Science.gov

Sample records for acorns fruits berries

  1. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  2. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents. PMID:25317174

  3. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  4. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  5. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  6. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  7. Toxin producing micromycetes on fruit, berries, and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Stakeniene, Jurgita

    2002-01-01

    In 1999-2001 the investigations on mycological state of stored and sold fruit, berries, and vegetables grown in Lithuania and imported from other countries were performed. The samples of foodstuff were taken from storehouses, various supermarkets, and market places. Such ecological conditions lead to a rapid spreading of micromycetes and contamination of other articles of food stored and sold nearby. On fresh fruit and berries the development of microorganisms is slow. However, microorganisms penetrate into internal tissues of berries and fruit, thus becoming difficult to notice visually. Some microorganisms, especially micromycetes of some species belonging to the Penicillium Link, Aspergillus Mich. ex Fr., and other genera, are able to produce secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) of various compositions that are toxic to plants, animals, and humans. Therefore, the ability of micromycetes to synthesise and excrete toxic secondary metabolites was examined. Considering this issue, 393 micromycete strains ascribed to 54 genera and 176 species were tested. 46 strains were identified as active producers of toxic substances and were selected for further examinations. Most of them belonged to the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium genera. Their detection frequency on the investigated berries, fruit, and vegetables was determined, and the impact upon warm-blooded animals (BALB/c mice) was tested. Significant changes of the internal organs and blood composition were found in mice infected with toxic micromycetes. In conclusion, it was evidenced that more than 10% of micromycete strains developing on incorrectly-preserved fruit, berries and vegetables, produce toxic secondary metabolites that pose a potential health hazard for people eating or handling the foodstuff.

  8. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer. PMID:25493015

  9. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  11. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  12. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource.

  13. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain.

    PubMed

    Maunula, Leena; Kaupke, Agnieszka; Vasickova, Petra; Söderberg, Kirsi; Kozyra, Iwona; Lazic, Sava; van der Poel, Wim H M; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; Willems, Kris A; Moloney, Rita; D'Agostino, Martin; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Rzeżutka, Artur; Pavlik, Ivo; Petrovic, Tamas; Cook, Nigel

    2013-10-15

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses. A total of 785 samples were collected throughout the food production chain of four European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Poland and Serbia) during two growing seasons. Samples were taken during the production phase, the processing phase, and at point-of-sale. Samples included irrigation water, animal faeces, food handlers' hand swabs, swabs from toilets on farms, from conveyor belts at processing plants, and of raspberries or strawberries at points-of-sale; all were subjected to virus analysis. The samples were analysed by real-time (reverse transcription, RT)-PCR, primarily for human adenoviruses (hAdV) to demonstrate that a route of contamination existed from infected persons to the food supply chain. The analyses also included testing for the presence of selected human (norovirus, NoV GI, NoV GII and hepatitis A virus, HAV), animal (porcine adenovirus, pAdV and bovine polyomavirus, bPyV) and zoonotic (hepatitis E virus, HEV) viruses. At berry production, hAdV was found in 9.5%, 5.8% and 9.1% of samples of irrigation water, food handlers' hands and toilets, respectively. At the processing plants, hAdV was detected in one (2.0%) swab from a food handler's hand. At point-of-sale, the prevalence of hAdV in fresh raspberries, frozen raspberries and fresh strawberries, was 0.7%, 3.2% and 2.0%, respectively. Of the human pathogenic viruses, NoV GII was detected in two (3.6%) water samples at berry production, but no HAV was detected in any of the samples. HEV-contaminated frozen raspberries were found once (2.6%). Animal faecal contamination was evidenced by positive pAdV and bPyV assay results. At berry production, one water sample contained both viruses, and at

  14. [Enrichment of fruits and berries with selenium and prospects for their using in the preventive nutrition].

    PubMed

    Blinnikova, O M; Eliseeva, L G

    2016-01-01

    The method of producing enriched with selenium berries and fruits has been investigated. The objects of research were plants and berries of edible honeysuckle variety Kingfisher, of garden strawberry variety Korona, of Actinidia kolomikta variety Soroka, the fruits of a field ash variety Sorbinka and the black chokeberry's fruits variety Chernookaya. Enrichment with the selenium of berries and fruits of these cultures has been performed by the method of single and double foliar treatment of plants with aqueous sodium selenate (concentration of 1. 2 and 3 mg/l) during the formation of fruits and berries. Reprocessing had been performed in 10 days after the first one. It was found out that the use of plants' re-processing didn't contribute to greater accumulation of selenium in berries and fruits, according to the single treatment, that's why it is inefficient. Using enrichment, providing the maximum concentration of selenium in the working solution--3 mg/l is the most optimal to increase its content in the honeysuckle--by 5.2 fold; in the strawberry--by 3.9 fold; in Actinidia--3 fold; in the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--by 2.7 fold. The content of selenium (μg/100 g) in enriched berries of the honeysuckle was 32.3-35.2; the strawberry--11.7-13.1; Actinidia kolomikta--3.5-4.1; the fruits of the field ash ordinary--4.6-5.1, Aronia--2.8-3.2. Eating fortified fruit and berries will contribute to the prevention of selenium deficiency in the body. Thus, intake of 100 g honeysuckle's berries helps cover the daily requirement of selenium in 47.9-60.9%, the strawberry--in 18.0-22.9%, actinidia' berries, the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--in 4.3-8.7%.

  15. [Enrichment of fruits and berries with selenium and prospects for their using in the preventive nutrition].

    PubMed

    Blinnikova, O M; Eliseeva, L G

    2016-01-01

    The method of producing enriched with selenium berries and fruits has been investigated. The objects of research were plants and berries of edible honeysuckle variety Kingfisher, of garden strawberry variety Korona, of Actinidia kolomikta variety Soroka, the fruits of a field ash variety Sorbinka and the black chokeberry's fruits variety Chernookaya. Enrichment with the selenium of berries and fruits of these cultures has been performed by the method of single and double foliar treatment of plants with aqueous sodium selenate (concentration of 1. 2 and 3 mg/l) during the formation of fruits and berries. Reprocessing had been performed in 10 days after the first one. It was found out that the use of plants' re-processing didn't contribute to greater accumulation of selenium in berries and fruits, according to the single treatment, that's why it is inefficient. Using enrichment, providing the maximum concentration of selenium in the working solution--3 mg/l is the most optimal to increase its content in the honeysuckle--by 5.2 fold; in the strawberry--by 3.9 fold; in Actinidia--3 fold; in the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--by 2.7 fold. The content of selenium (μg/100 g) in enriched berries of the honeysuckle was 32.3-35.2; the strawberry--11.7-13.1; Actinidia kolomikta--3.5-4.1; the fruits of the field ash ordinary--4.6-5.1, Aronia--2.8-3.2. Eating fortified fruit and berries will contribute to the prevention of selenium deficiency in the body. Thus, intake of 100 g honeysuckle's berries helps cover the daily requirement of selenium in 47.9-60.9%, the strawberry--in 18.0-22.9%, actinidia' berries, the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--in 4.3-8.7%. PMID:27228706

  16. Acorns Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; Vickers, Valerie; Patrick, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a lesson plan on the role of the acorn and its complex community of biotic relationships between animal and fungal organisms. Introduces students to ecological concepts through acorn investigations including dissection of acorns and exploring the organisms' interaction web. (YDS)

  17. Virus testing by PCR and RT-PCR amplification in berry fruit.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Stuart; McGavin, Wendy; Tzanetakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit crops are prone to infection by a wide range of viruses, with the list expanding every year, primarily because of the expansion of the crops to new geographic regions. Although some methods allow for virus detection in a nonspecific manner, the advent of cheap and effective nucleic acid sequencing technologies has allowed for the development of species-specific tests. This chapter describes methods for extraction of nucleic acids for molecular testing from a range of different berry fruit crops and lists oligonucleotide primers that have been developed for amplification of a large number of berry fruit viruses.

  18. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  19. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  20. Preserving Brain Function in Aging: The Anti-glycative Potential of Berry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produced when those foods are cooked at high temperatures. Studies have linked AGEs to various age-related physiological changes, including wrinkles, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Dietary berry fruits have been shown to reduce the severity or slow the progression of many physiological changes and disease pathologies that accompany aging. Emerging evidence has shown that the phytochemicals found in berry fruits exhibit anti-glycative activity. In this review, we briefly summarize the current evidence supporting the neuroprotective anti-glycative activity of berry fruits and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. PMID:27166828

  1. Consumption of fruit and berries is inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, I; Hjerkinn, E M; Seljeflot, I; Arnesen, H; Tonstad, S

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lowered risk of CVD. We assessed the association between the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery and dietary intake of vegetables, fruit and berries in elderly men with a high risk of CVD. Subjects (age 70 +/- 5 years) were survivors from a cohort of 1232 men that participated in the Oslo Diet and Antismoking Study in 1972-3. Measurements of the carotid IMT by high resolution B-mode ultrasound, risk factor assessment and dietary data based on an FFQ were collected in 1997-9. Complete dietary and ultrasound data were available for 547 subjects. The carotid IMT in the highest quartile of dietary intake of fruit and berries was 0.89 (SE 0.18) mm compared with 0.96 (SE 0.25) mm in the lowest quartile, giving a mean difference of 0.075 (SE 0.027) mm (P = 0.033). In multivariate regression analysis increased intake of fruit and berries remained inversely associated with IMT after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking, dietary cholesterol and saturated fat, consumption of milk, cream and ice cream and energy intake (multivariate regression coefficient 0.257; R(2) 0.066; SE 0.209; P < 0.001). The difference of 348 g of fruit and berries per d between the lowest and highest quartile of intake was associated with a 5.5 % adjusted difference in mean IMT. These findings suggest that consumption of fruit and berries may be protective against carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men at high risk of CVD.

  2. Polysaccharides from the wastes of some fruit and berry, vegetable, and technical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhimov, D.A.; Khamidkhozhaev, S.A.; Kondratenko, E.S.; Yuldasheva, N.P.

    1985-07-01

    The fractional isolation of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances has been carried out from the wastes of fruit and berry and vegetable crops: apples, quinces, grapes, and tomatoes, and also the valves of cotton bolls. The qualititative and quantitative monosaccharide compositions of the carbohydrates isolated have been determined, and the characteristics of the pectin substances are given.

  3. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Alunno, Alessia; Beghelli, Daniela; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo; Frezza, Claudio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Tirillini, Bruno; Venditti, Alessandro; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4–6 μg/mL). PMID:26973675

  4. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  5. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  6. The coexistence of acorns with different maturation patterns explains acorn production variability in cork oak.

    PubMed

    Pons, Josep; Pausas, Juli G

    2012-07-01

    In dry areas such as Mediterranean ecosystems, fluctuations in seed production are typically explained by resource (water) availability. However, acorn production in cork oak (Quercus suber) populations shows a very low relationship to weather. Because cork oak trees produce acorns with different maturation patterns (annual and biennial), we hypothesized that acorn production in coexisting individuals with a different dominant acorn maturation type should respond differently to climatic factors and that disaggregating the trees according to their acorn-maturation pattern should provide a more proximal relation to weather factors. We assessed acorn production variability in fragmented cork oak populations of the eastern Iberian Peninsula by counting the total number of acorns in 155 trees during an 8-year period. An initial assessment of acorn production variability in relation to weather parameters yielded very low explained variance (7%). However, after the trees were grouped according to their dominant acorn maturation pattern, weather parameters were found to account for 44% of the variability in acorn crops, with trees with annual acorns exhibiting mast fruiting in years with reduced spring frost and shorter summer droughts and trees with biennial acorns showing the opposite pattern. Thus, conditions that negatively affect annual production could be beneficial for biennial production (and vice versa). The results highlight the importance of the resource-matching hypothesis for explaining acorn production in Quercus suber and suggest that different seed maturation types within a population may allow the species to deal with highly variable weather conditions. They also emphasize the importance of understanding acorn maturation patterns for interpreting masting cycles.

  7. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits.

  8. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  9. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  10. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  11. Metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nardozza, Simona; Boldingh, Helen L; Osorio, Sonia; Höhne, Melanie; Wohlers, Mark; Gleave, Andrew P; MacRae, Elspeth A; Richardson, Annette C; Atkinson, Ross G; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Clearwater, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. In contrast, kiwifruit (Actinidia Lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. By integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of Actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting in starch concentration and size, this study identified the metabolic changes occurring during kiwifruit development, including the metabolic hallmarks of starch accumulation and turnover. At cell division, a rise in glucose (Glc) concentration was associated with neutral invertase (NI) activity, and the decline of both Glc and NI activity defined the transition to the cell expansion and starch accumulation phase. The high transcript levels of β-amylase 9 (BAM9) during cell division, prior to net starch accumulation, and the correlation between sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose suggest the occurrence of sucrose cycling and starch turnover. ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is identified as a key enzyme for starch accumulation in kiwifruit berries, as high-starch genotypes had 2- to 5-fold higher AGPase activity, which was maintained over a longer period of time and was also associated with enhanced and extended transcription of the AGPase large subunit 4 (APL4). The data also revealed that SPS and galactinol might affect kiwifruit starch accumulation, and suggest that phloem unloading into kiwifruit is symplastic. These results are relevant to the genetic improvement of quality traits such as sweetness and sugar/acid balance in a range of fruit species.

  12. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. Results: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this

  13. Improvement in fresh fruit and vegetable logistics quality: berry logistics field studies.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Nunes, M Cecilia; Nicometo, Mike; Emond, Jean Pierre; Melis, Ricardo Badia; Uysal, Ismail

    2014-06-13

    Shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is greatly influenced by environmental conditions. Increasing temperature usually results in accelerated loss of quality and shelf-life reduction, which is not physically visible until too late in the supply chain to adjust logistics to match shelf life. A blackberry study showed that temperatures inside pallets varied significantly and 57% of the berries arriving at the packinghouse did not have enough remaining shelf life for the longest supply routes. Yet, the advanced shelf-life loss was not physically visible. Some of those pallets would be sent on longer supply routes than necessary, creating avoidable waste. Other studies showed that variable pre-cooling at the centre of pallets resulted in physically invisible uneven shelf life. We have shown that using simple temperature measurements much waste can be avoided using 'first expiring first out'. Results from our studies showed that shelf-life prediction should not be based on a single quality factor as, depending on the temperature history, the quality attribute that limits shelf life may vary. Finally, methods to use air temperature to predict product temperature for highest shelf-life prediction accuracy in the absence of individual sensors for each monitored product have been developed. Our results show a significant reduction of up to 98% in the root-mean-square-error difference between the product temperature and air temperature when advanced estimation methods are used.

  14. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  15. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Andersson, Staffan; Nilsson, Ake; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2004-12-01

    The effects of 10 different extracts of fruits and berries on cell proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated. The fruits and berries used were rosehips, blueberries, black currant, black chokeberries, apple, sea buckthorn, plum, lingonberries, cherries, and raspberries. The extracts decreased the proliferation of both colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the effect was concentration dependent. The inhibition effect for the highest concentration of the extracts varied 2-3-fold among the species, and it was in the ranges of 46-74% (average = 62%) for the HT29 cells and 24-68% (average = 52%) for the MCF-7 cells. There were great differences in the content of the analyzed antioxidants in the extracts. The level of the vitamin C content varied almost 100-fold, and the content of total carotenoids varied almost 150-fold among the species. Also in the composition and content of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and phenolics were found great differences among the 10 species. The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues. The same inhibition of cell proliferation could not be found by ascorbate standard alone. This correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances. In MCF-7 cells, the anthocyanins may contribute to the inhibition of proliferation. PMID:15563205

  16. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Léon, Céline; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of grape berries from either field-grown vines or fruiting cuttings grown in the greenhouse. Principal component analysis readily discriminated the various stages of berry development, with similar trajectories for field-grown and greenhouse samples. This showed that each stage of fruit development had a characteristic metabolic profile and provided compelling evidence that the fruit-bearing cuttings are a useful model system to investigate regulation of central carbon metabolism in grape berry. The metabolites measured showed tight coordination within their respective pathways, clustering into sugars and sugar-phosphate metabolism, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, there was a pronounced shift in metabolism around veraison, characterized by rapidly increasing sugar levels and decreasing organic acids. In contrast, glycolytic intermediates and sugar phosphates declined before veraison but remained fairly stable post-veraison. In summary, these detailed and comprehensive metabolite analyses revealed the timing of important switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism, which could be related to transcriptional and developmental changes within the berry to achieve an integrated understanding of grape berry development. The results are discussed in a meta-analysis comparing metabolic changes in climacteric versus non-climacteric fleshy fruits.

  17. Low intake of fruits, berries and vegetables is associated with excess mortality in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Tiina H; Voutilainen, Sari; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Venho, Birgitta; Vanharanta, Meri; Mursu, Jaakko; Salonen, Jukka T

    2003-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been of interest because of their potential health benefits against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The aim of this work was to assess the association of the dietary intake of a food group that includes fruits, berries and vegetables with all-cause, CVD-related and non-CVD-related mortality. The subjects were Finnish men aged 42-60 y examined in 1984-1989 in the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4-d food intake record during the baseline phase of the KIHD Study. The risk of all-cause and non-CVD-related deaths was studied in 2641 men and the risk of CVD-related death in 1950 men who had no history of CVD at baseline. During a mean follow-up time of 12.8 y, cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular and all-cause mortality were lower among men with the highest consumption of fruits, berries and vegetables. After adjustment for the major CVD risk factors, the relative risk for men in the highest fifth of fruit, berry and vegetable intake for all-cause death, CVD-related and non-CVD-related death was 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88], 0.59 (0.33-1.06), and 0.68 (0.46-1.00), respectively, compared with men in the lowest fifth. These data show that a high fruit, berry and vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality in middle-aged Finnish men. Consequently, the findings of this work indicate that diets that are rich in plant-derived foods can promote longevity.

  18. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest.

  19. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlled experiment in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Teixeira, Generosa; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Fruits are highly important food resources for mammals in Mediterranean Europe, and due to the dominance of oaks (Quercus sp.), acorns are among those used by a vast array of species, including rodents. The metabolic yield of acorn intake may determine a selection pattern: preference for fat, carbohydrate, and consequently energy-rich fruits; or avoidance of fruits containing high concentrations of secondary chemical compounds (e.g., tannic acid). We studied the acorn feeding selection pattern of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting a mixed oak woodland, southwest Portugal, using an experiment conducted in an open-air enclosure. We tested which variables associated with the wood mouse (e.g., sex) and acorns (e.g., size and nutrient content) from three oak species (holm Q. rotundifolia, Portuguese Q. faginea and cork Q. suber oak) could be constraining acorn consumption. Our results indicate that wood mice are selecting acorns of the most common oak species (Q. suber), probably due to their previous familiarization with the fruit due to its dominance in the ecosystem but probably also because its chemical characteristics (sugar contents). Rodent gender and acorn morphology (width) are also influential, with females more prone to consume acorns with smaller width, probably due to handling limitation. This selective behaviour may have consequences for dispersion and natural regeneration of the different oak species.

  20. Prokaryotic expression, polyclonal antibody preparation of the stilbene synthase gene from grape berry and its different expression in fruit development and under heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wan, Si-Bao; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2008-12-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS, EC 2.3.1.95) leads to the production of resveratrol compounds, which are major components of the phytoalexin response against fungal pathogens of the plant and are highly bioactive substances of pharmaceutical interest. STS expression and regulation are important. Temperature is one of the main external factors affecting phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissues, the effect of temperature on resveratrol synthesis and stilbene synthase expression in grape berries has not been reported before. Here we cloned the full-length sts cDNA with 1179bp from grape berry via PCR, and then introduced into an expressed plasmid pET-30a(+) vector at the EcoRI and XhoI restriction sites. With the isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induced, the pET-sts was highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. A fusion protein with the His-Tag was purified by Ni-NTA His.Bind Resin and then used as the antigen to immunize a New Zealand rabbit. Furthermore, the antiserum was precipitated by 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography to obtain the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction. These results provide a substantial basis for the further studies of the STS in grape berry as well as in other species of plants. The sts expression in fruit development and in response to heat acclimation was then assayed. The results indicated STS was regulated in fruits depending on the developmental stage and significantly accumulation of STS mRNA and synthesis of new STS protein during the early of heat acclimation, this work offers an important basis for further investigating the mechanism of post-harvest fruit adaptation to environmental stresses.

  1. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines.

  2. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. Results The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3′5′H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3′5′H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between

  3. High-pressure processing of berry and other fruit products: implications for bioactive compounds and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Daryaei, Hossein; Krishnamurthy, Kathiravan; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2014-05-01

    Fruits contain a variety of nutrients and polyphenols that are associated with health benefits. Year-round availability of fresh fruits is limited due to perishability. Processing fruits extends shelf life. Individual quick-frozen fruit is the most common for fruits, but nowadays, processing fruits into beverages offers extended shelf life and new market opportunities. Conventional thermal processing is an effective method for producing safe, extended shelf life, and shelf-stable products, including beverages. However, the high temperatures negatively affect nutritive quality by destroying essential nutrients and biologically active "non-essential" components such as polyphenols. Therefore, novel technologies that can preserve nutrient quality while ensuring food safety are warranted. In this review, the application of high-pressure processing (HPP) for preserving nutrients and phytochemicals while ensuring microbiological safety in beverages and other foods containing fruits is discussed.

  4. Multiresidue method for determination of 88 pesticides in berry fruits using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Determination of 88 pesticides in berries using SPE and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Zhang, Y C; Dong, A J; Zhao, H T; Sun, C H; Cui, J

    2011-07-15

    A method using solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been established for quantitative determination of 88 pesticide residues in berry fruits including raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and grape. Based on an appraisal of the characteristics of GC-MS, validation experiments were conducted for 88 pesticides. In the method, solid-phase extraction was carried out using Envi-Carb cartridge coupled with NH(2)-LC cartridge with acetonitrile-toluene (3:1, v/v) as the eluted solvent. In the linear range of each pesticide, the correlation coefficient was R(2)⩾0.99. At the low, medium and high three fortification levels of 0.05-0.5mgkg(-1), recoveries fell within 63-137%. The relative standard deviation was between 1% and 19% for all 88 pesticides. Low limits of detection (0.006-0.05mgkg(-1)) and quantification (0.02-0.15mgkg(-1)) were readily achieved with this method for all tested pesticides. PMID:23140746

  5. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Mojsak, P; Jankowska, M; Kaczynski, P; Hrynko, I; Rutkowska, E; Szabunko, J; Borusiewicz, A

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005-2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01-0.81mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor <2.9% and <10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. PMID:27220092

  6. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).

  7. Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries to increase size and synchronicity of berries and modify wine aroma components.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Song, Chang-Zheng; Yu, Yong; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2015-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on grape berries and its wines. Two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries increased the weight of the berries by approximately 6.6%. Meanwhile, this melatonin treatment could be beneficial in the reduction of underripe and overripe fruits and in enhancing the synchronicity of the berries. In addition, there were significant differences in the volatile compound composition between the wine produced from the melatonin-treated berries and the wines made from untreated berries. The wine from melatonin-treated pre-veraison grape berries had stronger fruity, spicy, and sweet sensory properties, compared to the wines made from untreated berries. Prolonging the treatment through repeated applications can enhance these effects and under different seasonal conditions, more pronounced effects on the grape quality and wine properties can be observed.

  8. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    PubMed

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  9. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with Curculio that survived the fire had 20 percent lower germination rates than unburned acorns.

  10. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli; Patterson, Kelly M; Barnes, Janelle; Carter, Steve G; Scherwitz, Larry; Beaman, Robert; Endres, John R; Schauss, Alexander G

    2008-09-24

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB's antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) postconsumption.

  11. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  12. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  13. aCORN Electrostatic mirror upgrade, design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The electron-antineutrino angular correlation (a) in the neutron beta decay is being measured by the aCORN experiment. aCORN is aiming to measure a to a relative accuracy of 1 % using a novel technique where electrons and protons from the neutron decay are detected in coincidence. The momenta of the particles are selected in such a way that two groups of protons are formed based on the proton time-of-flight. An electrostatic mirror reflects all protons towards the proton detector and preaccelerates them for collimation. In the last aCORN run the largest source of systematic correction was due to transverse electric fields in the mirror. For the next phase of aCORN, we upgraded the electrostatic mirror. The design and operation of the upgraded electrostatic mirror will be presented. This work is supported by NSF, NIST and DOE Office of Science.

  14. Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns in the left panels and olive branches with olives in right. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  15. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health.

    PubMed

    Battino, Maurizio; Beekwilder, Jules; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Laimer, Margit; McDougall, Gordon J; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific health-related compounds in fruits. This work reviews the main bioactive compounds determining the nutritional quality of berries, the major factors affecting their content and activity, and the genetic options currently available to achieve new genotypes able to provide, under controlled cultivation conditions, berries with the proper balance of bioactive compounds for improving consumer health.

  16. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  17. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  18. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation.

  19. Phenolic sulfates as new and highly abundant metabolites in human plasma after ingestion of a mixed berry fruit purée.

    PubMed

    Pimpão, Rui C; Ventura, M Rita; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Williamson, Gary; Santos, Claudia N

    2015-02-14

    Bioavailability studies are vital to assess the potential impact of bioactive compounds on human health. Although conjugated phenolic metabolites derived from colonic metabolism have been identified in the urine, the quantification and appearance of these compounds in plasma is less well studied. In this regard, it is important to further assess their potential biological activity in vivo. To address this gap, a cross-over intervention study with a mixed fruit purée (blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry tree fruit and Portuguese crowberry) and a standard polyphenol-free meal was conducted in thirteen volunteers (ten females and three males), who received each test meal once, and plasma metabolites were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. Sulfated compounds were chemically synthesised and used as standards to facilitate quantification. Gallic and caffeic acid conjugates were absorbed rapidly, reaching a maximum concentration between 1 and 2 h. The concentrations of sulfated metabolites resulting from the colonic degradation of more complex polyphenols increased in plasma from 4 h, and pyrogallol sulfate and catechol sulfate reached concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 μm at 6 h. In conclusion, phenolic sulfates reached high concentrations in plasma, as opposed to their undetected parent compounds. These compounds have potential use as biomarkers of polyphenol intake, and their biological activities need to be considered.

  20. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. PMID:24285825

  1. Isolation of bioactive polysaccharide from acorn and evaluation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tadayoni, Mehrnoosh; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential and some functional properties of polysaccharides isolated from acorn fruit. The FTIR spectrum of isolated acorn polysaccharide (IAP) showed the typical bands corresponding to sugars and polysaccharides. The IAP was resistant to simulated acidic and enzymatic digestion even more than Inulin (In). The prebiotic activity, which was tested using IAP as a carbon source, showed significant increase in the growth and viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (probiotic). Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 in IAP and In supplemented media was stable even after 72 h, whereas in glucose supplemented medium, bacterial growth showed a notable decrease after 24h. Lipid absorption capacity (LAC) and water holding capacity (WHC) of IAP were 5.44 ± 0.02 (g oil/g DM) and 4.33 ± 0.03 (g water/g DM), respectively, which were comparable to some dietary fibers and were more than In. IAP scavenged DPPH radicals by 82.24%. IAP was found to have a high scavenging ability compared to the reference prebiotic (In), giving a scavenging ability of about 20%. Therefore, due to prebiotic capability, high WHC, LAC and good antioxidant activity, IAP can be a suitable candidate for technological applications and health improving effects in functional food. PMID:25159883

  2. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-05-14

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control.

  3. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  4. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  5. [Formation peculiarities of Quercus robur L. acorn mycobiota under conditions of Kyiv Polissya].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, N M; Bilous, V M

    2013-01-01

    The structure of mycobiota (epiphytic and from inner tissues) of Q. robur acorns (580 samples) under conditions of Kyiv Polissya was studied. Acorn samples were collected from oak trees during vegetation period. The epiphytes and mycobiota isolated from inner tissues of acorns was represented by 38 and 20 species, respectively. The majority of fungi were isolated in July. Cosmopolitan and non-specific species Acremonium sp., Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride and specific ones - Phoma sp. and Phomopsis sp. were isolated from inner acorn tissues. It was established that potential seed and seedling pathogens infect acorns during the process of their formation. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:24006787

  6. Triterpene Galloyl Esters from Edible Acorn of Castanopsis cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Misaki; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Maeda, Hajime; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Polyphenols of edible acorns of Castanopsis cuspidata were examined and two triterpene galloyl esters were isolated. Based on two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic evidence the structures were determined to be 3,24-di-O-galloyl-2α,3β-23,24-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3,24-di-O-galloyl- 2α,3β-23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2). The triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters, which had been found in the leaves, were not detected in the acorns.

  7. Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Rhone, Michael; Lyons, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Berries are a good source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, micronutrients, and fiber. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these constituents have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles. Human intervention studies using chokeberries, cranberries, blueberries, and strawberries (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried), or purified anthocyanin extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism. Benefits were seen in healthy subjects and in those with existing metabolic risk factors. Underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects are believed to include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased activities of carbohydrate digestive enzymes, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression and foam cell formation. Though limited, these data support the recommendation of berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet. PMID:20384847

  8. Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Zhang, Yun; Shrestha, Pradeep M; Biondi, Marco; Bondada, Bhaskar R

    2015-06-01

    We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening berries sampled in the field suggested that phloem water inflow may exceed growth and transpiration water demands. Collecting apoplastic sap from ripening berries showed that osmotic pressure increased at distinct rates in berry vacuoles and apoplast. Our results indicate that the decrease in xylem inflow at the onset of ripening may be a consequence of the sink-driven increase in phloem inflow. We propose a conceptual model in which surplus phloem water bypasses the fruit cells and partly evaporates from the berry surface and partly moves apoplastically to the xylem for outflow.

  9. Oaks, Acorns, Climate and Squirrels, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the units is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. In this particular unit, oaks and acorns are the vehicle…

  10. Studies, Sit-Ins Earn ACORN's Activists Voice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    In Baltimore, Chicago, New York, Oakland, California and Philadelphia, to name a few cities where it has been active, Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) has emerged as a major player in K-12 in education issues. Its army of organizers has tackled everything from a lack of stop signs to such vexing issues as teacher…

  11. ACORN's Accelerated Income Redistribution Project: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Russell, Daniel; Fisher, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now's (ACORN) efforts to increase the uptake of families claiming the earned income tax credit through door-to-door canvassing and managing free tax preparation clinics in three pilot cities. Method: The mixed-method program evaluation included administrative…

  12. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  13. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alistair J.

    2013-01-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed. PMID:24123250

  14. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alistair J; Minchin, Peter E H; Clearwater, Michael J; Génard, Michel

    2013-12-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed.

  15. Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents

    PubMed Central

    ANTHONY, J.-P.; FYFE, L.; STEWART, D.; McDOUGALL, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Following previous work on the anti-giardial effect of blueberry polyphenols, a range of polyphenol-rich extracts from berries and other fruits was screened for their ability to kill Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite of humans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from berries using solid-phase extraction and applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis grown in vitro. All berry extracts caused inhibition at 166 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ml phenol content but extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry and cloudberry were as effective as the currently used drug, metronidazole, causing complete trophozoite mortality in vitro. Cloudberry extracts were found to be the most effective causing effectively complete trophozoite mortality at 66 μg GAE/ml. The polyphenol composition of the more effective berry extracts suggested that the presence of ellagitannins could be an important factor. However, the potency of cloudberry could be related to high ellagitannin content but also to the presence of substantial amounts of unconjugated p-coumaric acid and benzoic acid. These in vitro effects occur at concentrations easily achievable in the gut after berry ingestion and we discuss the likelihood that berry extracts could be effective anti-giardial agents in vivo. PMID:21813029

  16. Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents.

    PubMed

    Anthony, J-P; Fyfe, L; Stewart, D; McDougall, G J

    2011-08-01

    Following previous work on the anti-giardial effect of blueberry polyphenols, a range of polyphenol-rich extracts from berries and other fruits was screened for their ability to kill Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite of humans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from berries using solid-phase extraction and applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis grown in vitro. All berry extracts caused inhibition at 166 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ml phenol content but extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry and cloudberry were as effective as the currently used drug, metronidazole, causing complete trophozoite mortality in vitro. Cloudberry extracts were found to be the most effective causing effectively complete trophozoite mortality at 66 μg GAE/ml. The polyphenol composition of the more effective berry extracts suggested that the presence of ellagitannins could be an important factor. However, the potency of cloudberry could be related to high ellagitannin content but also to the presence of substantial amounts of unconjugated p-coumaric acid and benzoic acid. These in vitro effects occur at concentrations easily achievable in the gut after berry ingestion and we discuss the likelihood that berry extracts could be effective anti-giardial agents in vivo. PMID:21813029

  17. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-29

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves.

  18. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  19. Incorporating Cache Management Behavior into Seed Dispersal: The Effect of Pericarp Removal on Acorn Germination

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Zhang, Mingming; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Dong, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Selecting seeds for long-term storage is a key factor for food hoarding animals. Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) remove the pericarp and scatter hoard sound acorns of Quercus mongolica over those that are insect-infested to maximize returns from caches. We have no knowledge of whether these chipmunks remove the pericarp from acorns of other species of oaks and if this behavior benefits seedling establishment. In this study, we tested whether Siberian chipmunks engage in this behavior with acorns of three other Chinese oak species, Q. variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, and how the dispersal and germination of these acorns are affected. Our results show that when chipmunks were provided with sound and infested acorns of Quercus variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, the two types were equally harvested and dispersed. This preference suggests that Siberian chipmunks are incapable of distinguishing between sound and insect-infested acorns. However, Siberian chipmunks removed the pericarp from acorns of these three oak species prior to dispersing and caching them. Consequently, significantly more sound acorns were scatter hoarded and more infested acorns were immediately consumed. Additionally, indoor germination experiments showed that pericarp removal by chipmunks promoted acorn germination while artificial removal showed no significant effect. Our results show that pericarp removal allows Siberian chipmunks to effectively discriminate against insect-infested acorns and may represent an adaptive behavior for cache management. Because of the germination patterns of pericarp-removed acorns, we argue that the foraging behavior of Siberian chipmunks could have potential impacts on the dispersal and germination of acorns from various oak species. PMID:24647670

  20. Berry Phase in Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-07-29

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase, which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27517766

  1. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  2. The Design and Implementation of the aCORN Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Brian; aCORN Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The aCORN experiment confines the neutron decay products close to an axis using a set of collimators. The electron-antineutrino angular correlation leads to an asymmetry in the number of decay protons emerging parallel to the electron versus the number emerging anti-parallel. A measurement of the asymmetry leads to a measurement of the coefficient, ``a.'' aCORN employs a highly uniform magnetic field aligned to within 10-4 radians of the collimator axis to limit the maximum transverse momentum of the protons. Errors in uniformity or alignment of the field lead to differences in the phase space for the two proton populations and thus to systematic errors in the value of ``a.'' The design of the magnet system, its power supplies, and the field mapping systems will be presented.

  3. Acoustic detection of UHE neutrinos - the ACORNE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. F.; Perkin, J. D.; ACORNE Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    An interesting new possibility of detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is that of acoustic detection whereby the acoustic pressure pulse generated as a UHE neutrino interacts in a suitable medium such as water or ice is detected by an array of acoustic sensors. Recent years have seen something of a renaissance of this field and there are currently a number of activities worldwide to assess the potential of this technique. The UK-based ACORNE collaboration is one of these activities; ACORNE has access to the QinetiQ underwater acoustic range off Rona, an island off the North-West coast of Scotland. The poster will summarise ACORNE's R&D work, including simulation of the thermoacoustic emission of neutrino-induced particle cascades, reconstruction of event vertices and the effects of refraction, potential neutrino flux sensitivities from large area hydrophone arrays, a study transducer based calibration techniques and an analysis of the first acoustic data recorded by the Rona hydrophone array.

  4. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models.

    PubMed

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  5. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  6. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species.

  7. Luther Burbank's best berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of cultivars, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  8. Luther Burbank's berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of varieties, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  9. Comparison of polyphenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Zhu, Jinyan; Meng, Xianjun; Liu, Suwen; Mu, Jingjing; Ning, Chong

    2016-04-15

    Four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berries--'Wild', 'Beilei', 'No. 1', and 'No. 2'--were compared with respect to extraction yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anthocyanin composition. Sixteen individual anthocyanins were identified in the selected varieties. Acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-acetylhexoside and peonidin 3-acetylhexoside, were identified in L. caerulea berries for the first time. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most prominent anthocyanin in all four tested varieties. Wild type of L. caerulea fruit ('Wild'), with the highest polyphenol content, contained 14 anthocyanins and the highest ORAC value. Eleven anthocyanins were found in 'Beilei' berries, which had a higher ORAC value than 'No. 1' and 'No. 2'. The highest total soluble solid content and extraction yield were found in 'No. 2' and 'Wild' berries, respectively.

  10. Comparison of polyphenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Zhu, Jinyan; Meng, Xianjun; Liu, Suwen; Mu, Jingjing; Ning, Chong

    2016-04-15

    Four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berries--'Wild', 'Beilei', 'No. 1', and 'No. 2'--were compared with respect to extraction yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anthocyanin composition. Sixteen individual anthocyanins were identified in the selected varieties. Acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-acetylhexoside and peonidin 3-acetylhexoside, were identified in L. caerulea berries for the first time. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most prominent anthocyanin in all four tested varieties. Wild type of L. caerulea fruit ('Wild'), with the highest polyphenol content, contained 14 anthocyanins and the highest ORAC value. Eleven anthocyanins were found in 'Beilei' berries, which had a higher ORAC value than 'No. 1' and 'No. 2'. The highest total soluble solid content and extraction yield were found in 'No. 2' and 'Wild' berries, respectively. PMID:26616984

  11. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  12. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  13. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  14. ACORNS: Analysis of Correlations Used in Neutron Spectrometry

    1988-05-01

    The program ACORNS performs the complete analysis of the input covariance and/or relative covariance and/or correlation matrices, first of all used in the activation neutron spectrometry. These matrices have to be positive definite. To check the fulfillment of this requirement, the program calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of those. If all the eigenvalues are positive, the program optionally performs the factor analysis. The user's input can be either made manually, or the cross section librariesmore » generated by the code X333.« less

  15. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  16. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    PubMed

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  17. A method for the isolation of protoplasts from grape berry mesocarp tissue.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Natacha; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2010-06-01

    As single cell systems, protoplasts have been used in physiological, biochemical and molecular studies aiming towards the investigation, improvement or modification of plants. In grapevine, protoplasts have been isolated from several source tissues but not from grape berry, a major challenge given the uniqueness of grape fruit for human diet and wine production. Also, as the ripe grape berry has long been considered a 'small bag of sugary water' without cell compartmentation and/or membrane integrity, the isolation of intact cells from the mesocarp is of special scientific significance. Protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp cells was achieved with cellulase and pectolyase digestion, followed by differential and gradient centrifugations; however, given the special characteristics of berry tissue, cell wall digestion and protoplast purification were performed in a special environment to maintain their integrity and viability. Light and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the spatial organization of the cytoplasm, where an intricate acidic vacuolar apparatus predominates supporting the idea that berry softening during ripening is not strictly associated with loss in compartmentation and/or membrane integrity. Following the worldwide economical and social importance of wine in modern days, grape berry protoplasts are a major advance for both basic research of fruit ripening and biotechnological applications.

  18. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Sadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer. PMID:26840292

  19. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Sadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer.

  20. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials.

  1. A collaborative outcome resource network (ACORN): Tools for increasing the value of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, George S Jeb; Simon, Ashley; Cameron, Joanne; Minami, Takuya

    2015-12-01

    The authors describe a collaborative outcomes resource network (ACORN) and the suite of measurement and decision support tools (ACORN Toolkit) that have emerged from this collaboration for the purpose of providing clinical feedback to therapists. The ACORN Toolkit is most accurately described as a comprehensive clinical information system designed to increase the value of mental health services across large systems of care. It was built to integrate large datasets from multiple sources including outcome data, client demographics and diagnostic data, therapist credentialing information, pharmacy data, and service claims data. For the limited purposes of this article, the authors focus on the ACORN Toolkit for measuring and how it has contributed to improving outcomes in psychotherapy. Implications to current practice and future training are provided.

  2. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  3. An exploratory study of the nutritional composition of Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) acorns after potassium phosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Katherine J; Swiecki, Tedmund J; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2007-07-25

    Native American Pomo communities who live in the Northern Coastal range of California and consume acorns from tanoak trees as part of traditional diets are facing the potential loss of many culturally important trees to sudden oak death. Pomo and other Native American communities are reluctant to use the protective fungicide, potassium phosphonate, on trees used for acorn collection without information on how the treatment affects acorn properties. In this study, select macronutrients and polyphenolics were quantified in tanoak acorns to evaluate the influence of potassium phosphonate treatment on the composition and nutritional value of tanoak acorns. Of the fatty acids tested from C14:0 to C20:1, only C17:0 was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the nontreated and treated acorns after the first year. There were no differences detected in total phenolic content, gallic acid content, or ellagic acid content. Protein, phosphorus, and potassium levels were not significantly affected by fungicide treatment. Soluble glucose and fructose levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both nontreated and treated groups after the first year; soluble sucrose levels did not change. Total glucose, starch, and total nonstructural carbohydrates increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the nontreated group after the first year but not in the treatment group; however, the treatment group values did not differ significantly from the control group values at baseline. The lack of any negative significant differences between acorns from treated and untreated tanoak trees implies that sodium phosphonate application for the prevention of sudden oak death does not impact the predominant polyphenolics or macronutrient quality of tanoak acorns. PMID:17559226

  4. An exploratory study of the nutritional composition of Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) acorns after potassium phosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Katherine J; Swiecki, Tedmund J; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2007-07-25

    Native American Pomo communities who live in the Northern Coastal range of California and consume acorns from tanoak trees as part of traditional diets are facing the potential loss of many culturally important trees to sudden oak death. Pomo and other Native American communities are reluctant to use the protective fungicide, potassium phosphonate, on trees used for acorn collection without information on how the treatment affects acorn properties. In this study, select macronutrients and polyphenolics were quantified in tanoak acorns to evaluate the influence of potassium phosphonate treatment on the composition and nutritional value of tanoak acorns. Of the fatty acids tested from C14:0 to C20:1, only C17:0 was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the nontreated and treated acorns after the first year. There were no differences detected in total phenolic content, gallic acid content, or ellagic acid content. Protein, phosphorus, and potassium levels were not significantly affected by fungicide treatment. Soluble glucose and fructose levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both nontreated and treated groups after the first year; soluble sucrose levels did not change. Total glucose, starch, and total nonstructural carbohydrates increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the nontreated group after the first year but not in the treatment group; however, the treatment group values did not differ significantly from the control group values at baseline. The lack of any negative significant differences between acorns from treated and untreated tanoak trees implies that sodium phosphonate application for the prevention of sudden oak death does not impact the predominant polyphenolics or macronutrient quality of tanoak acorns.

  5. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  6. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  7. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry. PMID:24704646

  8. Electron microscopy and composition of raw acorn starch in relation to in vivo starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Alesso, Giuseppe Andrea; Nieddu, Giuseppa; Sanna, Marina; Pinna, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The structure and composition of starch play an important role as co-factors affecting raw starch digestibility: such features were investigated in raw acorn starch from the most diffused oak trees in the Mediterranean basin. A total of 620 whole ripe acorns from Holm (Quercus ilex L., n = 198), Downy (Quercus pubescens Willd., n = 207) and Cork (Quercus suber L., n = 215) oaks sampled on the Sardinia Isle (40° 56' 0'' N; 9° 4' 0'' E; 545 m above the mean sea level) in the same geographical area, were analyzed for their chemical composition. The starch contents ranged between 51.2% and 53.5% of dry matter. The starch granules displayed a spheroid/ovoid and cylindrical shape; on scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses, a bimodal distribution of starch granule size was observed both for Holm and Cork oak acorns, whereas the starch granules of Downy oak acorns showed diameters between 10.2 and 13.8 μm. The specific amylose to amylopectin ratio of acorn starch was 25.8%, 19.5% and 34.0% in the Holm, Downy and Cork oaks, respectively. The (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal analysis displayed a pivotal spectrum for the identification of the amylose peaks in raw acorn starch, as a basis for the amylose to amylopectin ratio determination.

  9. A Bowl of Hematite-Rich 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows two spectra of outcrop regions near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. The blue line shows data for a region dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' which contains a handful of the sphere-like grains dubbed 'blueberries.' The yellow line represents an area called 'Empty' next to Berry Bowl that is devoid of berries. Berry Bowl's spectrum still shows typical outcrop characteristics, but also exhibits an intense hematite signature, seen as a 'magnetic sextet.' Hematite is an iron-bearing mineral often formed in water. These spectra were taken by the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer on the 46th (Empty) and 48th (Berry Bowl) martian days, or sols, of its mission.

  10. Berry connection in atom-molecule systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Fucheng; Wu Biao

    2011-08-15

    In the mean-field theory of atom-molecule systems, where bosonic atoms combine to form molecules, there is no usual U(1) symmetry, presenting an apparent hurdle for defining the Berry phase and Berry curvature for these systems. We define a Berry connection for this system, with which the Berry phase and Berry curvature can be naturally computed. We use a three-level atom-molecule system to illustrate our results. In particular, we have computed the mean-field Berry curvature of this system analytically, and compared it to the Berry curvature computed with the second-quantized model of the same system. An excellent agreement is found, indicating the validity of our definition.

  11. Berry temperature and Solar Radiation Alter Acylation, Proportion, and Concentration of Anthocyanin in 'Merlot' Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a forced convection system, the temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled between veraison and harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures under field conditions in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation e...

  12. Postharvest evaluations comparing Primocane- and Floricane-fruiting blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest storage of blackberries from floricanes was compared with primocane berries in a study conducted at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Substation, Clarksville in 2006. Berries were harvested directly into ½ pint polystyrene clamshells affixed with an absorbent liner and refrigera...

  13. Isolation of RNA from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, M; Taylor, M A; Davies, H V; Brennan, R M; McNicol, R J

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of high-quality RNA from blackcurrant fruit has hitherto proved difficult, probably owing to high levels of phenolic and polysaccharide components in the berries. The procedure described here is a modification of one described for grape berries, and yields RNA suitable for in vitro translations, RNA blot analysis, and cDNA library construction.

  14. Biventricular Finite Element Modeling of the Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device on a Failing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, Jonathan F.; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Potter, D. Dean; Tseng, Elaine E.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device (CSD; Acorn Cardiovascular Inc, St. Paul, MN) is a woven polyester jacket that is placed around the heart and designed to reverse the progressive remodeling associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the effects of the Acorn CSD on myofiber stress and ventricular function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the Acorn CSD reduces end-diastolic (ED) myofiber stress. Methods A previously described weakly coupled biventricular finite element (FE) model and circulatory model based on magnetic resonance images of a dog with dilated cardiomyopathy was used. Virtual applications of the CSD alone (Acorn), CSD with rotated fabric fiber orientation (rotated), CSD with 5% prestretch (tight), and CSD wrapped only around the left ventricle (LV; LV-only) were performed, and the effect on myofiber stress at ED and pump function was calculated. Results The Acorn CSD has a large effect on ED myofiber stress in the LV free wall, with reductions of 55%, 79%, 92%, and 40% in the Acorn, rotated, tight, and LV-only cases, respectively. However, there is a tradeoff in which the Acorn CSD reduces stroke volume at LV end-diastolic pressure of 8 mm Hg by 23%, 25%, 30%, and 7%, respectively, in the Acorn, rotated, tight, and LV-only cases. Conclusions The Acorn CSD significantly reduces ED myofiber stress. However, CSD wrapped only around the LV was the only case with minimal negative effect on pump function. Findings suggest that LV-only CSD and Acorn fabric orientation should be optimized to allow maximal myofiber stress reduction with minimal reduction in pump function. PMID:23643546

  15. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    PubMed Central

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  16. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    PubMed

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  17. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines.

  18. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  19. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  20. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  1. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Verdú, José R; Casas, José L; Lobo, Jorge M; Numa, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  2. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Verdú, José R; Casas, José L; Lobo, Jorge M; Numa, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects. PMID:20404931

  3. Dung Beetles Eat Acorns to Increase Their Ovarian Development and Thermal Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Casas, José L.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects. PMID:20404931

  4. Expression of grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-like genes is associated with variation in ovary and berry size.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Constanza; Eichler, Estefanía; Grissi, Cecilia; Muñoz, Claudio; Gomez-Talquenca, Sebastian; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Lijavetzky, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Fruit size is a highly important trait for most fruit and vegetable crops. This trait has been a main selection target and could be involved in divergent selection processes leading to the differentiation between modern table and wine cultivars. Even though its determination is highly influenced by cultural practices, several regions within the grapevine genome have been identified affecting berry size, either directly or indirectly through their effect on seed content. Using grapevine seeded cultivars, we have analyzed the relationship between ovary cell number and the final size of ovaries and berry fruits. We also performed the characterization of the grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE family, since it is well reported in Arabidopsis that AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) regulates cell proliferation and organ growth in flower organ primordia by maintaining the meristematic competence of cells during organogenesis. Here we show that orthologous grapevine gene expression associate with flower developmental stages suggesting a similar biological role for this gene family in this species. Moreover, we detected a correlation between those organs size and the level of expression of VviANT1 the grapevine homolog of AtANT. This grapevine gene also co-localizes in linkage group 18 with the confidence interval of a previously detected QTL for berry size. Thus our results suggest the involvement of ANT in the regulation of berry size in grapevine. PMID:26843119

  5. Expression of grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-like genes is associated with variation in ovary and berry size.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Constanza; Eichler, Estefanía; Grissi, Cecilia; Muñoz, Claudio; Gomez-Talquenca, Sebastian; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Lijavetzky, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Fruit size is a highly important trait for most fruit and vegetable crops. This trait has been a main selection target and could be involved in divergent selection processes leading to the differentiation between modern table and wine cultivars. Even though its determination is highly influenced by cultural practices, several regions within the grapevine genome have been identified affecting berry size, either directly or indirectly through their effect on seed content. Using grapevine seeded cultivars, we have analyzed the relationship between ovary cell number and the final size of ovaries and berry fruits. We also performed the characterization of the grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE family, since it is well reported in Arabidopsis that AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) regulates cell proliferation and organ growth in flower organ primordia by maintaining the meristematic competence of cells during organogenesis. Here we show that orthologous grapevine gene expression associate with flower developmental stages suggesting a similar biological role for this gene family in this species. Moreover, we detected a correlation between those organs size and the level of expression of VviANT1 the grapevine homolog of AtANT. This grapevine gene also co-localizes in linkage group 18 with the confidence interval of a previously detected QTL for berry size. Thus our results suggest the involvement of ANT in the regulation of berry size in grapevine.

  6. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    PubMed

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  7. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    PubMed Central

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  8. Influence of Berry-Polyphenols on Receptor Signaling and Cell-Death Pathways: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S; Warri, Anni M; Woode, Denzel R; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Many women have become more aware of the benefits of increasing fruit consumption, as part of a healthy lifestyle, for the prevention of cancer. The mechanisms by which fruits, including berries, prevent breast cancer can be partially explained by exploring their interactions with pathways known influence cell-proliferation and evasion of cell-death. Two receptor pathways- estrogen receptor (ER) and tyrosine kinase receptors, especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family- are drivers of cell-proliferation and play a significant role in the development of both primary and recurrent breast cancer. There is strong evidence to show that several phytochemicals present in berries such as cyanidin, delphinidin, quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, resveratrol and pterostilbene, interact with and alter the effects of these pathways. Further, they also induce cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) via their influence on kinase signaling. In this review, we summarize in vitro data regarding the interaction of berry polyphenols with the specific receptors and the mechanisms by which they induce cell death. Further, we also present in vivo data of primary breast cancer prevention by individual compounds and whole berries. Finally, we present a possible role for berries and berry compounds in the prevention of breast cancer and our perspective on the areas that require further research. PMID:22300613

  9. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect

  10. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  11. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  12. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  13. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned berries is the food prepared from any suitable variety of one of...

  14. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned berries is the food prepared from any suitable variety of one of...

  15. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned berries is the food prepared from any suitable variety of one of...

  16. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned berries is the food prepared from any suitable variety of one of...

  17. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned berries is the food prepared from any suitable variety of one of...

  18. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  19. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries

    PubMed Central

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. PMID:25135520

  20. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  1. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor.

  2. Reasoning about Natural Selection: Diagnosing Contextual Competency Using the ACORNS Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Opfer, John E.; Ha, Minsu

    2012-01-01

    Studies of students' thinking about natural selection have revealed that the scenarios in which students reason evoke different types, magnitudes, and arrangements of knowledge elements and misconceptions. Diagnostic tests are needed that probe students' thinking across a representative array of evolutionary contexts. The ACORNS is a diagnostic…

  3. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  4. Acorn Caching in Tree Squirrels: Teaching Hypothesis Testing in the Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEuen, Amy B.; Steele, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an exercise for a university-level ecology class that teaches hypothesis testing by examining acorn preferences and caching behavior of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.). This exercise is easily modified to teach concepts of behavioral ecology for earlier grades, particularly high school, and provides students with a theoretical basis for…

  5. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Walter D.; Walters, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  6. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  7. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins.

  8. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  9. Foliar reflective film and water deficit increase anthocyanin to soluble solids ratio during berry ripening in Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated temperature can decrease the ratio of anthocyanins to soluble solids in red-skinned berries and warming trends in grape production regions have raised concern about color to alcohol balance in wines produced from fruit with altered ratios. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a fol...

  10. Impact of diurnal temperature variation on grape berry development, proanthocyanidin accumulation, and the expression of flavonoid pathway genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of temperature on proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in grape skins, despite its significance in berry composition and wine quality. Field grown grapes (cv. Merlot) were cooled during the day or heated at night by +/- 8 °C, from fruit set to véraison in three seasons...

  11. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control.

  12. Report: antioxidant and nutraceutical value of wild medicinal Rubus berries.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masood, Saima; Sultana, Shazia; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bader, Ammar; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of three edible wild berries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb, Rubus ulmifolius L.) from Lesser Himalayan Range (LHR) were evaluated. Their edible portion was assayed for moisture, fats, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, essential minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co, Ni) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was applied to determine the antioxidant potential. The fruit of Rubus ulmifolius L. (blackberry) possessed the highest values of energy (403.29 Kcal), total protein (6.56g/100 g), Nitrogen (N) content (1500mg/100g), K (860.17mg/100g), Ca (620.56mg/100g), Zn (17.509mg/100g) and the strongest antioxidant activity (98.89% inhibition). While the raspberries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb.) exhibited more significant contents of dietary fiber (5.90g/100g), carbohydrates (86.4 g/100 g) and Fe (4.249mg/100g). Significant variation was observed among the tested samples in all the investigated features. The combination of bio elements and active antioxidants clearly showed the applicability of these berries as a nutraceutical supplement.

  13. Report: antioxidant and nutraceutical value of wild medicinal Rubus berries.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masood, Saima; Sultana, Shazia; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bader, Ammar; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of three edible wild berries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb, Rubus ulmifolius L.) from Lesser Himalayan Range (LHR) were evaluated. Their edible portion was assayed for moisture, fats, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, essential minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co, Ni) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was applied to determine the antioxidant potential. The fruit of Rubus ulmifolius L. (blackberry) possessed the highest values of energy (403.29 Kcal), total protein (6.56g/100 g), Nitrogen (N) content (1500mg/100g), K (860.17mg/100g), Ca (620.56mg/100g), Zn (17.509mg/100g) and the strongest antioxidant activity (98.89% inhibition). While the raspberries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb.) exhibited more significant contents of dietary fiber (5.90g/100g), carbohydrates (86.4 g/100 g) and Fe (4.249mg/100g). Significant variation was observed among the tested samples in all the investigated features. The combination of bio elements and active antioxidants clearly showed the applicability of these berries as a nutraceutical supplement. PMID:25553701

  14. Effects of different origins and harvesting time on vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru; Peippo, Pekka

    2002-10-01

    Vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries of wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) of different origins and harvesting dates were determined with HPLC. Wild berries of subsp. sinensis, native to China, contained 5-10 times more vitamin C in the juice fraction than the berries of subsp. rhamnoides from Europe and subsp. mongolica from Russia (4-13 vs 0.02-2 g/L juice). Genetic background and berry-harvesting date were two primary factors determining the vitamin C content in the berries. Crossing different subspecies influenced the vitamin C content to some extent. For bushes cultivated in southwest Finland, the best berry-harvesting date for high vitamin C content was the end of August. The seeds of subsp. sinensis contained less tocopherols and tocotrienols (average 130 mg/kg) compared with seeds of subsp. rhamnoides (average 290 mg/kg) and mongolica (average 250 mg/kg). The fruit flesh of sinensis berries had contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols 2-3 times higher than those found in the other two subspecies (120 mg/kg vs 40 mg/kg in rhamnoides and 50 mg/kg in mongolica). The fresh whole berries of subsp. sinensis were clearly the best source of total tocopherols and tocotrienols. The total content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the soft parts of the berries reached the maximum level around early- to mid-September, whereas the content in seeds continued to increase until the end of November. The excellent combination of the highest content of vitamin C and tocopherols and tocotrienols makes the berries of subsp. sinensis an optimal raw material for nutritional investigation as a candidate for functional foods with special antioxidative properties. PMID:12358492

  15. Advances in berry research: the sixth biennial berry health benefits symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies to advance the potential health benefits of berries continue to increase as was evident at the sixth biennial meeting of the Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS). The two and a half-day symposium was held on October 13-15, 2015, in Madison, Wisconsin, United States. The 2015 BHBS feature...

  16. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    sunscreening” abilities. The data presented for the green berries and those for the ripe berries conform to what is known for UVB and/or light stress in young, active leaves and older, senescing tissues respectively and provide scope for further evaluation of the sink/source status of fruits in relation to photosignalling and/or stress management. PMID:27375645

  17. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    /or "sunscreening" abilities. The data presented for the green berries and those for the ripe berries conform to what is known for UVB and/or light stress in young, active leaves and older, senescing tissues respectively and provide scope for further evaluation of the sink/source status of fruits in relation to photosignalling and/or stress management.

  18. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    /or "sunscreening" abilities. The data presented for the green berries and those for the ripe berries conform to what is known for UVB and/or light stress in young, active leaves and older, senescing tissues respectively and provide scope for further evaluation of the sink/source status of fruits in relation to photosignalling and/or stress management. PMID:27375645

  19. Shifts in fruitfulness and crop load of ‘Pinot noir’ in response to nitrogen depletion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oregon Pinot noir vineyards are generally characterized as having low crop loads. Premium Pinot noir producers commonly reduce crop load further by fruit thinning. The long-term implications of these practices on vegetative growth, fruitfulness, fruit set and berry quality are not fully understood f...

  20. Climate, Deer, Rodents, and Acorns as Determinants of Variation in Lyme-Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Charles D; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Winchcombe, Raymond J; Keesing, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York). We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season temperature, precipitation, two indices of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance, and densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and acorns ( Quercus spp.), in both simple and multiple regression models, in predicting entomological risk. Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power, and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents, acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts. PMID:16669698

  1. Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.

    PubMed

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Canham, Charles D; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Winchcombe, Raymond J; Keesing, Felicia

    2006-06-01

    Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York). We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season temperature, precipitation, two indices of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance, and densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and acorns (Quercus spp.), in both simple and multiple regression models, in predicting entomological risk. Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power, and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents, acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts.

  2. Proteomic analysis of the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries

    PubMed Central

    Giribaldi, Marzia; Gény, Laurence; Delrot, Serge; Schubert, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The control of ripening of the non-climacteric grapevine fruit is still a matter of debate, but several lines of evidence point to an important role for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of ABA treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon berries before and at véraison were studied using a 2-DE proteomic approach. Proteins from whole deseeded berries (before véraison) and berry flesh and skin (at véraison) treated with 0.76 mM ABA and collected 24 h after treatment were separated and analysed. A total of 60 protein spots showed significant variations between treated and control berries, and 40 proteins, mainly related to general metabolism and cell defence, were identified by LC MS/MS. Our results show that ABA acts mainly through the regulation of mostly the same proteins which are involved in the ripening process, and that several of these changes share common elements with the ABA-induced responses in vegetative tissues. PMID:20388747

  3. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  4. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  5. Raw hulled shredded acorns from Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens) in the diet of pigs: effects on digestibility and faeces characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cappai, M G; Wolf, P; Rust, P; Pinna, W; Kamphues, J

    2013-05-01

    Faeces quality and composition are both of interest to veterinary practitioners dealing with pigs' health and disturbances in the alimentary tract, especially in free-range situations. In the Mediterranean basin, acorns are used as a starch source for fattening pigs, yet little information is available on how that affects faecal quality and digestibility. Therefore, a combined diet containing ripe hulled shredded acorns vs. a pelleted complete diet for finishers was evaluated for the digestibility and faecal consistency. The trial involved eight crossbred pigs, and a matched-pair approach was used to divide animals into two groups, which were fed with two different diets: acorns group (A): n = 4, 70% ripe hulled shredded acorns + 30% pelleted complete diet combined, as fed; control group (C): n = 4, 100% pelleted complete feed. The pigs were housed individually and fed the experimental diets for 8 days; daily feed intake and faeces amounts were recorded and faeces quality assessed. The digestibility of organic matter (OM) and starch of the two diets, as well as of pure acorns, were calculated and compared. Daily feed consumption was significantly higher in group A, but the mean dry matter intake (DMI) per pig was similar in both groups. Dark, firm and consistent faeces were reported for each pig from group A in comparison with group B, whose faeces were paler and softer. Digestibility of OM and starch were lower in group A than in group B (67.8 ± 3.4 vs. 83.9 ± 1.1 and 82.5 ± 3.4 vs. 92.3 ± 2.1 respectively): total tract digestibility of native starch from pure acorns was calculated at 77%. The peculiar consistency of faeces was related to macroscopic acorn hulls, constantly detected in the faeces of all animals sampled in group A.

  6. Fruit load and branch ring-barking affect carbon allocation and photosynthesis of leaf and fruit of Coffea arabica in the field.

    PubMed

    Vaast, Philippe; Angrand, Jobert; Franck, Nicolas; Dauzat, Jean; Génard, Michel

    2005-06-01

    Increasing fruit load (from no berries present to 25, 50 and 100% of the initial fruit load) significantly decreased branch growth on 5-year-old coffee (Coffea arabica L.) trees of the dwarf cultivar 'Costa Rica 95', during their third production cycle. Ring-barking the branches further reduced their growth. Berry dry mass at harvest was significantly reduced by increasing fruit load. Dry matter allocation to berries was four times that allocated to branch growth during the cycle. Branch dieback and berry drop were significantly higher at greater fruit loads. This illustrates the importance of berry sink strength and indicates that there is competition for carbohydrates between berries and shoots and also among berries. Leaf net photosynthesis (P(n)) increased with increasing fruit load. Furthermore, leaves of non-isolated branches bearing full fruit load achieved three times higher P(n) than leaves of isolated (ring-barked) branches without berries, indicating strong relief of leaf P(n) inhibition by carbohydrate demand from berries and other parts of the coffee tree when excess photoassimilates could be exported. Leaf P(n) was significantly higher in the morning than later during the day. This reduction in leaf P(n) is generally attributed to stomatal closure in response to high irradiance, temperature and vapor pressure deficit in the middle of the day; however, it could also be a feedback effect of reserves accumulating during the morning when climatic conditions for leaf P(n) were optimal, because increased leaf mass ratio was observed in leaves of ring-barked branches with low or no fruit loads. Rates of CO(2) emission by berries decreased and calculated photosynthetic rates of berries increased with increasing photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) especially at low PPFs (0 to 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). The photosynthetic contribution of berries at the bean-filling stage was estimated to be about 30% of their daily respiration costs and 12% of their total carbon

  7. Battery Berry Observation Station, general view to northeast Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, general view to northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. Reciprocity between abscisic acid and ethylene at the onset of berry ripening and after harvest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ripening of grape berry is generally regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), and has no relationship with ethylene function. However, functional interaction and synergism between ABA and ethylene during the beginning of grape berry ripening (véraison) has been found recently. Results The expressions of VvNCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and VvGT encoding ABA glucosyltransferase were all increased rapidly at the stage of véraison and reached the highest level at 9th week after full bloom. However, VvCYP1 encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase and VvβG1 encoding berry β-glucosidase are different, whose expression peak appeared at the 10th week after full bloom and in especial VvβG1 remained at a high level till harvest. The VvACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, the VvETR2 (ethylene response 2) and VvCTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) had a transient expression peak at pre-véraison, while the VvEIN4 (ethylene insensitive 4) expression gradually increased from the véraison to one week before harvest stage. The above mentioned changes happened again in the berry after harvest. At one week before véraison, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) not only inhibited the release of ethylene and the expression of related genes but also suppressed the transcription of VvNCED1 and the synthesis of ABA which all might result in inhibiting the fruit ripening onset. Treatment with ABA could relieve the double block and restore fruit ripening course. However, after harvest, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-MCP could not suppress the transcription of VvNCED1 and the accumulation of ABA, and also could not inhibit the start of fruit senescence. Conclusion The trace endogenous ethylene induces the transcription of VvNCED1 and then the generation of ABA followed. Both ethylene and ABA are likely to be important and their interplaying may be required to start the process of berry ripening

  9. A new copepod with transformed body plan and unique phylogenetic position parasitic in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Tung, Che-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Ho, Ju-Shey; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    Symbiotic copepods compose one-third of the known copepod species and are associated with a wide range of animal groups. Two parasitic copepods endoparasitic in acorn worms (Hemichordata), Ive balanoglossi and Ubius hilli, collected in the Mediterranean Sea and Australian waters, respectively, were described a century ago. Here we report a new parasitic copepod species, Ive ptychoderae sp. nov., found in Ptychodera flava, a widespread acorn worm in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and an emerging organism for developmental and evolutionary studies. The female of I. ptychoderae is characterized by having a reduced maxilliped and five pairs of annular swellings along the body that are morphologically similar but distinguishable from those in the two previously described parasitic copepods in acorn worms. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence shows that I. ptychoderae may belong to Poecilostomatoida but represent a new family, which we name Iveidae fam. nov. Ive ptychoderae is commonly found in the acorn worm population with an average prevalence of 42% during the collecting period. The infection of the parasite induces the formation of cysts and causes localized lesions of the host tissues, suggesting that it may have negative effects on its host. Interestingly, most cysts contain a single female with one or multiple male copepods, suggesting that their sex determination may be controlled by environmental conditions. The relationships between the parasitic copepods and acorn worms thus provide a platform for understanding physiological and ecological influences and coevolution between parasites and hosts. PMID:24648208

  10. A new copepod with transformed body plan and unique phylogenetic position parasitic in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Tung, Che-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Ho, Ju-Shey; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    Symbiotic copepods compose one-third of the known copepod species and are associated with a wide range of animal groups. Two parasitic copepods endoparasitic in acorn worms (Hemichordata), Ive balanoglossi and Ubius hilli, collected in the Mediterranean Sea and Australian waters, respectively, were described a century ago. Here we report a new parasitic copepod species, Ive ptychoderae sp. nov., found in Ptychodera flava, a widespread acorn worm in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and an emerging organism for developmental and evolutionary studies. The female of I. ptychoderae is characterized by having a reduced maxilliped and five pairs of annular swellings along the body that are morphologically similar but distinguishable from those in the two previously described parasitic copepods in acorn worms. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence shows that I. ptychoderae may belong to Poecilostomatoida but represent a new family, which we name Iveidae fam. nov. Ive ptychoderae is commonly found in the acorn worm population with an average prevalence of 42% during the collecting period. The infection of the parasite induces the formation of cysts and causes localized lesions of the host tissues, suggesting that it may have negative effects on its host. Interestingly, most cysts contain a single female with one or multiple male copepods, suggesting that their sex determination may be controlled by environmental conditions. The relationships between the parasitic copepods and acorn worms thus provide a platform for understanding physiological and ecological influences and coevolution between parasites and hosts.

  11. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  12. Berry density and size as factors related to the physicochemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the impact of using independently berry density and diameter as sorting methodologies on important physicochemical parameters affecting the grape quality, such as mechanical properties, phenolic composition and aromatic profile. Muscat Hamburg berries were classified according to the density by flotation in different salt solutions and to the diameter. The three most representative density (1081, 1088 and 1094 kg/m(3)) and diameter (16-17, 18-19 and 20-21 mm) classes were selected. The results showed that there were relationships of both density and diameter with the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the berries. Densimetric sorting is a more promising methodology to separate grape berries with different quality attributes, particularly skin hardness, berry cohesiveness and resilience, total hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and rose oxide, than diameter sorting. This knowledge can be of great interest for the 'fresh-cut' industry in the production of 'ready-to-eat' fruits salad. PMID:25466001

  13. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7 mm-to-15 mm) and onset of ripening (15 mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up

  14. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  15. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    SciTech Connect

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-21

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; Gill, Chris I R; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of several cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, possibly linked to their phytochemical content, which is of interest due to several proposed health benefits, including potential anticancer activity. Epidemiological data suggests that cancers of the digestive tract are most susceptible to dietary modification, possibly due to being in direct contact with bioactive food constituents and therefore investigating the effects of these bioactive compounds on the prevalent colorectal cancer is feasible. Berries are a common element of Western diets, with members of the Rubus, Fragria, Sorbus, Ribes and Vaccinum genus featuring in desserts, preserves, yoghurts and juices. These soft fruit are rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Whilst there is little data linking berry consumption to reduced risk of colorectal cancer, in vitro evidence from models representing colorectal cancer suggests that berry polyphenols may modulate cellular processes essential for cancer cell survival, such as proliferation and apoptosis. The exact mechanisms and berry constituents responsible for these potential anticancer activities remain unknown, but use of in vitro models provides a means to elucidate these matters.

  17. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  18. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  19. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  20. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  1. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-19

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results. PMID:27588858

  2. On geometric interpretation of the berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanaev, M. O.

    2012-03-01

    A geometric interpretation of the Berry phase and its Wilczek-Zee non-Abelian generalization are given in terms of connections on principal fiber bundles. It is demonstrated that a principal fiber bundle can be trivial in all cases, while the connection and its holonomy group are nontrivial. Therefore, the main role is played by geometric rather than topological effects.

  3. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Eiras-Dias, José; Castellarin, Simone D.; Gerós, Hernâni

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile. PMID:24030720

  4. Demonstration of Berry Phase in Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Hong-Ji; Ding, Liang-En

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the observed phase shift of the RF signal and its intensity dependence under extreme low pump and probe laser field conditions are dominated by Berry phase effect in optical spectroscopy with good adiabatic approximation, which provides all features' agreements between the theoretical and the experimental results.

  5. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference. PMID:27548173

  6. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality

    PubMed Central

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species-dependent. PMID:21494087

  7. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa).

  8. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  9. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference. PMID:27548173

  10. The plasticity of the grapevine berry transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phenotypic plasticity refers to the range of phenotypes a single genotype can express as a function of its environment. These phenotypic variations are attributable to the effect of the environment on the expression and function of genes influencing plastic traits. We investigated phenotypic plasticity in grapevine by comparing the berry transcriptome in a single clone of the vegetatively-propagated common grapevine species Vitis vinifera cultivar Corvina through 3 consecutive growth years cultivated in 11 different vineyards in the Verona area of Italy. Results Most of the berry transcriptome clustered by year of growth rather than common environmental conditions or viticulture practices, and transcripts related to secondary metabolism showed high sensitivity towards different climates, as confirmed also by metabolomic data obtained from the same samples. When analyzed in 11 vineyards during 1 growth year, the environmentally-sensitive berry transcriptome comprised 5% of protein-coding genes and 18% of the transcripts modulated during berry development. Plastic genes were particularly enriched in ontology categories such as transcription factors, translation, transport, and secondary metabolism. Specific plastic transcripts were associated with groups of vineyards sharing common viticulture practices or environmental conditions, and plastic transcriptome reprogramming was more intense in the year characterized by extreme weather conditions. We also identified a set of genes that lacked plasticity, showing either constitutive expression or similar modulation in all berries. Conclusions Our data reveal candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic plasticity of grapevine and provide the first step towards the characterization of grapevine transcriptome plasticity under different agricultural systems. PMID:23759170

  11. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  12. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  13. Influence of harvest time on the quality of oil-based compounds in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) seed and fruit.

    PubMed

    St George, Susan D; Cenkowski, Stefan

    2007-10-01

    The effect of the harvest time on oil-based bioactive compounds in sea buckthorn berries ( Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) was investigated. Sea buckthorn berries were collected at early maturity (September), maturity (November), and postmaturity (January) during the 2003-2004 harvest year. Whole berries were analyzed for physical characteristics, and fruit and seed fractions were analyzed for bioactive content. November-harvested berries yielded the highest values for berry sizes, CIELab factor a*, and total carotenoid content in the fruit fraction ( p < 0.05). September yielded significantly higher ( p < 0.05) levels of major compounds, alpha-tocopherol and beta-sitosterol, in the fruit fraction. Seed characteristics and bioactive compounds did not vary significantly with respect to the harvest time ( p > 0.05). These results have identified the most suitable level of maturity for the optimization of certain compounds and the losses that may occur with winter harvest, commonly practiced in cold climates.

  14. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  15. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M S; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  16. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  17. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  18. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  19. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  20. Effect of berry size and sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation heating.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Pan, Z; McHugh, T H; Wood, D; Zhu, Y; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Hirschberg, E

    2008-08-01

    This research studied the effect of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were also determined using scanning electronic microscopy and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), respectively. To quantify the effect of berry size, non-pretreated bulk blueberries were sorted into 6 groups based on their diameters and dried at 70 degrees C. To determine the effectiveness of NaOH pretreatment in improving drying characteristics, bulk blueberries of different sizes, both nonpretreated and NaOH pretreated, were dried at constant temperatures of 80 and 90 degrees C, and variable temperatures of 70 degrees C for 50 min followed by 90 degrees C for 50 min. The NaOH pretreatment dipped blueberries in 0.1% NaOH solution with fruit to solution ratio 1:1 (w/v) at initial temperature of 93 degrees C for 5 s. Results showed that the drying rate increased with decreased berry size. Average moisture diffusivity was in the range of 5.89 to 8.13 m2/s at 70 degrees C. The NaOH pretreatment increased drying rate and moisture diffusivity and reduced the number of broken berries, especially at high drying temperatures. Results from SEM observation and DVS showed that the increase in diffusivity coefficients of berry coat and loss of intact microstructure in coat and tissue cells might contribute to the effect of NaOH pretreatment on the IR drying of blueberries.

  1. Persistence of Anticancer Activity in Berry Extracts after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emma M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I. R.

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0–50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer. PMID:23185422

  2. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy. PMID:26392037

  3. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I R

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  4. Opportunity Dips in to 'Berry Bowl'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists are hunting down the recipe for the 'blueberries' they've discovered on Mars. Taken with the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera on the 45th martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission (March 10, 2004), this image shows the area dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' where many dark and mysterious spherules or 'blueberries' collected in a depression on the surface of a rock. Opportunity is studying the blueberries for clues to their chemical composition with its suite of scientific instruments. 'Berry Bowl' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the crater where the rover landed.

  5. New Techniques for High-Contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishil, M.; Lye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks (SEEDS) survey. We implement seyeral new algorithms, includbg a method to centroid saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to approx 20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivitv of a high-contrast obsen-ation everywhere on the field-of-view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns_-adi under a BSD license

  6. New Techniques for High-contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martín, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Watanabe, M.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2013-02-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to ~20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  7. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING WITH ADI: THE ACORNS-ADI SEEDS DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Ishii, M.; Goto, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Iye, M.; Hodapp, K. W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to {approx}20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license.

  8. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  9. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  10. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  11. Berry's phase for coherent states of Landau levels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wen-Long; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2007-02-15

    The Berry phases for coherent states and squeezed coherent states of Landau levels are calculated. Coherent states of Landau levels are interpreted as a result of a magnetic flux moved adiabatically from infinity to a finite place on the plane. The Abelian Berry phase for coherent states of Landau levels is an analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, the non-Abelian Berry phase is calculated for the adiabatic evolution of the magnetic field B.

  12. Berry production in three whitebark pine forest types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Forcella, F.

    1990-01-01

    In the whitebark pine /whortleberry (Pinus albicaulis/Vaccinium scoparium) habitat type of southwestern Montana, whortleberry plants produced seven to 69 berries/m2 x yr in 1974. In subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) habitat types of northwestern Montana, huckleberry plants (Vaccinium globulare) may produce from 13 to 228 berries/m2 X yr. While removal of competing trees increases production, thinning the understory apparently reduces berry production in direct proportion to the shrubs removed; there is no compensatory production indicative of shrub-shrub competition in fully vegetated plots. Fifty-to 100-fold variation in production among years in Vaccinium globulare berry production is attributed to variation in weather conditions.

  13. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. PMID:24713570

  14. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska’s environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira S.; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect berry abundance.

  15. Characterization of a bZIP gene highly expressed during ripening of the peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Tadiello, Alice; Confortin, Enrico; Pavanello, Anna; Botton, Alessandro; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    A ripening specific bZIP gene of peach was studied by ectopically expressing it in tomato. Two lines, with either a mild or a strong phenotype, respectively, were analyzed in detail. Transgenic fruit morphology was normal, yet the time spent to proceed through the various ripening stages was longer compared to wild type. In agreement with this finding the transgenic berries produced less ethylene, and also had a modified expression of some ripening-related genes that was particularly evident in berries with a strong phenotype. In particular, in the latter fruits polygalacturonase and lipoxygenase genes, but also genes coding for transcription factors (TFs) important for tomato ripening (i.e. TAGL1, CNR, APETALA2a, NOR) did not show the expected decreased expression in the red berries. As regards the RIN gene, its expression continued to increase in both mild and strong lines, and this is in agreement with the dilated ripening times. Interestingly, a metabolomic analysis of berries at various stages of ripening showed that the longer time spent by the transgenic berries to proceed from a stage to another was not due to a slackened metabolism. In fact, the differences in amount of stage-specific marker metabolites indicated that the transgenic berries had a very active metabolism. Therefore, the dilated ripening and the enhanced metabolism of the berries over-expressing the bZIP gene suggest that such gene might regulate ripening by acting as a pacemaker for some of the ripening metabolic pathways.

  16. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of the United States. The regulations designate soil and many fruits, nuts, vegetables, and berries... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments...

  17. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  18. Anthocyanin characterization, total phenolic quantification and antioxidant features of some Chilean edible berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Brito, Anghel; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2014-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay), followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL), and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21), respectively. PMID:25072199

  19. Elemental and nutritional analysis of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) Berries of Pakistani origin.

    PubMed

    Sabir, S M; Maqsood, H; Hayat, Imran; Khan, M Q; Khaliq, A

    2005-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is a very important medicinal plant in northern areas of Pakistan. The fruit of sea buckthorn is rich in nutrients and medicinal compounds such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oil, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals. In order to compare various populations of sea buckthorn for chemical composition, eight populations from different areas of northern Pakistan were compared using fruit characteristics. Phytochemical analysis of berries showed vitamin C (250-333 mg/100 g), seed oil (7.69-13.7%), oil in softer pulp (19.2-29.1%), phytosterol content of seed oil (3.3-5.5%), and anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg/L), while the mineral element composition analysis revealed high contents of potassium (140-360 ppm), sodium (20-80 ppm), calcium (70-98 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), iron (40-150 ppm), and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). This study established sea buckthorn berries as a good source of biochemical and mineral elements. The high variation between different populations shows the potential of selecting and breeding of the raw material for various defined purposes. PMID:16379565

  20. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  1. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  2. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    PubMed Central

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  3. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries.

    PubMed

    Clearwater, Michael J; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T Grant

    2012-03-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'Hort16A') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (D(a)) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high D(a). Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in D(a). Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to D(a)-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined.

  4. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    PubMed

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  5. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simont

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  6. Mapping grape berry photosynthesis by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging: the effect of saturating pulse intensity in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, Sónia; da Silva, Jorge Marques; Gerós, Hernâni; Cunha, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening depends mainly on imported photosynthates from leaves, however, fruit photosynthesis may also contribute to the carbon economy of the fruit. In this study pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (imaging-PAM) was used to assess photosynthetic properties of tissues of green grape berries. In particular, the effect of the saturation pulse (SP) intensity was investigated. A clear tissue-specific distribution pattern of photosynthetic competence was observed. The exocarp revealed the highest photosynthetic capacity and the lowest susceptibility to photoinhibition, and the mesocarp exhibited very low fluorescence signals and photochemical competence. Remarkably, the seed outer integument revealed a photosynthetic ability similar to that of the exocarp. At a SP intensity of 5000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) several photochemical parameters were decreased, including maximum fluorescence in dark-adapted (F(m)) and light-adapted (F'(m)) samples and effective quantum yield of PSII (Φ(II)), but the inner tissues were susceptible to a SP intensity as low as 3200 μmol m(-2) s(-1) under light-adapted conditions, indicating a photoinhibitory interaction between SP and actinic light intensities and repetitive exposure to SP. These results open the way to further studies concerning the involvement of tissue-specific photosynthesis in the highly compartmentalized production and accumulation of organic compounds during grape berry development.

  7. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  8. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  9. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former entry recess and typical sash window; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  10. Effect of berries on cognitive and neurochemical functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berries are an excellent source of numerous, unique, bioactive compounds, which play a pivotal role in attenuating stress-associated biological dysfunctions. The protective effects of berries play even more significance in brain health as brain alone utilizes from 10-50% of the body's total oxygen s...

  11. Berry Phases and Curvatures in Electronic-Structure Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, David

    2006-03-01

    In the last fifteen years, Berry phases have been found to play an increasingly important role in electronic-structure theory. I will briefly review some of the important developments in which Berry phases have been involved, starting with the modern theory of polarization^1 and the closely related theory of Wannier functions and their Wannier centers.^2 Next, I will discuss the theory of insulators in finite electric fields,^3 in which the field is taken to couple linearly to the Berry-phase polarization. I will then conclude by discussing the role of Berry phases and Berry curvatures in systems in which time-reversal symmetry has been broken, and in particular, the theory of orbital magnetization^4 and the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnets. *[[1

  12. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  13. Metabolomic-Based Strategy for Fingerprinting of Sambucus nigra L. Berry Volatile Terpenoids and Norisoprenoids: Influence of Ripening and Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ângelo C; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Silvestre, Armando J D; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-07-01

    The integration of plant metabolomics to support preharvest fruit development studies can provide important insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved and lately support producers on harvesting management. A metabolomic-based strategy for fingerprinting of volatile terpenoids and norisoprenoids from Sambucus nigra L. berries from three cultivars, through ripening, was established. From 42 monoterpenic, 20 sesquiterpenic, and 14 norisoprenoid compounds, 48 compounds are reported for the first time as S. nigra berries components. Chemometric tools revealed that ripening was the factor that influenced more the volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters (pH, TS, and TSS), followed by cultivar. For the unripe stages, a higher overall content of the studied metabolites was observed, which gradually decreased over the ripening stages, being consistent for the three cultivars. These trends were mainly ruled by limonene, p-cymene, aromadendrene, β-caryophyllene, and dihydroedulan, which might therefore be used by producers as an additional simple decision making tool in conjunction with physicochemical parameters.

  14. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  15. Effect of pollination and fertilization on the expression of genes related to floral transition, hormone synthesis and berry development in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Dauelsberg, Patricia; Matus, José Tomás; Poupin, María Josefina; Leiva-Ampuero, Andrés; Godoy, Francisca; Vega, Andrea; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-15

    In the present work, the effect of assisted fertilization on anatomical, morphological and gene expression changes occurring in carpels and during early stages of berry development in Vitis vinifera were studied. Inflorescences were emasculated before capfall, immediately manually pollinated (EP) and fruit development was compared to emasculated but non-pollinated (ENP) and self-pollinated inflorescences (NESP). The diameter of berries derived from pollinated flowers (EP and NESP) was significantly higher than from non-pollinated flowers (ENP) at 21 days after emasculation/pollination (DAE), and a rapid increase in the size of the inner mesocarp, together with the presence of an embryo-like structure, were observed. The expression of gibberellin oxidases (GA20ox and GA2ox), anthranilate synthase (related to auxin synthesis) and cytokinin synthase coding genes was studied to assess the relationship between hormone synthesis and early berry development, while flower patterning genes were analyzed to describe floral transition. Significant expression changes were found for hormone-related genes, suggesting that their expression at early stages of berry development (13 DAE) is related to cell division and differentiation of mesocarp tissue at a later stage (21 DAE). Expression of hormone-related genes also correlates with the expression of VvHB13, a gene related to mesocarp expansion, and with an increased repression of floral patterning genes (PISTILLATA and TM6), which may contribute to prevent floral transition inhibiting fruit growth before fertilization takes place.

  16. Proteomic analysis of grape berry skin responding to sunlight exclusion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ning; Cao, Yuegang; Duan, Wei; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2013-05-15

    The most obvious effect of sunlight exclusion from grape clusters is the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin so that no color develops. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to characterize the proteins isolated from berry skins that developed under sunlight exclusion versus those from sunlight-exposed berries. Among more than 1500 spots resolved in stained gels, the accumulation patterns of 96 spots differed significantly between sunlight-excluded berry skin and that of sunlight-exposed control berries. Seventy-two proteins, including 35 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated proteins, were identified and categorized. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and secondary metabolism, especially UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the key step for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin, were accumulated less in the absence of sunlight. Several isoforms of heat shock proteins were also down-regulated. The proteins that were over-accumulated in sunlight-excluded berry skin were more often related to energy production, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, protein synthesis and biogenesis of cellular components. Their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance to sunlight exclusion processes.

  17. Phenolic glycosides from berries of Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Miyajima, Yoshiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2008-05-01

    Four new phenolic glycosides, (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-allyl)phenyl beta- d-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (1), (1' R,5' R)-5-(5-carboxymethyl-2-oxocyclopentyl)-3 Z-pentenyl beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2), (S)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (R)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with eight known flavonoids. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR data and enzymatic hydrolysis. All four glycosides showed radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.

  18. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body. PMID:24243964

  19. Isolation and characterization of agglutinins from the hemolymph of an acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Muramoto, K; Goto, R

    1987-01-01

    Two agglutinins, MVA-1 and MVA-2, were isolated from the hemolymph of the acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano. They agglutinated human erythrocytes irrespective of the ABO blood group and also rabbit and sheep blood cells. Lactose and fetuin strongly inhibited the hemagglutinating activity. D-galactose, D-arabinose and N-acetylneuraminic acid were also moderate inhibitors. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both MVA-1 and MVA-2 gave a single band corresponding to 38,000 daltons. It split into one major band with a molecular weight of 23,000 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The two agglutinins showed the same apparent molecular weight of 116,000 by gel filtration. In isoelectric focusing MVA-1 showed one band at pH 4.8, whereas MVA-2 gave a main band at pH 4.4 with few faint ones in the range between pH 4.0 and 4.8. The agglutinins were glycoproteins containing D-mannose and L-fucose as carbohydrate components. No precipitation reaction was observed in Ouchterlony immuno-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera against the agglutinins from the phylogenetically related Megabalanus rosa.

  20. Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Haydock, J; Koenig, W D; Stanback, M T

    2001-06-01

    Social groups of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) range in size from unaided pairs to 15 adults. Behavioural indicators of mate guarding, assumed incest avoidance and observations of egg-laying indicate that social organization ranges from monogamous pairs to groups with up to seven male and three female putative cobreeders plus up to 10 nonbreeding helpers. In addition, groups occasionally lack a putative breeder throughout the breeding season. Here we report results from multilocus DNA fingerprinting of 372 nestlings from 123 nests in groups with putative cobreeders of one or both sexes. No extra-group fertilizations were found. Putative cobreeding males within social groups shared paternity. However, the most reproductively successful male was, on average, almost three times as successful as the next most successful and additional males only occasionally sired offspring. In contrast, cobreeding females shared parentage equally. Helpers never bred incestuously when their opposite-sex parent (or another relative, such as their uncle) held breeding status in the group. However, during breeding male vacancies, 14 nestlings were produced when helper males bred incestuously with their mother. Both male and female helpers usually became successful cobreeders with their same-sex parent following replacement of the opposite-sex breeder(s) by unrelated individuals.

  1. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body.

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 19, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 19, 1977 123 NORTH MAIN STREET, DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WITH ORNAMENTAL 'K' INSIGNIA ON 123 - 121-125 North Main Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  3. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    PubMed

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 2, 1977 SECOND FLOOR, DETAIL OF WINDOW MOLDINGS AND RADIATOR - Kamm Building, 111 North Main Street, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  5. A black berry that is not a blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberries and blackberries, unlike black raspberries, are widespread and familiar. Most consumers rarely encounter black raspberries; consequently, they frequently confuse fresh black raspberries with common cane berries. Recognition and appreciation of black raspberries can be improved with c...

  6. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 20, 1977 LOWER LEVEL, VIEW OF METAL FIRE DOOR - Mishawaka Trust & Savings Company, North Main Street & Lincolnway West, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 21, 1977 121 NORTH MAIN STREET, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF PRESSED TIN CEILING - 121-125 North Main Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 10, 1977 FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF PRESSED TIN CEILING - 111 West First Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 10, 1977 FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF PRESSED TIN CEILING WITH WOOD BLOCKING AT CROWN MOLDING - 111 West First Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  10. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    PubMed Central

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  11. Fruit Consumption by Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Branum, Amy M; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the contribution of whole fruit, including discrete types of fruit, to total fruit consumption and to investigate differences in consumption by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from 3129 youth aged 2–19 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) and the What We Eat in America 150 food groups (WWEIA 150), we calculated the contribution of whole fruit, 100% fruit juices, mixed fruit dishes, and 12 discrete fruit and fruit juices to total fruit consumption. We examined differences by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status. Results Nearly 90% of total fruit intake came from whole fruits (53%) and 100% fruit juices (34%) among youth aged 2–19 y. Apples, apple juice, citrus juice and bananas were responsible for almost half of total fruit consumption. Apples accounted for 18.9% of fruit intake. Differences by age were predominantly between youth aged 2–5 y and 6–11 y. For example, apples contributed a larger percentage of total fruit intake among youth 6–11 y (22.4%) than among youth 2–5 y (14.6%), but apple juice contributed a smaller percentage (8.8% v 16.8%), p<0.05. There were race/Hispanic origin differences in intake of citrus fruits, berries, melons, dried fruit, and citrus juices and other fruit juices. Conclusion These findings provide insight into what fruits U.S. youth are consuming and demographic factors that may influence consumption. PMID:26391940

  12. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  13. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  14. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  15. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. (13)C and (15)N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled.

  16. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. (13)C and (15)N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled. PMID:24477640

  17. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. 13C and 15N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled. PMID:24477640

  18. Polyphenols pattern and correlation with antioxidant activities of berries extracts from four different populations of Sicilian Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Maggio, Antonella; La Mantia, Tommaso; Scordino, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Poli, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) is wide spread in temperate and sub-tropical zones. The consumption of its berries has been associated with health benefits especially for its high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins. In this work we investigated the polyphenolic composition and the in vitro antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, BCB and FRAP-ferrozine (FRAP-FZ) assays) of S. nigra berries, collected in four different Sicilian areas (Italy). Elderberries are considered one of the fruits with highest anthocyanins content, the amount of phenolic compounds, other than anthocyanins, is approximately 1.5 times greater than the latter. The LC-MS analyses have revealed an opposite trend in the polyphenols pattern in Sicilian populations. Moreover, a statistical correlation was found between cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and antioxidant activity evaluated by FRAP-FZ and ABTS assays. In conclusion, Sicilian S. nigra berries are appealing for its antioxidant potential and for its particularly high content of anthocyanins.

  19. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    PubMed

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. PMID:26717011

  20. Drying kinetics and quality characteristics of microwave-vacuum dried Saskatoon berries.

    PubMed

    Meda, Venkatesh; Gupta, Mohit; Opoku, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) is a high moisture content fruit crop, harvested at 75-80% moisture content (w.b.) and dried to lower moisture contents for a safe, extended shelf-life and for further usage in food applications. Saskatoon berries were dried from an initial moisture content of 75.5% to around 25% (w.b.) using microwave-vacuum drying. In this study, saskatoon berries were dried at different microwave power levels P10 (745 W), P7 (514 W) and P5 (374 W) and vacuum pressure levels V20 (67.0 kPa) and V10 (33.5 kPa). The vacuum pressure levels did not greatly influence the drying time of the saskatoon berries compared to the microwave power levels. Increasing the microwave power level produced faster drying times for the samples. After 12 min of drying at power level P10, the moisture contents of the samples at vacuum pressures of 33.5 and 67.0 kPa were 29.74 and 31.24%, respectively. However after drying for 12 min at vacuum pressure of 33.5 kPa, the moisture contents at power levels P10, P7 and P5 were 29.74, 51.41 and 61.95%, respectively. Polynomial and exponential models were fitted to the drying data. The exponential model provided a better fit for the drying data at the lower vacuum pressure, with higher R2 and lower SE compared to the polynomial model. On the other hand, the polynomial model provided a better fit for the drying data at the higher vacuum pressure. The vacuum pressure and the microwave power levels did not significantly change the yellowness of the samples at indicated by the deltab values. However microwave-vacuum drying produced significant color changes in the L (white = 100 to black = 0) and a (green = -a to red = +a) values as indicated by deltaL and deltaa. Total color difference was dependent on microwave power and vacuum pressure levels. Water activity of the samples after drying ranged from 0.61 to 0.75 for moisture content range of 15.68 to 29.03%.

  1. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  2. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  3. Role of tannin-binding salivary proteins and tannase-producing bacteria in the acclimation of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takuya; Saitoh, Takashi; Sasaki, Eiki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Osawa, Ro

    2006-06-01

    We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins.

  4. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  5. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Pau; Boixadera, Ester; Muñoz, Alberto; Bonal, Raúl; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitation effect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent's behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  6. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Boixadera, Ester; Bonal, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitationeffect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent’s behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  7. Antioxidative polyphenols from berries of Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Yoshiko; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Nikatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-soluble part of allspice, berries of Pimenta dicica, showed strong antioxidant activity and radical-scavenging activity against 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazl (DPPH) radical. From the ethyl acetate-soluble part, two new compounds, 5-galloyloxy-3-4-dihydroxypentanoic acid and 5-(5-carboxmethyl-2-oxocyclopenty)3Z-penteny 6-O-galloy-beta-D-glucoside were isolated together with 11 known polyphenols by repeated column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS and various NMR spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for antioxidative effects on oxidation of methyl linoleate under aeration and heating, anf on peroxidation of liposome induced by 2-2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrocloride (AAPH) as water-soluble initiator along with their radical-scavenging activity against DPPH. Quercetin and its glycoside showed remarkable activity for scavenging DPPH radical and inhibiting peroxidation of liposome. Two new compounds also exhibited strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effect on the peroxidation od liposome as myricetin.

  8. Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Loyola, Rodrigo; Vega, Andrea; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alcalde, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis. PMID:19129169

  9. Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Loyola, Rodrigo; Vega, Andrea; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alcalde, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis. PMID:19129169

  10. Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Loyola, Rodrigo; Vega, Andrea; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alcalde, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis.

  11. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  12. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  13. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species.

  14. Elevated Gene Expression in Chalcone Synthase Enzyme Suggests an Increased Production of Flavonoids in Skin and Synchronized Red Cell Cultures of North American Native Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gina; Ananga, Anthony; Krastanova, Stoyanka; Sutton, Safira; Ochieng, Joel W.; Leong, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia). PMID:22364203

  15. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins. PMID:26515081

  16. Xenobiotic metabolism and berry flavonoid transport across the blood brain barrier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A compelling body of literature suggests berry phytochemicals play beneficial roles in reversing age-related cognitive impairment and protect against neurodegenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are bioactive phytochemicals in berries suspected to be responsible for some of these neuroprotective effect...

  17. Metabolism of Sugars and Organic Acids in Immature Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Individual intact excised immature Sultana berries were supplied through the cut pedicel with 14C-sugars and organic acids. When 14C-hexoses were supplied malic and tartaric acids accounted for 25% and 10% of the total activity extracted after 24 hours, and sucrose was synthesized. It is proposed that the changes in the levels of organic acids during ripening are related to changes in the ability of the berry to synthesize them. Although administration of uniformly labeled sucrose resulted in the unequal labeling of glucose and fructose, the results indicate breakdown of sucrose by invertase. It is suggested that the route of entry of the pedicel-fed sugars into the berry may be different from the route taken by sugar translocated from the leaf. PMID:16656755

  18. Hoarding decisions by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco): the responses to seed size and germination schedule in acorns.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gang; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2009-09-01

    Co-varying traits in acorns such as seed size and germination schedule are important to influence the behavioural decisions of hoarding rodents. Using acorn pairs from cork oak (Quercus variabilis) (large size and short germination schedules) serrate oak (Q. serrata) (small size and short germination schedule) and qinggang (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) (small size and long germination schedule) with contrasting seed size and germination schedule, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate hoarding preferences in response to seed size and germination schedule by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco) in semi-natural enclosures. We found that the seed size hypothesis was consistently supported: both rodent species ate more small acorns but hoarded more large ones regardless of germination schedules. However, the germination schedule hypothesis was also supported when similar sized acorns were simultaneously provided, e.g. Q. serrata versus C. glauca or germinating versus non-germinating Q. variabilis. Our results, contrary to the studies from North America, indicate that seed size is more important than germination schedules in determining whether the tested animals eat or hoard a given seed.

  19. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  20. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  1. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  2. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  3. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product. PMID:26593604

  4. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment.

  5. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  6. A Shift of Phloem Unloading from Symplasmic to Apoplasmic Pathway Is Involved in Developmental Onset of Ripening in Grape Berry1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Xia, Guo-Hai; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Fan, Ren-Chun; Wu, Fu-Qing; Yu, Xiang-Chun; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2006-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the phloem unloading pathway alters to adapt to developmental transition in fleshy fruits that accumulate high level of soluble sugars. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of the phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, movement of the companion cell-expressed and the green fluorescent protein-tagged viral movement protein, and assays of the sucrose cleavage enzymes, the pathway of phloem unloading was studied in the berries of a hybrid grape (Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca). Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell complex is apparently symplasmically connected through plasmodesmata with surrounding parenchyma cells throughout fruit development, though a small portion of plasmodesmata are apparently blocked in the ripening stage. Both carboxyfluorescein and the green fluorescent protein-tagged viral movement protein were released from the functional phloem strands during the early and middle stages of fruit development, whereas the two symplasmic tracers were confined to the phloem strands during the late stage. This reveals a shift of phloem unloading from symplasmic to apoplasmic pathway during fruit development. The turning point of the phloem unloading pathways was further shown to be at or just before onset of ripening, an important developmental checkpoint of grape berry. In addition, the levels of both the expression and activities of cell wall acid invertase increased around the onset of ripening and reached a high level in the late stage, providing further evidence for an operation of the apoplasmic unloading pathway after onset of ripening. These data demonstrate clearly the occurrence of an adaptive shift of phloem unloading pathway to developmental transition from growing phase to ripening in grape berry. PMID:16861573

  7. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  8. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  9. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity; frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune fun...

  10. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  11. Rural Philosophy for Education: Wendell Berry's Tradition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This ERIC Digest reviews past and present rural educational philosophy, focusing on the views of Wendell Berry, a Kentucky farmer and novelist who in recent years has emerged as a leading American philosopher. The major difference underlying rural and urban living is the relationship of people with nature. Rural living is much more closely related…

  12. The National Clean Plant Network for Berries in Corvallis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clean plant program at the USDA-ARS in Corvallis, Oregon was initiated in 1967 in cooperation with the Oregon and Washington State Departments of Agriculture and berry growers in the region. The program officially became part of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) in 2009 with the establish...

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  14. Evolution of flavonoids in Mouratón berries taken from both bunch halves.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Boso, S; Santiago, J L; Martínez, M C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-06-01

    Galicia (N.W. Spain) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. There are autochthonous grapevine varieties, such as Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mouratón, considered a biodiversity resource in viticulture and an opportunity for Galician sustainable wine production. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the potential of traditional cultivars to produce quality red wines. In this work, anthocyanin and flavonol evolution was followed in red berries from V. vinifera L. cv. Mouratón. The novelty of this study is that grapes were separately collected from two different positions (tips and shoulders) within the cluster, over ripening to examine the effects of berry position within the fruit cluster on the flavonoid compounds. Derivatives of five anthocyanins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin and cyanidin) and derivatives of six flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempherol, laricitrin isorhamnetin and syringetin) were detected in both positions within the cluster. Dynamic of anthocyanins (from 819 mg/kg to 1206 mg/kg in tips; and from 786 mg/kg to 1077 mg/kg in shoulders) and dynamic of flavonols (from 25mg/kg to 41 mg/kg in tips; and from 18 mg/kg to 21 mg/kg in shoulders) confirmed their upward trends over ripening. Grapes located inside the shoulder bunch receive less sunlight radiation than those located inside the tip bunch and this fact could explain the different accumulation observed for both positions. These results can be useful for winemakers in order to obtain different final red wine quality.

  15. Children's hedonic response to berry products: Effect of chemical composition of berries and hTAS2R38 genotype on liking.

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vaarno, Jenni; Sandell, Mari; Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Tahvonen, Raija; Viikari, Jorma; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    The hedonic response of 104 healthy children, recruited from day-care centres and schools, to 12 different berry products with varying content of added sugar was studied. The berries used as ingredients were blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Another aim of the study was to study the effects of the chemical composition of berries as well as children's hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotypes on liking. The most liked product was bilberry with yoghurt, followed by bilberry juice, dried bilberries, and lingonberry rye bread. The most disliked products were sea buckthorn juice, sea buckthorn berries with yoghurt, and oatmeal with blackcurrant powder and berry oil. High total organic acid concentration was strongly related with a poor average liking score of the berries/berry products. A total of four different alleles of hTAS2R38 gene were observed in the study. Of the genotyped children, 45% were bitter taste insensitive individuals of the genotype AVI/AVI, and 40% were of the genotype PAV/AVI. Children of the genotype PAV/AVI were reported using more vegetables, but not berries, than the AVI/AVI children. The results also show that the liking scores of the children of the AVI/AVI, PAV/AVI, and PAV/PAV genotypes differed from each other, and that the familiarity of a berry product is likely to be an important factor in liking. PMID:22953845

  16. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  17. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo)

    PubMed Central

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M.; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2010-01-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  18. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    PubMed

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  19. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin.

  20. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin. PMID:27095736

  1. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  2. Analysis of hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives in calafate (Berberis microphylla G. Forst) berries by liquid chromatography with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; von Baer, Dietrich; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Rodriguez, Roberto; Arribillaga, Diego; Dominguez, Erwin

    2013-03-15

    Calafate (Berberis microphylla G. Forst) is a Patagonian barberry very rich in anthocyanins and one of the fruits with the highest levels of these polyphenols. Other phenolic compounds have also been described in calafate berries. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no available information on hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The complexity of hydroxycinnamic acids determination in calafate berries, due to their structure similarities and the interference of high anthocyanin concentration is addressed by means of solid liquid extraction, followed by solid phase extraction clean-up on MCX columns and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The optimized extraction, clean-up and HPLC separation method allowed the assignation of identity and quantification of 20 hydroxycinnamic acids from calafate fruits. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid was the main compound found in all the studied samples. Other 13 hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids and 6 caffeic acid esters with aldaric acid derivatives assigned as glucaric acid were also identified. Moreover, the glucaric-based hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives accounted for almost the half of total content of this kind of phenolic compounds. The total concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives ranged between 0.32±0.00 μmol/g and 8.28±0.01 μmol/g. Effect of ripening and geographical location on hydroxycinnamic acid profiles and concentrations are also evaluated. The methodology allows the determination of hydroxycinnamic acids from calafate despite of the high anthocyanin concentrations, showing a much higher concentration of these acids than other widely consumed berries. Thus suggesting that calafate could be considered a very interesting fruit from the point of view of their nutraceutical composition. However, geographical location and ripening have incidence in levels of studied compounds.

  3. Current SWD IPM tactics and their practical implementation in fruit crops across different regions around the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its first detection in 2008, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, has emerged as an important invasive insect pest in North America and Europe. The highly polyphagous fly is a major threat to many economically important small fruit crops including cherries and berries. It i...

  4. Metabolomic-Based Strategy for Fingerprinting of Sambucus nigra L. Berry Volatile Terpenoids and Norisoprenoids: Influence of Ripening and Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ângelo C; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Silvestre, Armando J D; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-07-01

    The integration of plant metabolomics to support preharvest fruit development studies can provide important insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved and lately support producers on harvesting management. A metabolomic-based strategy for fingerprinting of volatile terpenoids and norisoprenoids from Sambucus nigra L. berries from three cultivars, through ripening, was established. From 42 monoterpenic, 20 sesquiterpenic, and 14 norisoprenoid compounds, 48 compounds are reported for the first time as S. nigra berries components. Chemometric tools revealed that ripening was the factor that influenced more the volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters (pH, TS, and TSS), followed by cultivar. For the unripe stages, a higher overall content of the studied metabolites was observed, which gradually decreased over the ripening stages, being consistent for the three cultivars. These trends were mainly ruled by limonene, p-cymene, aromadendrene, β-caryophyllene, and dihydroedulan, which might therefore be used by producers as an additional simple decision making tool in conjunction with physicochemical parameters. PMID:27348582

  5. Analysis of Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Bioactive Compounds Content in Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) Berries.

    PubMed

    Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Oszmiański, Jan; Golis, Tomasz

    2015-04-29

    The aim of this study was to determine selected phytochemicals in berries of eight sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides subsp. mongolica) cultivars, including lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. In the experiment chromatographic analyses, GC (phytosterols and fatty acids), UPLC-PDA-FL, LC-MS (polyphenols), and HPLC (L-ascorbic acid), as well spectrophotometric method (total carotenoids) were used. The lipid fraction isolated from whole fruit contained 14 phytosterols (major compounds β-sitosterol > 24-methylenecykloartanol > squalene) and 11 fatty acids in the order MUFAs > SFAs > PUFAs. Carotenoids occurred in concentrations between 6.19 and 23.91 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) (p < 0.05). The major polyphenol group identified in berries was flavonols (mean content of 311.55 mg/100 g fw), with the structures of isorhamnetin (six compounds), quercetin (four compounds), and kaempferol (one compound) glycosides. Examined sea buckthorn cultivars were characterized also by a high content of L-ascorbic acid in a range from 52.86 to 130.97 mg/100 g fw (p < 0.05). PMID:25893239

  6. Soft fruit traceability in food matrices using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Luisa; Bozza, Elisa; Giongo, Lara

    2009-02-01

    Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed a very sensible qualitative and quantitative method to determine the presence of berry DNAs in different food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the applicability, to Soft Fruit traceability, of melting curve analysis and multiplexed fluorescent probes, in a Real-Time PCR platform. This methodology aims to protect the consumer from label misrepresentation.

  7. Soft Fruit Traceability in Food Matrices using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Luisa; Bozza, Elisa; Giongo, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed a very sensible qualitative and quantitative method to determine the presence of berry DNAs in different food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the applicability, to Soft Fruit traceability, of melting curve analysis and multiplexed fluorescent probes, in a Real-Time PCR platform. This methodology aims to protect the consumer from label misrepresentation. PMID:22253987

  8. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    PubMed

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  9. Identification of Iridoids in Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja Z; Fecka, Izabela

    2016-09-01

    Iridoid profiles of honeysuckle berry were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ions mode. The MS fragmentation pathways of detected iridoid glycosides were also studied in both modes. In the negative ESI mass spectra, iridoids with a methyl ester or lactone structure have preferentially produced adduct [M + HCOOH - H](-) ions. However, protonated ions of molecular fragments, which were released by glycosidic bond cleavage and following fragmentation of aglycone rings, were more usable for iridoid structure analysis. In addition, the neutral losses of H₂O, CO, CO₂, CH₃OH, acetylene, ethenone and cyclopropynone have provided data confirming the presence of functional substituents in the aglycone. Among the 13 iridoids, 11 were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time: pentosides of loganic acid (two isomers), pentosides of loganin (three isomers), pentosyl sweroside, and additionally 7-epi-loganic acid, 7-epi-loganin, sweroside, secologanin, and secoxyloganin. The five pentoside derivatives of loganic acid and loganin have not been previously detected in the analyzed species. Honeysuckle berries are a source of iridoids with different structures, compounds that are rarely present in fruits.

  10. Identification of Iridoids in Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja Z; Fecka, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Iridoid profiles of honeysuckle berry were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ions mode. The MS fragmentation pathways of detected iridoid glycosides were also studied in both modes. In the negative ESI mass spectra, iridoids with a methyl ester or lactone structure have preferentially produced adduct [M + HCOOH - H](-) ions. However, protonated ions of molecular fragments, which were released by glycosidic bond cleavage and following fragmentation of aglycone rings, were more usable for iridoid structure analysis. In addition, the neutral losses of H₂O, CO, CO₂, CH₃OH, acetylene, ethenone and cyclopropynone have provided data confirming the presence of functional substituents in the aglycone. Among the 13 iridoids, 11 were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time: pentosides of loganic acid (two isomers), pentosides of loganin (three isomers), pentosyl sweroside, and additionally 7-epi-loganic acid, 7-epi-loganin, sweroside, secologanin, and secoxyloganin. The five pentoside derivatives of loganic acid and loganin have not been previously detected in the analyzed species. Honeysuckle berries are a source of iridoids with different structures, compounds that are rarely present in fruits. PMID:27598106

  11. Representation of Berry phase by the trajectories of Majorana stars.

    PubMed

    Liu, H D; Fu, L B

    2014-12-12

    The Majorana's stellar representation, which represents the evolution of a quantum state with the trajectories of the Majorana stars on a Bloch sphere, provides an intuitive way to study a physical system with a high dimensional projective Hilbert space. In this Letter, we study the Berry phase by these stars and their loops on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the Berry phase of a general spin state can be expressed by an elegant formula with the solid angles of Majorana star loops. Furthermore, these results can be used to a general state with arbitrary dimensions. To demonstrate our theory, we study a two mode interacting boson system. Finally, the relation between stars' correlations and quantum entanglement is discussed. PMID:25541754

  12. Berry-phase effect in anomalous thermoelectric transport.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Yao, Yugui; Fang, Zhong; Niu, Qian

    2006-07-14

    We develop a theory of the Berry-phase effect in anomalous transport in ferromagnets driven by statistical forces such as the gradient of temperature or chemical potential. Here a charge Hall current arises from the Berry-phase correction to the orbital magnetization rather than from the anomalous velocity, which does not exist in the absence of a mechanical force. A finite-temperature formula for the orbital magnetization is derived, which enables us to provide an explicit expression for the off-diagonal thermoelectric conductivity, to establish the Mott relation between the anomalous Nernst and Hall effects, and to reaffirm the Onsager relations between reciprocal thermoelectric conductivities. A first-principles evaluation of our expression is carried out for the material CuCr(2)Se(4-x)Br(x), obtaining quantitative agreement with a recent experiment.

  13. Water Deficit Increases Stilbene Metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes. PMID:21128664

  14. Berry-phase description of topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-05-01

    We study a class of translational-invariant insulators with discrete rotational symmetry. These insulators have no spin-orbit coupling, and in some cases have no time-reversal symmetry either; i.e., the relevant symmetries are purely crystalline. Nevertheless, topological phases exist which are distinguished by their robust surface modes. Like many well-known topological phases, their band topology is unveiled by the crystalline analog of Berry phases, i.e., parallel transport across certain noncontractible loops in the Brillouin zone. We also identify certain topological phases without any robust surface modes; they are uniquely distinguished by parallel transport along bent loops, whose shapes are determined by the symmetry group. Our findings have experimental implications in cold-atom systems, where the crystalline Berry phase has been directly measured.

  15. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  16. Berry phase, topology, and degeneracies in quantum nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Patrick

    2006-03-24

    A topological theory of the diabolical points (degeneracies) of quantum magnets is presented. Diabolical points are characterized by their diabolicity index, for which topological sum rules are derived. The paradox of the missing diabolical points for Fe8 molecular magnets is clarified. A new method is also developed to provide a simple interpretation, in terms of destructive interferences due to the Berry phase, of the complete set of diabolical points found in biaxial systems such as Fe8. PMID:16605864

  17. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-30

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  18. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  19. Berry phase, topology, and degeneracies in quantum nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Patrick

    2006-03-24

    A topological theory of the diabolical points (degeneracies) of quantum magnets is presented. Diabolical points are characterized by their diabolicity index, for which topological sum rules are derived. The paradox of the missing diabolical points for Fe8 molecular magnets is clarified. A new method is also developed to provide a simple interpretation, in terms of destructive interferences due to the Berry phase, of the complete set of diabolical points found in biaxial systems such as Fe8.

  20. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  1. Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs.

    PubMed

    Butot, S; Putallaz, T; Amoroso, R; Sánchez, G

    2009-06-01

    Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral culturing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), whereas HuNoV survival was determined only by quantitative RT-PCR. While freeze-drying barely reduced (<1.3 log(10) units) the amount of HAV RNA detected in frozen produce, a greater decline in HAV infectivity was observed. The resistance of HuNoV genogroup I (GI) to freeze-drying was significantly higher than that of HuNoV GII on berries. Addition of a terminal dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log(10) units, except for HuNoV GII. The results suggest that steam blanching at 95 degrees C for 2.5 min effectively inactivated infectious enteric viruses if they were present in herbs. Our results provide data for adjusting food processing technologies if viral contamination of raw materials is suspected. PMID:19395576

  2. Lipoxygenase distribution in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries.

    PubMed

    Patui, Sonia; Peresson, Carlo; Braidot, Enrico; Tubaro, Franco; Colussi, Alessio; Bonnländer, Bernd; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. An immunochemical analysis has evidenced a ca. 80 kDa protein, cross-reacting with an anti-LOX antibody, only in the pulp fraction of berries obtained from plants of both cultivations. LOX activity in this fraction could be monitored either as conjugated diene formation or reaction products (determined by HPLC) and was mainly associated with a heavy membrane fraction (HMF, enriched in tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) and a light membrane fraction (LMF, enriched in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, with low levels of tonoplast and mitochondria). The LOX activity of LMF from berries of both cultivations showed an optimum at pH 8.0. The HMF exhibited a different activity peak in samples from conventional (pH 8.0) and organic (pH 5.5) cultures, suggesting the presence of different isoenzymes. These findings were also confirmed by variation of the ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in organic (1:1) and conventional cultivations (1:10), indicating that the organic one was subjected to an oxidative stress in the coffee pulp fraction leading to the expression of an acidic LOX. Such de novo synthesized LOX activity could be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which may interfere with the organoleptic profile of coffee.

  3. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application.

  4. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  5. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  6. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs.

  7. Influence of fruit maturity at harvest on the intensity of smoke taint in wine.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Renata; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-05-18

    Bushfire smoke can affect the composition and sensory properties of grapes and wines, in some cases leading to wines which exhibit undesirable "smoky", "ashy" and "medicinal" characters. This study investigated the extent to which fruit maturity (i.e., ripeness) influences the perception of smoke taint in wine. Two white grape varieties (Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc) and two red grape varieties (Merlot and Shiraz) were exposed to smoke under experimental conditions, at approximately seven days post-veraison. Fruit was then harvested at two levels of maturity: Harvest A, when total soluble solids were 16-20 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of sparkling or light-bodied wines; and Harvest B, when total soluble solids were 22-25 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of full-bodied wines. The intensity of smoke taint in resulting wines was found to be influenced by fruit maturity, but differed between grape varieties. Smoke-related sensory attributes were apparent in Sauvignon Blanc wine made from early-harvested fruit and in Chardonnay wine made from late-harvested fruit, only; whereas Merlot and Shiraz wines exhibited smoke taint irrespective of fruit maturity. Smoke-derived volatile phenols, and various alcohols, esters and acids, were also quantified to determine the impact of smoke exposure and fruit maturity respectively, on wine composition.

  8. Signatures of the Berry curvature in the frequency dependent interlayer magnetoresistance in tilted magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony R; McKenzie, Ross H

    2014-02-26

    We show that in a layered metal, the angle dependent, finite frequency, interlayer magnetoresistance is altered due to the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature at the Fermi surface. At zero frequency, we find a conservation law which demands that the 'magic angle' condition for interlayer magnetoresistance extrema as a function of magnetic field tilt angle is essentially both field and Berry curvature independent. In the finite frequency case, however, we find that surprisingly large signatures of a finite Berry curvature occur in the periodic orbit resonances. We outline a method whereby the presence and magnitude of the Berry curvature at the Fermi surface can be extracted.

  9. Sunlight exclusion from Muscat grape alters volatile profiles during berry development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haohao; Fan, Peige; Liu, Cuixia; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of sunlight exclusion on the volatile profiles of grapes during different stages of berry development were investigated by placing clusters of grapes in special boxes. Terpenes and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in the ripe 'Jingxiangyu' berries. Sunlight exclusion was found to change volatile profiles at any stage. Sunlight exclusion from berries significantly inhibited the synthesis and accumulation of terpenes, which contribute to the characteristic aroma of Muscat grapes. However, sunlight exclusion during berry formation and veraison promoted the accumulation of aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones during the ripening stage. These results may provide important information regarding the metabolism of volatile compounds in grapes.

  10. Development of the Second Generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between −1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries. PMID:25664430

  11. Validation and application of an improved method for the rapid determination of proline in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Rienth, Markus; Romieu, Charles; Gregan, Rebecca; Walsh, Caroline; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-04-16

    A rapid and sensitive method is presented for the determination of proline in grape berries. Following acidification with formic acid, proline is derivatized by heating at 100 °C for 15 min with 3% ninhydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the absorbance, which is stable for at least 60 min, is read at 520 nm. The method was statistically validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 15 mg/L, giving a repeatability and intermediate precision of generally <3%; linearity was determined using the lack of fit test. Results obtained with this method concurred (r = 0.99) with those obtained for the same samples on an amino acid analyzer. In terms of sample preparation, a simple dilution (5-20-fold) is required, and sugars, primary amino acids, and anthocyanins were demonstrated not to interfere, as the latter are bleached by ninhydrin under the experimental conditions. The method was applied to the study of proline accumulation in the fruits of microvines grown in phytotrons, and it was established that proline accumulation and concentrations closely resemble those of field-grown macrovines. PMID:24617570

  12. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  13. Preserving brain function in aging: The anti-glycative potential of berry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produc...

  14. Polyphenols found in berry fruit improve age-associated changes in cognitive function and brain inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that cognitive functioning decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. The cause of these functional declines is not entirely understood; however, neuronal losses and the associat...

  15. Does position in the canopy affect fruit bud and berry development in highbush blueberry?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a 7-year-old field of certified organic highbush blueberry. Plants were grown on raised beds, and treatments included ‘Duke’ and ‘Liberty’ plants mulched with 1) weed mat or compost topped with sawdust and 2) fertilized with feather meal or fish emulsion. One-year-old frui...

  16. Human cognition and mobility in aging: a model for berry fruit interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in motor function in aging, in both animals and humans, include decrements in balance, strength, and coordination, even in the absence of specific movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. In humans, these alterations can increase fall risk, often leading to injury and premature nursin...

  17. Assessment of berry fruit's effects on mobility and cognition in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in aging, in both animals and humans, include parallel decrements in mobility and cognition, even in the absence of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Diet has long been known to influence aging; however, specific whole foods are now being investigated for t...

  18. Effects of Berry Fruits on Neurocognitive Deficits Produced by Exposure to Space Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to different types of radiation than experienced in low-earth orbit. In addition to its carcinogenic effects, cosmic rays have the potential to cause neurocognitive deficits which can interfere with the successful completion ...

  19. The onset of grapevine berry ripening is characterized by ROS accumulation and lipoxygenase-mediated membrane peroxidation in the skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex developmental program characterized by extensive transcriptomic and metabolic remodeling in the pericarp tissues (pulp and skin) making unripe green fruits soft, tasteful and colored. The onset of ripening is regulated by a plethora of endogenous signals tuned to external stimuli. In grapevine and tomato, which are classified as non-climacteric and climacteric species respectively, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extensive modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes at the onset of ripening has been reported, suggesting that ROS could participate to the regulatory network of fruit development. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a comprehensive biochemical study of the oxidative events occurring at the beginning of ripening in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir has been undertaken. Results ROS-specific staining allowed to visualize not only H2O2 but also singlet oxygen (1O2) in berry skin cells just before color change in distinct subcellular locations, i.e. cytosol and plastids. H2O2 peak in sample skins at véraison was confirmed by in vitro quantification and was supported by the concomitant increase of catalase activity. Membrane peroxidation was also observed by HPLC-MS on galactolipid species at véraison. Mono- and digalactosyl diacylglycerols were found peroxidized on one or both α-linolenic fatty acid chains, with a 13(S) absolute configuration implying the action of a specific enzyme. A lipoxygenase (PnLOXA), expressed at véraison and localizing inside the chloroplasts, was indeed able to catalyze membrane galactolipid peroxidation when overexpressed in tobacco leaves. Conclusions The present work demonstrates the controlled, harmless accumulation of specific ROS in distinct cellular compartments, i.e. cytosol and chloroplasts, at a definite developmental stage, the onset of grape berry ripening. These features strongly candidate ROS as cellular signals in fruit

  20. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  1. Preparation and characterization of acorn starch/poly(lactic acid) composites modified with functionalized vegetable oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouhai; Xia, Jianling; Xu, Yuzhi; Yang, Xuejuan; Mao, Wei; Huang, Kun

    2016-05-20

    Composites of acorn starch (AS) and poly(1actic acid) (PLA) modified with dimer fatty acid (DFA) or dimer fatty acid polyamide (DFAPA) were produced by a hot-melt extrusion method. The effects of DFA and DFAPA contents on the mechanical, hydrophobic, thermal properties and melt fluidity of the composites were studied under an invariable AS-to-PLA mass ratio of 40/60. SEM and DMA research results show that the compatibility of AS/PLA composites are determined by the dosage of DFA or DFAPA. The hydrophobicity and melt fluidity of composites are improved with the addition of DFA and DFAPA. The glass transition temperatures of the composites are all reduced remarkably by additives DFA and DFAPA. However, DFA and DFAPA exert different effects on the mechanical properties of AS/PLA composites. In the DFAPA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength first increase and then decrease with the increase of DFAPA dosage; the mechanical strength is maximized when the dosage of DFAPA is 2 wt% of total weight. In the DFA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength decrease with the increase of DFA dosage.

  2. Polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antiradical activity of Italian berries from Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. gaultherioides (Bigelow) S.B. Young.

    PubMed

    Ancillotti, Claudia; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Pucci, Daniele; Sagona, Eva; Giordani, Edgardo; Biricolti, Stefano; Gori, Massimo; Petrucci, William Antonio; Giardi, Fabio; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Orlandini, Serena; Mosti, Stefano; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Total soluble polyphenols (TSP), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), radical scavenging activity (RSA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and a number of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavanols, dihydrochalcones and flavonols were investigated in Tuscan bilberry (i.e. Vaccinium myrtillus) and "false bilberry" (i.e. Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides Bigelow). V. myrtillus berries showed much higher TSP, TMA, RSA and FRAP values than V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides fruits. Moreover, very different profiles of individual phenolics were observed in the two species, being V. myrtillus mainly characterised by delphinidin and cyanidin glycosides, together with chlorogenic acid, and V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides dominated by malvidin derivatives and flavonols. Strong differences between the two species regarded also metabolites investigated herein for the first time, such as scopoletin, which was approximately two magnitude orders higher in V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides than in V. myrtillus berries. Very different abundances were also highlighted for cryptochlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-rhamnoside that were about ten-fold higher in bilberry than in "false bilberry". When the anthocyanin composition pattern of Tuscan "false bilberry" was compared to those elsewhere reported for V. uliginosum fruits harvested in different world areas, some important differences were observed. PMID:26988491

  3. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  4. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  5. Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Pereira, Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta; da Silva, Thais Lomônaco Teodoro; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature. PMID:24629981

  6. Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Pereira, Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta; da Silva, Thais Lomônaco Teodoro; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature.

  7. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates.

    PubMed

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and, consequently, foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies. PMID:27607950

  8. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates.

    PubMed

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and, consequently, foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  9. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and consequently foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  10. Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Venkat; Srinivas, Pullela V; Praveen, B; Kishore, K Hara; Raju, B China; Murthy, U Suryanarayana; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2004-11-01

    Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the isolated compounds were active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Staphylococcus aureus amongst Gram + ve bacteria, and Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum among Gram -ve bacterial strains.

  11. Topological Hall effect and Berry phase in magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, P; Dugaev, V K; Taillefumier, M

    2004-08-27

    We discuss the anomalous Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a spatially varying magnetization. This topological Hall effect does not require any spin-orbit coupling and arises solely from Berry phase acquired by an electron moving in a smoothly varying magnetization. We propose an experiment with a structure containing 2D electrons or holes of diluted magnetic semiconductor subject to the stray field of a lattice of magnetic nanocylinders. The striking behavior predicted for such a system (of which all relevant parameters are well known) allows one to observe unambiguously the topological Hall effect and to distinguish it from other mechanisms. PMID:15447127

  12. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  13. Genetic Fingerprints for Individually Quick Frozen 'Marion' Whole Berries and Puree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forensic-type approach was proposed to identify ‘Marion’ type blackberry from Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) whole berries and puree using DNA-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This approach is useful for quality control and to detect contamination from other berry products. A reliable ...

  14. Diurnal temperature range compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperatures during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...

  15. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  16. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  17. Resveratrol synthesis under natural conditions and after UV-C irradiation in berry skin is associated with berry development stages in 'Beihong' (V. vinifera×V. amurensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Fang; Ma, Ling; Xi, Hui-Fen; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Though UV-C irradiation may induce the synthesis of resveratrol in grape berry skins, it is unclear which developmental stage is most sensitive to UV-C induction. In this study, we investigated resveratrol content and gene expression of 'Beihong' (Vitisvinifera×Vitisamurensis) berries by UV-C irradiation compared with under natural conditions during different developmental stages. Under natural condition, resveratrol synthesis was related to veraison. Before veraison, resveratrol content was very low; however, total resveratrol increased about 500% from veraison to maturity in the main forms of piceids. UV-C irradiation significantly stimulated resveratrol synthesis, mainly in the form of trans-resveratrol. Young berries at 55days after anthesis were most sensitive to UV-C irradiation, the total resveratrol in the skin of UV-C irradiated berry is about 90 times higher than that of the control; however, resveratrol synthesis subsequently declined, which may be attributed to STS regulation by Myb14.

  18. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  19. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  20. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

  1. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  2. Fruiting and flushing phenology in Asian tropical and temperate forests: implications for primate ecology.

    PubMed

    Hanya, Goro; Tsuji, Yamato; Grueter, Cyril C

    2013-04-01

    In order to understand the ecological adaptations of primates to survive in temperate forests, we need to know the general patterns of plant phenology in temperate and tropical forests. Comparative analyses have been employed to investigate general trends in the seasonality and abundance of fruit and young leaves in tropical and temperate forests. Previous studies have shown that (1) fruit fall biomass in temperate forest is lower than in tropical forest, (2) non-fleshy species, in particular acorns, comprise the majority of the fruit biomass in temperate forest, (3) the duration of the fruiting season is shorter in temperate forest, and (4) the fruiting peak occurs in autumn in most temperate forests. Through our comparative analyses of the fruiting and flushing phenology between Asian temperate and tropical forests, we revealed that (1) fruiting is more annually periodic (the pattern in one year is similar to that seen in the next year) in temperate forest in terms of the number of fruiting species or trees, (2) there is no consistent difference in interannual variations in fruiting between temperate and tropical forests, although some oak-dominated temperate forests exhibit extremely large interannual variations in fruiting, (3) the timing of the flushing peak is predictable (in spring and early summer), and (4) the duration of the flushing season is shorter. The flushing season in temperate forests (17-28 % of that in tropical forests) was quite limited, even compared to the fruiting season (68 %). These results imply that temperate primates need to survive a long period of scarcity of young leaves and fruits, but the timing is predictable. Therefore, a dependence on low-quality foods, such as mature leaves, buds, bark, and lichens, would be indispensable for temperate primates. Due to the high predictability of the timing of fruiting and flushing in temperate forests, fat accumulation during the fruit-abundant period and fat metabolization during the

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination with photodiode array detection of ellagic acid in fresh and processed fruits.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Y; Okada, M; Tsuji, S; Tonogai, Y

    2000-10-27

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure based on an isocratic elution with photodiode array detection has been developed for a simple and rapid determination of ellagic acid (EA) in fresh and processed fruits. The homogenized sample was refluxed with methanol and then the extract was refined using a solid-phase cartridge before HPLC. We analyzed EA in 40 kinds of fresh fruits and 11 kinds of processed fruits by the developed method. EA was found in several berries, fueijoa, pineapple and pomegranate. This is the first occurrence of the detection of EA in bayberry, fueijoa and pineapple.

  4. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  5. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of sea buckthorn berries.

    PubMed

    Chaman, Saadia; Syed, Nawazish-I-Husain; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Farrakh Zia

    2011-07-01

    Sea buckthorn berries are therapeutically used as folk medicine for a variety of diseases, however, the scientific evidence is hardly available to support their role. This study explored their chemical constituents and their role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Three common solvents such as petroleum ether (40° - 60°C), chloroform and methanol were successively used for the extraction of active principles from sea buckthorn berries. Five major fractions (F1-F5) were isolated from the active methanol extract by column and thin layer chromatography. An attempt was made to identify the chemical nature of pooled fractions by available spectral means. Antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its fractions was measured by DPPH, formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and TBA methods. The hole-plate diffussion method was used to find out the antibacterial activity. A very brief structure-activity relationship of the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds is discussed. Methanolic extract and its fractions contain numerous phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, which may be responsible for antioxidant and antibacterial effects. PMID:21715268

  6. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC 50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure. PMID:23760385

  8. Applicability of Berry's index in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Pillai, Karthigakannan Subramanian; George, Giju Baby; Varghese, Thomas; Puthalath, Mohammed Shibin; Arakkal, Leena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempts to highlight the usefulness of applying Berry's Index as an adjuvant to support and aid in bite analysis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 100 students between the ages of 18–30 from Mar Baselios Dental Collage, Kothamangalam. Out of the 100 subjects, there were 50 males and 50 females. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 16 (SPSS). Results: The mean value of the width of the upper central incisor for male and female was 0.7602 cm and 0.7765 cm respectively. The mean value of the bizygomatic width for male and female was 12.54 cm and 12.42 cm respectively. The correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width was inferred to have a good positive correlation with a value 0f 0.613. Pearson correlation coefficient with greater correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width in female patient (r = 0.678) compared with male patient (r = 0. 525). Conclusion: Berry's Index can be a useful adjuvant to bite analysis by providing a means of determining the facial proportions of an individual from the width of the central incisors. PMID:25709316

  9. Antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents from Juniperus berries.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Dunbar, D Chuck; Gafur, Md Abdul; Khan, Shabana I; Ross, Samir A; Mossa, Jaber S; El-Feraly, Farouk S; Tekwani, Babu L; Bosselaers, Jan; Muhammad, Ilias

    2008-12-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains (IC(50) = 1.9 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively), while totarol (6), ferruginol (7) and 7beta-hydroxyabieta-8,13-diene-11,12-dione (8) inhibited Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC(50) values of 3.5-4.6 microg/mL. In addition, totarol demonstrated nematicidal and antifouling activities against Caenorhabditis elegans and Artemia salina at a concentration of 80 microg/mL and 1 microg/mL, respectively. The resinous exudate of J. virginiana afforded known antibacterial E-communic acid (4) and 4-epi-abietic acid (5), while the volatile oil from its trunk wood revealed large quantities of cedrol (9). Using GC/MS, the two known abietanes totarol (6) and ferruginol (7) were identified from the berries of J. procera, J. excelsa and J. phoenicea. PMID:19067375

  10. Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day...

  11. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.

  12. Genetic differentiation, hybridization and adaptive divergence in two subspecies of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita japonica in the northwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Benny K K; Ma, Ka Yan; Chu, Ka Hou

    2008-09-01

    Two acorn barnacles, Tetraclita japonica japonica and Tetraclita japonica formosana, have been recently reclassified as two subspecies, because they are morphologically similar and genetically indistinguishable in mitochondrial DNA sequences. The two barnacles are distinguishable by parietes colour and exhibit parapatric distributions, coexisting in Japan, where T. j. formosana is very low in abundance. Here we investigated the genetic differentiation between the subspecies using 209 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and 341 individuals from 12 locations. The subspecies are genetically highly differentiated (phi(CT) = 0.267). Bayesian analysis and principal component analysis indicate the presence of hybrids in T. j.formosana samples from Japan. Strong differentiation between the northern and southern populations of T. j. japonica was revealed, and a break between Taiwan and Okinawa was also found in T. j. formosana. The differentiation between the two taxa at individual loci does not deviate from neutral expectation, suggesting that the oceanographic pattern which restricts larval dispersal is a more important factor than divergent selection in maintaining genetic and phenotypic differentiation. The T. j. formosana in Japan are probably recent migrants from Okinawa, and their presence in Japan may represent a poleward range shift driven by global warming. This promotes hybridization and might lead to a breakdown of the boundary between the subspecies. However, both local adaptation and larval dispersal are crucial in determining the population structure within each subspecies. Our study provides new insights into the interplay of local adaptation and dispersal in determining the distribution and genetic structure of intertidal biota and the biogeography of the northwestern Pacific.

  13. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  14. Effects of different maturity stages on antioxidant content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) berries.

    PubMed

    N'dri, Denis; Calani, Luca; Mazzeo, Teresa; Scazzina, Francesca; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Rio, Daniele Del; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2010-10-15

    Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red) and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols), antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  15. Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.D.; Yi, X.X.; Fu, L.B.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) hybrid systems and obtain their algebraic expressions in terms of one form connection. The semiclassical relation of Berry phase and Hannay’s angle is discussed. We find that, besides the usual connection term, the Berry phase of quantum BO composite system also contains a novel term brought forth by the coupling induced effective gauge potential. This quantum modification can be viewed as an effective Aharonov–Bohm effect. Moreover, the similar phenomenon is founded in Hannay’s angle of classical BO composite system, which indicates that the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle possess the same relation as the usual one. An example is used to illustrate our theory. This scheme can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. Besides, the quantum–classical hybrid BO system is also studied to compare with the results in full quantum and full classical composite systems. -- Highlights: •We have derived the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in BO hybrid systems. •The Berry phase contains a novel term brought by the effective gauge potential. •This mechanism can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. •The relation between Hannay’s angles and Berry phases is established.

  16. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fläschner, N.; Rem, B. S.; Tarnowski, M.; Vogel, D.; Lühmann, D.-S.; Sengstock, K.; Weitenberg, C.

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  17. Tunable graphene metasurfaces by discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Song, Shichao; Chen, Qin

    2015-12-01

    Metal-dielectric-graphene three-layer structures are proposed to improve the interaction of graphene micro- and nanostructures with incident waves, as the upper graphene cut-wire layer introduces a discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase profile. A semi-analytical method based on the Jones calculus is conducted to investigate the conversion efficiency of cross-polarized light on this graphene metasurface for circularly polarized wave incidence, which predicts that the physical constraint (25%) of cross-coupling conversion efficiency for individual graphene layers can be overcome. Numerical simulations confirm the conclusion and demonstrate an efficiency as high as 60%. Based on this mechanism, high-efficiency anomalous reflection surfaces and flat focal mirrors are designed with the tunability of reflection angles and one order of magnitude improved focusing intensity. This method paves the way to engineering high-efficiency graphene metasurfaces for tunable electromagnetic wave manipulation.

  18. Tunable graphene metasurfaces by discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase shift.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Song, Shichao; Chen, Qin

    2015-12-18

    Metal-dielectric-graphene three-layer structures are proposed to improve the interaction of graphene micro- and nanostructures with incident waves, as the upper graphene cut-wire layer introduces a discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase profile. A semi-analytical method based on the Jones calculus is conducted to investigate the conversion efficiency of cross-polarized light on this graphene metasurface for circularly polarized wave incidence, which predicts that the physical constraint (25%) of cross-coupling conversion efficiency for individual graphene layers can be overcome. Numerical simulations confirm the conclusion and demonstrate an efficiency as high as 60%. Based on this mechanism, high-efficiency anomalous reflection surfaces and flat focal mirrors are designed with the tunability of reflection angles and one order of magnitude improved focusing intensity. This method paves the way to engineering high-efficiency graphene metasurfaces for tunable electromagnetic wave manipulation. PMID:26585113

  19. Berry phase and quantum entanglement in Majorana's stellar representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. D.; Fu, L. B.

    2016-08-01

    By presenting the evolution of a quantum state with the trajectories of the Majorana stars on the Bloch sphere, the Majorana's stellar provides an intuitive geometric picture to study a quantum system with high-dimensional Hilbert space. We study the Berry phase and quantum entanglement by distributions and motions of these stars on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that both of these unique characters of quantum state can be perfectly represented by the Majorana stars. The former is expressed by the solid angles of Majorana star loops and the distance between stars. For the latter, the distances between stars are also found to be a tool for measuring and classifying the multiparticle entanglement of a symmetric multiqubit pure state. To demonstrate our theory, we study a typical spin model which is equivalent to an interacting boson model or an interacting multiqubit system. The self-trapping phenomenon within is also discussed via the Majorana stars.

  20. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  1. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase in polarization singular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2013-04-01

    Space-variant inhomogeneously polarized field formed due to superposition of orthogonally polarized Gaussian (LG00) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) beams results in polarization singular beams with different morphology structures such as lemon, star and dipole patterns around the C-point in the beam cross-section. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase plays a critical role in the formation and characteristics of these spatially inhomogeneous fields. We present our experimental results wherein we measure the variable geometric phase by tracking the trajectory of the component vortices in the beam cross-section, by interfering with selective polarization states and by tracking different latitudes on the Poincaré sphere without the effect of a dynamic phase.

  2. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the berry skin of two red grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in which anthocyanin synthesis is sunlight-dependent or -independent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben-Hong; Cao, Yue-Gang; Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can ('Jingyan') or cannot ('Jingxiu') synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in 'Jingyan' were less complex than in 'Jingxiu'; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in 'Jingxiu'. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two cultivars, or in only one cultivar. In addition to VvUFGT and VvMYBA1, some candidate genes (e.g. AOMT, GST, and ANP) were identified which are probably involved in the differential responses of 'Jingxiu' and 'Jingyan' to sunlight exclusion. In addition, 26 MYB, 14 bHLH and 23 WD40 genes responded differently to sunlight exclusion in the two cultivars. Interestingly, all of the 189 genes classified as being relevant to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were down-regulated by sunlight exclusion in 'Jingxiu', but the majority (162) remained unchanged in 'Jingyan' berry skin. It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. Only a few genes in the light signal system were found to be regulated by sunlight exclusion in either or both cultivars. This study provides a valuable overview of the transcriptome changes and gives insight into the genetic background that may be responsible for sunlight-dependent versus -independent anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skin.

  3. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  4. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  5. Dose-response relationships between pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon [Ericaceae]).

    PubMed

    Cane, James H; Schiffhauer, Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Comparisons of pollinator efficacy using pollen received on stigmas can be refined by incorporating experimental dose-response relationships for pollen deposition and fruiting responses. A range of discrete pollen doses applied to cranberry stigmas resulted in decelerating curvilinear responses for fruiting, berry size, and seed set. Minimum thresholds and maximum asymptotes bounded reproductive responses to incremental stigmatic pollen loads. Four bee species were compared for their pollination efficacies on commercial cranberries, using counts of pollen received by stigmas during single bee visits to previously virgin flowers. Differences between these bee species were found to be exaggerated when raw pollen counts were used for comparison because foragers of some species often delivered pollen in excess of that needed to maximize fruit and seed production. Sixfold differences between species in mean pollen deposition translated into 1.5-2-fold differences in predicted cranberry fruit set and size. Implications for pollen tube competition and agricultural production are discussed.

  6. Vitamin K content of nuts and fruits in the US diet.

    PubMed

    Dismore, MacKenzie L; Haytowitz, David B; Gebhardt, Susan E; Peterson, James W; Booth, Sarah L

    2003-12-01

    Assessment of vitamin K dietary intakes has been limited by incomplete vitamin K food composition data for the US food supply. The phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) concentrations of nuts (n=76) and fruits (n=215) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Each sample represented a composite of units obtained from 12 to 24 outlets, which provided geographic representation of the US food supply. With the exception of pine nuts and cashews, which contain 53.9 and 34.8 microg of phylloquinone per 100 g of nut, respectively, nuts are not important dietary sources of vitamin K. Similarly, most fruits are not important sources of vitamin K, with the exception of some berries, green fruits, and prunes. Menu planning for patients on warfarin can include a healthy diet including fruits and nuts without compromising the stability of their oral anticoagulation therapy.

  7. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  8. Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Snyder, Crystal L.; Schroeder, William R.; Cram, Dustin; Datla, Raju; Wishart, David; Weselake, Randall J.; Krishna, Priti

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy, fruit-producing plant known historically for its medicinal and nutraceutical properties. The most recognized product of sea buckthorn is its fruit oil, composed of seed oil that is rich in essential fatty acids, linoleic (18∶2ω-6) and α-linolenic (18∶3ω-3) acids, and pulp oil that contains high levels of monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (16∶1ω-7). Sea buckthorn is fast gaining popularity as a source of functional food and nutraceuticals, but currently has few genomic resources; therefore, we explored the fatty acid composition of Canadian-grown cultivars (ssp. mongolica) and the sea buckthorn seed transcriptome using the 454 GS FLX sequencing technology. Results GC-MS profiling of fatty acids in seeds and pulp of berries indicated that the seed oil contained linoleic and α-linolenic acids at 33–36% and 30–36%, respectively, while the pulp oil contained palmitoleic acid at 32–42%. 454 sequencing of sea buckthorn cDNA collections from mature seeds yielded 500,392 sequence reads, which identified 89,141 putative unigenes represented by 37,482 contigs and 51,659 singletons. Functional annotation by Gene Ontology and computational prediction of metabolic pathways indicated that primary metabolism (protein>nucleic acid>carbohydrate>lipid) and fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis pathways were highly represented categories. Sea buckthorn sequences related to fatty acid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis were identified, and a subset of these was examined for transcript expression at four developing stages of the berry. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources represented by expressed sequences for sea buckthorn, and demonstrates that the seed oil of Canadian-grown sea buckthorn cultivars contains high levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in a close to 1∶1 ratio, which is beneficial for human health. These data provide the foundation for further studies on

  9. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  10. [Stability and antioxidant activity of black currant and black aronia berry juices].

    PubMed

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Briedis, Vitalis

    2003-01-01

    The berries of black currant and black aronia are rich in polyphenolic compounds and especially in anthocyanins, demonstrating antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of thermal technological processes on the quantity of polyphenols and anthocyanins in berry juice concentrates, and on the antioxidant activity. After 8 hour storage of black currant and black aronia berry juice concentrates at 60 degrees C, the amount of polyphenols decreased by 46% and 22%, anthocyanins 31% and 35%, respectively. Antioxidant activity decreased by 26% and 56%, respectively. The results demonstrated insufficient stability of juice concentrates, and impropriety of application of long lasting drying processes in manufacturing of black currant and black aronia berry dry products. Fast and efficient drying methods for liquid products should be applied to preserve qualitative and quantitative composition and their antioxidant activity.

  11. Content, composition, and stereochemical characterisation of lignans in berries and seeds.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Annika I; Eklund, Patrik C; Willför, Stefan M

    2012-10-15

    In seed extracts of five oilseed species, in bran extracts of three cereal species, and in seed and/or whole berry extracts of 10 berry species, the concentrations of a large number of lignans and the enantiomeric composition of selected lignans were determined. In the case of sesame and hemp seeds, the lignan content and composition of the whole seeds was compared to that of the hulled seeds. The results showed that cloudberry seeds are the third most lignan-rich food source after linseeds and whole sesame seeds, and that most of the berry species analysed were more lignan-rich than the cereal brans. The lignans are concentrated in the hull of the oilseeds and in the seeds of the berries. In most samples, secoisolarici-, pino-, medio-, and syringaresinol were present as a mixture of two enantiomers.

  12. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. PMID:26851572

  13. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  14. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  15. Using Berrys phase for position-sensitive acoustical and stress detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2002-10-01

    Berry showed that a quantum system, upon an excursion around a closed path in phase space, can lead to a geometric phase. The polarization state of light in a fiber is a classical analog that is called the Pancharantnam phase. While most experiments have focused on esoteric issues, I show that, in theory, Berrys phase (or Pancharantnams phase) can be used to make a position-sensitive acoustical or stress sensor. 2002 Optical Society of America

  16. Berry curvature on the fermi surface: anomalous Hall effect as a topological fermi-liquid property.

    PubMed

    Haldane, F D M

    2004-11-12

    The intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnets is shown to be controlled by Berry phases accumulated by adiabatic motion of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, and is purely a Fermi-liquid property, not a bulk Fermi sea property like Landau diamagnetism, as has been previously supposed. Berry phases are a new topological ingredient that must be added to Landau Fermi-liquid theory in the presence of broken inversion or time-reversal symmetry.

  17. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    PubMed

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  18. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  19. Pigment identification, antioxidant activity, and nutrient composition of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) Miers ex Hook. f & Thoms fruit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-05-01

    The stem, leaf, and root of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) have been highly exploited for medicinal preparations; however, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of its attractive red berries (fruits) have not so far been studied. Pigments, berberine (107.0 mg/100 g) and lycopene (50.8 mg/100 g), were identified in the deseeded fruit. Total phenol content in the fruit was 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The IC(50) of DPPH· (82, and 468 ppm) and OH· (100, and 1,000 ppm) scavenging activity, and the EC(50) of reducing power (2,616, and 1,472 ppm) of hexane and methanol extracts, respectively, were observed. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of the fruit extracts (150 and 300 ppm) were 1,107 and 2,614 μM trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Nutrient composition including carbohydrate (18.4%), proteins (1.5%), lipids (6%) of which ∼62% was unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins like ascorbic acid (0.24 μg), niacin (0.7 mg), and tocopherols (2.4 mg) in 100 g fruits were determined. Potassium content was 1.2 g/100 g dry tissue of berries. These findings show that components of T. cordifolia fruit could be bioactive and used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. PMID:21155657

  20. Giant Faraday rotation induced by the Berry phase in bilayer graphene under strong terahertz fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Xu, Xiaodong; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-04-01

    High-order terahertz (THz) sideband generation in semiconductors is a phenomenon with physics similar to that of high-order harmonic generation but in a regime of much lower frequency. Our previous paper [1] found that the electron-hole pair excited by a weak optical laser can accumulate a Berry phase along a cyclic trajectory under the driving of a strong elliptically polarized THz field. Furthermore, the Berry phase appears as the Faraday rotation angle of the emission signal under short-pulse excitation in monolayer MoS_{2}. In this paper, the theory of the Berry phase in THz extreme nonlinear optics is applied to biased bilayer graphene with Bernal stacking, which has similar Bloch band features and optical properties to monolayer MoS_{2}, such as the time-reversal related valleys and the valley contrasting optical selection rule. However, the biased bilayer graphene has much larger Berry curvature than monolayer MoS_{2}, which leads to a large Berry phase of the quantum trajectory and in turn a giant Faraday rotation of the optical emission (˜1 rad for a THz field with frequency 1 THz and strength 8 kV cm-1). This surprisingly big angle shows that the Faraday rotation can be induced more efficiently by the Berry curvature in momentum space than by the magnetic field in real space. It provides opportunities to use bilayer graphene and THz lasers for ultrafast electro-optical devices.

  1. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  2. Expression of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Relation to Anthocyanin, Proanthocyanidin, and Flavonol Levels during Bilberry Fruit Development1

    PubMed Central

    Jaakola, Laura; Määttä, Kaisu; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-01-01

    The production of anthocyanins in fruit tissues is highly controlled at the developmental level. We have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during the development of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit in relation to the accumulation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in wild berries and in color mutants of bilberry. The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label. These homologous probes were used for determining the expression of the flavonoid pathway genes in bilberries. The contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in ripening bilberries were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and were identified using a mass spectrometry interface. Our results demonstrate a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the flavonoid pathway genes during the ripening of berries. At the early stages of berry development, procyanidins and quercetin were the major flavonoids, but the levels decreased dramatically during the progress of ripening. During the later stages of ripening, the content of anthocyanins increased strongly and they were the major flavonoids in the ripe berry. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced. A connection between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis in bilberry was detected in this study and also in previous data collected from flavonol and anthocyanin analyses from other fruits. In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented. PMID:12376640

  3. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

  4. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

  5. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  6. Berry curvature and dynamics of a magnetic bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic bubbles have been the subject of intensive studies aiming to investigate their applications to memory devices. A bubble can be regarded as the closed domain wall and is characterized by the winding number of the in-plane components or the skyrmion number N sk , which are related to the number of Bloch lines (BLs). For the magnetic bubbles without BLs, the Thiele equation assuming no internal distortion describes the center-of-mass motion of the bubbles very well. For the magnetic bubbles with BLs, on the other hand, their dynamics is affected seriously by that of BLs along the domain wall. Here we show theoretically, that the distribution of the Berry curvature b z , i.e., the solid angle formed by the magnetization vectors, in the bubble plays the key role in the dynamics of a bubble with {N}{sk}=0 in a dipolar magnet. In this case, the integral of b z over the space is zero, while the nonuniform distribution of b z and associated Magnus force induce several nontrivial coupled dynamics of the internal deformation and center-of-mass motion as explicitly demonstrated by numerical simulations of Landau–Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. These findings give an alternative view and will pave a new route to design the bubble dynamics.

  7. Berry curvature and dynamics of a magnetic bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic bubbles have been the subject of intensive studies aiming to investigate their applications to memory devices. A bubble can be regarded as the closed domain wall and is characterized by the winding number of the in-plane components or the skyrmion number N sk , which are related to the number of Bloch lines (BLs). For the magnetic bubbles without BLs, the Thiele equation assuming no internal distortion describes the center-of-mass motion of the bubbles very well. For the magnetic bubbles with BLs, on the other hand, their dynamics is affected seriously by that of BLs along the domain wall. Here we show theoretically, that the distribution of the Berry curvature b z , i.e., the solid angle formed by the magnetization vectors, in the bubble plays the key role in the dynamics of a bubble with {N}{sk}=0 in a dipolar magnet. In this case, the integral of b z over the space is zero, while the nonuniform distribution of b z and associated Magnus force induce several nontrivial coupled dynamics of the internal deformation and center-of-mass motion as explicitly demonstrated by numerical simulations of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. These findings give an alternative view and will pave a new route to design the bubble dynamics.

  8. Primordial magnetic field and kinetic theory with Berry curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2016-08-01

    We study the generation of a magnetic field in primordial plasma of standard model particles at a temperature T >80 TeV —much higher than the electroweak scale. It is assumed that there is an excess number of right-handed electrons compared to left-handed positrons in the plasma. Using the Berry-curvature modified kinetic theory to incorporate the effect of the Abelian anomaly, we show that this chiral imbalance leads to the generation of a hypermagnetic field in the plasma in both the collision dominated and collisionless regimes. It is shown that, in the collision dominated regime, the chiral-vorticity effect can generate finite vorticity in the plasma together with the magnetic field. Typical strength of the generated magnetic field is 1 027 G at T ˜80 TeV with the length scale 1 05/T , whereas the Hubble length scale is 1 013/T . Furthermore, the instability can also generate a magnetic field of the order 1 031 G at a typical length scale 10 /T . But there may not be any vorticity generation in this regime. We show that the estimated values of the magnetic field are consistent with the bounds obtained from current observations.

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Cho, Si-Young; Xiang, Gao; Min, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB) has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR) at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation. PMID:26090808

  10. Alternative Curricular Options in Rural Networks (ACORNS): impact of early rural clinical exposure in the University of West Australia medical course.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J; Ward, A

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 4-day rural placement in Western Australia on the interest of fourth year medical students in a career in rural general practice. Students undertaking their Alternative Curricular Options in Rural Networks attachment (ACORNS) completed pre- and post-questionnaires examining their expectations, experiences of, and attitudes to rural general practice. Of the 103 students who participated, 81% expressed an interest in a rural career after the placement, whereas prior to this experience only 48% had been interested. The students also recorded a wide range of learning experiences, both clinical and procedural, and expressed positive attitudes to the variety of experiences and the role of the rural GP. The study concluded that early exposure to rural general practice enhances students' interest in a potential rural practice career and provides them with a broad range of experiences. The role of rural practitioners as role models for students needs to be acknowledged and reinforced.

  11. The Grapevine VvPMEI1 Gene Encodes a Novel Functional Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Associated to Grape Berry Development

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Raiola, Alessandro; Mattei, Benedetta; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pectin is secreted in a highly methylesterified form and partially de-methylesterified in the cell wall by pectin methylesterases (PMEs). PME activity is expressed during plant growth, development and stress responses. PME activity is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by proteins named PME inhibitors (PMEIs). We have identified, expressed and characterized VvPMEI1, a functional PME inhibitor of Vitis vinifera. VvPMEI1 typically affects the activity of plant PMEs and is inactive against microbial PMEs. The kinetics of PMEI-PME interaction, studied by surface plasmon resonance, indicates that the inhibitor strongly interacts with PME at apoplastic pH while the stability of the complex is reduced by increasing the pH. The analysis of VvPMEI1 expression in different grapevine tissues and during grape fruit development suggests that this inhibitor controls PME activity mainly during the earlier phase of berry development. A proteomic analysis performed at this stage indicates a PME isoform as possible target of VvPMEI1. PMID:26204516

  12. From UVR8 to flavonol synthase: UV-B-induced gene expression in Sauvignon blanc grape berry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Gregan, Scott; Winefield, Chris; Jordan, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of development and UV-B on flavonols and the regulation of gene activity in Vitis vinifera L. var. Sauvignon blanc grapes. Particular emphasis was placed on gene activity associated with the low and high fluence UV-B responses. Flavonols, particularly quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, increased substantially upon fruit exposure due to UV-B, with spatial analysis locating the changes to the berry skin. Of five VvFLS genes in grapes, two (VvFLS4 and 5) were found to be transcriptionally active, with VvFLS4 also being responsive to UV-B but VvFLS5 was not. Of the transcription factors known to regulate FLS (VvMYB12, VvMYCA1 and VvWDRs), only VvMYB12 was found to be responsive to UV-B. A number of candidate genes associated with the low and high UV-B fluence responses were also studied (VvUVR8, VvHY5, VvCOP1 and VvCHS; PR genes and VvMAPK3; respectively). The genes associated with the low fluence response exhibited transcriptional regulation in line with reports from other species, while the PR genes and VvMAPK3 only appeared to be responsive in a high UV-B fluence environment. Together, these data supports the view flavonol biosynthesis in grape is stimulated predominantly through the low fluence UV-B response pathway.

  13. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    PubMed Central

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  14. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    PubMed

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  15. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  16. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Lin, H S

    2000-02-01

    Fruits and leaves from different cultivars of thornless blackberry (Rubus sp.), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa D.) plants were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic content. In addition, fruits were analyzed for total anthocyanin content. Blackberries and strawberries had the highest ORAC values during the green stages, whereas red raspberries had the highest ORAC activity at the ripe stage. Total anthocyanin content increased with maturity for all three species of fruits. Compared with fruits, leaves were found to have higher ORAC values. In fruits, ORAC values ranged from 7.8 to 33.7 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh berries (35. 0-162.1 micromol of TE/g of dry matter), whereas in leaves, ORAC values ranged from 69.7 to 182.2 micromol of TE/g of fresh leaves (205.0-728.8 micromol of TE/g of dry matter). As the leaves become older, the ORAC values and total phenolic contents decreased. The results showed a linear correlation between total phenolic content and ORAC activity for fruits and leaves. For ripe berries, a linear relationship existed between ORAC values and anthocyanin content. Of the ripe fruits tested, on the basis of wet weight of fruit, cv. Jewel black raspberry and blackberries may be the richest source for antioxidants. On the basis of the dry weight of fruit, strawberries had the highest ORAC activity followed by black raspberries (cv. Jewel), blackberries, and red raspberries.

  17. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  18. Berry phase theory of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, F; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-03-12

    Recent experiments on current-induced domain-wall motion in chiral domain walls reveal important contributions both from spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive a Berry phase expression for the DMI and show that within this Berry phase theory DMI and SOTs are intimately related, in a way formally analogous to the relation between orbital magnetization (OM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We introduce the concept of the twist torque moment, which probes the internal twist of wavepackets in chiral magnets in a similar way as the orbital moment probes the wavepacket's internal self-rotation. We propose to interpret the Berry phase theory of DMI as a theory of spiralization in analogy to the modern theory of OM. We show that the twist torque moment and the spiralization together give rise to a Berry phase governing the response of the SOT to thermal gradients, in analogy to the intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect. The Berry phase theory of DMI is computationally very efficient because it only needs the electronic structure of the collinear magnetic system as input. As an application of the formalism we compute the DMI in Co/Pt(111), O/Co/Pt(111) and Al/Co/Pt(111) magnetic bi- and trilayers and show that the DMI is highly anisotropic in these systems. PMID:24552898

  19. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  20. Berry phase theory of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, F; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-03-12

    Recent experiments on current-induced domain-wall motion in chiral domain walls reveal important contributions both from spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive a Berry phase expression for the DMI and show that within this Berry phase theory DMI and SOTs are intimately related, in a way formally analogous to the relation between orbital magnetization (OM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We introduce the concept of the twist torque moment, which probes the internal twist of wavepackets in chiral magnets in a similar way as the orbital moment probes the wavepacket's internal self-rotation. We propose to interpret the Berry phase theory of DMI as a theory of spiralization in analogy to the modern theory of OM. We show that the twist torque moment and the spiralization together give rise to a Berry phase governing the response of the SOT to thermal gradients, in analogy to the intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect. The Berry phase theory of DMI is computationally very efficient because it only needs the electronic structure of the collinear magnetic system as input. As an application of the formalism we compute the DMI in Co/Pt(111), O/Co/Pt(111) and Al/Co/Pt(111) magnetic bi- and trilayers and show that the DMI is highly anisotropic in these systems.

  1. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  2. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    PubMed Central

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  3. Laboratory and clinical studies of cancer chemoprevention by antioxidants in berries

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Gary David; Wang, Li-Shu; Casto, Bruce Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of cellular injury in an increasing number of diseases, including cancer. Most ROS are created in the cell through normal cellular metabolism. They can be produced by environmental insults such as ultraviolet light and toxic chemicals, as well as by the inflammatory process. Interception of ROS or limiting their cellular effects is a major role of antioxidants. Due to their content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, berries exhibit high antioxidant potential, exceeding that of many other foodstuffs. Through their ability to scavenge ROS and reduce oxidative DNA damage, stimulate antioxidant enzymes, inhibit carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation and enhance DNA repair, berry compounds have been shown to inhibit mutagenesis and cancer initiation. Berry constituents also influence cellular processes associated with cancer progression including signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This review article summarizes laboratory and human studies, demonstrating the protective effects of berries and berry constituents on oxidative and other cellular processes leading to cancer development. PMID:18544560

  4. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  5. The Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 Is an Important Transcriptional Regulator of Abscisic Acid-Dependent Grape Berry Ripening Processes1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Philippe; Lecourieux, David; Kappel, Christian; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Cramer, Grant; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    In grape (Vitis vinifera), abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates during fruit ripening and is thought to play a pivotal role in this process, but the molecular basis of this control is poorly understood. This work characterizes ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 (VvABF2), a grape basic leucine zipper transcription factor belonging to a phylogenetic subgroup previously shown to be involved in ABA and abiotic stress signaling in other plant species. VvABF2 transcripts mainly accumulated in the berry, from the onset of ripening to the harvesting stage, and were up-regulated by ABA. Microarray analysis of transgenic grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 showed that this transcription factor up-regulates and/or modifies existing networks related to ABA responses. In addition, grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 exhibited enhanced responses to ABA treatment compared with control cells. Among the VvABF2-mediated responses highlighted in this study, the synthesis of phenolic compounds and cell wall softening were the most strongly affected. VvABF2 overexpression strongly increased the accumulation of stilbenes that play a role in plant defense and human health (resveratrol and piceid). In addition, the firmness of fruits from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants overexpressing VvABF2 was strongly reduced. These data indicate that VvABF2 is an important transcriptional regulator of ABA-dependent grape berry ripening. PMID:24276949

  6. Characterization of Three Berry Standard Reference Materials for Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura J.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Pichon, Monique; Porter, Barbara J.; Yen, James H.; Ehling, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been working with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements to produce Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of interest to analysts of dietary supplements. Some of these SRMs are traditional foods including SRM 3281 Cranberry (Fruit), SRM 3282 Low-Calorie Cranberry Juice Cocktail, and SRM 3287 Blueberry (Fruit), which have been characterized for nine nutritional elements and sugars. The blueberries have also been characterized for proximates, two water-soluble vitamins, and amino acids. These new materials are intended for use in method development and validation as well as for quality assurance and traceability when assigning values to in-house control materials. Foods can be difficult to analyze because of matrix effects. With the addition of these three new SRMs, it is now possible to more closely match controls to matrices and analyte levels for fruit and vegetable test samples. Several nutritional elements in these three SRMs are present at lower levels than those in other food-matrix SRMs. PMID:21688777

  7. Fruit intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Heidi Tsz Mung; Threapleton, Diane Erin; Day, Andrea Jill; Williamson, Gary; Cade, Janet Elizabeth; Burley, Victoria Jane

    2015-09-01

    In observational studies, fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), though fruit type has been less frequently explored. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between total fruit and fruit subgroup intake according to polyphenol content and CVD mortality in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Total fruit intake (g/day) derived from a 217-item food frequency questionnaire was obtained from 30,458 women (aged 35-69 years) at baseline from 1995-1998. Fruit intakes were sub-categorised according to similarities in polyphenol profile from Phenol Explorer, including berries, citrus, drupes, pomes and tropical fruits. Mortality events were derived from the NHS Central Register. During the mean follow-up period of 16.7 years, 286 fatal CVD deaths [138 coronary heart disease (CHD), 148 stroke] were observed. Survival analysis was conducted using participants free from history of CVD at baseline. Total fruit intake was associated with lower risk of CVD and CHD mortality, with a 6-7 % reduction in risk for each 80 g/day portion consumed (99 % CI 0.89, 1.00 and 0.85, 1.01 respectively). Concerning particular fruit types, the direction of the associations tended to be inverse, but point estimates and tests for trend were not generally statistically significant. However, women in the highest intake group of grapes and citrus experienced a significant reduction in risk of CVD and stroke respectively compared with non-consumers [HR 0.56 (99 % CI 0.32, 0.98) and 0.34 (0.14, 0.82) respectively]. These findings support promoted guidelines encouraging fruit consumption for health in women, but do not provide strong evidence to suggest that fruit type is as important.

  8. Classification of fruits based on anthocyanin types and relevance to their health effects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that confer the blue, purple, and red color to many fruits. Anthocyanin-rich fruits can be divided into three groups based on the types of aglycones of their anthocyanins: pelargonidin group, cyanidin/peonidin group, and multiple anthocyanidins group. Some fruits contain a major anthocyanin type and can serve as useful research tools. Cyanidin glycosides and peonidin glycosides can be metabolically converted to each other by methylation and demethylation. Both cyanidin and peonidin glycosides can be metabolized to protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside is metabolized to 4-hydroxybenoic acid. On the other hand, phenolic acid metabolites of delphinidin, malvidin, and petunidin glycosides are unstable and can be further fragmented into smaller molecules. A literature review indicates berries with higher cyanidin content, such as black raspberries, chokeberries, and bilberries are more likely to produce an antiinflammatory effect. This observation seems to be consistent with the hypothesis that one or more stable phenolic acid metabolites contribute to the antiinflammatory effects of anthocyanin-rich fruits. More studies are needed before we can conclude that fruits rich in cyanidin, peonidin, or pelargonidin glycosides have better antiinflammatory effects. Additionally, fruit polyphenols other than anthocyanins could contribute to their antiinflammatory effects. Furthermore, blueberries could exert their health effects with other mechanisms such as improving intestinal microbiota composition. In summary, this classification system can facilitate our understanding of the absorption and metabolic processes of anthocyanins and the health effects of different fruits.

  9. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’, ‘Rubel’, ‘Rancocas’, and ‘Friendship’. PMID:24009199

  10. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions.

  11. Nonlinear optical response induced by non-Abelian Berry curvature in time-reversal-invariant insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-12-01

    We propose a general framework of nonlinear optics induced by non-Abelian Berry curvature in time-reversal-invariant (TRI) insulators. We find that the third-order response of a TRI insulator under optical and terahertz light fields is directly related to the integration of the non-Abelian Berry curvature over the Brillouin zone. We apply the result to insulators with rotational symmetry near the band edge. Under resonant excitations, the optical susceptibility is proportional to the flux of the Berry curvature through the iso-energy surface, which is equal to the Chern number of the surface times 2 π . For the III-V compound semiconductors, microscopic calculations based on the six-band model give a third-order susceptibility with the Chern number of the iso-energy surface equal to 3.

  12. Direct probing of band-structure Berry phase in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, M.; Lucot, D.; Giraud, R.; Lemaître, A.; Ulysse, C.; Waintal, X.; Faini, G.

    2015-06-01

    We report on experimental evidence of the Berry phase accumulated by the charge-carrier wave function in single-domain nanowires made from a (Ga, Mn)(As, P) diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor layer. Its signature on the mesoscopic transport measurements is revealed as unusual patterns in the magnetoconductance that are clearly distinguished from the universal conductance fluctuations. We show that these patterns appear in a magnetic field region where the magnetization rotates coherently and are related to a change in the band-structure Berry phase as the magnetization direction changes. They should thus be considered a band-structure Berry phase fingerprint of the effective magnetic monopoles in the momentum space. We argue that this is an efficient method to vary the band structure in a controlled way and to probe it directly. Hence, (Ga, Mn)As appears to be a very interesting test bench for new concepts based on this geometrical phase.

  13. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  14. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  16. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  17. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  18. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  19. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  20. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  1. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  2. Determination and comparison of chemical characteristics of Arbutus unedo L. and Arbutus andrachnae L. (family Ericaceae) fruits.

    PubMed

    Seker, Murat; Toplu, Celil

    2010-08-01

    The fruits and leaves of Arbutus species are well known in folk medicine as antiseptics, diuretics, and laxatives in many parts of Turkey. Some chemical properties including pH, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, protein, moisture, ash, ascorbic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, total phenols, total antioxidant activity, and minerals were determined in fully matured Arbutus unedo L. and Arbutus andrachnae L. fruits collected from different sites of Canakkale, Turkey in 2006 and 2007. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, protein, moisture, and ash content of A. unedo and A. andrachnae berries were on average 16.0% and 14.0%, 0.4% and 0.6%, 2.38% and 3.77%, 47.21% and 38.21%, and 2.82% and 4.35%, respectively. The mean values of ascorbic acid were 270.50 mg/100 g for A. unedo and 140.30 mg/100 g for A. andrachnae, which suggested that Arbutus berries contain high amounts of vitamin C. In the strawberry tree fruits, fructose and glucose were determined to be the major sugars. The analysis showed that fructose and glucose occurred in concentrations of 24.09% and 19.09%, respectively. However, ripe A. andrachnae fruits contained small amounts of fructose (4.12%), glucose (2.73%), and sucrose (0.16%) detectable by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The general order of abundance of the minerals was K > Ca > P > Mg > Na in whole fruit of the strawberry tree. The chemical composition of Arbutus fruits indicates that the fruits are good sources of minerals and ascorbic acid and that they are high in phenolics and antioxidant capacity and low in soluble sugars, especially A. andrachnae. The data should be useful for research purposes and for compiling local food composition tables. In view of its chemical composition, the use of Arbutus fruits in some food products may be suggested. PMID:20553155

  3. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-08-07

    The behaviour of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest {sup 210}Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples.

  4. Surface metabolic composition of berries collected from 13 Bulgarian grapevine plants.

    PubMed

    Todorova, I T; Batovska, D I; Parushev, S P; Djakova, G J; Popov, S S

    2010-06-01

    The surface metabolic composition of berries, collected from the Bulgarian grapevine variety Storgozia, and 12 of its seedlings were studied by GC/MS. Diverse surface metabolites were identified. The main components were long chain n-alkanes, terpenoids, and esterified long-chain fatty acids. Amongst them, the terpenoids were most abundant, including, as are typical for plants, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids. Cyperene, a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, was identified for the first time in grapes. This compound and most of the other identified metabolites are known to possess biological functions that most probably contribute to the quality of grape berries and their defences against biotic and abiotic stressors. PMID:20496231

  5. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. PMID:25732407

  6. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park.

  7. Nonquantized dirac monopoles and strings in the berry phase of anisotropic spin systems.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Patrick

    2004-12-10

    The Berry phase of an anisotropic spin system that is adiabatically rotated along a closed circuit C is investigated. It is shown that the Berry phase consists of two contributions: (i) a geometric contribution which can be interpreted as the flux through C of a nonquantized Dirac monopole, and (ii) a topological contribution which can be interpreted as the flux through C of a Dirac string carrying a nonquantized flux, i.e., a spin analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Various experimental consequences of this novel effect are discussed. PMID:15697856

  8. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  9. Berry's phase in cavity QED: Proposal for observing an effect of field quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, A.; Santos, M. Franca; Vedral, V.

    2003-06-01

    We propose a feasible experiment to investigate quantum effects in geometric phases, arising when a classical source drives not a single quantum system, but two interacting ones. In particular, we show how to observe a signature of the quantization of the electromagnetic field through a vacuum effect in Berry's phase. To do so, we describe the interaction of an atom and a quantized cavity mode altogether driven by an external quasiclassical field. We also analyze the semiclassical limit recovering the usual Berry's phase results.

  10. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  11. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  12. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  13. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; DELOIRE, ALAIN; CARBONNEAU, ALAIN; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; LOPEZ, FRANÇOIS

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bundles without damaging either these or the pulp tissue of the berry. The sites of sugar phloem unloading are thus made directly accessible and may be regulated by the buffer solution. In addition, the unloaded photoassimilates are easily transported into the buffer solution in the berry‐cup. With the berry‐cup technique, it takes 60 min to purge the sugar already present in the apoplast, after which the amount of sugar in the buffer solution is a direct measure of the sugar unloading from the grape berry phloem. The optimum times for sampling were 20 or 30 min, depending on the type of experiment. Sugar phloem unloading was significantly inhibited by the inclusion of either 7·5 mm NaF or 2·5 mm PCMB in the buffer solution. This study indicates that sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries is via the apoplastic network and that the process requires the input of energy. The system was shown to be an appropriate experimental system with which to study sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries, and was applied successfully to the study of berry sugar unloaded from grapevines subjected to water stress. The results showed that water deficiency inhibits sugar unloading in grape berries. PMID:12907466

  14. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  15. Induced leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis, potassium and nitrate retention and strawberry early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Li, Tingxian; Fu, Gang; Katulanda, Panchali

    2013-07-01

    Relationships between induced high leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations, leaf K⁺ and NO₃⁻ ion movement and early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation are not well understood. We examined the effects and interactions of reduced K/N input treatments on leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency, berry formation as well as leaf/fruit K⁺, NO₃⁻ and photosynthate retention of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) to enhance low-input agriculture. The field study was conducted in Nova Scotia, eastern Canada during 2009-2010. The experimental treatments consisted of five K₂O rates (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 kg ha(-1)) and five N rates (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kg ha(-1)), representing respectively, 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of regular macronutrient recommendations based on the soil testing. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks in the field. The cultivar was 'Mira', a June-bearing crop. The results showed that strawberry plants treated with 25 %-reduced inputs could induce significantly higher leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations to improve plant photosynthesis, carboxylation and water use efficiency and translocation of leaf/fruit K⁺ and dissolved solids, which could advance berry formation by 6 days and produce significantly higher marketable yields (P < 0.05). Higher leaf intercellular CO₂ inhibited leaf/fruit NO₃⁻ ion retention, but this inhibition did not occur in leaf/fruit K⁺ retention. Linear interactions of the K/N treatments were significant on fruit marketable yields, intercellular CO₂, net photosynthesis, leaf transpiration rates, and leaf temperatures (P < 0.05). It was concluded that higher leaf CO₂ could enhance plant photosynthesis, promote plant carboxylation and water use efficiency, and advance berry formation, but it could inhibit leaf NO₃⁻ retention. This inhibition did not find in leaf K⁺ ion and dissolved solid retention. Overlay co

  16. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. PMID:26775958

  17. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  18. Comparison of major taste compounds and antioxidative properties of fruits and flowers of different Sambucus species and interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Ivancic, Anton; Schmitzer, Valentina; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, total phenolics and antioxidative activity have been evaluated among three different elderberry species (Sambucus nigra, Sambucus cerulea, Sambucus javanica) and seven interspecific hybrids. The highest content of sugars has been determined in the fruits of JA×CER hybrid and the lowest in fruits of (JA×NI)×cv. Black Beauty hybrid. S. nigra berries contained highest levels of total organic acids. S. nigra and (JA×NI)×CER flower extracts were characterized by 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher content of total sugars compared to other species/hybrids analyzed. Total phenolic content (TPC) in berries ranged from 3687 to 6831 mg GAE per kg FW. The highest TPC has been determined in S. nigra fruits and flowers. The ABTS scavenging activity differed significantly among species and hybrids and ranged from 3.2 to 39.59 mM trolox/kgF W in fruits and 44.87-118.26 mM trolox/kg DW in flowers.

  19. On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Aguilera-Sáez, Luis Manuel; Gallo, Vito; Cafagna, Isabella; Mastrorilli, Piero; Latronico, Mario; Pacifico, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2015-03-15

    The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0 g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments.

  20. Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. This is evident by the tremendous variation in flowering and fruiting structures present both across and within different plant lineages. Within a single plant family a staggering variety of fruit types can be found such as fleshy fruits including berries, pomes, and drupes and dry fruit structures like achenes, capsules, and follicles. What are the evolutionary mechanisms that enable such dramatic shifts to occur in a relatively short period of time? This remains a fundamental question of plant biology today. On the surface it seems that these extreme differences in form and function must be the consequence of very different developmental programs that require unique sets of genes. Yet as we begin to decipher the molecular and genetic basis underlying fruit form it is becoming apparent that simple genetic changes in key developmental regulatory genes can have profound anatomical effects. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of fruit endocarp tissue differentiation that have contributed to species diversification within three plant lineages. PMID:25009543

  1. The work of local culture: Wendell Berry and communities as the source of farming knowledge.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    When Wendell Berry and others criticize contemporary agriculture, their arguments are often dismissed as naive and grounded in longstanding agrarian myth, rather than engagement with contemporary problems. But Berry's proposals developed in response to a series of learning methods he encountered, and options for advocacy he explored, during the 1960s and 1970s. Agricultural institutions sought to assign more power to institutionalized scientific knowledge, shrinking the role of farmers. Berry sought an alternative definition of knowledge, drawing upon his training as a writer, as well as his experiences with manual farm work and the methods of environmentalist organic growers. He eventually concluded that only a community of farmers could produce and store effective knowledge and insisted that knowledge must be tacit -- largely situated in locality, skills, and culture. His ideas had little influence on most people employed in contemporary agriculture. However, those ideas profoundly shape the work of sustainable food advocates, such as Michael Pollan, who like Berry fear reductionism and celebrate the values of traditions.

  2. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  3. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  4. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  5. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Graf, D.; Radmanesh, S. M. A.; Adams, D. J.; Chuang, A.; Wang, Y.; Chiorescu, I.; Wei, J.; Spinu, L.; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  6. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Liu, J Y; Graf, D; Radmanesh, S M A; Adams, D J; Chuang, A; Wang, Y; Chiorescu, I; Wei, J; Spinu, L; Mao, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  7. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  8. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  9. Water productivity, yield, and berry composition in sustained versus regulated deficit irrigation of Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wine grape cultivar Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) was irrigated at incremental fractions of estimated crop evapotranspiration or a regulated deficit (RDI) regime to identify which practice best optimized water productivity and berry composition without compromising yield. Three severities of susta...

  10. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) acting as behavioral attractants for female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent...

  11. Anthocyanin profiling of Berberis lycium Royle berry and its bioactivity evaluation for its nutraceutical potential.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prakash Chandra; Saha, Supradip

    2016-02-01

    Berberis lycium Royle (Kashmal) belongs to Berberidaceae family and it has a small edible purple berry. It is grown wildly grown in Himalaya. The berry anthocyanins were characterised by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrophotometer (MS) detectors. Twelve anthocyanins were identified in the purified extract of berberis berry. Two anthocyanins delphinidin-3-glucoside (35.3 %) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (47.2 %) were characterized as major components. Ten minor anthocyanins were Cyanidin-3-lathyroside (0.08 %), Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (0.53 %), Cyanidin-3-galactoside (1.62 %), Pelargonidin-3-pentoxilhexoside (2.26 %), Malvidin-3,5-dihexoside (4.21 %), Pelargonidin-hexoside (0.58 %), Pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside (1.05 %), Cyanidin-3,5-dihexoside (6.12 %), peonidin-3-rutinoside (0.77 %), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (0.22 %). Apart from anthocyanins, six phenolics were also identified as chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and quercetin. Antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH assay revealed IC50 value of anthocyanin was 25.3 μg ml(-1). FRAP and CUPRAC assay also gave significant antioxidant activity. MTT assay gave the absorbance of 0.53 at 250 μg ml(-1). It may be concluded that the wild berry should be exploited as a source of nutraceuticals for its constitutive phenolics and its activity.

  12. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  13. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro. PMID:25109845

  14. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  15. The work of local culture: Wendell Berry and communities as the source of farming knowledge.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    When Wendell Berry and others criticize contemporary agriculture, their arguments are often dismissed as naive and grounded in longstanding agrarian myth, rather than engagement with contemporary problems. But Berry's proposals developed in response to a series of learning methods he encountered, and options for advocacy he explored, during the 1960s and 1970s. Agricultural institutions sought to assign more power to institutionalized scientific knowledge, shrinking the role of farmers. Berry sought an alternative definition of knowledge, drawing upon his training as a writer, as well as his experiences with manual farm work and the methods of environmentalist organic growers. He eventually concluded that only a community of farmers could produce and store effective knowledge and insisted that knowledge must be tacit -- largely situated in locality, skills, and culture. His ideas had little influence on most people employed in contemporary agriculture. However, those ideas profoundly shape the work of sustainable food advocates, such as Michael Pollan, who like Berry fear reductionism and celebrate the values of traditions. PMID:21563605

  16. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  17. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  18. Berry phases and profiles of line wings and rainbow satellites induced by optical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuryło, R.; Szudy, J.; Baylis, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of Berry phase is included in an analysis of the intensity distribution in far wings of pressure-broadened spectral lines emitted or absorbed by atoms placed in an external cone-rotating electric field. Particular attention is focused on frequency regions where rainbow satellite bands appear. A classical-path treatment that employs the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to derive an expression for the line shape, and it uses a dipole transition moment calculated with quasimolecular wave functions given by the Berry version of the adiabatic approximation. It is found that in the presence of an external rotating electric field, the intensity distribution in far wings can be expressed in terms of the universal line shape function of the unified Franck-Condon theory once energy shifts due to Stark and Berry effects are taken into account. We show that the influence of Berry phase in the profiles of the far wings can be manifested either in the form of deviations of observed profiles from the quasistatic distribution or the appearance of additional features in the vicinity of the maximum of the rainbow satellite band. As an example, the modification of the rainbow satellite at 162.3 nm in the red wing of the self-broadened Lyman-α line of hydrogen, caused by an external rotating electric field, is considered.

  19. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    PubMed

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  20. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.

    PubMed

    Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D

    2001-09-01

    Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries. PMID:11695879

  1. Nitrogen supply affects anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in grapevine cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon berries.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, Eric; Basteau, Cyril; Hilbert, Ghislaine; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins in grape berries is influenced by environmental factors (such as temperature and light) and supply of nutrients, i.e., fluxes of carbon and nitrogen feeding the berry cells. It is established that low nitrogen supply stimulates anthocyanin production in berry skin cells of red varieties. The present works aims to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of anthocyanin accumulation to nitrogen supply in berries from field grown-plants. To this end, we developed an integrated approach combining monitoring of plant nitrogen status, metabolite measurements and transcript analysis. Grapevines (cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) were cultivated in a vineyard with three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60 and 120 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen applied on the soil). Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed and compared with gene expression levels. Low nitrogen supply caused a significant increase in anthocyanin levels at two ripening stages (26 days post-véraison and maturity). Delphinidin and petunidin derivatives were the most affected compounds. Transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis confirmed the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plant cultivated without nitrogen compared to the ones cultivated with 120 kg ha(-1) nitrogen fertilization. The results indicate that nitrogen controls a coordinated regulation of both positive (MYB transcription factors) and negative (LBD proteins) regulators of the flavonoid pathway in grapevine. PMID:24735825

  2. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  3. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jonathan R.; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species’ functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  4. Effect of pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes on Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by acorn shell of Quercus crassipes Humb. & Bonpl.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Erick; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    The ability of Quercus crassipes acorn shells (QCS) to remove Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions was investigated as a function of the solution pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes. It was found that Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by QCS depended strongly on the pH of the solution. Cr(VI) removal rate increased as the solution pH decreased. The optimum pH for total chromium removal varied depending on contact time. NaCl ionic strengths lower than 200 mM did not affect chromium removal. The presence of 20 mM monovalent cations and anions, and of divalent cations, slightly decreased the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium by QCS; in contrast, divalent anions (SO₄(2-), PO₄(2-), CO₃(2-)) significantly affected the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium ions followed the pseudo-second-order model at all solution pH levels, NaCl ionic strengths and background electrolytes tested. Results suggest that QCS may be a potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions containing various impurities.

  5. Berry fruit can improve age-associated neuronal and cognitive deficits: from the laboratory to the clinic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that cognitive functioning decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. The cause of these functional declines is not entirely understood; however, neuronal losses and the associat...

  6. Regulation of Glucose Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells following Exposure to an Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Cheung, Hoi-Man; Preedy, Victor R.; Sharp, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols contained within plant tissues are consumed in significant amounts in the human diet and are known to influence a number of biological processes. This study investigated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich berry-extract on glucose uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Acute exposure (15 min) to berry extract (0.125%, w/v) significantly decreased both sodium-dependent (Total uptake) and sodium-independent (facilitated uptake) 3H-D-glucose uptake. In longer-term studies, SGLT1 mRNA and GLUT2 mRNA expression were reduced significantly. Polyphenols are known to interact directly with glucose transporters to regulate the rate of glucose absorption. Our in vitro data support this mechanism and also suggest that berry flavonoids may modulate post-prandial glycaemia by decreasing glucose transporter expression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the longer term effects of berry flavonoids on the management of glycaemia in human volunteers. PMID:24236070

  7. First-principle calculations of the Berry curvature of Bloch states for charge and spin transport of electrons.

    PubMed

    Gradhand, M; Fedorov, D V; Pientka, F; Zahn, P; Mertig, I; Györffy, B L

    2012-05-30

    Recent progress in wave packet dynamics based on the insight of Berry pertaining to adiabatic evolution of quantum systems has led to the need for a new property of a Bloch state, the Berry curvature, to be calculated from first principles. We report here on the response to this challenge by the ab initio community during the past decade. First we give a tutorial introduction of the conceptual developments we mentioned above. Then we describe four methodologies which have been developed for first-principle calculations of the Berry curvature. Finally, to illustrate the significance of the new developments, we report some results of calculations of interesting physical properties such as the anomalous and spin Hall conductivity as well as the anomalous Nernst conductivity and discuss the influence of the Berry curvature on the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation. PMID:22575767

  8. 75 FR 13068 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Berry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... would threaten the Berry Cave salamander population by disrupting the food chain upon which the species... amount of organic matter (salamander food source) entering the cave complex. It could also...

  9. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  10. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  11. Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-02-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  12. Invasive Japanese beetles facilitate aggregation and injury by a native scarab pest of ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    Hammons, Derrick L.; Kurtural, S. Kaan; Newman, Melissa C.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species' facilitation, or benefiting, of native species is rarely considered in biological invasion literature but could have serious economic consequences should a non-native herbivore facilitate injury by a native pest of high-value crops. Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, a polyphagous scarab, facilitates feeding by the obligate fruit-feeding native green June beetle (GJB), Cotinis nitida, by biting into intact grape berries that GJB, which has blunt spatulate mandibles, is otherwise unable to exploit. Here, we show JB further facilitates GJB by contaminating fruits with yeasts, and by creating infection courts for yeasts associated with GJB, that elicit volatiles exploited as aggregation kairomones by GJB. Traps baited with combinations of grapes and beetles were used to show that fruits injured by JB alone, or in combination with GJB, become highly attractive to both sexes of GJB. Such grapes emit high amounts of fermentation compounds compared with intact grapes. Beetle feeding on grape mash induced the same volatiles as addition of winemaker's yeast, and similar attraction of GJB in the field. Eight yeast species were isolated and identified from JB collected from grapevine foliage. Establishment and spread of JB throughout fruit-growing regions of the United States is likely to elevate the pest status of GJB and other pests of ripening fruits in vineyards and orchards. PMID:19234133

  13. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  14. Influence of growing season on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of grape berries from vines grown in subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Zhang, Yali; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Yu; Lu, Jiang

    2011-02-23

    The influence of growing season (winter vs summer) on the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties was studied in five grape cultivars for three consecutive years. Four phenolic compound parameters (total phenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) and three antioxidant property parameters [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] were investigated. Results showed that both phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in the seed and skin of winter berries were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of summer berries for all of the cultivars investigated. The anthocyanin profiles of berry skins appeared to be extremely consistent in different years for the same crop, whereas they varied greatly between the two crops within the same year (winter vs summer). Winter berries contained richer glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, and malvidin than summer berries. These seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties on grape berries were largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, and hydrothermic coefficient between different growing seasons.

  15. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    PubMed

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  16. Pericarp development and fruit structure in borassoid palms (Arecaceae–Coryphoideae–Borasseae)

    PubMed Central

    Romanov, Mikhail S.; Bobrov, Alexey V. F. Ch.; Wijesundara, D. Siril A.; Romanova, Ekaterina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Borasseae form a highly supported monophyletic clade in the Arecaceae–Coryphoideae. The fruits of Coryphoideae are small, drupaceous with specialized anatomical structure of the pericarp and berries. The large fruits of borassoid palms contain massive pyrenes, which develop from the middle zone of the mesocarp. The pericarp structure and mode of its development in Borasseae are similar to those of Eugeissona and Nypa. A developmental carpological study of borassoid palms will allow us to describe the process of pericarp development and reveal the diagnostic fruit features of borassoid palms, determine the morphogenetic fruit type in Borasseae genera, and describe similarities in fruit structure and pericarp development with other groups of palms. Methods The pericarp anatomy was studied during development with light microscopy based on the anatomical sections of fruits of all eight Borasseae genera. Key Results The following general features of pericarp structure in Borasseae were revealed: (1) differentiation of the pericarp starts at early developmental stages; (2) the exocarp is represented by a specialized epidermis; (3) the mesocarp is extremely multilayered and is differentiated into several topographical zones – a peripheral parenchymatous zone(s) with scattered sclerenchymatous elements and vascular bundles, a middle zone (the stony pyrene comprising networks of elongated sclereids and vascular bundles) and an inner parenchymatous zone(s); (4) differentiation and growth of the pyrene tissue starts at early developmental stages and ends long before maturation of the seed; (5) the inner parenchymatous zone(s) of the mesocarp is dramatically compressed by the mature seed; (6) the endocarp (unspecialized epidermis) is not involved in pyrene formation; and (7) the spermoderm is multilayered in Hyphaeninae and obliterated in Lataniinae. Conclusions The fruits of Borasseae are pyrenaria of Latania-type. This type of pericarp

  17. The effects of dietary dried fruit pomaces on growth performance and gastrointestinal biochemistry of turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Juskiewicz, J; Jankowski, J; Kosmala, M; Zdunczyk, Z; Slominski, B A; Zdunczyk, P

    2016-10-01

    One-day-old female turkeys were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and were fed for 15 weeks diets containing 5% of cellulose (control, C) or 5% of dried fruit pomaces (apple, black currant, strawberry, seedless strawberry; AP, BCP, SP, SSP respectively). In weeks 11-15 of feeding, all diets were supplemented with 2.5% of linseed oil. The crude fibre content of fruit pomaces ranged from 56.5% in AP to 62.9% in SP. In comparison with AP, berry fruit pomaces (BCP, SP and SSP) were characterised by a higher content of neutral detergent fibre - NDF (41.2% vs. 52.7-59.3%) and lignin (13.24% vs. 21.80-25.56%). A monomer analysis revealed that cellulose was the main non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) in fruit pomaces, whereas their pectin content was low. Polyphenol content was determined at below 6 g/kg in AP, at approximately 12 g/kg in BCP and SP, and at 32.8 g/kg in SSP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in final body weight of birds. After 15 weeks of feeding fruit pomaces to turkeys, the relative weight of the small intestine with digesta was higher in group AP, and lower in group SSP, as compared to controls. Dietary fruit pomaces decreased the dry matter (DM) concentration and lowered the pH of the small intestinal digesta, except the AP and SSP treatments respectively. In the caeca, significantly reduced concentrations of ammonia or putrefactive short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) upon dietary fruit pomaces were observed. Fruit pomaces did not influence the concentrations or the total pool of short-chain fatty acids, but led to a significant increase in butyric proportion in the SCFA profile at the expense propionate. PMID:26614114

  18. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles’ response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. PMID:26466620

  19. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-29

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization. PMID:27517785

  20. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents’ Text Messaging

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Sam; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2011-01-01

    This brief report presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents’ electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, email, and Instant Messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid by the investigators, and use of text messaging was examined when participants were 15 years old and in the 10th grade (N=175, 81 girls). BlackBerries are configured so that the content of all text messages, email messages, and Instant Messages is saved to a secure server and organized in a highly secure, searchable, online archive. This paper describes the technology used to devise this method and ethical considerations. Evidence for validity is presented, including information on use of text messaging to show that participants used these devices heavily and frequencies of profane and sexual language in a two-day sample of text messaging to demonstrate that they were communicating openly. PMID:22004337