fermentation of acorn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Chao, Bin; Liu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Xueling; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    The bioethanol production from a novel non-grain feedstock, acorn starch, was studied in this work. The inhibition of tannin in strain growth was investigated, and the effect of tannin was negligible when the tannin concentration was lower than 1g/L in medium. Therefore, the extraction of tannin was performed using 40% (v/v) ethanol-water solution as the solvent for three times under the conditions of solid/liquid ratio 1:20, 60°C, 3h, by which more than 80% of tannin in acorn was extracted and the content of tannin in acorn decreased from 7.4% (w/w) to 1.5% (w/w). Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation technology was subsequently carried out to achieve a high ethanol concentration at 86.4g/L. A comprehensive process for bioethanol production from acorn starch was designed and a preliminary economic assessment was then performed revealing that this process appeared technically and economically justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hopping and climbing gait of Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers (Picoides kizuki).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki; Kawakami, Kazuto; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Single cycles of hopping and climbing were investigated in Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers Picoides kizuki using motion analyses on video. Body movements on substrate angled from 0-90 degrees were compared for every 10 degrees. The body was inclined forward during stance phase for both small and large substrate angles, and the inclination amplitude increased when the substrate angle increased. The tail was bent ventrally almost simultaneously to this body inclination, and its amplitude was apparently high at large substrate angles. Most of the gait parameters changed when the stride length increased. The minimum body-tail angle and most of the parameters representing body movements during stance phase changed when the substrate angle increased, probably because gravity pulled the birds further backward when they were moving on a steeper slope. These parameters showed a clear difference between the data on substrate steeper than 40 degrees and lower than 30 degrees. The abrupt changes in these parameters most likely mean that the motor pattern changed from hopping to climbing between these angles.

  1. Nonbreeding season pairing behavior and the annual cycle of testosterone in male and female downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Wingfield, John C; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2004-12-01

    Studies in birds show that testosterone (T) concentrations vary over the annual cycle depending on mating system and life history traits. Socially monogamous species show pairing behavior throughout the year and low levels of male-male aggression and are underrepresented in these studies, yet the function of testosterone could be particularly important for sexual and social interactions occurring outside the breeding season. We measured fecal T concentrations over the annual cycle and the frequency of interactions between male and female downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) from late fall through early spring. We validated the fecal assay by collecting blood in conjunction with a subsample of our fecal samples: fecal T correlated with circulating levels in the blood. The annual peak level of T in males was relatively low and short-lived, similar to that of other bird species with low levels of male-male aggression and high paternal care. The annual cycle of female T resembled the male pattern, and the ratio of male T to female T was close to 1.0. Likewise, the frequency of aggression among females was similar to the frequency among males. Overall, testosterone levels in both sexes were variable, even in winter. In other bird species, sexual behavior during nonbreeding periods correlates with circulating levels of T in males. Based on this observation, we tested the hypothesis that T in winter was positively related to the frequency of interaction between mated downy woodpeckers. The results showed no such relationship. We discuss this finding and further relate the annual cycle of T in both males and females to behaviors that appear to facilitate mate choice and retention of the pair bond during conspecific challenge.

  2. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker population trends and management on Texas national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1994-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...

  4. Forest fragmentation and Red-cockaded Woodpecker population: an analysis at intermediate scale

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1994-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker population on the Sam Houston National Forest in Texas was surveyed during 1988. The 128 active clusters present make this population one of the largest in existence. Pine stand ages varied considerably across the forest. Correlation analysis indicated that stand area in excess of 60 yr of age is positively correlated with measures of...

  5. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  6. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  7. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Thomas S. Risch; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels...

  8. Report of the American Ornithologists' Union Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Peter B. Stacey; Richard N. Conner; Carl E. Bock; Curtis S. Adkisson

    1986-01-01

    The American Ornithologists' Union's Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker was formed in late 1983 by Dr. Thomas R. Howell, then president of the A.O.U., at the request of Warren B. King of the United States Section of the International Council for Bird Preservation. The Committee's charge was to review the status of the federally...

  9. A Review of: The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Surviving in a Fire-Maintained Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2002-01-01

    This is a comprehensive treatise on an endangered species that covers both the species' biology and its conservation and recovery. Organized in textbook fashion, the volume includes a review of the most important aspects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) ecology and conservation. The 12 chapters cover this species' taxonomy,...

  10. The conservation crisis: the Red-cockaded Woodpecker: on the road to oblivion?

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Wilson W. Baker; Richard N. Conner; Jerome A. Jackson; Frances C. James; D. Craig Rudolph; Peter B. Stacey; Jeffrey R. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Our purpose is to consider the case of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis), another continental species that appears to be on a trajectory toward extinction. Although this species has been on the endangered species list and thus legally protected by the Endangered Species Act since 1973, its situation has steadily worsened. The Red-...

  11. Factors that influence translocation success in the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  12. Factors that Influence Translocation Succcess on the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  13. Response of Woodpecker's Head during Pecking Process Simulated by Material Point Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Zhang, Xiong; Yu, T X

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of brain injury in woodpeckers under high deceleration during the pecking process has been an intriguing biomechanical problem for a long time. Several studies have provided different explanations, but the function of the hyoid bone, one of the more interesting skeletal features of a woodpecker, still has not been fully explored. This paper studies the relationship between a woodpecker head's response to impact and the hyoid bone. Based on micro-CT scanning images, the material point method (MPM) is employed to simulate woodpecker's pecking process. The maximum shear stress in the brainstem (SSS) is adopted as an indicator of brain injury. The motion and deformation of the first cervical vertebra is found to be the main reason of the shear stress of the brain. Our study found that the existence of the hyoid bone reduces the SSS level, enhances the rigidity of the head, and suppresses the oscillation of the endoskeleton after impact. The mechanism is explained by a brief mechanical analysis while the influence of the material properties of the muscle is also discussed.

  14. Exertional myopathy in a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe...

  15. Mapping Potential Ivory Billed Woodpecker Habitat using Lidar and Hyperspectral Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatantran, A.; Dubayah, R.; Hofton, M.; Blair, J. B.; Handley, L.

    2008-12-01

    Multisensor fusion is a powerful approach towards characterizing forest structure for effective management of wildlife habitats. The rediscovery of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker in 2005 reinforced the need to map and conserve suitable habitat for the previously thought extinct bird. In this study we fused waveform lidar and hyperspectral data to map potential habitat for the woodpecker along the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas. Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data was processed to produce high-resolution forest structure maps. We used multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to map stressed and dead vegetation from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. LVIS and AVIRIS maps were fused to identify habitat hot-spots based on historical records of habitat preferences of the bird. Results indicate several small hotspots in the bottomland hardwood forests, but very few large and continuous patches qualify as potential woodpecker habitat. Results from this study are expected to aid search efforts for the woodpecker and also provide useful insights into lidar fusion for large scale habitat mapping.

  16. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  17. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker status and management: West Gulf Coastal Plain and Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Dawn K. Carrie; N. Ross Carrie; Ricky W. Maxey; Warren G. Montague; Joe Neal; Kenneth Moore; John Skeen; Jeffrey A. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker populations declined precipitously following European settlement and expansion and cutting of the original pine forests across the southeastern United States. By 1990 most residual populations lacked demographic viability, existed in degraded habitat, and were isolated from other populations. The primary causes of this situation were harvest of...

  19. Relationships among red-cockaded woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Clifford E. Shackelford

    1999-01-01

    We examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) food provisioning rates of nestlings during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons on the Vernon Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Provisioning rates were monitored at nest trees in moderate (9.8 groups/2 km radius, n=10) and low (5.9 groups/2 km radius, n=10) density...

  20. Initial and long-term use of inserts by red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    Artificial cavities have become a standard management technique for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). Seventy cavity inserts were installed in our study sites on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas from 1990 to 1995. Eighty-two percent of the inserts were used for at least one year. It is still too early to make a direct...

  1. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  2. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2004-01-01

    Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  4. Quantification of Lewis's Woodpecker habitat using Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Treesearch

    Chris Witt

    2009-01-01

    The Utah Department of Natural Resources' Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) placed Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) on their Sensitive Species Tier II list due to declining populations and suspected local extirpations throughout the state. It is thought that the decline in burned coniferous forest has reduced the amount of suitable...

  5. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Treesearch

    Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Vicki Saab; Richard W. Frenzel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability...

  6. The red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree: A very special pine

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Robert H. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The adaptation of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has included the development of behaviors that permit the species to use living pines for their cavity trees. Their adaptation to pine ecosystems has also involved a major adjustment in the species' breeding system to cooperative breeding,...

  7. Space use by white-headed woodpeckers and selection for recent forest disturbances

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard; Martin G. Raphael

    2015-01-01

    White-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) are important cavity excavators that recently have become the focus of much research because of concerns over population declines. Past studies have focused on nest site selection and survival but information is needed on factors influencing their space use when away from the nest. We examined space...

  8. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Treesearch

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  9. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers feeding at red-cockaded woodpecker resin wells

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    1991-01-01

    Yellowbellied Sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius) excavate rows of holes into the cambium of various tree species and feed on the exuded sap (Kilham 1956, Tate 1973). Several other species including Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), Tufted Titmouse (Parus bicolor), and Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus...

  10. Hairy woodpecker winter ecology in ponderosa pine forests representing different ages since wildfire

    Treesearch

    Kristin A Covert-Bratland; William M. Block; Tad C. Theimer

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how changes in vegetation structure and prey resources following wildfire affected the winter ecology of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. Using point-counts, radiotelemetry, and focal bird observation, we assessed the relative abundance, home...

  11. Insert Modifications Improve Access to Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Next Cavities

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Ernest E. Stevens; Charles A. Dachelet

    1997-01-01

    A designfor a modified, artificial Red-cockaded Woodpecker(Picoides borealis) cavity insert is presented. This modification allowed eggs and young to be inspected easily, removed, and replaced throughout the nesting period. Modifications to cavity inserts are best done before installation, but can be easily retrofitted in existing artificial cavities...

  12. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  13. Arthropod prey of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1995-01-01

    Four nest cavities of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were monitored with automatic cameras to determine the prey selected to feed nestlings. Twelve adults were photographed making nearly 3000 nest visits. Prey in 28 arthropod taxa were recognizable in 65% of the photographic slides. Wood roaches in the genus (Parcoblutta...

  14. Longleaf pine characteristics associated with arthropods available for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb; William D Pepper

    2000-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of living pine trees for a variety of arthropods. To assess the availability of prey under differing stand conditions, the authors sampled arthropods that crawled up the boles of 300 living longleaf pine trees (Pinus palustris) ranging in age from 20 to 100 years with...

  15. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  16. Heart Rot and Cavity Tree Selection by Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Michael R. Lennartz; H. David Muse

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies implied that decayed heartwood was important to cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealfs), but the results were inconclusive because they either lacked a control or were limited to 1 age class of trees. We compared the incidence of heart rot in loblolly and longleaf pines (Pinus taeda...

  17. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Treesearch

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  18. Home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned forests of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab

    2007-01-01

    We examined home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) / Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following fire). Home range size for 4 adult males during the post-fledging period was 115....

  19. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have resulted in mixed success as many translocated birds either disappeared...

  20. Influence of ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers on breeding bird and small mammal communities

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Masters; Christopher W. Wilson; Douglas S. Cram; George A. Bukenhofer; Robert L. Lochmiller

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine-bluestem (Pinus echinata Mill.- Andropogon spp.) restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) has been underway for more than 2 decades on the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. Restoration efforts consist of modifying stand structure to basal areas similar to presettlement times...

  1. Habitat Characteristics of Active and Abandoned Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colonies

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; William D. Pepper; Arlene T. Doyle

    1992-01-01

    Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft2/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in...

  2. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  3. Biogeography and diversification dynamics of the African woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of species accumulation of African terrestrial vertebrates over time remains underexplored in comparison with those in the New World, despite Africa hosting about 25% of the world's avian diversity. This lack of knowledge hampers our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive biodiversity and the dynamics of speciation. To begin to address this gap, we reconstructed species-level phylogenies of two unrelated clades of African woodpeckers (12 species of Geocolaptes/Campethera and 13 species of Chloropicus/Mesopicos/Dendropicos/Ipophilus) that diverged from their closest Indo-Malayan relatives at similar times. Our results demonstrate that the current taxonomy is misleading: three (Campethera, Dendropicos and Mesopicos) out of four polytpic genera/subgenera are not monophyletic. Our results also show that current estimates of diversity at the species level are significantly understated, as up to 18 species for the 'Campethera clade' and 19 for the 'Dendropicos clade' could be recognized. The first splits within both clades involve species that are largely restricted to the Guineo-Congolian biogeographic regions, followed by later adaptations to particular habitats (forest versus savannah) and colonization of other regions (e.g. Southern Africa), each of which occurred multiple times in both clades. Assuming a conservative species delimitation scheme, our results indicate that diversification rates are decreasing through time for both clades. Applying a more extreme species recognition scheme (18 and 19 species for the Campethera and Dendropicos clades, respectively), our results support a decrease in diversification rates only for the Dendropicos clade and thus underline the importance of the number of species included in our diversification analyses. Greater ecological diversity of the Campethera clade where multiple species exhibit either an arboreal or terrestrial foraging strategy might explain the constant diversification rates through

  4. Manipulation of walnuts to facilitate opening by the great spotted woodpecker (Picoides major): is it tool use?

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Steele, Michael A; Shen, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    True tool use has been documented in some bird species, but to our knowledge, it has not been shown in woodpeckers. Here, we investigated the ability of Picoides major to open nuts of Juglans mandshurica by consistently inserting walnuts between tree branches in a specific position that facilitated nut opening. As seen in these birds, we showed that woodpeckers removed 96% of the nuts of J. mandshurica from experimental seed trays and inserted each nut in a precise position that specifically allowed nut cracking. When we inserted nuts in an alternative position, woodpeckers manipulated and repositioned nuts to allow nut opening. In contrast, when we inserted the nuts in positions preferred for nut opening, woodpeckers did not alter their position and instead opened the nuts. We suggest that the origin of this behavior, as in other forms of tool use, likely requires a higher cognitive ability in these birds.

  5. Red-cockaded woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sabine national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.

  6. Resolution of phylogenetic relationships among recently evolved species as a function of amount of DNA sequence: an empirical study based on woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, V R; Moore, W S

    2000-07-01

    Synonymous substitutions in the 13 mitochondrial encoded protein genes form a large pool of characters that should approach the ideal for phylogenetic analysis of being independently and identically distributed. Pooling sequences from multiple mitochondrial protein-coding genes should result in statistically more powerful estimates of relationships among species that diverged sufficiently recently that most nucleotide substitutions are synonymous. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced for woodpecker species for which cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences were available. A pairing-design test based on the normal distribution indicated that cyt b evolves more rapidly than COI when all nucleotides are compared but their rates are equal for synonymous substitutions. Nearly all of the phylogenetically informative substitutions among woodpeckers are synonymous. Statistical support for relationships, as measured by bootstrap proportions, increased as the number of nucleotides increased from 1047 (cyt b) to 1512 (COI) to 2559 nucleotides (aggregate data set). Pseudo-bootstrap replicates showed the same trend and increasing the amount of sequence beyond the actual length of 2559 nucleotides to 5120 (2x) resulted in stronger bootstrap support, even though the amount of phylogenetic information was the same. However, the amount of sequence required to resolve an internode depends on the length of the internode and its depth in the phylogeny.

  7. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    PubMed

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  8. Parasitic helminths of red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Walters, Eric L; Schrader, Mathew S; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-12-01

    Seventy-four red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest (30 degrees 10'N, 84 degrees 40'W) in northwest Florida were examined for helminths. The most prevalent parasites were the nematode Aproctella stoddardi (11%) and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus centurorum (11%). New host records include Pseudaprocta samueli, A. stoddardi, Tridentocapillaria tridens, Diplotriaena americana, Dispharynx nasuta, Procyrnea pileata, Orthoskrjabinia rostellata, and Brachylaima fuscatum. The helminth fauna was characterized by low prevalences and intensities of infection and low numbers of species per bird (1.2). The frequency of prescribed burning and habitat understory flora composition did not influence the prevalences or intensities of helminths in red-bellied woodpeckers collected from 2 similar but differently managed sites within the forest.

  9. A new copepod with transformed body plan and unique phylogenetic position parasitic in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Tung, Che-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Ho, Ju-Shey; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    Symbiotic copepods compose one-third of the known copepod species and are associated with a wide range of animal groups. Two parasitic copepods endoparasitic in acorn worms (Hemichordata), Ive balanoglossi and Ubius hilli, collected in the Mediterranean Sea and Australian waters, respectively, were described a century ago. Here we report a new parasitic copepod species, Ive ptychoderae sp. nov., found in Ptychodera flava, a widespread acorn worm in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and an emerging organism for developmental and evolutionary studies. The female of I. ptychoderae is characterized by having a reduced maxilliped and five pairs of annular swellings along the body that are morphologically similar but distinguishable from those in the two previously described parasitic copepods in acorn worms. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence shows that I. ptychoderae may belong to Poecilostomatoida but represent a new family, which we name Iveidae fam. nov. Ive ptychoderae is commonly found in the acorn worm population with an average prevalence of 42% during the collecting period. The infection of the parasite induces the formation of cysts and causes localized lesions of the host tissues, suggesting that it may have negative effects on its host. Interestingly, most cysts contain a single female with one or multiple male copepods, suggesting that their sex determination may be controlled by environmental conditions. The relationships between the parasitic copepods and acorn worms thus provide a platform for understanding physiological and ecological influences and coevolution between parasites and hosts.

  10. [Effects of relative abundance of Quercus mongolica acorns on five tree species seed dispersal in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang

    2013-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area.

  11. Insect-oak interactions with coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Engelmann oak (Q. engelmannii) at the acorn and seedling stage

    Treesearch

    Connell E. Dunning; Timothy D. Paine; Richard A. Redak

    2002-01-01

    We determined the impact of insects on both acorns and seedlings of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee) and Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii E. Greene). Our goals were to (1) identify insects feeding on acorns and levels of insect damage, and (2) measure performance and preference of a generalist leaf-feeding insect herbivore...

  12. The effect of acorn insects on the establishment and vigor of northern red oak seedlings in north-central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Gribko

    1995-01-01

    During a 2-year investigation into the effect of small mammals on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorn survival and germination, widespread germination failure and lack of seedling vigor was apparent in control quadrats on one of two watersheds under study. Insects were present in and on the failed acorns but it was unknown whether they were...

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  14. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  15. A System Dynamics Investigation of Genetic Drift and Translocation in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Metapopulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/03-22 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base...the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air...cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis ) is classified under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as an endangered species. As such, the red-cockaded

  16. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    I conducted a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined...

  17. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Structural analysis of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in a woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Young; Naleway, Steven E.; Yaraghi, Nicholas A.; Herrera, Steven; Sherman, Vincent R.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kisailus, David; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Woodpeckers avoid brain injury while they peck at trees up to 20 Hz with speeds up to 7 m/s, undergoing decelerations up to 1200 g. Along with the head, beak and neck, the hyoid apparatus (tongue bone and associated soft tissues) is subjected to these high impact forces. The shape of the hyoid apparatus is unusual in woodpeckers and its structure and mechanical properties have not been reported in detail. High-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed and correlated with nanoindentation mapping. The hyoid apparatus has four distinct bone sections, with three joints between these sections. Nanoindentation results on cross-sectional regions of each bone reveal a previously unreported structure consisting of a stiff core and outer, more compliant shell with moduli of up to 27.4 GPa and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The bending resistance is low at the posterior section of the hyoid bones, indicating that this region has a high degree of flexibility to absorb impact. These new structural findings can be applied to further studies on the energy dissipation of the woodpecker during its drumming behavior, and may have implications for the design of engineered impact-absorbing structures. PMID:27000554

  19. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Peter A; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  20. Space-use and habitat associations of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) occupying recently disturbed forests in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...

  1. Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Santangelo, Richard G; Carpenter, Shannon; Webster, Francis X; Kiemle, David J; Gemeno, Cesar; Leal, Walter S; Schal, Coby

    2012-02-21

    Wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta, comprising 12 species endemic to North America, are highly abundant in southeastern pine forests and represent an important prey of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis. The broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata, is among the largest and most abundant of the wood cockroaches, constituting >50% of the biomass of the woodpecker's diet. Because reproduction in red-cockaded woodpeckers is affected dramatically by seasonal and spatial changes in arthropod availability, monitoring P. lata populations could serve as a useful index of habitat suitability for woodpecker conservation and forest management efforts. Female P. lata emit a volatile, long-distance sex pheromone, which, once identified and synthesized, could be deployed for monitoring cockroach populations. We describe here the identification, synthesis, and confirmation of the chemical structure of this pheromone as (4Z,11Z)-oxacyclotrideca-4,11-dien-2-one [= (3Z,10Z)-dodecadienolide; herein referred to as "parcoblattalactone"]. This macrocyclic lactone is a previously unidentified natural product and a previously unknown pheromonal structure for cockroaches, highlighting the great chemical diversity that characterizes olfactory communication in cockroaches: Each long-range sex pheromone identified to date from different genera belongs to a different chemical class. Parcoblattalactone was biologically active in electrophysiological assays and attracted not only P. lata but also several other Parcoblatta species in pine forests, underscoring its utility in monitoring several endemic wood cockroach species in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats.

  2. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  3. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  4. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  5. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.; Kaller, M.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees ???50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  6. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  7. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference. PMID:27548173

  8. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam

    2016-08-18

    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference.

  9. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa).

  10. Effects of desiccation on the physiology and biochemistry of Quercus alba acorns.

    PubMed

    Connor, Kristina F; Sowa, Sharon

    2003-11-01

    Seeds that lose viability when dried to a water content of less than 12% are said to be recalcitrant. We subjected acorns of Quercus alba L., a species with recalcitrant seeds, to desiccation to determine the effects of drying on lipids, proteins and carbohydrates of the embryonic axis and cotyledon tissues. Samples of fresh seed and seed dried for selected intervals were analyzed for water content and germination, and for lipids, proteins and carbohydrates by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were further analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The FT-IR analysis revealed that membrane lipid structure initially exhibited reversible shifts between gel and liquid crystalline phases in response to drying and rehydration; however, reversibility declined as viability was lost. Changes in carbohydrate concentration were observed based on peak height comparisons; sucrose concentration in the embryonic axis increased dramatically after 5 days of drying. The most sensitive indicator of desiccation damage was the irreversible change in protein secondary structure in embryonic axes and cotyledon tissue. These changes were illustrated by shifts in amide absorbance near 1650 cm(-1). Gas chromatography indicated an abundance of sucrose in both the embryonic axes and the cotyledon tissue. Although sucrose concentrations in these tissues were initially similar, sucrose concentration in the embryonic axes became significantly greater than in the cotyledons as the acorns dried. We hypothesize that, in drying acorns, increased concentration of sucrose does not prevent loss of viability, but acts as a glycoprotectant against cell collapse and cell wall membrane damage as water stress increases.

  11. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality

    PubMed Central

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species-dependent. PMID:21494087

  12. Post-fire recovery of acorn production by four oak species in southern ridge sandhill association in south-central Florida.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

    2002-01-01

    We examined post-fire recovery of two components of acorn production (percentage of bearing ramets [stems] and number of acorns per bearing ramet) for four species of oaks in southern ridge sandhill vegetation in south-central peninsular Florida. Annual counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and two red oaks (Q. laevis and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually (except in 1991) on two 2.7-ha grids from 1969 to 1998. A prescribed burn was conducted on one of the grids in May 1993. Newly sprouted ramets of both white oaks produced acorns during the first year following the fire, whereas red oaks required 3 yr (Q. myrtifolia) or 4 yr (Q. laevis) to produce acorns. The difference in the timing of post-fire acorn production between the white and red oak species reflected the difference in the number of years from flower bud initiation to mature acorns in the two groups, with the additional year-long lag in Q. laevis probably attributable to the fact that it is typically a tree rather than a shrub species. The data suggested that percentage of bearing ramets in the smallest size class of the two white oak species was markedly lower in the burned than unburned grid in the first year of post-fire acorn production and higher in the fifth year, but these trends were not evident for the red oaks. Among all four species, differences between mean number of acorns in burned and unburned grids were significant in only two cases (the largest size class of both white oak species in the fifth year). There was no evidence of recruitment from acorns on the burned grid, possibly due to the rapid redevelopment of the shrub layer because of low mortality of the extensive clonal root systems. Rapid post-fire recovery of acorn production in xeric fire-prone habitats is presumably the result of selection to increase the probability of recovery and persistence following sufficiently intense fires that result in high oak mortality. The timing and magnitude of

  13. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  14. Coping with Uncertainty: Woodpecker Finches (Cactospiza pallida) from an Unpredictable Habitat Are More Flexible than Birds from a Stable Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, Sabine; Teschke, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility is thought to be a major factor in evolution. It may facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new resources, which in turn may expose populations to novel selective forces and facilitate adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches are a textbook example of adaptive radiation. They are fast learners and show a range of unusual foraging techniques, probably as a result of their flexibility. In this study we aimed to test whether variability of the environment is correlated with flexibility. We compared woodpecker finches from a dry area (hereafter, Arid Zone), where food availability is variable, with individuals from a cloud forest (hereafter, Scalesia zone) where food abundance is stable. As parameters for flexibility, we measured neophilia and neophobia, which are two aspects of reaction to novelty, reversal learning and problem-solving. We found no differences in performance on a problem-solving task but, in line with our prediction, individuals from the Arid Zone were significantly faster reversal learners and more neophilic than their conspecifics from the Scalesia zone. The latter result supports the notion that environmental variability drives flexibility. In contrast to our prediction, Arid Zone birds were even more neophobic than birds from the Scalesia Zone. The latter result could be the consequence of differences in predation pressure between the two vegetation zones. PMID:24638107

  15. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T., Brandon

    2003-02-26

    Taylor, T.B. 2003. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation. MS Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. 99pp. Arthropod communities on the boles of longleaf pine originate on the forest floor. A research study was done to determine if there is evidence to support a link between red-cockaded woodpecker breeding success and groundcover composition of the forest floor. Results confirmed that arthropod biomass was positively correlated to the percent coverage of herbaceous and graminoid vegetation and negatively correlated to the percent coverage of woody vegetation.

  16. Recalcitrant Behavior of Cherrybark Oak Seed: An FT-IR Study of Desiccation Sensitivity in Quercus pagoda Raf. Acorns

    Treesearch

    Sharon Sowa; Kristina F. Connor

    2003-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed storage longevity and (short term) seed germination. Seed samples collected over two consecutive years were fully hydrated, then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity on the...

  17. Antioxidant Extracts from Acorns (Quercus ilex L.) Effectively Protect Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Chicken Patties Irrespective of Packaging Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Hérnandez-López, Silvia H; Madruga, Marta S; Silva, Fábio A P; Estévez, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a phenolic-rich acorn extract (200 ppm gallic acid equivalents) and the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system (low-oxygen modified atmosphere; 5% vs. normal-oxygen; 21%) on lipid and protein oxidation and consumers acceptance of the ready-to-eat chicken patties. Samples were subjected to cooking (electric oven, 170 °C/16 min), cold storage (14 d at 4 °C), and reheating (microwave, 600 mW/1 min). Samples treated with acorn extract kept thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances numbers and lipid-derived volatiles at basal levels throughout the whole processing irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the packaging atmosphere. Consistently, treated patties had lower protein carbonyls than control ones. The acorn extract also controlled color and texture deterioration during chilled storage and reheating and improved the color and odor acceptance of the products. Formulating with acorn extract is a feasible strategy to inhibit the oxidation-driven changes and preserve the quality of reheated samples as if there were freshly cooked. Compared to the effect of the antioxidant extract, the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system was negligible in terms of quality preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. New Techniques for High-Contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishil, M.; Lye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks (SEEDS) survey. We implement seyeral new algorithms, includbg a method to centroid saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to approx 20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivitv of a high-contrast obsen-ation everywhere on the field-of-view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns_-adi under a BSD license

  19. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING WITH ADI: THE ACORNS-ADI SEEDS DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Ishii, M.; Goto, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Iye, M.; Hodapp, K. W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to {approx}20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license.

  20. Production of willow oak acorns in an Arkansas greentree reservoir: an evaluation of regeneration and waterfowl forage potential

    Treesearch

    M. R. Guttery; A. W. Ezell; J. D. Hodges; A. J. Londo; R. P. Maiers

    2010-01-01

    Greentree reservoirs (GTRs) provide critical habitat for a broad suite of species. Unfortunately, many GTRs are mismanaged, leading to undesirable successional changes and possible habitat degradation. This study evaluates willow oak acorn production in terms of the potential for natural regeneration and waterfowl forage. During the fall and winter of 2004 and 2005,...

  1. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.

  2. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  3. Inbreeding and experience affect response to climate change by endangered woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Schiegg, Karin; Pasinelli, Gilberto; Walters, Jeffrey R; Daniels, Susan J

    2002-06-07

    In recent decades, female red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have laid eggs increasingly earlier in response to a changing climate, as has been observed in several other bird species breeding at north temperate latitudes. Within each year, females that lay earlier are more productive than females that lay later. However, inexperienced females, experienced females who change mates and inbred birds have not adjusted to the changing climate by laying earlier, and have suffered reproductive costs as a result. Failure to respond to global climate change may be a further example of the reduced ability of inbred animals to respond to environmental challenges.

  4. Two species in one ecosystem: management of northern bobwhite and red-cockaded woodpecker in the Red Hills

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; William E. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    Sport hunting for Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is the reason that approximately 300,000 acres of semi-wild lands still exist in the Red Hills region of north Florida and south Georgia. Use of fire for management and relatively large (400 to 4,000 ha), contiguous land ownerships permitted populations of bobwhite and Red-cockaded Woodpecker...

  5. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  6. Integration of long-term research into a GIS-based landscape habitat model for the red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; F. Thomas. Lloyd

    2000-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina has been the subject of intensive management and research activities designed to restore the population. By late 1985, the population was on the verge of being extirpated with only four individuals remaining. Older live pine trees that red...

  7. Forest landscapes: Their effect on the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Guzman; Karen Skordinski; Jeffrey W. Fitzgerald; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Forrest L. Oliveria; Douglas F. Wunneburger; Paul E. Pulley

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker was investidgated using spatially explicit information on the structure of a forest landscape mosiac and knowledge of the behavior of the two organisms. This interaction is the basis for defind functional heterogeneity - how an organism perceives and responds to the elements forming...

  8. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  9. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner

    1999-01-01

    We developed a bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) trees as an aesthetically pleasing, more cost-effective, and safer alternative to other snake excluder devices. We used a drawknife to carefully shave the bark around the circumference of 4 treatment trees in a l-m-wide band to...

  10. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    office space and high speed computers necessary for the intense modeling used in this study. Special thanks to Stephanie Kramer- Schadt, Sandro Puetz...dispersal in Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers. Condor 102: 482-491. deGroot, R.S., J. van der Perk , A. Chiesura, S. Marguliew. 2000. Ecological functions and

  11. Between-year breeding dispersal by White-headed Woodpeckers: A caution about using color bands to estimate survival

    Treesearch

    Teresa J Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Between-year breeding dispersal has not been previously documented in White-headed Woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus). Therefore, resightings of color-banded adults on previous years’ breeding territories have been considered a means of estimating annual adult survival. From 2013 to 2015, I observed 2 cases of between-year breeding dispersal by...

  12. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  13. Is a "hands-off" approach appropriate for red-cockaded woodpecker conservation in twenty-first-century landscapes?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; R. Todd Engstrom

    2001-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is well adapted to fire-maintained pine ecosystems of the Southeastern United States. Management practices vary greatly among land ownerships. In some wilderness areas and state parks, a "no management" policy has eliminated use of prescribed fire, artificial cavities, and...

  14. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  15. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis ) in the northeastern U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan M. Schmude; Miles T. Wetherington; Paula M. Shrewsbury

    2015-01-01

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are important natural enemies attacking emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in North America. There can be considerable variation in predation levels within and between sites, and among different times of year; therefore, understanding what causes these differences is necessary for effectively predicting EAB...

  16. Stand conditions and tree characteristics affect quality of longleaf pine for red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    W.G. Ross; D.L. Kulhavy; R.N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    We measured resin flow of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) pines in red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) clusters in the Angelina National Forest in Texas, and the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida. Sample trees were categorized as active cavity trees, inactive cavity trees and control trees. Sample trees were further...

  17. Effect of time elapsed after prescribed burning in longleaf pine stands on potential prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kirsten C. New; James L. Hanula

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dormant and growing season prescribed burns on the potential arthropod prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were studied in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Sampling was conducted 0, 1, 2, or 3 years post burn. Stands were burned once during the winters of 1991, 1992, 1993, and...

  18. Multi-scale nest-site selection by black-backed woodpeckers in outbreaks of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble

    2009-01-01

    Areas of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks in the Black Hills can provide habitat for black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a U.S. Forest Service, Region 2 Sensitive Species. These outbreaks are managed through removal of trees infested with mountain pine beetles to control mountain pine...

  19. Influence of postfire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker nest-site selection and nest survival

    Treesearch

    Christopher David Forristal

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire timber harvest practices (i.e. post-fire salvage logging) on public lands are a highly contentious issue in the western United States. Harvest of burned trees impacts a number of species, particularly those specialized for using post-wildfire habitats. We assessed the effects of post-fire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus...

  20. Forest policy impact assessment in the Ouachita National Forest and the valuation of conserving red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Difei Zhang; Michael M. Huebschmann; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The Ouachita National Forest received approval in 1996 for an amendment to its Forest Plan that would allocate 10% of the Forest to long-rotation silviculture. The purpose of the new management area is to restore pre-European settlement forest conditions and recreate habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Approach: This study explored...

  1. Implications of home-range estimation in the management of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2006-01-01

    I undertook a behavioral study to determine red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. In this location, because much of the timber was harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 45 years old), not generally...

  2. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi.

    PubMed

    Jusino, Michelle A; Lindner, Daniel L; Banik, Mark T; Rose, Kevin R; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-30

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW,Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation.

  3. COMPLEX BIOGEOGRAPHIC SCENARIOS REVEALED IN THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE LARGEST WOODPECKER RADIATION IN THE NEW WORLD.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-04-12

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus + Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE + j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World.

  4. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered.

  5. Relationship between jaw apparatus, feeding habit, and food source in oriental woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José; Höfling, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ana Luiza C

    2014-04-01

    Associations among feeding habit, beak type, and food source in birds have been widely studied and are well known to exist. The relationship between feeding habit and jaw apparatus in birds has not attracted attention from ornithologists, perhaps because of the complexity of the skeletal morphology of the feeding system of birds. The goal of this study was to compare the jaw apparatus and foraging strategies of various Oriental species of the Picidae (Meiglyptini and Picini tribes) using a morphofunctional analysis of the skeletal structure of the jaw apparatus. This study showed that there are at least three types of jaw apparatus in these woodpeckers, as follows: 1) robust, developed, and complex; 2) complexity and development intermediate, as observed in Meiglyptes tristis and Dinopium spp., whose main foraging method involves gleaning, probing, and tapping; and 3) poorly developed, as observed in Picus miniaceus and Hemicircus concretus. The success of woodpeckers as a natural group is due not only to their feeding diversity, but also their ability to explore a wide range of different resources, as appropriate to their jaw apparatus.

  6. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Mark T.; Rose, Kevin R.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation. PMID:27009222

  7. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  9. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  10. Proteotyping of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) provenances through proteomic analysis of acorn flour.

    PubMed

    Galván, José Valero; Fernández, Raquel González; Valledor, Luis; Cerrillo, Rafael Ma Navarro; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics has become a powerful tool to characterize biodiversity and natural variability in plant species, as well as to catalogue and establish phylogenetic relationships and distances among populations, provenances or ecotypes. In this chapter, we describe the standard proteomics workflow that we currently use in cataloguing Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) populations. Proteins are extracted from acorn flour or pollen by TCA/acetone or TCA/acetone-phenol methods, resolved by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and gel images are captured and analyzed by appropriate software and statistical packages. Quantitative or qualitative variable bands or spots are subjected to MS analysis in order to identify them and correlate differences in the protein profile with the phenotypes or environmental conditions.

  11. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  12. Testing for Seed Quality in Southern Oaks

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1984-01-01

    Expressions of germination rate, such as peak value (PV) or mean germination time (MGT), provide good estimates of acorn quality, but test completion requires a minimum of 3 weeks. For more rapid estimates, tetrazolium staining is recommended. Some seed test results were significantly correlated with nursery germination of cherrybark and water oaks, but not with...

  13. Regional variation in the spatial scale of selection at MPI* and GPI* in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Véliz, D; Bourget, E; Bernatchez, L

    2004-09-01

    Elucidating the ecological processes by which adaptive genetic polymorphism is maintained in heterogeneous environments requires knowledge on the spatial scale at which alternate habitats affect genotype-specific fitness. The general objective of this study was to document patterns of temporal and spatial variation of genetic polymorphism in the acorn barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) at MPI* and GPI* allozyme loci. A total of 7261 barnacles were sampled in the intertidal at various locations north and south of the Miramichi estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that both MPI* and GPI* are under the effect of strong directional selection south of the Miramichi, whereas neutrality cannot be ruled out at sampling sites located north of the estuary. Comparisons between this study and previous ones also question the generality of current hypotheses regarding ecological processes that are responsible for maintaining polymorphism at MPI* and GPI* in the acorn barnacle.

  14. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  15. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  16. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

  17. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Y ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (0 = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood?pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  18. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history.

  19. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: Effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding-season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Ψ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (x̄ = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood–pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the white-browed piculet (Sasia ochracea, Picidae) and pale-billed woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Pasquet, Eric; Bonillo, Céline

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the white-browed piculet Sasia ochracea (Piciformes, Picidae) and the pale-billed woodpecker Campephilus guatemalensis (Piciformes, Picidae) were sequenced using a mixed strategy of Sanger and next-generation sequencing methods. The size of the circular mitochondrial genomes were 16 908 and 16 856 bp, respectively, and include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, a control region and a reduced pseudo control region. The functional control region was located between the tRNAThr and tRNAPro, as found in the two other Piciformes for which complete mtDNA data are available. The length of the pseudo-control region in the white-browed piculet (103 bp) and pale-billed woodpecker (87 bp) is similar to the size of that region in Dryocopus pileatus (60 bp) and much shorter that the length of this region in Pteroglossus azara (1493 bp), suggesting that size reduction occurred before the last common ancestor of the piculets and woodpeckers.

  1. Empirical comparison of uniform and non-uniform probability sampling for estimating numbers of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Moyer, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Four sampling and estimation methods for estimating the number of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies on National Forests in the Southeast were compared, using samples chosen from simulated populations based on the observed sample. The methods included (1) simple random sampling without replacement using a mean per sampling unit estimator, (2) simple random sampling without replacement with a ratio per pine area estimator, (3) probability proportional to 'size' sampling with replacement, and (4) probability proportional to 'size' without replacement using Murthy's estimator. The survey sample of 274 National Forest compartments (1000 acres each) constituted a superpopulation from which simulated stratum populations were selected with probability inversely proportional to the original probability of selection. Compartments were originally sampled with probabilities proportional to the probabilities that the compartments contained woodpeckers ('size'). These probabilities were estimated with a discriminant analysis based on tree species and tree age. The ratio estimator would have been the best estimator for this survey based on the mean square error. However, if more accurate predictions of woodpecker presence had been available, Murthy's estimator would have been the best. A subroutine to calculate Murthy's estimates is included; it is computationally feasible to analyze up to 10 samples per stratum.

  2. Environmental heterogeneity and balancing selection in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P S; Bertness, M D; Rand, D M

    2000-02-22

    The northern acorn barnacle Semibalans banlanoides occupies several intertidal microhabitats which vary greatly in their degree of physical stress. This environmental heterogeneity creates distinct selection regimes which can maintain genetic variation in natural populations. Despite considerable attention placed on the link between spatial variation in fitness and balancing selection at specific loci, experimental manipulations and fitness estimates for molecular polymorphisms have rarely been conducted in the wild. The aim of this transplant experiment was to manipulate the level of physical stress experienced by a cohort of barnacles in the field and then investigate the spatial variation in fitness for genotypes at three loci: two candidate allozymes and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The viability of mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) genotypes was dependent on the level of physical stress experienced in the various treatments; alternative homozygotes were favoured in alternative high stress-low stress environments. In contrast, the fitness of genotypes at other loci was equivalent among treatments and unaffected by the manipulation. Evaluated in the light of balancing selection models, these data indicate that the presence of multiple environmental niches is sufficient to promote a stable Mpi polymorphism in barnacle populations and that allelic variation at this locus reflects the process of adaptation to the heterogeneous intertidal landscape.

  3. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body.

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Webb, David Matthew; Moore, William S

    2005-08-01

    Although the woodpeckers have long been recognized as a natural, monophyletic taxon, morphological analyses of their intra- and intergeneric relationships have produced conflicting results. To clarify this issue, and as part of a larger study of piciform relationships, nucleotide sequences for the 12S ribosomal RNA (12S; 1123 bp), cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1022 bp), and cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI; 1512 bp) mitochondrial genes were obtained from 34 piciform species that included 16 of the 23 currently recognized woodpecker genera (subfamily Picinae), three piculets (subfamily Picumninae), a wryneck (subfamily Jynginae), a honeyguide (family Indicatoridae), and three barbets (infraorder Ramphastides). Analyses were conducted on the individual and combined 12S, Cyt b, and COI sequences with maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian algorithms. Based on the strong, congruent support among the different data partitions and models of sequence evolution, a highly resolved consensus of the relationships among woodpeckers and their allies could be formed. The monophyly of Indicatoridae + Picidae (infraorder Picides), Picidae, Picinae + Picumninae, and Picinae was strongly supported in all analyses. However, the tribes Colaptini, Picini, Campephilini, and Campetherini were shown to be paraphyletic as were the genera of Colaptes and Piculus. A revision of the tribal-level classification of woodpeckers is proposed and the importance of plumage convergence among woodpeckers is discussed.

  5. Role of tannin-binding salivary proteins and tannase-producing bacteria in the acclimation of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takuya; Saitoh, Takashi; Sasaki, Eiki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Osawa, Ro

    2006-06-01

    We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins.

  6. Effects of herbage ingestion upon ileal digestibility of amino acids in heavy Iberian pigs fed on an acorn-based diet.

    PubMed

    García-Valverde, R; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2010-10-01

    We conducted two experiments with heavy Iberian pigs to determine the ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in acorns and freshly cut herbage, and the effects of adding fresh herbage upon the supply of ileal digestible AA when pigs were fed on holm-oak acorns. In Experiment 1, carried out in cannulated pigs of 107 kg bodyweight (BW), daily intake of acorns reached 44.9 g DM/kg(0.75) BW. Arg, His and Thr showed the lowest apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values, whereas Met, the branched-chain AA and Phe had the highest coefficients. The AID of total EAA was 0.716 but only 0.222 for NEAA. Most of the digestive and absorptive processes of acorn protein occurred before the hindgut. Acorn provides (per kg DM) 2.27 g apparent ileal digestible Lys and 22.7 g apparent total digestible AA. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values for EAA, NEAA and total AA were 0.924 ± 0.020, 0.784 ± 0.041 and 0.860 ± 0.029. In Experiment 2 fresh herbage was given to six cannulated Iberian pigs of 140 kg either as a single feed (13.7 g DM/kg(0.75) BW) or as a supplement to acorns (28.4 g DM/kg(0.75) BW). When only freshly cut forage was offered the AID of the EAA, NEAA and total AA was close to 0.65 and supplied (per kg DM ingested) 5.61 g AID Lys and 91.7 g digestible AA. Standardized ileal values were 0.744 ± 0.023, 0.912 ± 0.038 and 0.831 ± 0.030 respectively. The addition of fresh forage to the acorns led to a significant decrease in AID of AA in acorn due to digesta transfer to the hindgut: His (p < 0.01), Met (p < 0.001), Phe (p = 0.092), Thr (p < 0.05) and Val (p < 0.05), but Arg, Lys and the branched-chain AA remained unaffected. The main contribution of herbage to AA nutrition of the grazing Iberian pig relies mainly on increasing the supply of digestible AA for pig tissues.

  7. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Pau; Boixadera, Ester; Muñoz, Alberto; Bonal, Raúl; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitation effect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent's behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  8. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Boixadera, Ester; Bonal, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitationeffect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent’s behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  9. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  10. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  11. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species.

  12. Effect on Cessation Counseling of Documenting Smoking Status as a Routine Vital Sign: An ACORN Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothemich, Stephen F.; Woolf, Steven H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Burgett, Amy E.; Flores, Sharon K.; Marsland, David W.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines encourage primary care clinicians to document smoking status when obtaining patients’ blood pressure, temperature, and pulse rate (vital signs), but whether this practice promotes cessation counseling is unclear. We examined whether the vital sign intervention influences patient-reported frequency and intensity of tobacco cessation counseling. METHODS This study was a cluster-randomized, controlled trial conducted in the Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcomes Research Network (ACORN). At intervention practices, nurses and medical assistants were instructed to assess the tobacco use status of every adult patient and record it with the traditional vital signs. Control practices did not use any systematic tobacco screening or identification system. Outcomes were the proportion of smokers reporting clinician counseling of any kind and the frequency of 2 counseling subcomponents: simple quit advice and more intensive discussion. RESULTS A total of 6,729 adult patients (1,149 smokers) at 18 primary care practices completed exit questionnaires during a 6-month comparison period. Among 561 smokers at intervention practices, 61.9% reported receiving any counseling, compared with 53.4% of the 588 smokers at control practices, for a difference of 8.6% (P = .04). The effect was largely restricted to simple advice, which was reported by 59.9% of intervention patients and 51.5% of control patients (P=.04). There was no significant increase in more extensive discussion, with 32.5% and 29.3% of patients at intervention and control practices, respectively, reporting this type of counseling (P=.18). CONCLUSIONS The vital sign intervention promotes tobacco counseling at primary care practices through a modest increase in simple advice to quit. When implemented as a stand-alone intervention, it does not appear to increase intensive counseling. PMID:18195316

  13. Effect on cessation counseling of documenting smoking status as a routine vital sign: an ACORN study.

    PubMed

    Rothemich, Stephen F; Woolf, Steven H; Johnson, Robert E; Burgett, Amy E; Flores, Sharon K; Marsland, David W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2008-01-01

    Guidelines encourage primary care clinicians to document smoking status when obtaining patients' blood pressure, temperature, and pulse rate (vital signs), but whether this practice promotes cessation counseling is unclear. We examined whether the vital sign intervention influences patient-reported frequency and intensity of tobacco cessation counseling. This study was a cluster-randomized, controlled trial conducted in the Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcomes Research Network (ACORN). At intervention practices, nurses and medical assistants were instructed to assess the tobacco use status of every adult patient and record it with the traditional vital signs. Control practices did not use any systematic tobacco screening or identification system. Outcomes were the proportion of smokers reporting clinician counseling of any kind and the frequency of 2 counseling subcomponents: simple quit advice and more intensive discussion. A total of 6,729 adult patients (1,149 smokers) at 18 primary care practices completed exit questionnaires during a 6-month comparison period. Among 561 smokers at intervention practices, 61.9% reported receiving any counseling, compared with 53.4% of the 588 smokers at control practices, for a difference of 8.6% (P = .04). The effect was largely restricted to simple advice, which was reported by 59.9% of intervention patients and 51.5% of control patients (P=.04). There was no significant increase in more extensive discussion, with 32.5% and 29.3% of patients at intervention and control practices, respectively, reporting this type of counseling (P=.18). The vital sign intervention promotes tobacco counseling at primary care practices through a modest increase in simple advice to quit. When implemented as a stand-alone intervention, it does not appear to increase intensive counseling.

  14. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  15. Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

  16. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests.

    PubMed

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies.

  17. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies

  18. Root development of acorn-origin oak seedlings in shelterwood stands on the Appalachian Plateau of northern Pennsylvania: 4-year results

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose

    2008-01-01

    Post-fire sprouting of oak seedlings in prescribe-burned shelterwood stands hinges on their root collar diameters exceeding 6.4 mm and root size depends on the type of partial cut and the time since harvest. To better understand this shelterwood stage/time/oak root size relationship, a study was begun in northern Pennsylvania in 2001. Acorns of black, chestnut,...

  19. Disking and mid- and understory removal following an above-average acorn crop in three mature oak forests in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2008-01-01

    We disked using small-scale equipment in the understory of three mature upland oak (Quercus) forests in southern Indiana immediately following acorn dispersal in an aboveaverage seed crop year as a means of improving oak seedling establishment. Three different mid- and understory removal treatments were also applied to create favorable light...

  20. Comparison of Arthropod Prey of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers on the Boles of Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J.

    2002-01-01

    Use of knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf and loblolly pine to determine which harbored the greater abundance of potential prey. Alterations of longleaf pine bark surface to determine whether bark structure may affect arthropods residing on a tree's bole. Recovery revealed fewer arthropods from scraped trees. Results suggest the bark structure and not the chemical nature of the bark is responsible for differences in arthropod abundance and biomass. Retaining or restoring longleaf pine in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats should increase arthropod availability for this endangered bird and other back-foraging species.

  1. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  2. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  3. Genetic Variation in the Acorn Barnacle from Allozymes to Population Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Flight, Patrick A.; Rand, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (FST ∼ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An FST outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. FST values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic FST for mtDNA. The majority of FST outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  4. Comparative study of the mechanical properties, micro-structure, and composition of the cranial and beak bones of the great spotted woodpecker and the lark bird.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiZhen; Zhang, HongQuan; Fan, YuBo

    2011-11-01

    Woodpeckers are well able to resist head injury during repeated high speed impacts at 6-7 m s⁻¹ with decelerations up to 1000 g. This study was designed to compare the mechanical properties, microstructures and compositions of cranial bone and beak bone of great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) and the Mongolian sky lark (Melanocorypha mongolica). Microstructures were observed using micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Under high stress, the cranial bone and the beak of the woodpecker exhibited distinctive mechanical features, which were associated with differences in micro-structure and composition, compared with those of the lark. Evolutionary optimization of bone micro-structure has enabled functional adaptation to the woodpecker's specific lifestyle. Its characteristic micro-structure efficiently avoids head impact injury and may provide potential clues to the prevention of brain injury using bio-inspired designs of shock-absorbing materials.

  5. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod availability for red-cockaded woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2008-01-01

    This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging 1 birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  6. Evaluating some proposed matrices for scoring sub-optimal red-cockaded woodpecker foraging habitat in relation to the 2003 recovery plan

    Treesearch

    Donald J. Lipscomb; Thomas M. Williams

    2006-01-01

    We have used RCWFAT (an ARC-INFO program that evaluates RCW habitat) to examine the 2003 Red Cockaded Woodpecker (RCW) Recovery Plan, which will influence silvicultural activities on large tracts of southeastern forests. The new plan includes 11 specific characteristics of forest stands that constitute “Good Quality Foraging Habitat” (GQFH) and requires 120 to 200...

  7. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  8. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic...

  9. Habitat Selection and Reproductive Success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) at Its Northern Limit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang; Srivastava, Diane S.; Martin, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004–2005) of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensions, clutch initiation date or time of season) were more important. Nest tree decay class, density of suitable cavities and total basal area of large trees were the best predictors of nest-site selection, but these factors were unrelated to nesting success. Estimates of demographic parameters (mean ± SE) included daily nest survival rate (0.988±0.003, years combined), nest success (0.52±0.08), clutch size (5.00±0.14 eggs), female fledglings per successful nest (1.31±0.11), and annual productivity (0.68±0.12 female fledglings per nest per year). Although higher nest survival was associated with both early and late initiated clutches, early-initiated clutches allowed birds to gain the highest annual productivity as early clutches were larger. Nests in deep cavities with small entrances experienced lower predation risk especially during the peak period of nest predation. We concluded that nest-site selection can be predicted by a number of easily measured habitat variables, whereas nest success depended on complicated ecological interactions among nest predators, breeding behaviors, and cavity features. Thus, habitat-based conservation strategies should also consider ecological factors that may not be well predicted by habitat. PMID:23028525

  10. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During the 1994 and 1995 breeding seasons, SFSs were removed from 30 RCW clusters and 32 clusters served as controls. SFSs were the most frequently encountered occupants of RCW cavities and used 20-33% of RCW cavities in control and treatment clusters over both years. Treatment groups produced significantly more successful nests (??? 1 fledgling) than control groups in 1994. In 1995 however, there was no difference in the number of successful nests. In both years, RCW groups nesting in treatment clusters produced significantly more fledglings than groups in control clusters in each of four experimental areas, averaging approximately 0.7 additional fledglings per nesting group. Loss of entire clutches or broods, possibly as a result of predation or abandonment, was a major factor limiting reproduction in control groups in 1994. In contrast, differences in partial brood loss appeared to be the cause of differential fledging success in 1995 Usurpation of RCW roost cavities by SFSs may have placed greater energetic demands on RCWs for cavity defence or thermoregulation, thus reducing energy available for reproduction. Our results show that SFS use of RCW cavities during the breeding season has a significant impact on RCWs and that management of RCW populations should include activities that either minimize SFS populations in RCW clusters or limit access of SFSs to RCW cavities.

  11. Strong reproductive isolation and narrow genomic tracts of differentiation among three woodpecker species in secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Grossen, Christine; Seneviratne, Sampath S; Croll, Daniel; Irwin, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid zones allow the measurement of gene flow across the genome, producing insight into the genomic architecture of speciation. Such analysis is particularly powerful when applied to multiple pairs of hybridizing species, as patterns of genomic differentiation can then be related to age of the hybridizing species, providing a view into the build-up of differentiation over time. We examined 33 809 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three hybridizing woodpecker species: Red-breasted, Red-naped and Yellow-bellied sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus ruber, Sphyrapicus nuchalis and Sphyrapicus varius), two of which (ruber and nuchalis) are much more closely related than each is to the third (varius). To identify positions of SNPs on chromosomes, we developed a localization method based on comparative genomics. We found narrow clines, bimodal distributions of hybrid indices and genomic regions with decreased rates of introgression. These results suggest moderately strong reproductive isolation among species and selection against specific hybrid genotypes. We found 19 small regions of strong differentiation between species, partly shared among species pairs, but no large regions of differentiation. An association analysis revealed a single strong-effect candidate locus associated with plumage, possibly explaining mismatch among the three species in genomic relatedness and plumage similarity. Our comparative analysis of species pairs of different age and their hybrid zones showed that moderately strong reproductive isolation can occur with little genomic differentiation, but that reproductive isolation is incomplete even with much greater genomic differentiation, implying there are long periods of time when hybridization is possible if diverging populations are in geographic contact. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of a cosmopolitan group of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) gased on COI and cyt b mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Amy C; Moore, William S

    2002-01-01

    Picoides is the largest genus of woodpeckers and member species are found on most major land masses. Current systematic arrangement of this group, based on morphological, behavioral, and plumage characters, suggests that New World species evolved from a single invasion by a Eurasian common ancestor and that all New World species form a monophyletic group. No clear link has ever been established between the relationships of Old World and New World species other than to infer that the most primitive species is Eurasian. This study employs DNA sequences for two protein-coding mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b, to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among all New World species and several Eurasian representatives of the genus Picoides. A well-resolved mitochondrial gene tree is in direct conflict with proposed species relationships based on nongenetic characters; monophyly among New World species is rejected, the evolution of New World species likely resulted from as many as three independent Eurasian invasions, and Picoides is paraphyletic with two other woodpecker genera, Veniliornis and Dendropicos. These results strongly suggest that this large, cosmopolitan genus is in need of systematic revision in order to reflect evolutionary history.

  14. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

    2006-03-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research.

  15. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites (<38%) the presence of mature trees (DBH> 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A female Red-bellied Woodpecker clings to a utility pole where it has made a home on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge. The most common type of woodpecker in the South, the "Zebraback" nests in the cavities of trees and consumes large quantities of wood-boring beetles, as well as other insect pests. More than 280 species of birds make their homes on the 140,000-acre refuge, which lies within the boundaries of Kennedy Space Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A female Red-bellied Woodpecker clings to a utility pole where it has made a home on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge. The most common type of woodpecker in the South, the "Zebraback" nests in the cavities of trees and consumes large quantities of wood-boring beetles, as well as other insect pests. More than 280 species of birds make their homes on the 140,000-acre refuge, which lies within the boundaries of Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Establishing a range-wide provenance test in valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) at two California sites

    Treesearch

    Annette Delfino-Mix; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Christina Liang; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    We present the methods used to establish a provenance test in valley oak, Quercus lobata. Nearly 11,000 acorns were planted and 88 percent of those germinated. The resulting seedlings were measured after 1 and 2 years of growth, and were outplanted in the field in the winter of 2014-2015. This test represents a long-term resource for both research...

  18. Comparative evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Prychitko, T M; Moore, W S

    2000-07-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic studies of vertebrates have been based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial-encoded genes. MtDNA evolves rapidly and is thus particularly useful for resolving relationships among recently evolved groups. However, it has the disadvantage that all of the mitochondrial genes are inherited as a single linkage group so that only one independent gene tree can be inferred regardless of the number of genes sequenced. Introns of nuclear genes are attractive candidates for independent sources of rapidly evolving DNA: they are pervasive, most of their nucleotides appear to be unconstrained by selection, and PCR primers can be designed for sequences in adjacent exons where nucleotide sequences are conserved. We sequenced intron 7 of the beta-fibrinogen gene (beta-fibint7) for a diversity of woodpeckers and compared the phylogenetic signal and nucleotide substitution properties of this DNA sequence with that of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b (cyt b) from a previous study. A few indels (insertions and deletions) were found in the beta-fibint7 sequences, but alignment was not difficult, and the indels were phylogentically informative. The beta-fibint7 and cyt b gene trees were nearly identical to each other but differed in significant ways from the traditional woodpecker classification. Cyt b evolves 2.8 times as fast as beta-fibint7 (14. 0 times as fast at third codon positions). Despite its relatively slow substitution rate, the phylogenetic signal in beta-fibint7 is comparable to that in cyt b for woodpeckers, because beta-fibint7 has less base composition bias and more uniform nucleotide substitution probabilities. As a consequence, compared with cyt b, beta-fibint7 nucleotide sites are expected to enter more distinct character states over the course of evolution and have fewer multiple substitutions and lower levels of homoplasy. Moreover, in contrast to cyt b, in which nearly two thirds of nucleotide sites rarely vary among closely related taxa

  19. Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns (ACoRN): quantitative and qualitative educational evaluation of the program in a region of China.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Nalini; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Fidler, Herta; Aziz, Khalid; McMillan, Douglas; Qiu, Xiangming; Ma, Xiaolu; Du, Lizhong; Lee, Shoo K

    2012-06-20

    The Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN) program was developed in Canada for trained health care providers for the identification and management of newborns who are at-risk and/or become unwell in the first few hours or days after birth. The ACoRN process follows an 8-step framework that enables the evaluation and management of babies irrespective of the experience or expertise of the caregiving individual or team. This study assesses the applicability of the program to Chinese pediatric practitioners. Course content and educational materials were translated from English into Chinese by bilingual neonatal practitioners. Confidence and knowledge questionnaires were developed and reviewed for face and content validity by a team of ACoRN instructors. Bilingual Chinese instructors were trained at the tertiary perinatal centre in Hangzhou Zhejiang to deliver the course at 15 level II county hospitals. Participants completed pre- and post-course confidence and knowledge questionnaires and provided feedback through post-course focus groups. 216 physicians and nurses were trained. Confidence and knowledge relating to neonatal stabilization improved significantly following the courses. Participants rated course utility and function between 4.2 and 4.6/5 on all items. Pre/post measures of confidence were significantly correlated with post course knowledge. Focus group data supported the perceived value of the program and recommended course adjustments to include pre-course reading, and increased content related to simulation, communication skills, and management of respiratory illness and jaundice. ACoRN, a Canadian educational program, appears to be well received by Chinese health care providers and results in improved knowledge and confidence. International program adaptation for use by health care professionals requires structured and systematic evaluation to ensure that the program meets the needs of learners, reflects their learning styles, and can be applied in their

  20. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  1. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  2. Using Lidar-derived 3-D Vegetation Structure Maps to Assist in the Search for the Ivory- billed Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Dubayah, R.; Greim, H.

    2006-12-01

    Averaging about 20 inches in length, the ivory-billed woodpecker is among the world's largest woodpeckers. It once ranged through swampy forests in the southeastern and lower Mississippi valley states, and until recently was believed to have become extinct in the 1940's when commercial logging destroyed its last known habitat. Recent sightings however, may indicate the birds' survival in remaining bottomland hardwood forest adjacent to the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. In June-July 2006, NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to map approximately 5000 km2 of the White River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas, including sites where recent possible sightings of the bird occurred. LVIS is an airborne, medium- footprint (5- to 25-meter diameter), full waveform-recording, airborne, scanning lidar system which has been used extensively for mapping forest structure, habitat, carbon and natural hazards. The system digitally records the shape of the returning laser echo, or waveform, after its interaction with the various reflecting surfaces of the earth (leaves, branches, ground, etc.), providing a true 3-dimensional record of the surface structure. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces (the return waveform). Experimental metrics such as canopy structure metrics based on energy quartiles, as well as ground energy/canopy cover and waveform complexity metrics will be derived from each waveform. The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland, NASA, USGS, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The LVIS-generated data of the 3- D vegetation structure and underlying terrain will be used as a means to guide local, ground-based search efforts in the upcoming field season as well as identify the remaining areas of habitat suitable for protection should the bird be found.

  3. Black-backed woodpecker habitat suitability mapping using conifer snag basal area estimated from airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia, M.; Siegel, R.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Occupancy and habitat suitability models for snag-dependent wildlife species are commonly defined as a function of snag basal area. Although critical for predicting or assessing habitat suitability, spatially distributed estimates of snag basal area are not generally available across landscapes at spatial scales relevant for conservation planning. This study evaluates the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) to 1) identify individual conifer snags and map their basal area across a recently burned forest, and 2) map habitat suitability for a wildlife species known to be dependent on snag basal area, specifically the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). This study focuses on the Rim Fire, a megafire that took place in 2013 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, creating large patches of medium- and high-severity burned forest. We use forest inventory plots, single-tree ALS-derived metrics and Gaussian processes classification and regression to identify conifer snags and estimate their stem diameter and basal area. Then, we use the results to map habitat suitability for the black-backed woodpecker using thresholds for conifer basal area from a previously published habitat suitability model. Local maxima detection and watershed segmentation algorithms resulted in 75% detection of trees with stem diameter larger than 30 cm. Snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 91.8 % and conifer snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 84.8 %. Finally, Gaussian process regression reliably estimated stem diameter (R2 = 0.8) using height and crown area. This work provides a fast and efficient methodology to characterize the extent of a burned forest at the tree level and a critical tool for early wildlife assessment in post-fire forest management and biodiversity conservation.

  4. Fort Bragg and the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: A Content Analysis of Selected Local Newspapers’ Coverage of Fort Bragg’s Endangered Species Protection Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    woodpecker species? 3) How did the amount and tone of coverage differ between Fort Bragg’s command information newspaper, the Paraglide , and the civilian...to Fort * Bragg and its potential to offer a sample of local newspaper articles not inspired by a prepared media release. The Paraglide , a weekly...newspapers yielded 15 stories (241 paragraphs, 15 headlines) from the Fort Bragg Paraglide , 37 stories (666 paragraphs, 36 headlines) from the

  5. Preparation and characterization of acorn starch/poly(lactic acid) composites modified with functionalized vegetable oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouhai; Xia, Jianling; Xu, Yuzhi; Yang, Xuejuan; Mao, Wei; Huang, Kun

    2016-05-20

    Composites of acorn starch (AS) and poly(1actic acid) (PLA) modified with dimer fatty acid (DFA) or dimer fatty acid polyamide (DFAPA) were produced by a hot-melt extrusion method. The effects of DFA and DFAPA contents on the mechanical, hydrophobic, thermal properties and melt fluidity of the composites were studied under an invariable AS-to-PLA mass ratio of 40/60. SEM and DMA research results show that the compatibility of AS/PLA composites are determined by the dosage of DFA or DFAPA. The hydrophobicity and melt fluidity of composites are improved with the addition of DFA and DFAPA. The glass transition temperatures of the composites are all reduced remarkably by additives DFA and DFAPA. However, DFA and DFAPA exert different effects on the mechanical properties of AS/PLA composites. In the DFAPA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength first increase and then decrease with the increase of DFAPA dosage; the mechanical strength is maximized when the dosage of DFAPA is 2 wt% of total weight. In the DFA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength decrease with the increase of DFA dosage.

  6. A histological investigation of the maturation of the acorn worm, an inhabitant of the Sea of Japan, and a suggestion about the relationship between synchronized spawning/spermiation and the tidal level.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Shouzo; Sakai, Kei-ichi; Matada, Masahiro; Sasayama, Yuichi

    2005-05-01

    One species of Hemichordata, Balanoglossus misakiensis, is then acorn worm originally reported from the intertidal zone of the Miura Peninsula on the Pacific Ocean side of Japan. We histologically examined the reproductive cycle of the population of this species, which inhabits only the sublittoral zone in the Sea of Japan. Testes and ovaries began to develop at the beginning of May 2003 and were almost mature in the latter half of June in males and in the first half of July in females in the same year. Subsequently, spermiation and spawning followed in the latter half of July in males and in the first half of August in females. Progress in maturation appeared to be related to increases in the water temperature. Although some experiments were conducted in aquariums to identify the conditions responsible for the synchronization of the occurrence of spontaneous spawning/spermiation, no clues were obtained. During the experiments, however, 11, 2, and 4 individuals out of the 67 used achieved spawning/spermiation on separate days. The occurrence of spawning/spermiation in the laboratory corresponded to the latter half of the switch from high tide to low tide on those days. Also in the field, it was known that they released the gametes according to this specific schedule. Therefore, it was suggested that, in the Japan Sea population of this species, the tide level may be a condition for synchronized spawning/spermiation.

  7. Acorn: A grid computing system for constraint based modeling and visualization of the genome scale metabolic reaction networks via a web interface

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Constraint-based approaches facilitate the prediction of cellular metabolic capabilities, based, in turn on predictions of the repertoire of enzymes encoded in the genome. Recently, genome annotations have been used to reconstruct genome scale metabolic reaction networks for numerous species, including Homo sapiens, which allow simulations that provide valuable insights into topics, including predictions of gene essentiality of pathogens, interpretation of genetic polymorphism in metabolic disease syndromes and suggestions for novel approaches to microbial metabolic engineering. These constraint-based simulations are being integrated with the functional genomics portals, an activity that requires efficient implementation of the constraint-based simulations in the web-based environment. Results Here, we present Acorn, an open source (GNU GPL) grid computing system for constraint-based simulations of genome scale metabolic reaction networks within an interactive web environment. The grid-based architecture allows efficient execution of computationally intensive, iterative protocols such as Flux Variability Analysis, which can be readily scaled up as the numbers of models (and users) increase. The web interface uses AJAX, which facilitates efficient model browsing and other search functions, and intuitive implementation of appropriate simulation conditions. Research groups can install Acorn locally and create user accounts. Users can also import models in the familiar SBML format and link reaction formulas to major functional genomics portals of choice. Selected models and simulation results can be shared between different users and made publically available. Users can construct pathway map layouts and import them into the server using a desktop editor integrated within the system. Pathway maps are then used to visualise numerical results within the web environment. To illustrate these features we have deployed Acorn and created a web server allowing

  8. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Plant: Progress report, 1985 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Lennartz, M.R.

    1988-12-06

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In early 1986 there were four RCW's on the SRP, including one pair in colony 19 and solitary males in colonies 5 and 16. Because of the decline in past years, it was deemed necessary to bring in birds from outside the plant to augment the local RCW population. In the next two years, translocations and local reproduction increased the population to 14 birds and the number of breeding clans from one to three. Although only two clans bred and fledged young in 1988, the population remains at 14 birds and has expanded to occupy five colony sites. Research and management activities implemented or continued over the past year include: translocations of birds within the SRP and from the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) to SRP, herbicide, burning and thinning for hardwood control and increased diameter growth of pines, the removal of flying squirrels from active colonies, and the installation of nest boxes, RCW artificial cavities and metal restrictors to reduce competition from other species.

  9. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1990-12-31

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). We managed to stabilize the population in the first couple of years through an intensive flying squirrel removal project as well as augmentation of female RCW`s to the SRS population. We are now in the expansion phase of the project. In 1990 we have focused our efforts on: (1) developing a cavity excavation method and excavating cavities in suitable habitat; (2) flying squirrel control; (3) translocation of RCW`s; (4) monitoring clan composition and reproduction; (5) identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion; and (6) surveying lands near SRS where RCW`s were thought to exist. This report summarizes activities for FY 1990 and plans for FY 1991.

  10. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, K.S.

    1992-09-11

    The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

  11. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  12. Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Activity and Phenolic Content of Crude Ethanol Extract and Four Corresponding Fractions of Quercus brantii L Acorn.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh

    2016-11-29

    This research was aimed to evaluate anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 (anti-HSV-1) activity of crude ethanol extract and 4 corresponding fractions of Quercus brantii acorn in vitro. Crude ethanol extract was prepared and subjected to fractionation with different polarity. Anti-HSV-1 activity was evaluated on baby hamster kidney cell line using MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of the plant materials on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of HSV-1 replication cycle were determined. Regression analysis was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration and 50% cytotoxicity concentration, from which selective index was calculated. Based on our results, the chloroform fraction and the crude extract had the highest effect against HSV-1 with selectivity indices of 53.8 and 48.4, respectively. The n-hexane, n-butanol, and chloroform fractions inhibited HSV-1 replication in postadsorption stage (P < .001). The results obtained indicated that the chloroform fraction of Q brantii acorn with high inhibitory effect against HSV-1 replication could be a new promising anti-HSV-1 agent.

  13. An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J., R.; Taylor, T., B.; Daniels, S., J.

    2003-05-29

    This report summarizes results of research on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) conducted by personnel from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) and the Duke Marine Laboratory at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, from September 29, 2000 through September 28, 2002. This period represents the first two years of a five-year Cooperative Agreement between Virginia Tech and the USDA Forest Service, Savannah River. This report serves as an Interim Project Report with respect to the Cooperative Agreement (No. OO-CA-ll 083600-010), and a Final Project Report for the initial award to Virginia Tech (FRS No.428911).

  14. Tests of wildlife habitat models to evaluate oak-mast production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.L.; Vangilder, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    We measured oak-mast production and forest structure and composition in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and tested the accuracy of oak-mast prediction variables from 5 Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) species models. Acorn production was positively associated with several measures of abundance and canopy cover of oak trees, and with an index of mast production for all 5 HSI models. We developed 2 modified oak-mast models, based on inputs related to either oak tree density or oak canopy cover and diversity of oak tree species. The revised models accounted for 22-32% of the variance associated with acorn abundance. Future tests of HSI models should consider: (1) the concept of upper limits imposed by habitat and the effects of nonhabitat factors; (2) the benefits of a top-down approach to model development; and (3) testing models across broad geographic regions.

  15. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thays Duarte; Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA-including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA-in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)-Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)-by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome.

  16. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species.

  17. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA—including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA—in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)—Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)–by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome. PMID:28081238

  18. A risk-based approach to evaluating wildlife demographics for management in a changing climate: A case study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyere, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-01-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  19. A Risk-Based Approach to Evaluating Wildlife Demographics for Management in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyère, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-12-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker ( Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  20. A Practice-Sponsored Web Site to Help Patients Pursue Healthy Behaviors: An ACORN Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Steven H.; Krist, Alex H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Wilson, Diane B.; Rothemich, Stephen F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Devers, Kelly J.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE We tested whether patients are more likely to pursue healthy behaviors (eg, physical activity, smoking cessation) if referred to a tailored Web site that provides valuable information for behavior change. METHODS In a 9-month pre-post comparison with nonrandomized control practices, 6 family practices (4 intervention, 2 control) encouraged adults with unhealthy behaviors to visit the Web site. For patients from intervention practices, the Web site offered tailored health advice, a library of national and local resources, and printouts for clinicians. For patients from control practices, the Web site offered static information pages. Patient surveys assessed stage of change and health behaviors at baseline and follow-up (at 1 and 4 months), Web site use, and satisfaction. RESULTS During the 9 months, 932 patients (4% of adults attending the practice) visited the Web site, and 273 completed the questionnaires. More than 50% wanted physician assistance with health behaviors. Stage of change advanced and health behaviors improved in both intervention and control groups. Intervention patients reported greater net improvements at 1 month, although the differences approached significance only for physical activity and readiness to change dietary fat intake. Patients expressed satisfaction with the Web site but wished it provided more detailed information and greater interactivity with clinicians. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians face growing pressure to offer patients good information on health promotion and other health care topics. Referring patients to a well-designed Web site that offers access to the world’s best information is an appealing alternative to offering handouts or impromptu advice. Interactive Web sites can facilitate behavior change and can interface with electronic health records. Determining whether referral to an informative Web site improves health outcomes is a methodological challenge, but the larger question is whether information alone is