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Sample records for acorns fruits berries

  1. Berry Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Horticulture: Plants for People and Places" co-edited by G.R. Dixon and D.E. Aldous (eds.) will be a three volume set to be published in 2014. It is designed to educate people on horticultural plants. For each fruit crop, different authors wrote overviews of the crops with information on genetic ...

  2. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  3. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  4. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents. PMID:25317174

  5. Berry Fruit Extracts Exhibit Chemopreventative Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Berry fruits such as blackberries, blueberries, deerberries, raspberries, lingonberries and strawberries have high antioxidant capacities (against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals, si...

  6. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer. PMID:25493015

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  8. Acorns Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; Vickers, Valerie; Patrick, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a lesson plan on the role of the acorn and its complex community of biotic relationships between animal and fungal organisms. Introduces students to ecological concepts through acorn investigations including dissection of acorns and exploring the organisms' interaction web. (YDS)

  9. Post Harvest Handling, Storage, and Treatment for Fresh Market of Berry Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A perfect berry growing in the field may not reach the consumer in the same flawless condition. Producing high-quality berry fruit is only the first step. Delivering them to market in premium condition is also essential to command the buyer’s attention. The handling of berries during harvesting, sor...

  10. [Enrichment of fruits and berries with selenium and prospects for their using in the preventive nutrition].

    PubMed

    Blinnikova, O M; Eliseeva, L G

    2016-01-01

    The method of producing enriched with selenium berries and fruits has been investigated. The objects of research were plants and berries of edible honeysuckle variety Kingfisher, of garden strawberry variety Korona, of Actinidia kolomikta variety Soroka, the fruits of a field ash variety Sorbinka and the black chokeberry's fruits variety Chernookaya. Enrichment with the selenium of berries and fruits of these cultures has been performed by the method of single and double foliar treatment of plants with aqueous sodium selenate (concentration of 1. 2 and 3 mg/l) during the formation of fruits and berries. Reprocessing had been performed in 10 days after the first one. It was found out that the use of plants' re-processing didn't contribute to greater accumulation of selenium in berries and fruits, according to the single treatment, that's why it is inefficient. Using enrichment, providing the maximum concentration of selenium in the working solution--3 mg/l is the most optimal to increase its content in the honeysuckle--by 5.2 fold; in the strawberry--by 3.9 fold; in Actinidia--3 fold; in the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--by 2.7 fold. The content of selenium (μg/100 g) in enriched berries of the honeysuckle was 32.3-35.2; the strawberry--11.7-13.1; Actinidia kolomikta--3.5-4.1; the fruits of the field ash ordinary--4.6-5.1, Aronia--2.8-3.2. Eating fortified fruit and berries will contribute to the prevention of selenium deficiency in the body. Thus, intake of 100 g honeysuckle's berries helps cover the daily requirement of selenium in 47.9-60.9%, the strawberry--in 18.0-22.9%, actinidia' berries, the field ash and black chokeberry's fruits--in 4.3-8.7%. PMID:27228706

  11. Berry fruit and nuts: their role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in the aging brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits and nuts are nutrient dense and contain a variety of bioactive phytochemicals, specifically polyphenols. A growing body of literature describes pre-clinical research, using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, which show beneficial effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain in ...

  12. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  13. Preserving Brain Function in Aging: The Anti-glycative Potential of Berry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produced when those foods are cooked at high temperatures. Studies have linked AGEs to various age-related physiological changes, including wrinkles, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Dietary berry fruits have been shown to reduce the severity or slow the progression of many physiological changes and disease pathologies that accompany aging. Emerging evidence has shown that the phytochemicals found in berry fruits exhibit anti-glycative activity. In this review, we briefly summarize the current evidence supporting the neuroprotective anti-glycative activity of berry fruits and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. PMID:27166828

  14. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  15. Polysaccharides from the wastes of some fruit and berry, vegetable, and technical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhimov, D.A.; Khamidkhozhaev, S.A.; Kondratenko, E.S.; Yuldasheva, N.P.

    1985-07-01

    The fractional isolation of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances has been carried out from the wastes of fruit and berry and vegetable crops: apples, quinces, grapes, and tomatoes, and also the valves of cotton bolls. The qualititative and quantitative monosaccharide compositions of the carbohydrates isolated have been determined, and the characteristics of the pectin substances are given.

  16. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Alunno, Alessia; Beghelli, Daniela; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo; Frezza, Claudio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Tirillini, Bruno; Venditti, Alessandro; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4–6 μg/mL). PMID:26973675

  17. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Alunno, Alessia; Beghelli, Daniela; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo; Frezza, Claudio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Tirillini, Bruno; Venditti, Alessandro; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4-6 μg/mL). PMID:26973675

  18. Creating a cryobank for germplasm of fruit and berry crops: methodological recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genetic resources are a national treasure in each country. They serve as a basis for developing new and improving existing varieties of plants. In Kazakhstan, a wide selection of cultivated and wild forms grow unique fruit and berry crops, including apple (Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., Ma...

  19. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  20. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  1. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  2. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  3. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers. PMID:26471679

  4. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  5. ["Conilon" coffee berries bored by Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): what matters if they drop down during the fruiting phase?].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, César A D; Souza, Og De; Costa, José N M

    2006-01-01

    Falling of berries bored by Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) may be the major loosing factor during the fruiting period. However, only those bored berries which remain in the soil surface before a new yielding period have been recognized as responsible for the damage level Ho achieved by new developing berries. In this paper, we investigated in the plants and in the soil surface, the presence of Coffea canephora cv. Conilon berries bored by H. hampei during the yielding period in Ouro Preto d'Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil. We took samples, weekly, from December 2000 to June 2001. The data were submitted to the Surviving Regression Analysis, based on a censored Weibull model. During the yielding period, berries fall down continuously and, in average, the proportion of H. hampei bored berries was 4 to 20 times higher in the soil (P < 2,3 x 10-18, n = 62,747) than in the plants. Thus, we argue that adding the "soil environment" to the integrated management strategies could point to new technologies for the control of this insect. PMID:18575701

  6. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  7. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  8. Metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nardozza, Simona; MacRae, Elspeth A.; Sulpice, Ronan; Clearwater, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. In contrast, kiwifruit (Actinidia Lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. By integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of Actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting in starch concentration and size, this study identified the metabolic changes occurring during kiwifruit development, including the metabolic hallmarks of starch accumulation and turnover. At cell division, a rise in glucose (Glc) concentration was associated with neutral invertase (NI) activity, and the decline of both Glc and NI activity defined the transition to the cell expansion and starch accumulation phase. The high transcript levels of β-amylase 9 (BAM9) during cell division, prior to net starch accumulation, and the correlation between sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose suggest the occurrence of sucrose cycling and starch turnover. ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is identified as a key enzyme for starch accumulation in kiwifruit berries, as high-starch genotypes had 2- to 5-fold higher AGPase activity, which was maintained over a longer period of time and was also associated with enhanced and extended transcription of the AGPase large subunit 4 (APL4). The data also revealed that SPS and galactinol might affect kiwifruit starch accumulation, and suggest that phloem unloading into kiwifruit is symplastic. These results are relevant to the genetic improvement of quality traits such as sweetness and sugar/acid balance in a range of fruit species. PMID:24058160

  9. In vitro antiviral activity of a series of wild berry fruit extracts against representatives of Picorna-, Orthomyxo- and Paramyxoviridae.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolova, Nadya; Badjakov, Ilian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kondakova, Violeta; Doumanova, Lyuba; Galabov, Angel S

    2014-01-01

    Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter. PMID:24660461

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. Results: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. PMID:3536313

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  13. Improvement in fresh fruit and vegetable logistics quality: berry logistics field studies.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Nunes, M Cecilia; Nicometo, Mike; Emond, Jean Pierre; Melis, Ricardo Badia; Uysal, Ismail

    2014-06-13

    Shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is greatly influenced by environmental conditions. Increasing temperature usually results in accelerated loss of quality and shelf-life reduction, which is not physically visible until too late in the supply chain to adjust logistics to match shelf life. A blackberry study showed that temperatures inside pallets varied significantly and 57% of the berries arriving at the packinghouse did not have enough remaining shelf life for the longest supply routes. Yet, the advanced shelf-life loss was not physically visible. Some of those pallets would be sent on longer supply routes than necessary, creating avoidable waste. Other studies showed that variable pre-cooling at the centre of pallets resulted in physically invisible uneven shelf life. We have shown that using simple temperature measurements much waste can be avoided using 'first expiring first out'. Results from our studies showed that shelf-life prediction should not be based on a single quality factor as, depending on the temperature history, the quality attribute that limits shelf life may vary. Finally, methods to use air temperature to predict product temperature for highest shelf-life prediction accuracy in the absence of individual sensors for each monitored product have been developed. Our results show a significant reduction of up to 98% in the root-mean-square-error difference between the product temperature and air temperature when advanced estimation methods are used. PMID:24797135

  14. ACORN: a review.

    PubMed

    Yao, J X; Dodson, E J; Wilson, K S; Woolfson, M M

    2006-08-01

    The ACORN system was originally developed as a means of ab initio solution of protein structures when atomic resolution data were available. The first step is to obtain a starting set of phases, which must be at least slightly better than random. These may be calculated from a fragment of the structure, which can be anything from a single metal atom to a complete molecular-replacement model. A number of standard procedures are available in ACORN to orientate and position such a fragment. The fragment provides initial phases that give the first of a series of maps that are iteratively refined by a dynamic density-modification (DDM) process. Another FFT-based procedure is Sayre-equation refinement (SER), which modifies phases better to satisfy the Sayre equation. With good-quality atomic resolution data, the final outcome of applying DDM and SER is a map similar in appearance to that found from a refined structure, which is readily interpreted by automated procedures. Further development of ACORN now enables structures to be solved with less than atomic resolution data. A critical part of this development is the artificial extension of the data from the observed limit to 1 A resolution. These extended reflections are allocated unit normalized structure amplitudes and then treated in a similar way to observed reflections except that they are down-weighted in the calculation of maps. ACORN maps, especially at low resolution, tend to show C atoms less well, in particular C(alpha) atoms which fall within the first diffraction minimum of their three neighbours. Two new density-modification procedures (DDM1 and DDM2) and a density-enhancement procedure (ENH) have been devised to counter this problem. It is demonstrated that high-quality maps showing individual atoms can be produced with the new ACORN. ACORN has also been demonstrated to be very effective in refining phase sets derived from physical processes such as those using anomalous scattering or isomorphous

  15. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

  16. Predicting Berry Splitting Indices in Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush Blueberries Using Fruit Firmness as an Indicator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the cause of fruit splitting in blueberries is difficult. Researchers have been working on the problem of fruit splitting in various fruit crops for more than 70 years. If a few key factors that cause splitting in blueberries can be identified and these factors can be evaluated in ...

  17. Towards fruitful metabolomics: high throughput analyses of polyphenol composition in berries using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon; Martinussen, Inger; Stewart, Derek

    2008-08-15

    Tannin-enriched extracts from raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) techniques. The raspberry and cloudberry extracts contained a similar mixture of identifiable ellagitannin components and ellagic acid. However, the strawberry extract contained a complex mixture of ellagitannin and proanthocyanidin components that could not be adequately resolved to allow identification of individual peaks. Nevertheless, the negative ESI-MS spectra obtained by direct infusion mass spectrometric (DIMS) analysis described the diversity of these samples. For example, the predominance of signals associated with Lambertianin C in cloudberry and Sanguiin H6 in raspberry tannin extracts could be discerned and the diversity of signals from procyanidin and propelargonidin oligomers could be identified in the strawberry extract. The dose response for the main ellagitannin-derived signals in the raspberry tannin sample revealed a saturation effect probably due to ion suppression effects in the ion trap spectrometer. Nevertheless, DIMS spectra of whole berry extracts described qualitative differences in ellagitannin-derived peaks in raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry samples. In addition, positive mode DIMS spectra illustrated qualitative differences in the anthocyanin composition of berries of progeny from a raspberry breeding population that had been previously analysed by LC-MS. This suggests that DIMS could be applied to rapidly assess differences in polyphenol content, especially in large sample sets such as the progeny from breeding programmes. PMID:18650134

  18. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  19. Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: a double-blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Iain L C; Milward, Michael R; Ling-Mountford, Nicola; Weston, Paul; Carter, Kevin; Askey, Keeley; Dallal, Gerard E; De Spirt, Silke; Sies, Helmut; Patel, Dina; Matthews, John B

    2012-01-01

    Aim A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes. Methods Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma β-carotene were determined. Results Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes. PMID:22093005

  20. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines. PMID:24507151

  1. YELLOW BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (“mottled”). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

  2. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.120 Canned berries. (a) Identity—(1) Ingredients....

  3. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. Results The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3′5′H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3′5′H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between

  4. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Mojsak, P; Jankowska, M; Kaczynski, P; Hrynko, I; Rutkowska, E; Szabunko, J; Borusiewicz, A

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005-2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01-0.81mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor <2.9% and <10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. PMID:27220092

  5. Berries and human health: research highlights from the Fifth Biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-05-01

    The fifth biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium showcased recent research supporting the positive effects of berry consumption on human health and disease. Remarkably, the vast majority of oral papers covered data accumulated from in vivo studies, which underscores how berry health research has advanced since the inception of this symposium in 2005. Similar to the past, research presented at this meeting was primarily focused on the major commercially cultivated berries in North America, namely, blackberry, blueberry, black raspberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry. Despite this, on the basis of similar compositional chemistry, it is possible that similar biological effects may also be extended to other small soft-fleshed "berry-type" fruits popular in other parts of the world including Europe, Asia, and South America. Overall, this symposium continues to add to the growing body of data supporting the positive impact of berry fruit consumption on human health promotion and disease risk reduction. PMID:24148006

  6. Cryopreservation of Temperate Berry Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preservation of clonal fruit crops requires vegetative propagation. Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen is considered an ideal method for long-term germplasm storage. Most of the existing cryopreservation techniques are effective for temperate berry crops. The availability of many techniques provi...

  7. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with Curculio that survived the fire had 20 percent lower germination rates than unburned acorns.

  8. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  9. Asian germplasm influences on American berry crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berries, including the small and soft fruits, have provided highly nutritive components to the human diet for millennia. The cultivated temperate small fruits, including strawberry (Fragaria L.) and raspberry (Rubus L. subgenus Idaeobatus) have benefitted greatly from Asian heritage. In addition, so...

  10. How to manage oak forests for acorn production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1994-03-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and water-fowl. The population and health and wildlife often rise, and fall with the cyclic production of acorns. Acorns' importance to wildlife is related to several factors including their widespread occurrence, palatability, nutritiousness, and availability during the critical fall and winter period.

  11. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  12. Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns in the left panels and olive branches with olives in right. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  13. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  14. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli; Patterson, Kelly M; Barnes, Janelle; Carter, Steve G; Scherwitz, Larry; Beaman, Robert; Endres, John R; Schauss, Alexander G

    2008-09-24

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB's antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) postconsumption. PMID:18717569

  15. Isolation of bioactive polysaccharide from acorn and evaluation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tadayoni, Mehrnoosh; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential and some functional properties of polysaccharides isolated from acorn fruit. The FTIR spectrum of isolated acorn polysaccharide (IAP) showed the typical bands corresponding to sugars and polysaccharides. The IAP was resistant to simulated acidic and enzymatic digestion even more than Inulin (In). The prebiotic activity, which was tested using IAP as a carbon source, showed significant increase in the growth and viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (probiotic). Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 in IAP and In supplemented media was stable even after 72 h, whereas in glucose supplemented medium, bacterial growth showed a notable decrease after 24h. Lipid absorption capacity (LAC) and water holding capacity (WHC) of IAP were 5.44 ± 0.02 (g oil/g DM) and 4.33 ± 0.03 (g water/g DM), respectively, which were comparable to some dietary fibers and were more than In. IAP scavenged DPPH radicals by 82.24%. IAP was found to have a high scavenging ability compared to the reference prebiotic (In), giving a scavenging ability of about 20%. Therefore, due to prebiotic capability, high WHC, LAC and good antioxidant activity, IAP can be a suitable candidate for technological applications and health improving effects in functional food. PMID:25159883

  16. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  17. ACORN's Accelerated Income Redistribution Project: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Russell, Daniel; Fisher, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now's (ACORN) efforts to increase the uptake of families claiming the earned income tax credit through door-to-door canvassing and managing free tax preparation clinics in three pilot cities. Method: The mixed-method program evaluation included administrative…

  18. Oaks, Acorns, Climate and Squirrels, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the units is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. In this particular unit, oaks and acorns are the vehicle…

  19. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators. PMID:24455161

  20. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  1. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  2. Incorporating Cache Management Behavior into Seed Dispersal: The Effect of Pericarp Removal on Acorn Germination

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Zhang, Mingming; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Dong, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Selecting seeds for long-term storage is a key factor for food hoarding animals. Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) remove the pericarp and scatter hoard sound acorns of Quercus mongolica over those that are insect-infested to maximize returns from caches. We have no knowledge of whether these chipmunks remove the pericarp from acorns of other species of oaks and if this behavior benefits seedling establishment. In this study, we tested whether Siberian chipmunks engage in this behavior with acorns of three other Chinese oak species, Q. variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, and how the dispersal and germination of these acorns are affected. Our results show that when chipmunks were provided with sound and infested acorns of Quercus variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, the two types were equally harvested and dispersed. This preference suggests that Siberian chipmunks are incapable of distinguishing between sound and insect-infested acorns. However, Siberian chipmunks removed the pericarp from acorns of these three oak species prior to dispersing and caching them. Consequently, significantly more sound acorns were scatter hoarded and more infested acorns were immediately consumed. Additionally, indoor germination experiments showed that pericarp removal by chipmunks promoted acorn germination while artificial removal showed no significant effect. Our results show that pericarp removal allows Siberian chipmunks to effectively discriminate against insect-infested acorns and may represent an adaptive behavior for cache management. Because of the germination patterns of pericarp-removed acorns, we argue that the foraging behavior of Siberian chipmunks could have potential impacts on the dispersal and germination of acorns from various oak species. PMID:24647670

  3. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882

  4. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  5. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  6. Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Rhone, Michael; Lyons, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Berries are a good source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, micronutrients, and fiber. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these constituents have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles. Human intervention studies using chokeberries, cranberries, blueberries, and strawberries (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried), or purified anthocyanin extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism. Benefits were seen in healthy subjects and in those with existing metabolic risk factors. Underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects are believed to include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased activities of carbohydrate digestive enzymes, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression and foam cell formation. Though limited, these data support the recommendation of berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet. PMID:20384847

  7. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    PubMed Central

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the blueberry-mummy berry pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry disease of blueberry, casual agent Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, has two distinct phases- a blight stage of young foliage and flowers and a flower infection stage that leads to mummified fruit (pseudoscelrotia). The flower infections stage requires conidia to germinate on the style and g...

  10. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  11. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On field-grown vines, the temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied and the res...

  12. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  13. ACORNS: Analysis of Correlations Used in Neutron Spectrometry

    1988-05-01

    The program ACORNS performs the complete analysis of the input covariance and/or relative covariance and/or correlation matrices, first of all used in the activation neutron spectrometry. These matrices have to be positive definite. To check the fulfillment of this requirement, the program calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of those. If all the eigenvalues are positive, the program optionally performs the factor analysis. The user's input can be either made manually, or the cross section librariesmore » generated by the code X333.« less

  14. The data acquisition system for the aCORN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Maynard; aCORN Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The aCORN experiment measures the angular correlation between the electron and neutrino emitted in free neutron beta decay, via an electron-proton momentum correlation asymmetry. Doing so requires detecting neutron beta decay protons and electrons in coincidence. Protons are detected with a surface barrier detector while electrons are detected with a large scintillator whose light output is parceled into 19 photomultiplier tubes. Additionally there are eight scintillators that detect backscattered electrons so that these events may be removed from the data stream. This talk will discuss the novel data acquisition system (both hardware and software) that has been developed to handle the high throughput rates observed. NIST, DOE and NSF.

  15. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  16. Mummy berry disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy Berry is the most important disease of blueberry worldwide. It has not been as severe in the southeastern U.S. on rabbiteye blueberry has it is in other areas on highbush blueberry. However, it has caused severe losses on some farms in some years. This poster gives the symptoms, disease cyc...

  17. Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents

    PubMed Central

    ANTHONY, J.-P.; FYFE, L.; STEWART, D.; McDOUGALL, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Following previous work on the anti-giardial effect of blueberry polyphenols, a range of polyphenol-rich extracts from berries and other fruits was screened for their ability to kill Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite of humans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from berries using solid-phase extraction and applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis grown in vitro. All berry extracts caused inhibition at 166 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ml phenol content but extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry and cloudberry were as effective as the currently used drug, metronidazole, causing complete trophozoite mortality in vitro. Cloudberry extracts were found to be the most effective causing effectively complete trophozoite mortality at 66 μg GAE/ml. The polyphenol composition of the more effective berry extracts suggested that the presence of ellagitannins could be an important factor. However, the potency of cloudberry could be related to high ellagitannin content but also to the presence of substantial amounts of unconjugated p-coumaric acid and benzoic acid. These in vitro effects occur at concentrations easily achievable in the gut after berry ingestion and we discuss the likelihood that berry extracts could be effective anti-giardial agents in vivo. PMID:21813029

  18. Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents.

    PubMed

    Anthony, J-P; Fyfe, L; Stewart, D; McDougall, G J

    2011-08-01

    Following previous work on the anti-giardial effect of blueberry polyphenols, a range of polyphenol-rich extracts from berries and other fruits was screened for their ability to kill Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite of humans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from berries using solid-phase extraction and applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis grown in vitro. All berry extracts caused inhibition at 166 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ml phenol content but extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry and cloudberry were as effective as the currently used drug, metronidazole, causing complete trophozoite mortality in vitro. Cloudberry extracts were found to be the most effective causing effectively complete trophozoite mortality at 66 μg GAE/ml. The polyphenol composition of the more effective berry extracts suggested that the presence of ellagitannins could be an important factor. However, the potency of cloudberry could be related to high ellagitannin content but also to the presence of substantial amounts of unconjugated p-coumaric acid and benzoic acid. These in vitro effects occur at concentrations easily achievable in the gut after berry ingestion and we discuss the likelihood that berry extracts could be effective anti-giardial agents in vivo. PMID:21813029

  19. Berry Fruit Supplementation in the Aging Brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s Disease, superimposed on a declining nervous system, could exacerbate the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospit...

  20. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  1. Masting mediated by summer drought reduces acorn predation in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Espelta, Josep Maria; Cortés, Pilar; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Retana, Javier

    2008-03-01

    Temporally variable production of seed crops by perennial plants (masting) has been hypothesized to be a valuable mechanism in the reduction of seed predation by satiating and starving seed consumers. To achieve these benefits, coexisting species subjected to the same predator would benefit from a similar pattern of seeding fluctuation over time that could lead to a reduction in predation at the within-species level. We tested for the existence of an environmental factor enforcing synchrony in acorn production in two sympatric Mediterranean oaks (Quercus ilex and Q. humilis) and the consequences on within-species and between-species acorn predation, by monitoring 15 mixed forests (450 trees) over seven years. Acorn production in Q. ilex and Q. humilis was highly variable among years, with high population variability (CVp) values. The two species exhibited a very different pattern across years in their initial acorn crop size (sum of aborted, depredated, and sound acorns). Nevertheless, interannual differences in summer water stress modified the likelihood of abortion during acorn ripening and enforced within- and, particularly, between-species synchrony and population variability in acorn production. The increase in CVp from initial to mature acorn crop (after summer) accounted for 33% in Q. ilex, 59% in Q. humilis, and 60% in the two species together. Mean yearly acorn pre-dispersal predation by invertebrates was considerably higher in Q. humilis than in Q. ilex. Satiation and starvation of predators was recorded for the two oaks, and this effect was increased by the year-to-year variability in the size of the acorn crop of the two species combined. Moreover, at a longer time scale (over seven years), we observed a significant reduction in the mean proportion of acorns depredated for each oak and the variability in both species' acorn production combined. Therefore, our results demonstrate that similar patterns of seeding fluctuation over time in coexisting

  2. Berry Phase in Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-07-29

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase, which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27517766

  3. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  4. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  5. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  6. Comparison of polyphenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Zhu, Jinyan; Meng, Xianjun; Liu, Suwen; Mu, Jingjing; Ning, Chong

    2016-04-15

    Four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berries--'Wild', 'Beilei', 'No. 1', and 'No. 2'--were compared with respect to extraction yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anthocyanin composition. Sixteen individual anthocyanins were identified in the selected varieties. Acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-acetylhexoside and peonidin 3-acetylhexoside, were identified in L. caerulea berries for the first time. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most prominent anthocyanin in all four tested varieties. Wild type of L. caerulea fruit ('Wild'), with the highest polyphenol content, contained 14 anthocyanins and the highest ORAC value. Eleven anthocyanins were found in 'Beilei' berries, which had a higher ORAC value than 'No. 1' and 'No. 2'. The highest total soluble solid content and extraction yield were found in 'No. 2' and 'Wild' berries, respectively. PMID:26616984

  7. Berry phase in neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    He Xiaogang; McKellar, Bruce H.J.; Zhang Yue

    2005-09-01

    We study the Berry phase in neutrino oscillations for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. In order to have a Berry phase, the neutrino oscillations must occur in a varying medium, the neutrino-background interactions must depend on at least two independent densities, and also there must be CP violation. If the neutrino interactions with matter are mediated only by the standard model W and Z boson exchanges, these conditions imply that there must be at least three generations of neutrinos. The CP violating Majorana phases do not play a role in generating a Berry phase. We show that a natural way to satisfy the conditions for the generation of a Berry phase is to have sterile neutrinos with active-sterile neutrino mixing, in which case at least two active and one sterile neutrinos are required. If there are additional new CP violating flavor changing interactions, it is also possible to have a nonzero Berry phase with just two generations.

  8. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  9. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  10. Blackberry And Hybrid Berry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world but with particular attention on North America. In the current 43rd edition, there are over 400 entries for the following crops: acerola, apple, apple rootstock, apricot...

  11. Luther Burbank's best berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of cultivars, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  12. Sugar accumulation in grape berries. Cloning of two putative vacuolar invertase cDNAs and their expression in grapevine tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C; Robinson, S P

    1996-01-01

    During grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. To study the involvement of invertase in grape berry ripening, we have cloned two cDNAs (GIN1 and GIN2) from berries. The cDNAs encode translation products that are 62% identical to each other and both appear to be vacuolar forms of invertase. Both genes are expressed in a variety of tissues, including berries, leaves, roots, seeds, and flowers, but the two genes have distinct patterns of expression. In grape berries, hexose accumulation began 8 weeks postflowering and continued until the fruit was ripe at 16 weeks. Invertase activity increased from flowering, was maximal 8 weeks postflowering, and remained constant on a per berry basis throughout ripening. Expression of GIN1 and GIN2 in berries, which was high early in berry development, declined greatly at the commencement of hexose accumulation. The results suggest that although vacuolar invertases are involved in hexose accumulation in grape berries, the expression of the genes and the synthesis of the enzymes precedes the onset of hexose accumulation by some weeks, so other mechanisms must be involved in regulating this process. PMID:8685267

  13. Berry's phase in rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shi-Min; Xu, Hong-Hua

    1991-09-01

    It is shown that, in addition to the Aharonov-Bohm-like phase studied previously [M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 392, 45 (1984); Y. Aharakov and J. Anandan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1593 (1987); C. H. Tsai and D. Neilson, Phys. Rev. A 37, 619 (1988)], Berry's topological phase also appears for purely mechanical reasons in systems rotating at slowly-time-varying angular velocity about a fixed center. A possible experiment to probe this manifestation of Berry's phase is discussed.

  14. Dung Beetles Eat Acorns to Increase Their Ovarian Development and Thermal Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Casas, José L.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers) is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December) beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects. PMID:20404931

  15. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field. PMID:25086980

  16. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Sadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer. PMID:26840292

  17. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  18. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  19. Postharvest evaluations comparing Primocane- and Floricane-fruiting blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest storage of blackberries from floricanes was compared with primocane berries in a study conducted at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Substation, Clarksville in 2006. Berries were harvested directly into ½ pint polystyrene clamshells affixed with an absorbent liner and refrigera...

  20. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry. PMID:24704646

  1. The Educational Philosophy of Wendell Berry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    This paper provides a guide for those interested in the educational philosophy of author and ecologist Wendell Berry. It is divided into three sections. The first discusses the foundational dimensions of Berry's thought in terms of his conception of human nature, knowledge, and the good society. Berry sees human beings as creators and moral agents…

  2. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  3. Acorn Consumption Improves the Immune Response of the Dung Beetle Thorectes lusitanicus

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Casas, José L.; Cortez, Vieyle; Gallego, Belén; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO) content, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness. PMID:23874934

  4. Acorn Caching in Tree Squirrels: Teaching Hypothesis Testing in the Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEuen, Amy B.; Steele, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an exercise for a university-level ecology class that teaches hypothesis testing by examining acorn preferences and caching behavior of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.). This exercise is easily modified to teach concepts of behavioral ecology for earlier grades, particularly high school, and provides students with a theoretical basis for…

  5. Reasoning about Natural Selection: Diagnosing Contextual Competency Using the ACORNS Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Opfer, John E.; Ha, Minsu

    2012-01-01

    Studies of students' thinking about natural selection have revealed that the scenarios in which students reason evoke different types, magnitudes, and arrangements of knowledge elements and misconceptions. Diagnostic tests are needed that probe students' thinking across a representative array of evolutionary contexts. The ACORNS is a diagnostic…

  6. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  7. Berry phase in nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2010-05-15

    The Berry phase acquired by an eigenstate that experienced a nonlinear adiabatic evolution is investigated thoroughly. The circuit integral of the Berry connection of the instantaneous eigenstate cannot account for the adiabatic geometric phase, while the Bogoliubov excitations around the eigenstates are found to be accumulated during the nonlinear adiabatic evolution and contribute a finite phase of geometric nature. A two-mode model is used to illustrate our theory. Our theory is applicable to Bose-Einstein condensate, nonlinear light propagation, and Ginzburg-Landau equations for complex order parameters in condensed-matter physics.

  8. Blueberry Fruit Development and Splitting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A problem facing blueberry growers in the southeastern United States is rain-related fruit splitting. Splitting refers to a break in the skin and/or pulp of the berry, prevalent in some cultivars, that occurs after a period of drought followed by intense rain. We hypothesize that blueberry cultiv...

  9. Berry temperature and Solar Radiation Alter Acylation, Proportion, and Concentration of Anthocyanin in 'Merlot' Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a forced convection system, the temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled between veraison and harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures under field conditions in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation e...

  10. Polyphenolic composition and content in the ripe berries of wild Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore wild genetic resources for improving fruit and processing quality of cultivated grape cultivars, we characterized the polyphenolic composition and content in the ripe berries of 147 grape accessions from 16 Vitis species for two consecutive years. These species, except for Vitis Yenshansi...

  11. Impact of diurnal temperature variation on grape berry development, proanthocyanidin accumulation, and the expression of flavonoid pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Seth D.; Tarara, Julie M.; Gambetta, Greg A.; Matthews, Mark A.; Kennedy, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of temperature on proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in grape skins, despite its significance in berry composition and wine quality. Field-grown grapes (cv. Merlot) were cooled during the day or heated at night by +/–8 °C, from fruit set to véraison in three seasons, to determine the effect of temperature on PA accumulation. Total PA content per berry varied only in one year, when PA content was highest in heated berries (1.46 mg berry−1) and lowest in cooled berries (0.97 mg berry−1). In two years, cooling berries resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of (–)-epigallocatechin as an extension subunit. In the third year, rates of berry development, PA accumulation, and the expression levels of several genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed. Heating and cooling berries altered the initial rates of PA accumulation, which was correlated strongly with the expression of core genes in the flavonoid pathway. Both heating and cooling altered the rate of berry growth and coloration, and the expression of several structural genes within the flavonoid pathway. PMID:22268158

  12. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    PubMed

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  13. A Bowl of Hematite-Rich 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows two spectra of outcrop regions near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. The blue line shows data for a region dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' which contains a handful of the sphere-like grains dubbed 'blueberries.' The yellow line represents an area called 'Empty' next to Berry Bowl that is devoid of berries. Berry Bowl's spectrum still shows typical outcrop characteristics, but also exhibits an intense hematite signature, seen as a 'magnetic sextet.' Hematite is an iron-bearing mineral often formed in water. These spectra were taken by the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer on the 46th (Empty) and 48th (Berry Bowl) martian days, or sols, of its mission.

  14. Effect of lyophilised Vaccinium berries on memory, anxiety and locomotion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Izquierdo, Ivan; do Carmo Bassols Raseira, Maria; Zuanazzi, José Angelo; Barros, Daniela; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that diets with a high intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the incidence of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Berries are some of the popular fruits consumed worldwide. They are considered to be rich in anthocyanin pigments, a group belonging to the flavonoids, a widespread class of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins have notorious pharmacological properties, and have been used in humans for therapeutic purposes. The present experiments were performed to study the possible effects of prolonged administration of lyophilised Vaccinium berries (blueberry, bilberry) on cognitive performance using step-down inhibitory avoidance, open field, elevated plus-maze, and radial maze tasks. During this experiment the rats consumed approximately 3.2 mg kg(-1)day (oral), of the anthocyanins. The lyophilised berries were administered for 30 days before first training. The present study showed that lyophilised berries significantly enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task, and induced an increase in the number of crossings in the first exposure to the open field. However, treated rats did not present any improvement of memory retention in open field habituation. Additionally, prolonged treatment with lyophilised berries did not have any significant effects in the elevated plus-maze task. Another interesting finding was that lyophilised berries improved working memory in the radial maze, with significant differences observed during sessions 1-2 and 4, but did not alter reference memory in this task. These results suggest that lyophilised berries may be beneficial in the prevention of memory deficits, one of the symptoms related to AD, and corroborate previous findings showing that flavonoids present effects in several learning paradigms. PMID:16098760

  15. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  16. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    PubMed

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  17. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    PubMed Central

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  18. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    PubMed

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  19. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    PubMed Central

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  20. Expression of grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-like genes is associated with variation in ovary and berry size.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Constanza; Eichler, Estefanía; Grissi, Cecilia; Muñoz, Claudio; Gomez-Talquenca, Sebastian; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Lijavetzky, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Fruit size is a highly important trait for most fruit and vegetable crops. This trait has been a main selection target and could be involved in divergent selection processes leading to the differentiation between modern table and wine cultivars. Even though its determination is highly influenced by cultural practices, several regions within the grapevine genome have been identified affecting berry size, either directly or indirectly through their effect on seed content. Using grapevine seeded cultivars, we have analyzed the relationship between ovary cell number and the final size of ovaries and berry fruits. We also performed the characterization of the grapevine AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE family, since it is well reported in Arabidopsis that AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) regulates cell proliferation and organ growth in flower organ primordia by maintaining the meristematic competence of cells during organogenesis. Here we show that orthologous grapevine gene expression associate with flower developmental stages suggesting a similar biological role for this gene family in this species. Moreover, we detected a correlation between those organs size and the level of expression of VviANT1 the grapevine homolog of AtANT. This grapevine gene also co-localizes in linkage group 18 with the confidence interval of a previously detected QTL for berry size. Thus our results suggest the involvement of ANT in the regulation of berry size in grapevine. PMID:26843119

  1. Is Transcriptomic Regulation of Berry Development More Important at Night than During the Day?

    PubMed Central

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T.; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

  2. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  3. aCORN: A Measurement of the Beta-Antineutrino Correlation in Neutron Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    The aCORN experiment has measured the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient (the ``a'' coefficient) in free neutron decay. aCORN uses the dependence of the recoil proton momentum on the opening angle between the electron and the neutrino to form an asymmetry. The apparatus accepts decays where the antineutrino is restricted to two momentum groups having equal solid angle. In this geometry, proton time of flight distinguishes between decays with a large or small opening angle between the electron and the antineutrino. The correlation coefficient is determined from the asymmetry between two branches of the time of flight spectrum. The asymmetry was measured on the NG-6 neutron beam at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), and a subsequent measurement has been started on the higher flux NG-C beam. An overview of the method and systematic effects will be presented, including results from the NG-6 dataset. National Science Foundation.

  4. Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Guo; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    1999-11-01

    An evergreen oak species, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, and a deciduous oak species, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata were grown from acorns under two light levels (full sunlight and shade at about 18 % of full sunlight, simulating the light intensities in forest clearings and gaps, respectively) for one growing season. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) the deciduous species grows faster than the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings; (ii) the deciduous species responds more strongly in terms of growth and morphology to variation in light climate than the evergreen species; and (iii) seedling size is positively correlated to acorn size. The results showed: (i) at both light levels, the deciduous seedlings gained significantly more growth in biomass and height than the evergreen seedlings; (ii) both species produced significantly more biomass in full sunlight than in shade, without showing any significant difference in height between treatments. Increase in light intensity improved the growth of the deciduous seedlings more strongly; (iii) at a similar age, the deciduous seedlings showed a greater response in leaf morphology and biomass allocation to variation in light levels, but when compared at a similar size, biomass allocation patterns did not differ significantly between species; (iv) bigger acorns tended to produce larger seedlings, larger leaf sizes and more leaf area, between and within species. These differences demonstrate that the deciduous species is gap-dependent and has the advantage over the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings.

  5. Influence of Water Deficit on Berry Weight Uniformity and Mass of Berry Tissue Components in Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape beneficially reduces average berry weight at harvest, but little is known about its effect on the relative growth of berries within a cluster or among tissues within a berry. The intent of this research was to test the hypothesis that ...

  6. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  7. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect

  8. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  9. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  10. Ascorbate metabolism and the developmental demand for tartaric and oxalic acids in ripening grape berries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Fresh fruits are well accepted as a good source of the dietary antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc, Vitamin C). However, fruits such as grapes do not accumulate exceptionally high quantities of Asc. Grapes, unlike most other cultivated fruits do however use Asc as a precursor for the synthesis of both oxalic (OA) and tartaric acids (TA). TA is a commercially important product in the wine industry and due to its acidifying effect on crushed juice it can influence the organoleptic properties of the wine. Despite the interest in Asc accumulation in fruits, little is known about the mechanisms whereby Asc concentration is regulated. The purpose of this study was to gain insights into Asc metabolism in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera c.v. Shiraz.) and thus ascertain whether the developmental demand for TA and OA synthesis influences Asc accumulation in the berry. Results We provide evidence for developmentally differentiated up-regulation of Asc biosynthetic pathways and subsequent fluctuations in Asc, TA and OA accumulation. Rapid accumulation of Asc and a low Asc to dehydroascorbate (DHA) ratio in young berries was co-ordinated with up-regulation of three of the primary Asc biosynthetic (Smirnoff-Wheeler) pathway genes. Immature berries synthesised Asc in-situ from the primary pathway precursors D-mannose and L-galactose. Immature berries also accumulated TA in early berry development in co-ordination with up-regulation of a TA biosynthetic gene. In contrast, ripe berries have up-regulated expression of the alternative Asc biosynthetic pathway gene D-galacturonic acid reductase with only residual expression of Smirnoff-Wheeler Asc biosynthetic pathway genes and of the TA biosynthetic gene. The ripening phase was further associated with up-regulation of Asc recycling genes, a secondary phase of increased accumulation of Asc and an increase in the Asc to DHA ratio. Conclusion We demonstrate strong developmental regulation of Asc biosynthetic, recycling and catabolic

  11. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries

    PubMed Central

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. PMID:25135520

  12. A new copepod with transformed body plan and unique phylogenetic position parasitic in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Tung, Che-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Ho, Ju-Shey; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    Symbiotic copepods compose one-third of the known copepod species and are associated with a wide range of animal groups. Two parasitic copepods endoparasitic in acorn worms (Hemichordata), Ive balanoglossi and Ubius hilli, collected in the Mediterranean Sea and Australian waters, respectively, were described a century ago. Here we report a new parasitic copepod species, Ive ptychoderae sp. nov., found in Ptychodera flava, a widespread acorn worm in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and an emerging organism for developmental and evolutionary studies. The female of I. ptychoderae is characterized by having a reduced maxilliped and five pairs of annular swellings along the body that are morphologically similar but distinguishable from those in the two previously described parasitic copepods in acorn worms. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence shows that I. ptychoderae may belong to Poecilostomatoida but represent a new family, which we name Iveidae fam. nov. Ive ptychoderae is commonly found in the acorn worm population with an average prevalence of 42% during the collecting period. The infection of the parasite induces the formation of cysts and causes localized lesions of the host tissues, suggesting that it may have negative effects on its host. Interestingly, most cysts contain a single female with one or multiple male copepods, suggesting that their sex determination may be controlled by environmental conditions. The relationships between the parasitic copepods and acorn worms thus provide a platform for understanding physiological and ecological influences and coevolution between parasites and hosts. PMID:24648208

  13. Berry College's Student Work Opportunity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatto, Gloria

    The student work opportunity program at Berry College, Mount Berry, Georgia, which provides valuable learning experiences and helps students meet educational expenses, is described. More than 87 percent of the 1980-81 graduates worked in an on-campus job while attending college. The on-campus jobs also provide essential services for the college,…

  14. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shot berries. 51.904 Section 51.904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.904 Shot berries....

  15. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  16. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 39.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  17. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 43.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  18. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 42.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  19. Blueberry Splitting Tendencies as Predicted by Fruit Firmness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve the quality of berries during handling and shipping, blueberry breeders have strived to develop a fruit that is firm in texture. However previous studies show blueberry cultivars with firmer fruit were more susceptible to splitting. This study was further investigates the correlation be...

  20. Impact of diurnal temperature variation on grape berry development, proanthocyanidin accumulation, and the expression of flavonoid pathway genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of temperature on proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in grape skins, despite its significance in berry composition and wine quality. Field grown grapes (cv. Merlot) were cooled during the day or heated at night by +/- 8 °C, from fruit set to véraison in three seasons...

  1. Foliar reflective film and water deficit increase anthocyanin to soluble solids ratio during berry ripening in Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated temperature can decrease the ratio of anthocyanins to soluble solids in red-skinned berries and warming trends in grape production regions have raised concern about color to alcohol balance in wines produced from fruit with altered ratios. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a fol...

  2. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  3. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference. PMID:27548173

  4. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  5. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality

    PubMed Central

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species-dependent. PMID:21494087

  6. Shifts in fruitfulness and crop load of ‘Pinot noir’ in response to nitrogen depletion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oregon Pinot noir vineyards are generally characterized as having low crop loads. Premium Pinot noir producers commonly reduce crop load further by fruit thinning. The long-term implications of these practices on vegetative growth, fruitfulness, fruit set and berry quality are not fully understood f...

  7. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  8. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  9. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    PubMed

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095

  10. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  11. New Techniques for High-contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martín, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Watanabe, M.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2013-02-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to ~20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. New Techniques for High-Contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishil, M.; Lye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks (SEEDS) survey. We implement seyeral new algorithms, includbg a method to centroid saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to approx 20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivitv of a high-contrast obsen-ation everywhere on the field-of-view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns_-adi under a BSD license

  13. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING WITH ADI: THE ACORNS-ADI SEEDS DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Ishii, M.; Goto, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Iye, M.; Hodapp, K. W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to {approx}20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license.

  14. Effects of Acorn (Quercus acutissima CARR.) Supplementation on Acetylcholine and Its Related Enzyme Activities in Brain of Dementia Model Mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of acorn (Quercus acutissima CARR.) on brain dementia in mouse. Murine dementia model was induced by scopolamin administration to abdominal cavity (30 mg/kg BW). Male ICR mouse (30 ' 2 g BW) were fed basic diet (control group), or experimental d...

  15. The grape berry-specific basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor VvCEB1 affects cell size

    PubMed Central

    Lecourieux, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The development of fleshy fruits involves complex physiological and biochemical changes. After fertilization, fruit growth usually begins with cell division, continues with both cell division and expansion, allowing fruit set to occur, and ends with cell expansion only. In spite of the economical importance of grapevine, the molecular mechanisms controlling berry growth are not fully understood. The present work identified and characterized Vitis vinifera cell elongation bHLH protein (VvCEB1), a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor controlling cell expansion in grape. VvCEB1 was expressed specifically in berry-expanding tissues with a maximum around veraison. The study of VvCEB1 promoter activity in tomato confirmed its specific fruit expression during the expansion phase. Overexpression of VvCEB1 in grape embryos showed that this protein stimulates cell expansion and affects the expression of genes involved in cell expansion, including genes of auxin metabolism and signalling. Taken together, these data show that VvCEB1 is a fruit-specific bHLH transcription factor involved in grape berry development. PMID:23314819

  16. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    sunscreening” abilities. The data presented for the green berries and those for the ripe berries conform to what is known for UVB and/or light stress in young, active leaves and older, senescing tissues respectively and provide scope for further evaluation of the sink/source status of fruits in relation to photosignalling and/or stress management. PMID:27375645

  17. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  18. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  19. From Berries to Orchards: Tracing the History of Berrying and Economic Transformation among Lake Superior Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrgard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the history of berrying as a significant example of how Lake Superior Ojibwe weathered economic transitions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It looks at the emergence of the berry industry surrounding the Fond du Lac, Red Cliff, and Bad River communities, beginning with Ojibwe relocation to these…

  20. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  1. Reciprocity between abscisic acid and ethylene at the onset of berry ripening and after harvest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ripening of grape berry is generally regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), and has no relationship with ethylene function. However, functional interaction and synergism between ABA and ethylene during the beginning of grape berry ripening (véraison) has been found recently. Results The expressions of VvNCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and VvGT encoding ABA glucosyltransferase were all increased rapidly at the stage of véraison and reached the highest level at 9th week after full bloom. However, VvCYP1 encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase and VvβG1 encoding berry β-glucosidase are different, whose expression peak appeared at the 10th week after full bloom and in especial VvβG1 remained at a high level till harvest. The VvACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, the VvETR2 (ethylene response 2) and VvCTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) had a transient expression peak at pre-véraison, while the VvEIN4 (ethylene insensitive 4) expression gradually increased from the véraison to one week before harvest stage. The above mentioned changes happened again in the berry after harvest. At one week before véraison, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) not only inhibited the release of ethylene and the expression of related genes but also suppressed the transcription of VvNCED1 and the synthesis of ABA which all might result in inhibiting the fruit ripening onset. Treatment with ABA could relieve the double block and restore fruit ripening course. However, after harvest, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-MCP could not suppress the transcription of VvNCED1 and the accumulation of ABA, and also could not inhibit the start of fruit senescence. Conclusion The trace endogenous ethylene induces the transcription of VvNCED1 and then the generation of ABA followed. Both ethylene and ABA are likely to be important and their interplaying may be required to start the process of berry ripening

  2. Differential Behavior within a Grapevine Cluster: Decreased Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Dependent on Auxin Transport Is Correlated with Low Abscission of First Developed Berries

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Francisca; Delrot, Serge; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine, fruit abscission is known to occur within the first two to three weeks after flowering, but the reason why some berries in a cluster persist and others abscise is not yet understood. Ethylene sensitivity modulates abscission in several fruit species, based on a mechanism where continuous polar auxin transport across the pedicel results in a decrease in ethylene perception, which prevents abscission. In grapevine, flowering takes about four to seven days in a single cluster, thus while some flowers are developing into berries, others are just starting to open. So, in this work it was assessed whether uneven flowering accounted for differences in berry abscission dependent on polar auxin transport and ethylene-related gene expression. For this, flowers that opened in a cluster were tagged daily, which allowed to separately analyze berries, regarding their ability to persist. It was found that berries derived from flowers that opened the day that flowering started – named as “first berries” – had lower abscission rate than berries derived from flowers that opened during the following days – named as “late berries”. Use of radiolabeled auxin showed that “first berries” had higher polar auxin transport, correlated with lower ethylene content and lower ethylene-related transcript abundance than “late berries”. When “first berries” were treated with a polar auxin transport inhibitor they showed higher ethylene-related transcript abundance and were more prone to abscise than control berries. This study provides new insights on fruit abscission control. Our results indicate that polar auxin transport sustains the ability of “first berries” to persist in the cluster during grapevine abscission and also suggest that this could be associated with changes in ethylene-related gene expression. PMID:25365421

  3. Battery Berry Observation Station, general view to northeast Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, general view to northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  4. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  5. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7 mm-to-15 mm) and onset of ripening (15 mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up

  6. Refractance Window™ drying of haskap berry--preliminary results on anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Khattab, Rabie; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties of haskap powder prepared by Refractance Window™ (RW) drying. In general, the RW-dried powder particles had a smooth surface with similar thickness, consistent with the preparation method, and had a solubility of 75.63% in water. The RW-dried powder (consisting of 98% haskap berries) retained approximately 93.8% of anthocyanins from the original frozen fruits, as assessed by the pH-differential method. This result is in good agreement with HPLC analysis that indicated 92.9% retention. Three anthocyanins were identified in frozen berries and RW-dried powder: cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Surprisingly, cyanidin 3-rutinoside exhibited the lowest retention. PMID:26471547

  7. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems>leaves>berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210Po/210Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210Pb and especially 210Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). The 210Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210Po were higher than those of 210Pb. 210Po and 210Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout. PMID:19800659

  8. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M S; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  9. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  10. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    SciTech Connect

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-21

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  11. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  12. Circadian oscillatory transcriptional programs in grapevine ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature and solar radiation influence Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening. Both environmental conditions fluctuate cyclically on a daily period basis and the strength of this fluctuation affects grape ripening too. Additionally, a molecular circadian clock regulates daily cyclic expression in a large proportion of the plant transcriptome modulating multiple developmental processes in diverse plant organs and developmental phases. Circadian cycling of fruit transcriptomes has not been characterized in detail despite their putative relevance in the final composition of the fruit. Thus, in this study, gene expression throughout 24 h periods in pre-ripe berries of Tempranillo and Verdejo grapevine cultivars was followed to determine whether different ripening transcriptional programs are activated during certain times of day in different grape tissues and genotypes. Results Microarray analyses identified oscillatory transcriptional profiles following circadian variations in the photocycle and the thermocycle. A higher number of expression oscillating transcripts were detected in samples carrying exocarp tissue including biotic stress-responsive transcripts activated around dawn. Thermotolerance-like responses and regulation of circadian clock-related genes were observed in all studied samples. Indeed, homologs of core clock genes were identified in the grapevine genome and, among them, VvREVEILLE1 (VvRVE1), showed a consistent circadian expression rhythm in every grape berry tissue analysed. Light signalling components and terpenoid biosynthetic transcripts were specifically induced during the daytime in Verdejo, a cultivar bearing white-skinned and aromatic berries, whereas transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were more prominently regulated in Tempranillo, a cultivar bearing black-skinned berries. Conclusions The transcriptome of ripening fruits varies in response to daily environmental changes, which might partially be under the control

  13. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees. PMID:26809620

  14. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  15. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  16. On geometric interpretation of the berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanaev, M. O.

    2012-03-01

    A geometric interpretation of the Berry phase and its Wilczek-Zee non-Abelian generalization are given in terms of connections on principal fiber bundles. It is demonstrated that a principal fiber bundle can be trivial in all cases, while the connection and its holonomy group are nontrivial. Therefore, the main role is played by geometric rather than topological effects.

  17. Control of virus diseases of berry crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all...

  18. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-19

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results. PMID:27588858

  19. Demonstration of Berry Phase in Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Hong-Ji; Ding, Liang-En

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the observed phase shift of the RF signal and its intensity dependence under extreme low pump and probe laser field conditions are dominated by Berry phase effect in optical spectroscopy with good adiabatic approximation, which provides all features' agreements between the theoretical and the experimental results.

  20. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Eiras-Dias, José; Castellarin, Simone D.; Gerós, Hernâni

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile. PMID:24030720

  1. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  2. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo ...

  3. The influence of light and maturity on fruit quality and flavonoid content of red raspberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of fruit maturity (5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% of full maturity) and different light intensities [56 ' 0.5 'mol m-2s-1 (H), 31' 0.2 'mol m-2 s-1 (L) and dark (D)] on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and phytonutrient content were determined. At harvest, immature berries contained signi...

  4. The plasticity of the grapevine berry transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phenotypic plasticity refers to the range of phenotypes a single genotype can express as a function of its environment. These phenotypic variations are attributable to the effect of the environment on the expression and function of genes influencing plastic traits. We investigated phenotypic plasticity in grapevine by comparing the berry transcriptome in a single clone of the vegetatively-propagated common grapevine species Vitis vinifera cultivar Corvina through 3 consecutive growth years cultivated in 11 different vineyards in the Verona area of Italy. Results Most of the berry transcriptome clustered by year of growth rather than common environmental conditions or viticulture practices, and transcripts related to secondary metabolism showed high sensitivity towards different climates, as confirmed also by metabolomic data obtained from the same samples. When analyzed in 11 vineyards during 1 growth year, the environmentally-sensitive berry transcriptome comprised 5% of protein-coding genes and 18% of the transcripts modulated during berry development. Plastic genes were particularly enriched in ontology categories such as transcription factors, translation, transport, and secondary metabolism. Specific plastic transcripts were associated with groups of vineyards sharing common viticulture practices or environmental conditions, and plastic transcriptome reprogramming was more intense in the year characterized by extreme weather conditions. We also identified a set of genes that lacked plasticity, showing either constitutive expression or similar modulation in all berries. Conclusions Our data reveal candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic plasticity of grapevine and provide the first step towards the characterization of grapevine transcriptome plasticity under different agricultural systems. PMID:23759170

  5. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  6. The Effect of Bioactive Compounds on In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Different Berry Juices

    PubMed Central

    Slatnar, Ana; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Jamnik, Polona

    2012-01-01

    Background Berry fruit is known for its high contents of various bioactive compounds. The latter constitute of anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols and posses high antioxidative activity. The highly dynamic antioxidant system can be evaluated in vitro and in vivo in several model organisms. These measurements represent a good approximation of the real potential of bioactive compounds in the cells of higher eucarions. The aim of the study was thus to determine in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of different berry juices, which reportedly contain high amounts of phenolics. Methodology/Principal Findings Five different berry species were collected from several locations in central Slovenia and juice was extracted from each species separately. Juice was assessed for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Phenolic profiles of berries were determined with the use of a HPLC/MS system, in vitro antioxidant activity with the DPPH radical scavenging method and in vivo antioxidative activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The highest diversity of individual phenols was detected for bilberry juice. The highest in vitro antioxidant capacity was determined for blackcurrant juice. A decrease in intracellular oxidation compared to control was observed in the following order: blackcurrant < chokeberry = blueberry < bilberry. The results indicate important differences in antioxidant activity of berry juices between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion/Significance In addition to the total content of phenolic compounds entering the cells, a key factor determining antioxidative activity of berry juices is also the ratio between the compounds. Where high content levels of anthocyanins and very low content levels of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids were measured a lower intracellular oxidation has been detected. Specifically, intracellular oxidation increased with higher consumption of hydroxycinnamic acids and lower consumption of anthocyanins in the cells

  7. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  8. Anatomical and developmental study of petrified Quercus (Fagaceae) fruits from the Middle Miocene, Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Borgardt, S J; Pigg, K B

    1999-03-01

    The first reported petrified acorns to show internal anatomical structure are here described from Middle Miocene (∼15.6 million years old) chert of the Columbia River Basalt Group in Yakima Canyon, Washington. Quercus hiholensis Borgardt et Pigg sp. nov. is described from anatomical and morphological fruit features, as well as a little recognized anatomical feature, the umbilical complex. Acorns, each comprising a nut and its cupule, are up to 15.3 mm long and 18.8 mm wide with helically arranged, imbricate, tuberculate cupule scales. They show basal aborted ovules, short styles, broad stigmas, and lack grooves in their cotyledons. These characters and the developmental pattern seen in these fossil acorns demonstrate that Q. hiholensis conforms to genus Quercus (Fagaceae), subgenus Quercus, section Quercus (the white oaks). The correspondence of Q. hiholensis to the modern section Quercus reveals that the derived floral and fruit characters that distinguish section Quercus within the genus had evolved by the Middle Miocene. PMID:10077494

  9. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters. PMID:27088562

  10. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy. PMID:26392037

  11. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I R

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer. PMID:23185422

  12. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  13. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body. PMID:24243964

  14. Efficient algorithm to compute the Berry conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, A.; Müller, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    We propose and construct a numerical algorithm to calculate the Berry conductivity in topological band insulators. The method is applicable to cold atom systems as well as solid state setups, both for the insulating case where the Fermi energy lies in the gap between two bulk bands as well as in the metallic regime. This method interpolates smoothly between both regimes. The algorithm is gauge-invariant by construction, efficient, and yields the Berry conductivity with known and controllable statistical error bars. We apply the algorithm to several paradigmatic models in the field of topological insulators, including Haldane's model on the honeycomb lattice, the multi-band Hofstadter model, and the BHZ model, which describes the 2D spin Hall effect observed in CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well heterostructures.

  15. Opportunity Dips in to 'Berry Bowl'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists are hunting down the recipe for the 'blueberries' they've discovered on Mars. Taken with the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera on the 45th martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission (March 10, 2004), this image shows the area dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' where many dark and mysterious spherules or 'blueberries' collected in a depression on the surface of a rock. Opportunity is studying the blueberries for clues to their chemical composition with its suite of scientific instruments. 'Berry Bowl' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the crater where the rover landed.

  16. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. PMID:24713570

  17. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  18. Berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, M P; Hopia, A I; Heinonen, M

    2001-08-01

    Phenolic profiles of a total of 26 berry samples, together with 2 apple samples, were analyzed without hydrolysis of glycosides with HPLC. The phenolic contents among different berry genera varied considerably. Anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in bilberry, bog-whortleberry, and cranberry, but in cowberries, belonging also to the family Ericaceae genus Vaccinium, flavanols and procyanidins predominated. In the family Rosaceae genus Rubus (cloudberry and red raspberry), the main phenolics found were ellagitannins, and in genus Fragaria (strawberry), ellagitannins were the second largest group after anthocyanins. However, phenolic acids were dominant in rowanberries (genus Sorbus) and anthocyanins in chokeberry (genus Aronia). In the family Grossulariaceae genus Ribes (currants and gooseberry), anthocyanins predominated, as well as in crowberries (family Empetraceae genus Empetrum). In apples, hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic subgroup. Extraction methods for berries and apples were studied to produce phenolic extracts with high antioxidant activity. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed by autoxidazing methyl linoleate (40 degrees C, in the dark). The extraction method affected remarkably both the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity, but with statistical analysis the observed activity could not be well explained with the contents of individual phenolic subgroups. PMID:11513713

  19. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  20. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  1. Berry production in three whitebark pine forest types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Forcella, F.

    1990-01-01

    In the whitebark pine /whortleberry (Pinus albicaulis/Vaccinium scoparium) habitat type of southwestern Montana, whortleberry plants produced seven to 69 berries/m2 x yr in 1974. In subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) habitat types of northwestern Montana, huckleberry plants (Vaccinium globulare) may produce from 13 to 228 berries/m2 X yr. While removal of competing trees increases production, thinning the understory apparently reduces berry production in direct proportion to the shrubs removed; there is no compensatory production indicative of shrub-shrub competition in fully vegetated plots. Fifty-to 100-fold variation in production among years in Vaccinium globulare berry production is attributed to variation in weather conditions.

  2. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Boixadera, Ester; Bonal, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitationeffect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent’s behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  3. Changes in fruit quality parameters of four Ribes species during ripening.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Rescic, Jan; Schmitzer, Valentina; Stampar, Franci; Slatnar, Ana; Koron, Darinka; Veberic, Robert

    2015-04-15

    There are no defined maturity parameters for berry fruit which often results in harvesting and marketing of inedible, immature or over ripe berries. In the present study the changes in quality characteristics of different white-, red-, and black-currant cultivars as well as gooseberry and jostaberry fruit were investigated at three maturity stages. Colour parameters, berry juice pH level and the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds have been evaluated. A total of 65 different phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-PDA/MS. The results indicate that, during the last 2-4 weeks of fruit ripening, significant changes occur in colour parameters, primary and secondary metabolites and radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that the average content of specific phenolic groups and sugars/acids ratio can be used as a simple and reliable maturity index for optimisation of harvest time. PMID:25466034

  4. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska’s environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira S.; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect berry abundance.

  5. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    PubMed Central

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  6. Anthocyanin characterization, total phenolic quantification and antioxidant features of some Chilean edible berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Brito, Anghel; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2014-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay), followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL), and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21), respectively. PMID:25072199

  7. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  8. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  9. Effect on Cessation Counseling of Documenting Smoking Status as a Routine Vital Sign: An ACORN Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothemich, Stephen F.; Woolf, Steven H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Burgett, Amy E.; Flores, Sharon K.; Marsland, David W.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines encourage primary care clinicians to document smoking status when obtaining patients’ blood pressure, temperature, and pulse rate (vital signs), but whether this practice promotes cessation counseling is unclear. We examined whether the vital sign intervention influences patient-reported frequency and intensity of tobacco cessation counseling. METHODS This study was a cluster-randomized, controlled trial conducted in the Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcomes Research Network (ACORN). At intervention practices, nurses and medical assistants were instructed to assess the tobacco use status of every adult patient and record it with the traditional vital signs. Control practices did not use any systematic tobacco screening or identification system. Outcomes were the proportion of smokers reporting clinician counseling of any kind and the frequency of 2 counseling subcomponents: simple quit advice and more intensive discussion. RESULTS A total of 6,729 adult patients (1,149 smokers) at 18 primary care practices completed exit questionnaires during a 6-month comparison period. Among 561 smokers at intervention practices, 61.9% reported receiving any counseling, compared with 53.4% of the 588 smokers at control practices, for a difference of 8.6% (P = .04). The effect was largely restricted to simple advice, which was reported by 59.9% of intervention patients and 51.5% of control patients (P=.04). There was no significant increase in more extensive discussion, with 32.5% and 29.3% of patients at intervention and control practices, respectively, reporting this type of counseling (P=.18). CONCLUSIONS The vital sign intervention promotes tobacco counseling at primary care practices through a modest increase in simple advice to quit. When implemented as a stand-alone intervention, it does not appear to increase intensive counseling. PMID:18195316

  10. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    PubMed

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes. PMID:19000007

  11. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

  12. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  13. Polyols in grape berry: transport and metabolic adjustments as a physiological strategy for water-deficit stress tolerance in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Regalado, Ana; Rodrigues, Diana; Costa, J Miguel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Chaves, M Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

    2015-02-01

    Polyols are important metabolites that often function as carbon and energy sources and/or osmoprotective solutes in some plants. In grapevine, and in the grape berry in particular, the molecular aspects of polyol transport and metabolism and their physiological relevance are virtually unknown to date. Here, the biochemical function of a grapevine fruit mesocarp polyol transporter (VvPLT1) was characterized after its heterologous expression in yeast. This H(+)-dependent plasma membrane carrier transports mannitol (K m=5.4mM) and sorbitol (K m=9.5mM) over a broad range of polyols and monosaccharides. Water-deficit stress triggered an increase in the expression of VvPLT1 at the fully mature stage, allowing increased polyol uptake into pulp cells. Plant polyol dehydrogenases are oxireductases that reversibly oxidize polyols into monosaccharides. Mannitol catabolism in grape cells (K m=30.1mM mannitol) and mature berry mesocarps (K m=79mM) was, like sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, strongly inhibited (50-75%) by water-deficit stress. Simultaneously, fructose reduction into polyols via mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenases was stimulated, contributing to their higher intracellular concentrations in water-deficit stress. Accordingly, the concentrations of mannitol, sorbitol, galactinol, myo-inositol, and dulcitol were significantly higher in berry mesocarps from water-deficit-stressed Tempranillo grapevines. Metabolomic profiling of the berry pulp by GC-TOF-MS also revealed many other changes in its composition induced by water deficit. The impact of polyols on grape berry composition and plant response to water deficit stress, via modifications in polyol transport and metabolism, was analysed by integrating metabolomics with transcriptional analysis and biochemical approaches. PMID:25433029

  14. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  15. Effect of berries on cognitive and neurochemical functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berries are an excellent source of numerous, unique, bioactive compounds, which play a pivotal role in attenuating stress-associated biological dysfunctions. The protective effects of berries play even more significance in brain health as brain alone utilizes from 10-50% of the body's total oxygen s...

  16. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former entry recess and typical sash window; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  18. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  19. Chromium halides mediated production of hydroxymethylfurfural from starch-rich acorn biomass in an acidic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Myoung-Gyu; Yi, Young-Byung; Chung, Chung-Han

    2011-02-01

    Chromium halides were introduced for the sustainable production of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from raw acorn biomass using an acidic ionic liquid. The free sugars (glucose and maltose) released by the acidic hydrolysis of the biomass were confirmed by the FT-IR absorption bands around 995-1014cm(-1) and HPLC. FESEM analysis showed that the acorn biomass contains various sizes of starch granules and their structures were severely changed by the acidic hydrolysis. An optimal concentration of HCl for the HMF yields was 0.3M. The highest HMF yield (58.7+1.3dwt%) was achieved in the reaction mixture of 40% [OMIM]Cl+10% ethyl acetate+50% 0.3M HCl extract containing a mix of CrBr(3)/CrF(3). The combined addition of two halide catalysts was more effective in the synthesis of HMF (1.2-fold higher on average) than their single addition. The best productivity of HMF was found at 15% concentration of the biomass and at 50%, its relative productivity declined down to ca. 0.4-fold. PMID:21146811

  20. Transcriptional control of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in extreme phenotypes for berry pigmentation of naturally occurring grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Background Fruit coloration of red-skinned grapevines is mainly due to anthocyanin pigments. We analysed a panel of nine cultivars that included extreme phenotypes for berry colour, ranging from green (absence of anthocyanins) to red, purple, violet and blue. Expression of six genes of the anthocyanin pathway coding for flavanone-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), O-methyltransferase (OMT) and four transcription factors (MybA, MybB, MybC, MybD) was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR at four developmental stages from before the onset of ripening until full maturity and compared to anthocyanin metabolites. Results Total anthocyanin content at full maturity correlated well with the cumulative expression of F3H, UFGT and GST throughout ripening. Transcripts of the last two genes were absent in the green-skinned cultivar 'Sauvignonasse', also known as 'Tocai friulano', and were at least 10-fold less abundant in pale red cultivars, such as 'Pinot gris' and 'Gewürztraminer', compared to fully coloured cultivars. Predominance of tri-hydroxylated anthocyanins (delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin) in cultivars bearing dark berries with violet and blue hue was associated with higher ratios of F3'5'H/F3'H transcription, compared to red-skinned cultivars. Higher levels of OMT transcripts were observed in berries of cultivars that accumulated methoxylated forms of anthocyanins more abundantly than non-methoxylated forms. Conclusion Colour variation of the grape berry conforms to a peculiar pattern of genotype-specific expression of the whole set of anthocyanin genes in a direct transcript-metabolite-phenotype relationship. Cumulative mRNA levels of the structural genes and their relative abundance throughout ripening explained per se the final phenotype for anthocyanin content, anthocyanin composition, colour intensity and colour hue of

  1. Adiabatic Berry phase in an atom-molecule conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Libin; Liu Jie

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the Berry phase of adiabatic quantum evolution in the atom-molecule conversion system that is governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We find that the Berry phase consists of two parts: the usual Berry connection term and a novel term from the nonlinearity brought forth by the atom-molecule coupling. The total geometric phase can be still viewed as the flux of the magnetic field of a monopole through the surface enclosed by a closed path in parameter space. The charge of the monopole, however, is found to be one third of the elementary charge of the usual quantized monopole. We also derive the classical Hannay angle of a geometric nature associated with the adiabatic evolution. It exactly equals minus Berry phase, indicating a novel connection between Berry phase and Hannay angle in contrast to the usual derivative form.

  2. North American berry industries and research areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The farm gate value of small fruit crops in North America has increased significantly in the last 10 years. Much of this increase is due to increased consumption for health benefits. Small fruits are rich in antioxidants which help prevent adverse effects of aging, cancer, and heart diseases. Acc...

  3. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  4. Unfolding the Berry curvature of supercell calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo

    2014-03-01

    Unfolding band structures of supercell calculations has become a valuable tool for visualizing the influence of point impurities on the electronic states in crystals. In the same spirit, we introduce a procedure which maps the k-space Berry curvature of the occupied states from the small BZ of a supercell onto the normal BZ of the perfect (or virtual) crystal. As an application, we analyze the k-space distribution of the unfolded curvature of bcc Fe1-xCox ordered alloys, to better understand the influence of alloying on the anomalous Hall conductivity. Comparing with the ordinary curvature calculated in the virtual-crystal approximation, we find that the lowering of translational symmetry by the Co ``impurities'' introduces ``extrinsic'' contributions, which correlate with changes in the spectral function near the Fermi surface. In particular, the unfolded curvature displays additional sharp peaks associated with low-energy pseudovertical transitions. These occur in regions of k-space where two unfolded bands, which in the virtual crystal would be separated in k-space (and therefore would not jointly contribute to its Berry curvature), lie on either side of the Fermi level and are coupled by the impurity potential.

  5. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  6. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  7. Proteomic analysis of grape berry skin responding to sunlight exclusion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ning; Cao, Yuegang; Duan, Wei; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2013-05-15

    The most obvious effect of sunlight exclusion from grape clusters is the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin so that no color develops. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to characterize the proteins isolated from berry skins that developed under sunlight exclusion versus those from sunlight-exposed berries. Among more than 1500 spots resolved in stained gels, the accumulation patterns of 96 spots differed significantly between sunlight-excluded berry skin and that of sunlight-exposed control berries. Seventy-two proteins, including 35 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated proteins, were identified and categorized. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and secondary metabolism, especially UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the key step for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin, were accumulated less in the absence of sunlight. Several isoforms of heat shock proteins were also down-regulated. The proteins that were over-accumulated in sunlight-excluded berry skin were more often related to energy production, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, protein synthesis and biogenesis of cellular components. Their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance to sunlight exclusion processes. PMID:23499453

  8. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; von Bergen, Vera; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Mo, Huanbiao; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data. PMID:23244535

  9. Classification theorem for principal fibre bundles, Berry`s phase, and exact cycle evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, A.; Boya, L.J.; Mostafazadeh, A.; Rudolph, G.

    1993-03-01

    The relation between the two mathematical interpretations of the geometric (Berry) phase is discussed, using either the fibre bundle over parameter space or over projective Hilbert space. It turns out that these two geometric constructions are linked by the classification theorem for vector bundles. The classification theorem provides the means to classify the parameter space bundles for adiabatic evolution and for non-adiabatic cyclic evolution of the statevectors.

  10. Diterpenes from the berries of Juniperus excelsa.

    PubMed

    Topçu, G; Erenler, R; Cakmak, O; Johansson, C B; Celik, C; Chai, H B; Pezzuto, J M

    1999-04-01

    From the hexane extract of berries of Juniperus excelsa, one new and four known diterpenes were isolated besides a known sesquiterpene. The structures of the known diterpenes were identified as isopimaric, isocommunic, (-)ent-trans communic and sandracopimaric acids, along with the sesquiterpene 4a-hydroxycedrol and the new compound which was elucidated as 3 alpha-acetoxylabda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-19-oic acid (juniperexcelsic acid). Cytotoxic activity of the hexane extract was investigated against a panel of cell line and found highly active against LNCaP, KB-V (+VLB) and KB-V (-VLB) cell lines. Furthermore, the hexane and methanol extracts, and the new compound were found to be moderately active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:10234860

  11. Design and features of the Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device: the concept of passive mechanical diastolic support.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Robert G

    2005-06-01

    The Laplace equation points to the importance of ventricular wall stress as a factor in heart failure development and progression. Based on animal and clinical experience with active and passive cardiomyoplasty, a synthetic passive constraint was proposed as a means of reducing excessive wall stress, and thus assuaging disease progression. The Acorn CorCap CSD Cardiac Support Device was designed to provide passive diastolic support and serve as a constraint against chronic cardiac dilation in heart failure. Basic and uncomplicated in appearance, the device nevertheless incorporates numerous sophisticated structural and functional features intended maximize therapeutic value. The device is fabricated from medical grade multifilament polyester yarn, in a specific knit construction chosen to provide structural integrity, low physical profile, pliability for intimate contact with the epicardial surface, ease of manipulation during implantation, and anisotropic compliance characteristics to encourage beneficial reverse remodeling. PMID:16258717

  12. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    PubMed

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. PMID:26717011

  13. Polyphenols pattern and correlation with antioxidant activities of berries extracts from four different populations of Sicilian Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Maggio, Antonella; La Mantia, Tommaso; Scordino, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Poli, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) is wide spread in temperate and sub-tropical zones. The consumption of its berries has been associated with health benefits especially for its high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins. In this work we investigated the polyphenolic composition and the in vitro antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, BCB and FRAP-ferrozine (FRAP-FZ) assays) of S. nigra berries, collected in four different Sicilian areas (Italy). Elderberries are considered one of the fruits with highest anthocyanins content, the amount of phenolic compounds, other than anthocyanins, is approximately 1.5 times greater than the latter. The LC-MS analyses have revealed an opposite trend in the polyphenols pattern in Sicilian populations. Moreover, a statistical correlation was found between cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and antioxidant activity evaluated by FRAP-FZ and ABTS assays. In conclusion, Sicilian S. nigra berries are appealing for its antioxidant potential and for its particularly high content of anthocyanins. PMID:24666289

  14. A black berry that is not a blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberries and blackberries, unlike black raspberries, are widespread and familiar. Most consumers rarely encounter black raspberries; consequently, they frequently confuse fresh black raspberries with common cane berries. Recognition and appreciation of black raspberries can be improved with c...

  15. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 2, 1977 SECOND FLOOR, DETAIL OF WINDOW MOLDINGS AND RADIATOR - Kamm Building, 111 North Main Street, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  16. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    PubMed

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  17. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 18, 1977 FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF MOSAIC TILED FLOOR - Mishawaka Trust & Savings Company, North Main Street & Lincolnway West, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 21, 1977 FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF MOSAIC TILE FLOOR PATTERN - Kamm Building, 111 North Main Street, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer November 8, 1977 NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION WITH DETAIL OF WOODEN BATTEN ACCESS DOOR TO LOWER LEVEL - 111 West First Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  20. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    PubMed Central

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 19, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 19, 1977 123 NORTH MAIN STREET, DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WITH ORNAMENTAL 'K' INSIGNIA ON 123 - 121-125 North Main Street (Commercial Building), Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  2. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  3. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  4. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  5. Optimization of capillary isotachophoretic method for determination of major macroelements in blue honeysuckle berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) and related products.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, Tomasz; Abogado, Dionna; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-08-01

    A reliable and repeatable isotachophoretic method for the simultaneous determination of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and ammonium in berries of different blue honeysuckle cultivars was developed. The usefulness of the complex-forming equilibria in determining the cations mentioned above was studied. The addition of 7.5 mM 18-crown-6 and 2 mM α-hydroxyisobutyric acid to sulfuric acid enhanced the separation capacity of the leading electrolyte. The terminating electrolyte of 10 mM TRIS buffered to pH 4.30 was chosen as most appropriate for these studies. An ultrasound-assisted procedure for the extraction of macroelements from dried fruit of Lonicera caerulea L. was investigated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental design showed the optimal extraction conditions as follows: temperature of 36 °C, extraction time of 42.3 min and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:800 v/w. Detection limits for the method ranged from 0.030 to 0.097 mg/l with precision expressed by RSD ranging from 1.4 % for Mg to 4.4 % for Na. The results showed that blue honeysuckle berries are a good source of potassium, from 199 to 402 mg/100 g FW, especially 'Zielona' and 'Zojka' cultivars. The average content of other analytes in these berries was 5.2 mg Na, 24.8 mg Ca, 7.5 mg Mg and 52.0 mg ammonium per 100 g FW. The berry products contained lower amounts of minerals especially Mg and K. However, a glass of freshly squeezed juice can provide almost 20 % of the RDI of potassium. The results obtained using both the developed isotachophoretic method and ion chromatographic procedure did not differ significantly. PMID:24908404

  6. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  7. Non-Abelian Berry-s phase effects and optical pumping of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Segert, J.

    1987-11-01

    We predict experimentally verifiable manifestations of non-Abelian Berry's phase effects for atoms in external collinear electric and magnetic fields. The field strengths are arranged so as to cause accidental degeneracy between atomic states. The relevant theoretical results, which have been presented in detail elsewhere, are summarized and explained. We propose an experiment using optically pumped metastable multiplets of Pb/sup 208/ in an atomic beam apparatus to test these predictions. We estimate required experimental parameters, and conclude that the proposed experiment can realistically be performed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They

  9. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  10. Berry phase oscillations in a one-dimensional Dirac comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, William; Cassera, Nicholas; Rave, Matthew

    In quantum mechanics, the Berry phase is a geometric phase acquired by a wave function over the course of a cycle, when subjected to adiabatic processes. In general, this phase is due to the geometry of the underlying parameter space and thus depends only on the path taken. In any system described by a periodic potential, the torus topology of the Brillouin zone itself can lead to such a phase. In this work, we numerically calculate the Berry phase for a one-dimensional Dirac comb described by N distinct wells per unit cell. As expected, the resulting Berry phase exhibits a rich band-dependence. In the case where N = 2 , we find that the Berry phase corresponding to the nth energy band oscillates such that γn (x) =An sin (πx) cos [ (2 n - 1) πx ] , where An is a band-dependent constant and 0 < x < 1 is the relative position of the two wells. This expression, obtained using perturbation theory, gives excellent agreement with exact numerical results, even at low energy levels. The Berry phase exhibits a similar behavior for cases where N > 2 .

  11. Steamed American ginseng berry: ginsenoside analyses and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Bin; Song, Wen-Xin; Wang, Anbao; Ni, Ming; Luo, Xiaoji; Aung, Han H; Xie, Jing-Tian; Tong, Robin; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2006-12-27

    This study was designed to determine the changes in saponin content in American ginseng berries after treatment by heating and to assess the anticancer effects of the extracts. After steaming treatment (100-120 degrees C for 1 h, and 120 degrees C for 0.5-4 h), the content of seven ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, and Rd, decreased; the content of five ginsenosides, Rh1, Rg2, 20R-Rg2, Rg3, and Rh2, increased. Rg3, a previously identified anticancer ginsenoside, increased significantly. Two hours of steaming at 120 degrees C increased the content of ginsenoside Rg3 to a greater degree than other tested ginsenosides. When human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL steamed berry extract (120 degrees C 2 h), the antiproliferation effects were 97.8% for HCT-116 and 99.6% for SW-480 cells. At the same treatment concentration, the effects of unsteamed berry extract were 34.1% for HCT-116 and 4.9% for SW-480 cells. After staining with Hoechst 33258, apoptotic cells increased significantly by treatment with steamed berry extract compared with unheated extracts. Induction of apoptosis activity was confirmed by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V/PI. The steaming of American ginseng berries augments ginsenoside Rg3 content and increases the antiproliferative effects on two human colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:17177524

  12. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins. PMID:26515081

  13. Xenobiotic metabolism and berry flavonoid transport across the blood brain barrier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A compelling body of literature suggests berry phytochemicals play beneficial roles in reversing age-related cognitive impairment and protect against neurodegenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are bioactive phytochemicals in berries suspected to be responsible for some of these neuroprotective effect...

  14. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  15. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product. PMID:26593604

  16. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    PubMed

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  17. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo)

    PubMed Central

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M.; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2010-01-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  18. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  19. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  20. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  1. Preparation and characterization of acorn starch/poly(lactic acid) composites modified with functionalized vegetable oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouhai; Xia, Jianling; Xu, Yuzhi; Yang, Xuejuan; Mao, Wei; Huang, Kun

    2016-05-20

    Composites of acorn starch (AS) and poly(1actic acid) (PLA) modified with dimer fatty acid (DFA) or dimer fatty acid polyamide (DFAPA) were produced by a hot-melt extrusion method. The effects of DFA and DFAPA contents on the mechanical, hydrophobic, thermal properties and melt fluidity of the composites were studied under an invariable AS-to-PLA mass ratio of 40/60. SEM and DMA research results show that the compatibility of AS/PLA composites are determined by the dosage of DFA or DFAPA. The hydrophobicity and melt fluidity of composites are improved with the addition of DFA and DFAPA. The glass transition temperatures of the composites are all reduced remarkably by additives DFA and DFAPA. However, DFA and DFAPA exert different effects on the mechanical properties of AS/PLA composites. In the DFAPA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength first increase and then decrease with the increase of DFAPA dosage; the mechanical strength is maximized when the dosage of DFAPA is 2 wt% of total weight. In the DFA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength decrease with the increase of DFA dosage. PMID:26917397

  2. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  3. Current SWD IPM tactics and their practical implementation in fruit crops across different regions around the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its first detection in 2008, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, has emerged as an important invasive insect pest in North America and Europe. The highly polyphagous fly is a major threat to many economically important small fruit crops including cherries and berries. It i...

  4. Soft Fruit Traceability in Food Matrices using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Luisa; Bozza, Elisa; Giongo, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed a very sensible qualitative and quantitative method to determine the presence of berry DNAs in different food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the applicability, to Soft Fruit traceability, of melting curve analysis and multiplexed fluorescent probes, in a Real-Time PCR platform. This methodology aims to protect the consumer from label misrepresentation. PMID:22253987

  5. Abscisic Acid Stimulates a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Grape Berry1[W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Chun; Li, Mei-Jun; Gao, Gui-Feng; Feng, Hai-Zhong; Geng, Xue-Qing; Peng, Chang-Cao; Zhu, Sai-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that calcium plays a central role in mediating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, but many of the Ca2+-binding sensory proteins as the components of the ABA-signaling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here we identified, characterized, and purified a 58-kD ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase from the mesocarp of grape berries (Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca), designated ACPK1 (for ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase1). ABA stimulates ACPK1 in a dose-dependent manner, and the ACPK1 expression and enzyme activities alter accordantly with the endogenous ABA concentrations during fruit development. The ABA-induced ACPK1 stimulation appears to be transient with a rapid effect in 15 min but also with a slow and steady state of induction after 60 min. ABA acts on ACPK1 indirectly and dependently on in vivo state of the tissues. Two inactive ABA isomers, (−)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA and 2-trans, 4-trans-(±)-ABA, are ineffective for inducing ACPK1 stimulation, revealing that the ABA-induced effect is stereo specific to physiological active (+)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA. The other phytohormones such as auxin indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, synthetic cytokinin N-benzyl-6-aminopurine, and brassinolide are also ineffective in this ACPK1 stimulation. Based on sequencing of the two-dimensional electrophoresis-purified ACPK1, we cloned the ACPK1 gene. The ACPK1 is expressed specifically in grape berry covering a fleshy portion and seeds, and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. We further showed that ACPK1 is localized in both plasma membranes and chloroplasts/plastids and positively regulates plasma membrane H+-ATPase in vitro, suggesting that ACPK1 may be involved in the ABA-signaling pathway. PMID:16407437

  6. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  7. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  8. Children's hedonic response to berry products: Effect of chemical composition of berries and hTAS2R38 genotype on liking.

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vaarno, Jenni; Sandell, Mari; Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Tahvonen, Raija; Viikari, Jorma; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    The hedonic response of 104 healthy children, recruited from day-care centres and schools, to 12 different berry products with varying content of added sugar was studied. The berries used as ingredients were blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Another aim of the study was to study the effects of the chemical composition of berries as well as children's hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotypes on liking. The most liked product was bilberry with yoghurt, followed by bilberry juice, dried bilberries, and lingonberry rye bread. The most disliked products were sea buckthorn juice, sea buckthorn berries with yoghurt, and oatmeal with blackcurrant powder and berry oil. High total organic acid concentration was strongly related with a poor average liking score of the berries/berry products. A total of four different alleles of hTAS2R38 gene were observed in the study. Of the genotyped children, 45% were bitter taste insensitive individuals of the genotype AVI/AVI, and 40% were of the genotype PAV/AVI. Children of the genotype PAV/AVI were reported using more vegetables, but not berries, than the AVI/AVI children. The results also show that the liking scores of the children of the AVI/AVI, PAV/AVI, and PAV/PAV genotypes differed from each other, and that the familiarity of a berry product is likely to be an important factor in liking. PMID:22953845

  9. The Berry Connection of the Ginzburg-Landau Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Ákos

    2016-06-01

    We analyze 2-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau vortices at critical coupling, and establish asymptotic formulas for the tangent vectors of the vortex moduli space using theorems of Taubes and Bradlow. We then compute the corresponding Berry curvature and holonomy in the large area limit.

  10. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  11. Alternative Storage for Germplasm of Native Hawaiian Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ohelo berry (Vaccinium reticulatum Smith) is a small, native shrub commonly found in disturbed, open sites at 640 to 3700 meter elevation on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The shrub is very hardy with compact form and bright waxy red new growth. Three cultivars: Kilauea, Red Button, and Nene were s...

  12. Alternative storage for germplasm of native hawaiian berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ohelo (Vaccinium reticulatum Smith) is a small, native shrub commonly found in disturbed, open sites at 640 to 3700 meter elevation on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The shrub is very hardy with compact form and bright waxy red new growth. Three Ohelo berry cultivars: Kilauea, Red Button, and Nene ...

  13. Rural Philosophy for Education: Wendell Berry's Tradition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This ERIC Digest reviews past and present rural educational philosophy, focusing on the views of Wendell Berry, a Kentucky farmer and novelist who in recent years has emerged as a leading American philosopher. The major difference underlying rural and urban living is the relationship of people with nature. Rural living is much more closely related…

  14. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity; frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune fun...

  15. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  16. Viruses of berry crops: Emerging, newly identified, and getting around

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial crops offer great advantages to viruses in terms of adaptation and evolution since they avoid vector imposed evolutionary bottlenecks. There are 30 genera of plant viruses known to infect berry crops with many of the viruses recently identified. It is likely there will be 4 new virus gener...

  17. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  18. The National Clean Plant Network for Berries in Corvallis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clean plant program at the USDA-ARS in Corvallis, Oregon was initiated in 1967 in cooperation with the Oregon and Washington State Departments of Agriculture and berry growers in the region. The program officially became part of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) in 2009 with the establish...

  19. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and neuroactive properties of selected fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Heim, Kelly C; Angers, Paul; Léonhart, Sebastien; Ritz, Barry W

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Dietary botanicals with salient health benefits include berries and leafy vegetables. Molecular pharmacology research has ascribed these benefits primarily to phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity. The current investigation sought to eluicidate pharmacologic activity of two novel preparations of berry and spinach extracts in vitro. Blueberry and cranberry exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity. In a dose-dependent manner, a proprietary mixture of cranberry and blueberry extracts inhibited inhibitor of κB kinase β, a central node in inflammatory signal transduction. A proprietary mixture of blueberry, strawberry, and spinach extracts inhibited prolyl endopeptidase, a regulator of central neuropeptide stability and an emerging therapeutic target in neurology and psychiatry. These results indicate specific molecular targets of blended dietary plants with potential relevance to inflammation and neurological health. PMID:22871089

  1. Mis-expression of a PISTILLATA-like MADS box gene prevents fruit development in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Lucie; Chaïb, Jamila; Martinez-Zapater, José-Miguel; Thomas, Mark R; Torregrosa, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    The FLESHLESS BERRY (Flb) somatic variant identified in the grapevine cultivar Ugni Blanc develops grape berries without flesh, suggesting a role for the altered gene in differentiation of flesh cells. Here we describe identification of the molecular defect responsible for this phenotype. Using a combination of genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we detected the insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in the promoter region of the PISTILLATA-like (VvPI) gene, the grapevine homologue of Arabidopsis PISTILLATA. The transposon insertion causes specific ectopic expression of the corresponding VvPI allele during early fruit development, causing expression of genes specific for petal and stamen development within the fruit. A causal relationship between the insertion and the phenotype was demonstrated by phenotypic and molecular analyses of somatic revertants showing that ectopic expression and mutant phenotype were always linked to the presence of the transposon insertion. The various phenotypic effects of the flb mutation on ovary morphology, fruit set and fruit development, depending on the cell lineage affected, are presented for each phenotype, offering new insights into floral and fleshly fruit development. The results highlight the importance of VvPI repression after fertilization to achieve normal fleshy fruit development, and the complex genetic, genomic and cellular interactions required for the flower to fruit transition in grapevine. PMID:23181568

  2. Determination of trace elements in soil, leaves and fruits of Quercus brantii grown in southwestern Iran by atomic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, A.; Samadi-Maybodi, A.; Khodadoust, S.

    2013-09-01

    Quercus brantii acorn is rich of some useful mineral elements such as K, Fe and Zn. The content of these mineral elements in Quercus are dependent on their region and environmental conditions. Q. brantii grown naturally in different regions of Iran especially in Kohgiloye va Boyer Ahmad province (southwestern of Iran). In this study total concentration of Fe, Zn and K elements were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy in fruits, leaves of Q. brantii and also in the soils where this plant was grown. Statistical evaluation (ANOVA test) was employed for all measurements. Results confirmed that the concentration of elements in fruit and leave depended on area which the plant is growth. The transport factor of elements was also considered.

  3. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin. PMID:27095736

  4. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  5. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  6. Analysis of Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Bioactive Compounds Content in Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) Berries.

    PubMed

    Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Oszmiański, Jan; Golis, Tomasz

    2015-04-29

    The aim of this study was to determine selected phytochemicals in berries of eight sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides subsp. mongolica) cultivars, including lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. In the experiment chromatographic analyses, GC (phytosterols and fatty acids), UPLC-PDA-FL, LC-MS (polyphenols), and HPLC (L-ascorbic acid), as well spectrophotometric method (total carotenoids) were used. The lipid fraction isolated from whole fruit contained 14 phytosterols (major compounds β-sitosterol > 24-methylenecykloartanol > squalene) and 11 fatty acids in the order MUFAs > SFAs > PUFAs. Carotenoids occurred in concentrations between 6.19 and 23.91 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) (p < 0.05). The major polyphenol group identified in berries was flavonols (mean content of 311.55 mg/100 g fw), with the structures of isorhamnetin (six compounds), quercetin (four compounds), and kaempferol (one compound) glycosides. Examined sea buckthorn cultivars were characterized also by a high content of L-ascorbic acid in a range from 52.86 to 130.97 mg/100 g fw (p < 0.05). PMID:25893239

  7. Metabolomic-Based Strategy for Fingerprinting of Sambucus nigra L. Berry Volatile Terpenoids and Norisoprenoids: Influence of Ripening and Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ângelo C; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Silvestre, Armando J D; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-07-01

    The integration of plant metabolomics to support preharvest fruit development studies can provide important insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved and lately support producers on harvesting management. A metabolomic-based strategy for fingerprinting of volatile terpenoids and norisoprenoids from Sambucus nigra L. berries from three cultivars, through ripening, was established. From 42 monoterpenic, 20 sesquiterpenic, and 14 norisoprenoid compounds, 48 compounds are reported for the first time as S. nigra berries components. Chemometric tools revealed that ripening was the factor that influenced more the volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters (pH, TS, and TSS), followed by cultivar. For the unripe stages, a higher overall content of the studied metabolites was observed, which gradually decreased over the ripening stages, being consistent for the three cultivars. These trends were mainly ruled by limonene, p-cymene, aromadendrene, β-caryophyllene, and dihydroedulan, which might therefore be used by producers as an additional simple decision making tool in conjunction with physicochemical parameters. PMID:27348582

  8. The antioxidant level of Alaska’s wild berries: high, higher and highest

    PubMed Central

    Dinstel, Roxie Rodgers; Cascio, Julie; Koukel, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska’s wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion Alaska wild berries have

  9. Identification of Iridoids in Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja Z; Fecka, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Iridoid profiles of honeysuckle berry were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ions mode. The MS fragmentation pathways of detected iridoid glycosides were also studied in both modes. In the negative ESI mass spectra, iridoids with a methyl ester or lactone structure have preferentially produced adduct [M + HCOOH - H](-) ions. However, protonated ions of molecular fragments, which were released by glycosidic bond cleavage and following fragmentation of aglycone rings, were more usable for iridoid structure analysis. In addition, the neutral losses of H₂O, CO, CO₂, CH₃OH, acetylene, ethenone and cyclopropynone have provided data confirming the presence of functional substituents in the aglycone. Among the 13 iridoids, 11 were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time: pentosides of loganic acid (two isomers), pentosides of loganin (three isomers), pentosyl sweroside, and additionally 7-epi-loganic acid, 7-epi-loganin, sweroside, secologanin, and secoxyloganin. The five pentoside derivatives of loganic acid and loganin have not been previously detected in the analyzed species. Honeysuckle berries are a source of iridoids with different structures, compounds that are rarely present in fruits. PMID:27598106

  10. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  11. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  12. Modeling of the sorption and diffusion processes of volatile organic air pollutants in grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Górna-Binkul, A; Kaczmarski, K; Buszewski, B

    2001-06-01

    A mathematical model for the description of the sorption and diffusion processes of gaseous toluene and p-xylene in fruits of grape has been proposed. This model is based on the Fick's II low regarding a particle with a spherical shape (such as the berry of grapevine) and describes changes of air pollutant concentrations in different layers of the fruit, that is, the wax, peel, and pulp, during an exposure to contaminated air. The mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients in the respective layers can be estimated using the experimental values. The theoretical data and the results from the exposure under steady-state laboratory conditions were compared and showed a good applicability of the proposed model for the prediction of volatile air pollutant partitioning in grape berries. PMID:11409983

  13. Representation of Berry phase by the trajectories of Majorana stars.

    PubMed

    Liu, H D; Fu, L B

    2014-12-12

    The Majorana's stellar representation, which represents the evolution of a quantum state with the trajectories of the Majorana stars on a Bloch sphere, provides an intuitive way to study a physical system with a high dimensional projective Hilbert space. In this Letter, we study the Berry phase by these stars and their loops on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the Berry phase of a general spin state can be expressed by an elegant formula with the solid angles of Majorana star loops. Furthermore, these results can be used to a general state with arbitrary dimensions. To demonstrate our theory, we study a two mode interacting boson system. Finally, the relation between stars' correlations and quantum entanglement is discussed. PMID:25541754

  14. Observation of Berry's Phase in a Superconducting Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leek, P. J.; Fink, J. M.; Blais, A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2008-03-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance [1]. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment [2]. This is achieved utilising the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in Circuit QED [3]. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing. [1] J.A. Jones et al, Nature 403, 869 (2000) [2] P.J. Leek et al, Science, 22 November 2007 (10.1126/science.1149858) [3] A. Wallraff et al, Nature 431, 162 (2004)

  15. Representation of Berry Phase by the Trajectories of Majorana Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. D.; Fu, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Majorana's stellar representation, which represents the evolution of a quantum state with the trajectories of the Majorana stars on a Bloch sphere, provides an intuitive way to study a physical system with a high dimensional projective Hilbert space. In this Letter, we study the Berry phase by these stars and their loops on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the Berry phase of a general spin state can be expressed by an elegant formula with the solid angles of Majorana star loops. Furthermore, these results can be used to a general state with arbitrary dimensions. To demonstrate our theory, we study a two mode interacting boson system. Finally, the relation between stars' correlations and quantum entanglement is discussed.

  16. Steroidal glycoalkaloids from the berries of Solanum distichum.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Sameh; Fawzy, Nermeen; Darweesh, Nebal; Orihara, Yutaka

    2008-01-20

    Two steroidal glycoalkaloids, Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1' --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (2) commonly known as alpha-chanonine and beta 2-chanonine, were isolated from the berries of Solanum distichum. The structures of the isolated compounds were studied by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and FAB MS analysis. The 13C NMR signal assignments and direct elucidation of the glycoside linkages were established. Glycoalkaloids level in the dried berries, determined by a simple colorimetric method, was found to be 5.08 +/- 0.18 g%. PMID:18075898

  17. Berry-phase description of topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-05-01

    We study a class of translational-invariant insulators with discrete rotational symmetry. These insulators have no spin-orbit coupling, and in some cases have no time-reversal symmetry either; i.e., the relevant symmetries are purely crystalline. Nevertheless, topological phases exist which are distinguished by their robust surface modes. Like many well-known topological phases, their band topology is unveiled by the crystalline analog of Berry phases, i.e., parallel transport across certain noncontractible loops in the Brillouin zone. We also identify certain topological phases without any robust surface modes; they are uniquely distinguished by parallel transport along bent loops, whose shapes are determined by the symmetry group. Our findings have experimental implications in cold-atom systems, where the crystalline Berry phase has been directly measured.

  18. Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Pereira, Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta; da Silva, Thais Lomônaco Teodoro; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature. PMID:24629981

  19. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-30

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  20. Generalized Berry conjecture and mode correlations in chaotic plates.

    PubMed

    Akolzin, Alexei; Weaver, Richard L

    2004-10-01

    We consider a modification of the Berry conjecture for eigenmode statistics in wave-bearing systems. The eigenmode correlator is conjectured to be proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function. The generalization is applicable not only to scalar waves in the interior of homogeneous isotropic systems where the correlator is a Bessel function, but to arbitrary points of heterogeneous systems as well. In view of recent experimental measurements, expressions for the intensity correlator in chaotic plates are derived. PMID:15600500

  1. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  2. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  3. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  4. Optical control of Berry phase in a diamond spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yale, Christopher G.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Zhou, Brian B.; Awschalom, David D.; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido

    Geometric phase, a fascinating quantum mechanical phenomenon that arises from cyclic state evolution, is a promising avenue to realize fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical approach to accumulate a geometric phase, or Berry phase, within a solid-state spin qubit, the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. With stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), we evolve two light fields to cycle the resulting dark state of a low temperature lambda system in a `tangerine slice' trajectory that we examine through time-resolved state tomography. This type of trajectory acquires a Berry phase which we then measure through phase comparison to a reference state. We then probe the limits of this control as a result of adiabatic breakdown for short timescales and unintended excitation driven by far-detuned optical fields that accumulate for long timescales. We also investigate the intrinsic resilience of this Berry phase to noise introduced into the system, which is the focus of the following talk. As an all-optical approach, this geometric control represents a pathway to the development of optical geometric gates in the solid state. This work is supported by the AFOSR, the NSF, and the German Research Foundation.

  5. Extract of acai-berry inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Brito, C; Stavroullakis, A T; Ferreira, A C; Li, K; Oliveira, T; Nogueira-Filho, G; Prakki, A

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is the major cellular event responsible for bone loss and is triggered by inflammation. Acai-berry has proven anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is a lack of evidence for its effects on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether acai-berry extract (ABE) could inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in vitro. The secretion of cytokines by osteoclasts has been also evaluated. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with RANKL (50ng/mL) and treated with various concentrations of ABE (25-100μg/mL) to verify: cell viability (MTT), total protein concentration (BCA), osteoclast differentiation and activity, and cytokine secretion. Cell viability and protein assays showed no toxicity to RAW cells for the tested ABE concentrations (p>0.05). ABE also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and hydroxylapatite resorption assay, respectively (p<0.05). ABE decreased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1α, -6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha while increasing the secretion of IL-3, -4, -13 and interferon gamma when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Results of this study showed that acai-berry extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity possibly due to the modulation of a vast number of cytokines produced by osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:27054700

  6. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms. PMID:25868907

  7. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  8. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested. PMID:19722520

  9. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  10. Development of the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II).

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between -1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries. PMID:25664430

  11. Development of the Second Generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between −1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries. PMID:25664430

  12. Assessment of berry fruit's effects on mobility and cognition in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in aging, in both animals and humans, include parallel decrements in mobility and cognition, even in the absence of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Diet has long been known to influence aging; however, specific whole foods are now being investigated for t...

  13. Does position in the canopy affect fruit bud and berry development in highbush blueberry?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a 7-year-old field of certified organic highbush blueberry. Plants were grown on raised beds, and treatments included ‘Duke’ and ‘Liberty’ plants mulched with 1) weed mat or compost topped with sawdust and 2) fertilized with feather meal or fish emulsion. One-year-old frui...

  14. Prediciting Berry Splitting Indices in Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush Blueberries Using Fruit Firmness as an Indicator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rain-related splitting can be a major problem in blueberries often reducing marketable yields and thus profit by 14-30%. If a few key factors that cause splitting in blueberries could be identified, these factors could be evaluated in new potential cultivars thus reducing the chance that cultivars...

  15. Preserving brain function in aging: The anti-glycative potential of berry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produc...

  16. Human cognition and mobility in aging: a model for berry fruit interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in motor function in aging, in both animals and humans, include decrements in balance, strength, and coordination, even in the absence of specific movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. In humans, these alterations can increase fall risk, often leading to injury and premature nursin...

  17. Effects of Berry Fruits on Neurocognitive Deficits Produced by Exposure to Space Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to different types of radiation than experienced in low-earth orbit. In addition to its carcinogenic effects, cosmic rays have the potential to cause neurocognitive deficits which can interfere with the successful completion ...

  18. Berries reduce postprandial insulin responses to wheat and rye breads in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Riitta; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Sarkkinen, Essi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Niskanen, Leo

    2013-04-01

    Starch in white wheat bread (WB) induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. For rye bread (RB), the glucose response is similar, whereas the insulin response is lower. In vitro studies suggest that polyphenol-rich berries may reduce digestion and absorption of starch and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the effects of berries consumed with WB or RB on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Healthy females (n = 13-20) participated in 3 randomized, controlled, crossover, 2-h meal studies. They consumed WB or RB, both equal to 50 g available starch, with 150 g whole-berry purée or the same amount of bread without berries as reference. In study 1, WB was served with strawberries, bilberries, or lingonberries and in study 2 with raspberries, cloudberries, or chokeberries. In study 3, WB or RB was served with a mixture of berries consisting of equal amounts of strawberries, bilberries, cranberries, and blackcurrants. Strawberries, bilberries, lingonberries, and chokeberries consumed with WB and the berry mixture consumed with WB or RB significantly reduced the postprandial insulin response. Only strawberries (36%) and the berry mixture (with WB, 38%; with RB, 19%) significantly improved the glycemic profile of the breads. These results suggest than when WB is consumed with berries, less insulin is needed for maintenance of normal or slightly improved postprandial glucose metabolism. The lower insulin response to RB compared with WB can also be further reduced by berries. PMID:23365108

  19. Signatures of the Berry curvature in the frequency dependent interlayer magnetoresistance in tilted magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony R; McKenzie, Ross H

    2014-02-26

    We show that in a layered metal, the angle dependent, finite frequency, interlayer magnetoresistance is altered due to the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature at the Fermi surface. At zero frequency, we find a conservation law which demands that the 'magic angle' condition for interlayer magnetoresistance extrema as a function of magnetic field tilt angle is essentially both field and Berry curvature independent. In the finite frequency case, however, we find that surprisingly large signatures of a finite Berry curvature occur in the periodic orbit resonances. We outline a method whereby the presence and magnitude of the Berry curvature at the Fermi surface can be extracted. PMID:24501195

  20. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Stone, Shirley; Yasmin, Taharat; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Vinson, Joe A; Bagchi, Debasis

    2007-06-01

    Edible berries, a potential source of natural anthocyanin antioxidants, have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include cardiovascular disorders, advancing age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and diverse degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protect genomic DNA integrity. This chapter demonstrates the beneficial effects of wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds, and strawberry in human health and disease prevention. Furthermore, this chapter will discuss the pharmacological benefits of a novel combination of selected berry extracts known as OptiBerry, a combination of wild blueberry, wild bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds, and strawberry, and its potential benefit over individual berries. Recent studies in our laboratories have demonstrated that OptiBerry exhibits high antioxidant efficacy as shown by its high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, novel antiangiogenic and antiatherosclerotic activities, and potential cytotoxicity towards Helicobacter pylori, a noxious pathogen responsible for various gastrointestinal disorders including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, as compared to individual berry extracts. OptiBerry also significantly inhibited basal MCP-1 and inducible NF-kappabeta transcriptions as well as the inflammatory biomarker IL-8, and significantly reduced the ability to form hemangioma and markedly decreased EOMA cell-induced tumor growth in an in vivo model. Overall, berry anthocyanins trigger genetic signaling in promoting human health and disease prevention. PMID:17533652

  1. Anthocyans from fruits and vegetables--does bright colour signal cancer chemopreventive activity?

    PubMed

    Cooke, Darren; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J; Marczylo, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Consumption of fruits and berries has been associated with decreased risk of developing cancer. The most abundant flavonoid constituents of fruits and berries are anthocyans (i.e. anthocyanins, glycosides, and their aglycons, anthocyanidins) that cause intense colouration. In this review, we describe epidemiological evidence hinting at the cancer preventive activity of anthocyan-containing foods in humans, results of chemoprevention studies in rodent models with anthocyans or anthocyan-containing fruit/vegetable extracts, and pharmacological properties of anthocyans. Anthocyanidins have been shown to inhibit malignant cell survival and confound many oncogenic signalling events in the 10(-6)-10(-4) M concentration range. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins after their consumption as single agents, anthocyanin mixtures or berry extracts suggest that anthocyanins reach levels of 10(-8)-10(-7) M in human blood. It is unclear whether such concentrations are sufficient to explain anticarcinogenic effects, and whether anthocyanins exert chemopreventive efficacy themselves, or if they need to undergo hydrolysis to their aglyconic counterparts. The currently available literature provides tantalising hints of the potential usefulness of anthocyans or anthocyan mixtures as cancer chemopreventive interventions. Nevertheless further studies are necessary to help adjudge the propitiousness of their clinical development. PMID:16084717

  2. Polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antiradical activity of Italian berries from Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. gaultherioides (Bigelow) S.B. Young.

    PubMed

    Ancillotti, Claudia; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Pucci, Daniele; Sagona, Eva; Giordani, Edgardo; Biricolti, Stefano; Gori, Massimo; Petrucci, William Antonio; Giardi, Fabio; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Orlandini, Serena; Mosti, Stefano; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Total soluble polyphenols (TSP), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), radical scavenging activity (RSA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and a number of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavanols, dihydrochalcones and flavonols were investigated in Tuscan bilberry (i.e. Vaccinium myrtillus) and "false bilberry" (i.e. Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides Bigelow). V. myrtillus berries showed much higher TSP, TMA, RSA and FRAP values than V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides fruits. Moreover, very different profiles of individual phenolics were observed in the two species, being V. myrtillus mainly characterised by delphinidin and cyanidin glycosides, together with chlorogenic acid, and V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides dominated by malvidin derivatives and flavonols. Strong differences between the two species regarded also metabolites investigated herein for the first time, such as scopoletin, which was approximately two magnitude orders higher in V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides than in V. myrtillus berries. Very different abundances were also highlighted for cryptochlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-rhamnoside that were about ten-fold higher in bilberry than in "false bilberry". When the anthocyanin composition pattern of Tuscan "false bilberry" was compared to those elsewhere reported for V. uliginosum fruits harvested in different world areas, some important differences were observed. PMID:26988491

  3. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 is an important transcriptional regulator of abscisic acid-dependent grape berry ripening processes.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Philippe; Lecourieux, David; Kappel, Christian; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Cramer, Grant; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    In grape (Vitis vinifera), abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates during fruit ripening and is thought to play a pivotal role in this process, but the molecular basis of this control is poorly understood. This work characterizes ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 (VvABF2), a grape basic leucine zipper transcription factor belonging to a phylogenetic subgroup previously shown to be involved in ABA and abiotic stress signaling in other plant species. VvABF2 transcripts mainly accumulated in the berry, from the onset of ripening to the harvesting stage, and were up-regulated by ABA. Microarray analysis of transgenic grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 showed that this transcription factor up-regulates and/or modifies existing networks related to ABA responses. In addition, grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 exhibited enhanced responses to ABA treatment compared with control cells. Among the VvABF2-mediated responses highlighted in this study, the synthesis of phenolic compounds and cell wall softening were the most strongly affected. VvABF2 overexpression strongly increased the accumulation of stilbenes that play a role in plant defense and human health (resveratrol and piceid). In addition, the firmness of fruits from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants overexpressing VvABF2 was strongly reduced. These data indicate that VvABF2 is an important transcriptional regulator of ABA-dependent grape berry ripening. PMID:24276949

  4. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at vèraison

    PubMed Central

    Pilati, Stefania; Perazzolli, Michele; Malossini, Andrea; Cestaro, Alessandro; Demattè, Lorenzo; Fontana, Paolo; Dal Ri, Antonio; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Moser, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis species) is among the most important fruit crops in terms of cultivated area and economic impact. Despite this relevance, little is known about the transcriptional changes and the regulatory circuits underlying the biochemical and physical changes occurring during berry development. Results Fruit ripening in the non-climacteric crop species Vitis vinifera L. has been investigated at the transcriptional level by the use of the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip® which contains approximately 14,500 unigenes. Gene expression data obtained from berries sampled before and after véraison in three growing years, were analyzed to identify genes specifically involved in fruit ripening and to investigate seasonal influences on the process. From these analyses a core set of 1477 genes was found which was similarly modulated in all seasons. We were able to separate ripening specific isoforms within gene families and to identify ripening related genes which appeared strongly regulated also by the seasonal weather conditions. Transcripts annotation by Gene Ontology vocabulary revealed five overrepresented functional categories of which cell wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms and stress response were specifically induced during the ripening phase, while photosynthesis was strongly repressed. About 19% of the core gene set was characterized by genes involved in regulatory processes, such as transcription factors and transcripts related to hormonal metabolism and signal transduction. Auxin, ethylene and light emerged as the main stimuli influencing berry development. In addition, an oxidative burst, previously not detected in grapevine, characterized by rapid accumulation of H2O2 starting from véraison and by the modulation of many ROS scavenging enzymes, was observed. Conclusion The time-course gene expression analysis of grapevine berry development has identified the occurrence of two well distinct phases along the

  5. Berry morphology and composition in irrigated and non-irrigated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Nuzzo, Vitale; Tataranni, Giuseppe; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Scopa, Antonio

    2012-07-15

    The present study was carried out in a 5-year-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Aglianico) located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were fully irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIRR). In both of the treatments, plant water status, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and productive performance were determined. The arid conditions resulted in significant decreases in stem water potential in NIRR (minimum values of -1.34 and -1.52 MPa in IRR and NIRR, respectively). The values of yield per plant, cluster weight and total berry weight were significantly higher in IRR. Grape berries were separated into four weight classes, and morphometric and microscopic analyses were carried out to measure and calculate berry skin characteristics. Irrigation determined a marked shift toward heavier (+23% in the class ≥ 1.25 g) and bigger (336.35 mm³ vs 299.15 mm³) berries, and induced significant changes in other morphometric berry parameters. No differences among berry weight classes and irrigation treatments were observed for berry skin thickness. In all of the berry weight classes, total anthocyanins extracted from berry skins were significantly higher in NIRR than in IRR (12301.53 and 9585.52 mg kg⁻¹ fresh berry skin, respectively), and appeared to be positively related to berry weight, whereas total flavonols were not significantly different between the two treatments. Qualitative changes in the levels of single anthocyanin and flavonol compounds were detected between IRR and NIRR. In addition, iron, copper and zinc, whose high concentration can negatively affect wine quality, were significantly higher in the IRR treatment. The results highlighted that the absence of irrigation did not determine decreases in grape quality. Such data can be of primary importance in environments where water availability is by far the most important limiting factor for plant growth. PMID:22583647

  6. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  7. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  8. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  9. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  10. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  11. Diurnal temperature range compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperatures during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...

  12. The fascinating world of berry viruses- mixed infections are the norm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the application of molecular tools for characterization of viruses in berry crops, it has become clear that many diseases previously attributed to a virus are actually caused by virus complexes. As a group, berry crops including; Fragaria, Rubus and Vaccinium, are known hosts of at least 30 gen...

  13. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. Genetic Fingerprints for Individually Quick Frozen 'Marion' Whole Berries and Puree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forensic-type approach was proposed to identify ‘Marion’ type blackberry from Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) whole berries and puree using DNA-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This approach is useful for quality control and to detect contamination from other berry products. A reliable ...

  15. Absorption of Anthocyanins from Berries: Metabolic Products and Influence of Glycoside

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are unique among the flavonoids in that they are absorbed as the intact glycoside. Berries are rich sources of anthocyanins; differences among the berries in aglycone as well as in sugar moieties provide opportunities to study factors that influence absorption/metabolism. The rel...

  16. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates.

    PubMed

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and, consequently, foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies. PMID:27607950

  17. Berry curvature as a lower bound for multiparameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhong, Wei; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Fu, Li-Bin; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2016-04-01

    Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a key concept in quantum state estimation, and Berry curvature (BC) is another basic concept to describe geometric properties of quantum states. In this paper, we consider pure states undergoing unitary parametrization processes and show that the BC serves as a lower bound for the product of QFIs corresponding to two different parameters through the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. This relation between QFI and BC implies that the estimation precisions of two different parameters are mutually restrictive due to finite BC, and the notion of QFI squeezing is introduced. A scenario of general su(2) parametrization is considered in detail to verify the relation between the QFI and BC.

  18. Berry phases and zero-modes in toroidal topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Jakson M.; Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L.; Moura-Melo, Winder A.; Pereira, Afranio R.

    2016-06-01

    An effective Hamiltonian describing the surface states of a toroidal topological insulator is obtained, and it is shown to support both bound-states and charged zero-modes. Actually, the spin connection induced by the toroidal curvature can be viewed as an position-dependent effective vector potential, which ultimately yields the zero-modes whose wave-functions harmonically oscillate around the toroidal surface. In addition, two distinct Berry phases are predicted to take place by the virtue of the toroidal topology.

  19. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  20. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  1. Hall quantization and optical conductivity evolution with variable Berry phase in the α -T3 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illes, E.; Carbotte, J. P.; Nicol, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The α -T3 model is characterized by a variable Berry phase that changes continuously from π to 0. We take advantage of this property to highlight the effects of this underlying geometrical phase on a number of physical quantities. The Hall quantization of the two limiting cases is dramatically different: a relativistic series is associated with a Berry phase of π , and a nonrelativistic series is associated with the other limit. We study the quantization of the Hall plateaus as they continuously evolve from a relativistic to a nonrelativistic regime. Additionally, we describe two physical quantities that retain knowledge of the Berry phase in the absence of a motion-inducing magnetic field. The variable Berry phase of the α -T3 model allows us to explicitly describe the Berry phase dependence of the dynamical longitudinal optical conductivity and of the angular scattering probability.

  2. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptional

  3. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  4. Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day...

  5. Berry phases emerging from the π-flux state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akihiro; Hu, Xiao

    2005-03-01

    We derive a new effective action describing fluctuations around the Affleck-Marston π-flux mean-field solution of the 2d Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The 5-dimensional Clifford algebra inherent in the Dirac fermion obtained as the continuum limit of the π-flux state is found to sustain a bulit-in competition between antiferromagnet (AF) and valence-bond-solid (VBS) orders. This naturally leads us to cast both orderings as components of a 5 component vectorial field v, for which we obtain an O(5) nonlinear sigma model with a novel Wess- Zumino (WZ) term proportional to the Mauer-Cartan form 0^1 dtd^3 x v dv dv dv dv, with t[0,1] an auxiliary variable which extends v(x) to v(t,x) in such a way that v(t=0,x)≡(0,0,0,0,1) and v(t=1,x)≡v(x) are satisfied. We study properties of Berry phases extracted from this WZ term, and recover in particular the AF hedgehog Berry phases (with a VBS core) which are central to recent studies on 2D spin liquids.

  6. Applicability of Berry's index in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Pillai, Karthigakannan Subramanian; George, Giju Baby; Varghese, Thomas; Puthalath, Mohammed Shibin; Arakkal, Leena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempts to highlight the usefulness of applying Berry's Index as an adjuvant to support and aid in bite analysis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 100 students between the ages of 18–30 from Mar Baselios Dental Collage, Kothamangalam. Out of the 100 subjects, there were 50 males and 50 females. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 16 (SPSS). Results: The mean value of the width of the upper central incisor for male and female was 0.7602 cm and 0.7765 cm respectively. The mean value of the bizygomatic width for male and female was 12.54 cm and 12.42 cm respectively. The correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width was inferred to have a good positive correlation with a value 0f 0.613. Pearson correlation coefficient with greater correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width in female patient (r = 0.678) compared with male patient (r = 0. 525). Conclusion: Berry's Index can be a useful adjuvant to bite analysis by providing a means of determining the facial proportions of an individual from the width of the central incisors. PMID:25709316

  7. Pigment identification, antioxidant activity, and nutrient composition of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) Miers ex Hook. f & Thoms fruit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-05-01

    The stem, leaf, and root of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) have been highly exploited for medicinal preparations; however, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of its attractive red berries (fruits) have not so far been studied. Pigments, berberine (107.0 mg/100 g) and lycopene (50.8 mg/100 g), were identified in the deseeded fruit. Total phenol content in the fruit was 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The IC(50) of DPPH· (82, and 468 ppm) and OH· (100, and 1,000 ppm) scavenging activity, and the EC(50) of reducing power (2,616, and 1,472 ppm) of hexane and methanol extracts, respectively, were observed. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of the fruit extracts (150 and 300 ppm) were 1,107 and 2,614 μM trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Nutrient composition including carbohydrate (18.4%), proteins (1.5%), lipids (6%) of which ∼62% was unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins like ascorbic acid (0.24 μg), niacin (0.7 mg), and tocopherols (2.4 mg) in 100 g fruits were determined. Potassium content was 1.2 g/100 g dry tissue of berries. These findings show that components of T. cordifolia fruit could be bioactive and used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. PMID:21155657

  8. Expression of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Relation to Anthocyanin, Proanthocyanidin, and Flavonol Levels during Bilberry Fruit Development1

    PubMed Central

    Jaakola, Laura; Määttä, Kaisu; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-01-01

    The production of anthocyanins in fruit tissues is highly controlled at the developmental level. We have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during the development of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit in relation to the accumulation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in wild berries and in color mutants of bilberry. The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label. These homologous probes were used for determining the expression of the flavonoid pathway genes in bilberries. The contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in ripening bilberries were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and were identified using a mass spectrometry interface. Our results demonstrate a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the flavonoid pathway genes during the ripening of berries. At the early stages of berry development, procyanidins and quercetin were the major flavonoids, but the levels decreased dramatically during the progress of ripening. During the later stages of ripening, the content of anthocyanins increased strongly and they were the major flavonoids in the ripe berry. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced. A connection between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis in bilberry was detected in this study and also in previous data collected from flavonol and anthocyanin analyses from other fruits. In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented. PMID:12376640

  9. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  10. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  11. Microbiological Study of Lactic Acid Fermentation of Caper Berries by Molecular and Culture-Dependent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Ben Omar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation of capers (the fruits of Capparis sp.) was studied by molecular and culture-independent methods. A lactic acid fermentation occurred following immersion of caper berries in water, resulting in fast acidification and development of the organoleptic properties typical of this fermented food. A collection of 133 isolates obtained at different times of fermentation was reduced to 75 after randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis. Isolates were identified by PCR or 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (37 isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 isolate), Lactobacillus pentosus (5 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (9 isolates), Lactobacillus fermentum (6 isolates), Pediococcus pentosaceus (14 isolates), Pediococcus acidilactici (1 isolate), and Enterococcus faecium (2 isolates). Cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR patterns revealed a high degree of diversity among lactobacilli (with four major groups and five subgroups), while pediococci clustered in two closely related groups. A culture-independent analysis of fermentation samples by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) also indicated that L. plantarum is the predominant species in this fermentation, in agreement with culture-dependent results. The distribution of L. brevis and L. fermentum in samples was also determined by TTGE, but identification of Pediococcus at the species level was not possible. TTGE also allowed a more precise estimation of the distribution of E. faecium, and the detection of Enterococcus casseliflavus (which was not revealed by the culture-dependent analysis). Results from this study indicate that complementary data from molecular and culture-dependent analysis provide a more accurate determination of the microbial community dynamics during caper fermentation. PMID:16332762

  12. Berries modify the postprandial plasma glucose response to sucrose in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Riitta; Sarkkinen, Essi; Tapola, Niina; Hautaniemi, Elina; Kilpi, Kyllikki; Niskanen, Leo

    2010-04-01

    Sucrose increases postprandial blood glucose concentrations, and diets with a high glycaemic response may be associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Previous studies have suggested that polyphenols may influence carbohydrate digestion and absorption and thereby postprandial glycaemia. Berries are rich sources of various polyphenols and berry products are typically consumed with sucrose. We investigated the glycaemic effect of a berry purée made of bilberries, blackcurrants, cranberries and strawberries, and sweetened with sucrose, in comparison to sucrose with adjustment of available carbohydrates. A total of twelve healthy subjects (eleven women and one man, aged 25-69 years) with normal fasting plasma glucose ingested 150 g of the berry purée with 35 g sucrose or a control sucrose load in a randomised, controlled cross-over design. After consumption of the berry meal, the plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower at 15 and 30 min (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and significantly higher at 150 min (P < 0.05) compared with the control meal. The peak glucose concentration was reached at 45 min after the berry meal and at 30 min after the control meal. The peak increase from the baseline was 1.0 mmol/l smaller (P = 0.002) after ingestion of the berry meal. There was no statistically significant difference in the 3 h area under the glucose response curve. These results show that berries rich in polyphenols decrease the postprandial glucose response of sucrose in healthy subjects. The delayed and attenuated glycaemic response indicates reduced digestion and/or absorption of sucrose from the berry meal. PMID:19930765

  13. The use of a classification of residential neighbourhoods (ACORN) to demonstrate differences in dental health of children resident within the south Birmingham health district and of different socio-economic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Elley, K M; Langford, J W

    1993-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate variations in the dental health of children living within fluoridated South Birmingham, using a classification of residential neighbourhoods (ACORN) as a descriptor of socio-economic status, and to evaluate the change in these differences over time. Five-year-old children were examined as part of the rolling programme of epidemiological surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) in 1987 and 1989/90. The ACORN classification of each child was determined from the postal code of the home address. ACORN groups were amalgamated into three ranked divisions. There was a variation in dental health both in 1987 and 1989/90; children from disadvantaged groups had the poorest dental health. There was more marked variation in 1987 than in 1989/90. The reduction in inequality during this period was due to a relatively greater improvement in the dental health of the children from the more socially deprived areas. PMID:8402299

  14. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer. PMID:20167063

  15. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  16. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  17. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band.

    PubMed

    Fläschner, N; Rem, B S; Tarnowski, M; Vogel, D; Lühmann, D-S; Sengstock, K; Weitenberg, C

    2016-05-27

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures. PMID:27230375

  18. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fläschner, N.; Rem, B. S.; Tarnowski, M.; Vogel, D.; Lühmann, D.-S.; Sengstock, K.; Weitenberg, C.

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  19. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Wei, L. F.; Jia, W. Z.; Liang, J. Q.

    2010-10-15

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  20. Flow in experimental berry aneurysms: method and model.

    PubMed

    Kerber, C W; Heilman, C B

    1983-01-01

    This study addresses two basic questions: What are the flow dynamics in aneurysms? Can these flows be modified to enhance retention of adhesive? Using Pyrex glass bifurcations, fluid flow was studied in a variety of aneurysms placed at varying positions around the bifurcations. Indicators injected into the slipstreams were recorded and studied both by stop-frame high-speed movie analysis and with 35 mm slides. Even at low-flow rates, a central slipstream strikes the apex of bifurcations, and may be partly responsible for the initial production of berry aneurysms. A low-pressure zone occurs at the lateral angle of bifurcations, probably explaining the formation of endovascular cushions. Flow into symmetrically placed narrow neck aneurysms did not occur. Indicator entered the aneurysm in a turbulent fashion only when there was orifice (lip) asymmetry. Both lip asymmetry and rapid flow favor intraaneurysmal turbulent flow. PMID:6410748

  1. Tunable graphene metasurfaces by discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Song, Shichao; Chen, Qin

    2015-12-01

    Metal-dielectric-graphene three-layer structures are proposed to improve the interaction of graphene micro- and nanostructures with incident waves, as the upper graphene cut-wire layer introduces a discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase profile. A semi-analytical method based on the Jones calculus is conducted to investigate the conversion efficiency of cross-polarized light on this graphene metasurface for circularly polarized wave incidence, which predicts that the physical constraint (25%) of cross-coupling conversion efficiency for individual graphene layers can be overcome. Numerical simulations confirm the conclusion and demonstrate an efficiency as high as 60%. Based on this mechanism, high-efficiency anomalous reflection surfaces and flat focal mirrors are designed with the tunability of reflection angles and one order of magnitude improved focusing intensity. This method paves the way to engineering high-efficiency graphene metasurfaces for tunable electromagnetic wave manipulation.

  2. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase in polarization singular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2013-04-01

    Space-variant inhomogeneously polarized field formed due to superposition of orthogonally polarized Gaussian (LG00) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) beams results in polarization singular beams with different morphology structures such as lemon, star and dipole patterns around the C-point in the beam cross-section. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase plays a critical role in the formation and characteristics of these spatially inhomogeneous fields. We present our experimental results wherein we measure the variable geometric phase by tracking the trajectory of the component vortices in the beam cross-section, by interfering with selective polarization states and by tracking different latitudes on the Poincaré sphere without the effect of a dynamic phase.

  3. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  4. Tunable graphene metasurfaces by discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase shift.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Song, Shichao; Chen, Qin

    2015-12-18

    Metal-dielectric-graphene three-layer structures are proposed to improve the interaction of graphene micro- and nanostructures with incident waves, as the upper graphene cut-wire layer introduces a discontinuous Pancharatnam-Berry phase profile. A semi-analytical method based on the Jones calculus is conducted to investigate the conversion efficiency of cross-polarized light on this graphene metasurface for circularly polarized wave incidence, which predicts that the physical constraint (25%) of cross-coupling conversion efficiency for individual graphene layers can be overcome. Numerical simulations confirm the conclusion and demonstrate an efficiency as high as 60%. Based on this mechanism, high-efficiency anomalous reflection surfaces and flat focal mirrors are designed with the tunability of reflection angles and one order of magnitude improved focusing intensity. This method paves the way to engineering high-efficiency graphene metasurfaces for tunable electromagnetic wave manipulation. PMID:26585113

  5. Observable Berry Phase for Charge Qubit in a Dissipative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Li, Yuan-hua; Xu, Hualan; Hu, Li-yun; Nie, Yi-you; Guo, L. P.; Huang, Min; Pan, Hui

    2012-09-01

    A geometric phase of open system is directly obtained from Schrödinger equation with a hermitian Hamiltonian of a two-level atomic system interacting with its reservoirs. We find that the dynamical phases are proportional to the geometric phases in terms of Weisskopf-Wigner theory in the rotational frame. Thus an effective scheme to measure the Berry phase in a charge qubit dissipative system is proposed by coherently controlling the macroscopic quantum states formed in superconducting circuits. Our approach does not need any operations to cancel the dynamical phases so as to reduce the experimental errors. Furthermore, we find that the dissipative effects can be overcome by choosing adapted parameters of the superconducting circuit.

  6. Characterization of anthocyanins from the fruits of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg).

    PubMed

    Kuskoski, E Marta; Vega, José M; Rios, José J; Fett, Roseane; Troncoso, Ana M; Asuero, Agustin G

    2003-08-27

    Anthocyanin pigments in the berries of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg), a tropical fruit from Brazil, were extracted with 0.1% HCl in ethanol, and the crude anthocyanin extract was purified by Amberlite XAD-7 open-column chromatography. Six major anthocyanins were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (TLC, UV-vis, MS, and (1)H NMR). Delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, petunidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, pelargonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, and malvidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside were identified. On the basis of chromatographic data the total anthocyanin content was 342 mg/100 g of fresh baguaçu berries. Therefore, the concomitant presence of six anthocyanins in a single plant species makes this product promising as a new pigment source. PMID:12926896

  7. Breeding and biotechnology for improving berry nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Jessica; Battino, Maurizio; Costantini, Elisa; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to increase the content of specific bioactive components of plants, but the manipulation of plant metabolism is still not easy to address. There is an increasing awareness that multiple genetic and environmental factors affect production and accumulation of bioactive compounds, but these factors are rarely taken into account when fruit is marketed. Rigorous and unprejudiced evaluation of scientific evidence requires a defined set of criteria and methods of evaluation, particularly when breeding and biotech programs are aimed of producing new varieties with improved nutritional values combined with high plant production efficiency and fruit quality. In order to develop new genotypes and commercial cultivars the availability of new sources of Quality Attributes (QA) and Nutritional Attributes (NA) should be explored. In the strawberry, wild species such as F. virginiana glauca and F. vesca are good sources of bioactive compounds, but in raspberries the introduction of the wild germplasm (R. parvifolium) did not improve the nutritional quality of fruit. The methods available for detecting fruit TAC, combined with TPH and other quality parameters such as sugars, total acidity and fruit color, can be proposed as excellent tools for developing a fast and reliable program for screening large breeding populations for high nutritional quality genotypes. Furthermore, NA can represent a useful tool to facilitate analysis of "substantial equivalence" of transgenic and control derived fruit. PMID:16498208

  8. Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Snyder, Crystal L.; Schroeder, William R.; Cram, Dustin; Datla, Raju; Wishart, David; Weselake, Randall J.; Krishna, Priti

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy, fruit-producing plant known historically for its medicinal and nutraceutical properties. The most recognized product of sea buckthorn is its fruit oil, composed of seed oil that is rich in essential fatty acids, linoleic (18∶2ω-6) and α-linolenic (18∶3ω-3) acids, and pulp oil that contains high levels of monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (16∶1ω-7). Sea buckthorn is fast gaining popularity as a source of functional food and nutraceuticals, but currently has few genomic resources; therefore, we explored the fatty acid composition of Canadian-grown cultivars (ssp. mongolica) and the sea buckthorn seed transcriptome using the 454 GS FLX sequencing technology. Results GC-MS profiling of fatty acids in seeds and pulp of berries indicated that the seed oil contained linoleic and α-linolenic acids at 33–36% and 30–36%, respectively, while the pulp oil contained palmitoleic acid at 32–42%. 454 sequencing of sea buckthorn cDNA collections from mature seeds yielded 500,392 sequence reads, which identified 89,141 putative unigenes represented by 37,482 contigs and 51,659 singletons. Functional annotation by Gene Ontology and computational prediction of metabolic pathways indicated that primary metabolism (protein>nucleic acid>carbohydrate>lipid) and fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis pathways were highly represented categories. Sea buckthorn sequences related to fatty acid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis were identified, and a subset of these was examined for transcript expression at four developing stages of the berry. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources represented by expressed sequences for sea buckthorn, and demonstrates that the seed oil of Canadian-grown sea buckthorn cultivars contains high levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in a close to 1∶1 ratio, which is beneficial for human health. These data provide the foundation for further studies on

  9. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  10. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  11. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol. PMID:21299394

  12. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  13. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. PMID:26851572

  14. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease. PMID:22438040

  15. From Berry's Phase to Wilson Lines in a Honeycomb Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleier-Smith, Monika

    I will report on methods for fully characterizing the topology and geometry of Bloch bands in optical lattices. Using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a momentum-resolved probe, we study a paradigmatic model system, the honeycomb lattice. Its salient features are two Dirac points, each producing a half-quantum of Berry flux similar to the magnetic flux of an infinitesimally narrow solenoid. We have detected this singular Berry flux by forming an Aharonov-Bohm-type interferometer in momentum space. Our technique is broadly applicable to mapping out the Berry curvature or directly measuring the Chern number of a single band. I will furthermore show how interband dynamics can reveal the matrix-valued Wilson line, the generalization of Berry's phase to the multi-band setting. In the simple case where the Wilson line is path-independent and Abelian, it serves as a powerful tool for tomographic reconstruction of the band eigenstates.

  16. Complementary approaches to gauge the bioavailability and distribution of ingested berry polyphenolics

    PubMed Central

    Lila, Mary Ann; Ribnicky, David; Rojo, Leonel; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Oren, Andrew; Janle, Elsa; Raskin, Ilya; Yousef, Gad G.; Grace, Mary H.

    2011-01-01

    Two different strategies for investigating the likely fate, after ingestion, of natural, bioactive berry constituents (anthocyanins and other non-nutritive flavonoids) are compared. A model of the human gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1) which mimicked the biological environment from the point of swallowing and ingestion through the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (but not the colon) was used to monitor the stability and bioaccessibility of anthocyanins from both maqui berry and wild blueberry. TIM-1 revealed that most anthocyanins were bioaccessible between the second and third hour after intake. Alternatively, biolabeled anthocyanins and other flavonoids generated in vitro from berry and grape cell cultures were administered to in vivo (rodent) models, allowing measurement and tracking of the absorption and transport of berry constituents and clearance through the urinary tract and colon. The advantages and limitations of the alternative strategies are considered. PMID:22111523

  17. [Stability and antioxidant activity of black currant and black aronia berry juices].

    PubMed

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Briedis, Vitalis

    2003-01-01

    The berries of black currant and black aronia are rich in polyphenolic compounds and especially in anthocyanins, demonstrating antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of thermal technological processes on the quantity of polyphenols and anthocyanins in berry juice concentrates, and on the antioxidant activity. After 8 hour storage of black currant and black aronia berry juice concentrates at 60 degrees C, the amount of polyphenols decreased by 46% and 22%, anthocyanins 31% and 35%, respectively. Antioxidant activity decreased by 26% and 56%, respectively. The results demonstrated insufficient stability of juice concentrates, and impropriety of application of long lasting drying processes in manufacturing of black currant and black aronia berry dry products. Fast and efficient drying methods for liquid products should be applied to preserve qualitative and quantitative composition and their antioxidant activity. PMID:14617862

  18. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  19. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

  20. Water limitation and rootstock genotype interact to alter grape berry metabolism through transcriptome reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Berdeja, Mariam; Nicolas, Philippe; Kappel, Christian; Dai, Zhan Wu; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Peccoux, Anthony; Lafontaine, Magali; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is a perennial crop often cultivated by grafting a scion cultivar on a suitable rootstock. Rootstocks influence scions, particularly with regard to water uptake and vigor. Therefore, one of the possibilities to adapt viticulture to the extended drought stress periods is to select rootstocks conferring increased tolerance to drought. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the ability of rootstock/scion combination to influence grape berry metabolism under drought stress are still poorly understood. The transcriptomic changes induced by drought stress in grape berries (cv. Pinot noir) from vines grafted on either 110R (drought-tolerant) or 125AA (drought-sensitive) rootstock were compared. The experiments were conducted in the vineyard for two years and two grape berry developmental stages (50% and 100% veraison). The genome-wide microarray approach showed that water stress strongly impacts gene expression in the berries, through ontology categories that cover cell wall metabolism, primary and secondary metabolism, signaling, stress, and hormones, and that some of these effects strongly depend on the rootstock genotype. Indeed, under drought stress, berries from vines grafted on 110R displayed a different transcriptional response compared to 125AA-concerning genes related to jasmonate (JA), phenylpropanoid metabolism, and pathogenesis-related proteins. The data also suggest a link between JA and secondary metabolism in water-stressed berries. Overall, genes related to secondary metabolism and JA are more induced and/or less repressed by drought stress in the berries grafted on the drought-sensitive rootstock 125AA. These rootstock-dependent gene expression changes are relevant for berry composition and sensory properties. PMID:26504567

  1. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    PubMed

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  2. Berry's phase in a one-dimensional quantum many-body system

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, G. )

    1994-03-01

    We study an interacting one-dimensional quantum lattice gas of massive fermions on a ring with [ital L] lattice sites. The ring is threaded by a magnetic flux corresponding to a twist in boundary conditions. We compute the periodicity of the ground state under an adiabatically increasing flux and the associated Berry's phase occurring in this process. The model has a second-order phase transition line which coincides with a line where the Berry phase changes nonanalytically.

  3. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  4. Giant Faraday rotation induced by the Berry phase in bilayer graphene under strong terahertz fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Xu, Xiaodong; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-04-01

    High-order terahertz (THz) sideband generation in semiconductors is a phenomenon with physics similar to that of high-order harmonic generation but in a regime of much lower frequency. Our previous paper [1] found that the electron-hole pair excited by a weak optical laser can accumulate a Berry phase along a cyclic trajectory under the driving of a strong elliptically polarized THz field. Furthermore, the Berry phase appears as the Faraday rotation angle of the emission signal under short-pulse excitation in monolayer MoS_{2}. In this paper, the theory of the Berry phase in THz extreme nonlinear optics is applied to biased bilayer graphene with Bernal stacking, which has similar Bloch band features and optical properties to monolayer MoS_{2}, such as the time-reversal related valleys and the valley contrasting optical selection rule. However, the biased bilayer graphene has much larger Berry curvature than monolayer MoS_{2}, which leads to a large Berry phase of the quantum trajectory and in turn a giant Faraday rotation of the optical emission (˜1 rad for a THz field with frequency 1 THz and strength 8 kV cm-1). This surprisingly big angle shows that the Faraday rotation can be induced more efficiently by the Berry curvature in momentum space than by the magnetic field in real space. It provides opportunities to use bilayer graphene and THz lasers for ultrafast electro-optical devices.

  5. Anthocyanin Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Various Berries Cultivated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hong-Sook; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kang, Jin Hee; Kudo, Rika; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Jun, Mira; Kim, Oh-Yoen; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of various berries cultivated in Korea: blueberry, crowberry, Korean black raspberry, mulberry, and strawberry. The anthocyanins in berries were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and each component was quantitatively analyzed. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant (FRAP) assays. The results revealed that the total content of anthocyanins in crowberry was 35.1 mg/g of extract, which was higher than that in the other four major berry species (1.9-27.7 mg/g of extract). Nineteen anthocyanins were identified in the various berries. The major anthocyanins of crowberry were cyanidin-3-galactoside and delphinidin-3-galactoside, and those from Korean black raspberry were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-rhamnoside. These two berries also had relatively strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total polyphenol contents. Thus, consumption of crowberry and Korean black raspberry may be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing lifestyle-related chronic diseases because of their strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26197528

  6. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  7. Classification of fruits based on anthocyanin types and relevance to their health effects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that confer the blue, purple, and red color to many fruits. Anthocyanin-rich fruits can be divided into three groups based on the types of aglycones of their anthocyanins: pelargonidin group, cyanidin/peonidin group, and multiple anthocyanidins group. Some fruits contain a major anthocyanin type and can serve as useful research tools. Cyanidin glycosides and peonidin glycosides can be metabolically converted to each other by methylation and demethylation. Both cyanidin and peonidin glycosides can be metabolized to protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside is metabolized to 4-hydroxybenoic acid. On the other hand, phenolic acid metabolites of delphinidin, malvidin, and petunidin glycosides are unstable and can be further fragmented into smaller molecules. A literature review indicates berries with higher cyanidin content, such as black raspberries, chokeberries, and bilberries are more likely to produce an antiinflammatory effect. This observation seems to be consistent with the hypothesis that one or more stable phenolic acid metabolites contribute to the antiinflammatory effects of anthocyanin-rich fruits. More studies are needed before we can conclude that fruits rich in cyanidin, peonidin, or pelargonidin glycosides have better antiinflammatory effects. Additionally, fruit polyphenols other than anthocyanins could contribute to their antiinflammatory effects. Furthermore, blueberries could exert their health effects with other mechanisms such as improving intestinal microbiota composition. In summary, this classification system can facilitate our understanding of the absorption and metabolic processes of anthocyanins and the health effects of different fruits. PMID:26250485

  8. Effect of pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes on Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by acorn shell of Quercus crassipes Humb. & Bonpl.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Erick; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    The ability of Quercus crassipes acorn shells (QCS) to remove Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions was investigated as a function of the solution pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes. It was found that Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by QCS depended strongly on the pH of the solution. Cr(VI) removal rate increased as the solution pH decreased. The optimum pH for total chromium removal varied depending on contact time. NaCl ionic strengths lower than 200 mM did not affect chromium removal. The presence of 20 mM monovalent cations and anions, and of divalent cations, slightly decreased the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium by QCS; in contrast, divalent anions (SO₄(2-), PO₄(2-), CO₃(2-)) significantly affected the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium ions followed the pseudo-second-order model at all solution pH levels, NaCl ionic strengths and background electrolytes tested. Results suggest that QCS may be a potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions containing various impurities. PMID:24880725

  9. Adsorption of Disperse Orange 30 dye onto activated carbon derived from Holm Oak (Quercus Ilex) acorns: A 3(k) factorial design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Ates, Funda; Erginel, Nihal; Ozcan, Oznur; Oduncu, Emre

    2015-05-15

    In this study, samples of activated carbon were prepared from Holm Oak acorns by chemical activation with H3PO4, ZnCl2 and KOH as activating agents. The samples were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR and elemental analysis, and were then evaluated for the removal of Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) dyes from aqueous solutions. A 3(k) factorial design was used to determine the interaction effects of carbonization temperature, pH, dosage of adsorbent and type of activating agent on the amount of dye removal. Also, level of effectiveness factors were determined by conducting regression models for maximum adsorption efficiency. Of all the samples, the sample generated using ZnCl2 as an activating agent showed a maximum dye removal efficiency of 93.5% at a carbonization temperature of 750 °C, a pH of 2 and an adsorbent dosage of 0.15 g/25 ml. The analysis shows that the adsorption process depends significantly on the type of activating agent used in the preparation of activated carbon. PMID:25776797

  10. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  11. Eugenia jambolana Lam. berry extract inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer but not non-tumorigenic breast cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-11

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives: (1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and (2) to investigate the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 microg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p

  12. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'. PMID:24009199

  13. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’, ‘Rubel’, ‘Rancocas’, and ‘Friendship’. PMID:24009199

  14. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Ana Margarida; Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening. PMID:26007186

  15. Identification of genes associated with flesh morphogenesis during grapevine fruit development.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Lucie; Torregrosa, Laurent; Terrier, Nancy; Sreekantan, Lekha; Grimplet, Jérôme; Davies, Chris; Thomas, Mark R; Romieu, Charles; Ageorges, Agnès

    2007-02-01

    Fruit morphogenesis is a process unique to the angiosperms, and yet little is known about its developmental control. Following fertilization, fruits typically undergo a dramatic enlargement that is accompanied by differentiation of numerous distinct cell types. To identify genes putatively involved in the early development of grapevine fruit, we used the fleshless berry mutant (Vitis vinifera L. cv Ugni Blanc) that has dramatically reduced fruit size due to a lack of pericarp development. Using oligo-specific arrays, 53 and 50 genes were identified as being down- and up-regulated, respectively, in the mutant. In parallel, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization performed between the mutant and the wild type (WT) allowed the identification of new transcripts differentially expressed during the first stages of mutant and WT pericarp development. From this data, the picture emerged that the mutation promotes the expression of several genes related to ripening and/or to stress and impairs the expression of several regulatory genes. Among those, five genes encoding proteins previously reported to be associated with, or involved in, developmental processes in other species (a specific tissue protein 2, ATHB13, a BURP domain protein, PISTILLATA, and YABBY2), were identified and investigated further using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. Expression in the pericarp was confirmed, specific spatial and/or temporal patterns were detected and differences were observed between the WT and the mutant during fruit development. Expression of these genes appeared to be affected during young fruit development in the mutant, suggesting that they may play a role in grape berry morphogenesis. PMID:17268889

  16. Influence of postflowering temperature on fruit size and chemical composition of Glen Ample raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Sønsteby, Anita; Aaby, Kjersti; Heide, Ola M

    2010-08-25

    The effects of postflowering temperature on the fruit chemical composition of Glen Ample raspberries were studied under controlled environment conditions. The berry weight decreased significantly with increasing temperature (12, 18, and 24 °C) and with progress of the harvest period. Because the moisture content increased in parallel with the berry weight, the antioxidant capacity (AOC) and the concentration of a range of bioactive compounds decreased with decreasing temperature and progress of the harvest season when expressed on a fresh weight basis in the conventional way. Under those circumstances, dry weight units are therefore preferable. However, despite the dilution effect of large berries, the concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increased with decreasing temperature, even on a fresh weight basis. Berry AOC was closely correlated with total phenolic concentration (r = 0.958), predominantly anthocyanins and ellagitannins. While a total of 10 anthocyanins were detected, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside)-rutinoside accounted for 73% of the total, the former decreasing and the latter increasing with increasing growth temperature. By far, the most prevalent ellagitannins were lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6, both of which increased significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the growth temperature has significant and contrasting effects on the concentration of a range of potentially bioactive compounds in raspberry. PMID:23654237

  17. Berry anthocyanins reduce proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing caspase-3 activation and p21 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Fratantonio, Deborah; Ferrari, Daniela; Saija, Antonella; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide, and adenocarcinoma cells that form the majority of colorectal tumors are markedly resistant to antineoplastic agents. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the effect of a standardized anthocyanin (ACN)‑rich extract on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell line was evaluated by trypan blue and clonogenic assays and western blot analysis of cleaved caspase‑3 and p21Waf/Cif1. The results of the current study demonstrated that the ACN extract markedly decreased Caco‑2 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis by activating caspase‑3 cleavage, and upregulated cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21Waf/Cif1) expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, ACN extract was able to produce a dose‑dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco‑2 cells, together with a light increase of the cell total antioxidant status. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a standardized berry anthocyanin rich extract inhibited proliferation of Caco‑2 cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing caspase‑3 activation, and upregulating the expression of p21Waf/Cif1. PMID:27314273

  18. An immunohistochemical study of the compartmentation of metabolism during the development of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries.

    PubMed

    Famiani, F; Walker, R P; Técsi, L; Chen, Z H; Proietti, P; Leegood, R C

    2000-04-01

    The compartmentation of key processes in sugar, organic acid and amino acid metabolism was studied during the development of the flesh and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries. Antibodies specific for enzymes involved in sugar (cell wall and vacuolar invertases, pyrophosphate: fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase, aldolase, NADP-glyceraldehyde-P dehydrogenase, cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase), photosynthesis (Rubisco, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase), amino acid metabolism (cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases, alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase), organic acid metabolism (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD- and NADP-dependent malic enzyme, ascorbate peroxidase), and lipid metabolism (acetyl CoA carboxylase, isocitrate lyase) were used to determine how their abundance changed during development. There were marked changes in the abundance of many of these enzymes in both the flesh and seeds. The intercellular location of some enzymes was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Several enzymes (e.g. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and those involved in amino acid metabolism) were associated with tissues likely to function in the transport of imported assimilates, such as the vasculature. Although other enzymes (e.g. NADP-malic enzyme and soluble acid invertase, involved in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids) were largely present in the parenchyma cells of the flesh, their distribution was extremely heterogeneous. This study shows that when considering the metabolism of complex structures such as fruit, it is essential to consider how metabolism is compartmentalized between and within different tissues, even when they are apparently structurally homogeneous. PMID:10938859

  19. The Grapevine VvPMEI1 Gene Encodes a Novel Functional Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Associated to Grape Berry Development

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Raiola, Alessandro; Mattei, Benedetta; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pectin is secreted in a highly methylesterified form and partially de-methylesterified in the cell wall by pectin methylesterases (PMEs). PME activity is expressed during plant growth, development and stress responses. PME activity is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by proteins named PME inhibitors (PMEIs). We have identified, expressed and characterized VvPMEI1, a functional PME inhibitor of Vitis vinifera. VvPMEI1 typically affects the activity of plant PMEs and is inactive against microbial PMEs. The kinetics of PMEI-PME interaction, studied by surface plasmon resonance, indicates that the inhibitor strongly interacts with PME at apoplastic pH while the stability of the complex is reduced by increasing the pH. The analysis of VvPMEI1 expression in different grapevine tissues and during grape fruit development suggests that this inhibitor controls PME activity mainly during the earlier phase of berry development. A proteomic analysis performed at this stage indicates a PME isoform as possible target of VvPMEI1. PMID:26204516

  20. Spotted wing drosophila: a new invasive pest of Mississippi berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii, a native fly of Southeast Asia, is a widely reported and highly invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Mediterranean Europe. Between 2010 and 2011, SWD was confirmed in most States in eastern North America. During this same period, SWD was...

  1. Golden berry juice attenuates the severity of hepatorenal injury.

    PubMed

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana fruits as a hepatorenal protective agent against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic and renal fibrosis. The phytochemical screening test revealed the presence of alkaloids, free withanolides, glycowithanolides, and flavonoids. Acute toxicity study (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight) revealed extract safety. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups: control, control treated with fruit, CCl4 group, CCl4 treated with fruit, and CCl4 treated with silymarin drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers: malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices such as aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total protein were estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers such as creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. Treatment improved all the investigated parameters, and the histopathological analysis confirmed our results. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana fruit succeeded to protect liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to identify the molecules responsible for its pharmacological application. PMID:24168372

  2. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  3. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  4. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    PubMed Central

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  5. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    PubMed

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  6. Berry curvature and dynamics of a magnetic bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic bubbles have been the subject of intensive studies aiming to investigate their applications to memory devices. A bubble can be regarded as the closed domain wall and is characterized by the winding number of the in-plane components or the skyrmion number N sk , which are related to the number of Bloch lines (BLs). For the magnetic bubbles without BLs, the Thiele equation assuming no internal distortion describes the center-of-mass motion of the bubbles very well. For the magnetic bubbles with BLs, on the other hand, their dynamics is affected seriously by that of BLs along the domain wall. Here we show theoretically, that the distribution of the Berry curvature b z , i.e., the solid angle formed by the magnetization vectors, in the bubble plays the key role in the dynamics of a bubble with {N}{sk}=0 in a dipolar magnet. In this case, the integral of b z over the space is zero, while the nonuniform distribution of b z and associated Magnus force induce several nontrivial coupled dynamics of the internal deformation and center-of-mass motion as explicitly demonstrated by numerical simulations of Landau–Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. These findings give an alternative view and will pave a new route to design the bubble dynamics.

  7. Contamination by moulds of grape berries in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mikusová, P; Ritieni, A; Santini, A; Juhasová, G; Srobárová, A

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the first map, albeit partial, of toxigenic fungi re-isolated from grape berries collected in three out of the six most important Slovakia winemaking areas in two different periods of the harvest year 2008. Low temperatures and high relative humidity during July 2008 favoured the development of grape fungal diseases that cause rots such as Plasmopara, Uncinula, Botrytis, Metasphaeria, Elsinoë, and Saccharomycetes. In the analysed samples, the following genera of toxigenic fungi were identified in the range of 1-4%: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Ulocladium, and Trichoderma Trichothecium, while the genera Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were in the range 11-29%. A. niger, A. carbonarius, some strains of A. carbonarius-with 'crystals' and strains of A. uvarum-uniseriate were identified; these species are considered ochratoxigenic (able to produce variable amounts of toxins). In addition, a non-ochratoxigenic strain of A. ibericus and a Fusarium strain able to biosynthesize small amount of fumonisins, beauvericin, and enniatins were identified. P. expansum, able to produce citrinin, represents 29.7%, of the Penicillium genus together with P. verrucosum, P. glabrum, P. citrinum, and P. crustosum. An analysis for the identification and quantification of the main toxins: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, beauvericin, enniatins, and fusaproliferin was performed on grape samples; it was consistent with the results of the mycological analysis. Toxigenic fungi should be checked throughout the years and their occurrence compared with all environmental factors to avoid health risks. PMID:20349371

  8. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  9. The Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 Is an Important Transcriptional Regulator of Abscisic Acid-Dependent Grape Berry Ripening Processes1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Philippe; Lecourieux, David; Kappel, Christian; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Cramer, Grant; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    In grape (Vitis vinifera), abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates during fruit ripening and is thought to play a pivotal role in this process, but the molecular basis of this control is poorly understood. This work characterizes ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 (VvABF2), a grape basic leucine zipper transcription factor belonging to a phylogenetic subgroup previously shown to be involved in ABA and abiotic stress signaling in other plant species. VvABF2 transcripts mainly accumulated in the berry, from the onset of ripening to the harvesting stage, and were up-regulated by ABA. Microarray analysis of transgenic grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 showed that this transcription factor up-regulates and/or modifies existing networks related to ABA responses. In addition, grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 exhibited enhanced responses to ABA treatment compared with control cells. Among the VvABF2-mediated responses highlighted in this study, the synthesis of phenolic compounds and cell wall softening were the most strongly affected. VvABF2 overexpression strongly increased the accumulation of stilbenes that play a role in plant defense and human health (resveratrol and piceid). In addition, the firmness of fruits from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants overexpressing VvABF2 was strongly reduced. These data indicate that VvABF2 is an important transcriptional regulator of ABA-dependent grape berry ripening. PMID:24276949

  10. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  11. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. PMID:26775958

  12. [Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].

    PubMed

    Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

    1976-01-01

    With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

  13. Proteins and enzymatic activities in Erbaluce grape berries with different response to the withering process.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Tolin, Serena; Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Curioni, Andrea; Rolle, Luca

    2012-06-30

    During the off-vine natural withering process of Erbaluce (white) grapes to obtain "Erbaluce Caluso" Passito wine, some berries change in color from green-yellow to blue. This phenomenon appears at different extents in different years and might be related to several parameters, such as temperature and humidity during withering, grape composition and Botrytis cinerea loading. To better understand the mechanism involved in color variation, the metabolic changes corresponding to this event were studied. At the end of the withering process berries with different colors were separated using a reflectance spectrophotometer, obtaining three color classes identified as "green" (L*=40.3, a*=-0.56, b*=15.20), "gold" (L*=37.7, a*=5.01, b*=14.12) and "blue" (L*=28.6, a*=0.89, b*=-0.67). The three groups of berries had different water contents, the blue berries containing about 30% less water than the green ones. Samples were crushed and the juices were analyzed. The juice yield for blue berries was less than 50% of that of the other two classes, confirming their higher dehydration level. Protein extraction from de-seeded berries was carried out using two different protocols, the first involving a treatment with phenol (to remove polyphenolic substances) and the second based on an extraction with a mild detergent (to recover the proteins to be used for enzymatic analyses). No trace of laccase activity was found in any of the samples, although DNA analysis, by quantitative PCR, suggested the presence of B. cinerea infection in the blue grapes. Chitinase activity of the blue berries was only 30% of that of the other two samples, as confirmed also by zymographic analysis on electrophoretic gels. The same was found also for esterase activity, which was lower (of about 85%) in the blue berries, which, in contrast, showed the highest beta-glucosidase activity. The electrophoretic analysis of the protein extracts revealed strong differences among the samples. Compared to the green and

  14. Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. This is evident by the tremendous variation in flowering and fruiting structures present both across and within different plant lineages. Within a single plant family a staggering variety of fruit types can be found such as fleshy fruits including berries, pomes, and drupes and dry fruit structures like achenes, capsules, and follicles. What are the evolutionary mechanisms that enable such dramatic shifts to occur in a relatively short period of time? This remains a fundamental question of plant biology today. On the surface it seems that these extreme differences in form and function must be the consequence of very different developmental programs that require unique sets of genes. Yet as we begin to decipher the molecular and genetic basis underlying fruit form it is becoming apparent that simple genetic changes in key developmental regulatory genes can have profound anatomical effects. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of fruit endocarp tissue differentiation that have contributed to species diversification within three plant lineages. PMID:25009543

  15. Berry phase theory of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, F; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-03-12

    Recent experiments on current-induced domain-wall motion in chiral domain walls reveal important contributions both from spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive a Berry phase expression for the DMI and show that within this Berry phase theory DMI and SOTs are intimately related, in a way formally analogous to the relation between orbital magnetization (OM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We introduce the concept of the twist torque moment, which probes the internal twist of wavepackets in chiral magnets in a similar way as the orbital moment probes the wavepacket's internal self-rotation. We propose to interpret the Berry phase theory of DMI as a theory of spiralization in analogy to the modern theory of OM. We show that the twist torque moment and the spiralization together give rise to a Berry phase governing the response of the SOT to thermal gradients, in analogy to the intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect. The Berry phase theory of DMI is computationally very efficient because it only needs the electronic structure of the collinear magnetic system as input. As an application of the formalism we compute the DMI in Co/Pt(111), O/Co/Pt(111) and Al/Co/Pt(111) magnetic bi- and trilayers and show that the DMI is highly anisotropic in these systems. PMID:24552898

  16. Laboratory and clinical studies of cancer chemoprevention by antioxidants in berries

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Gary David; Wang, Li-Shu; Casto, Bruce Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of cellular injury in an increasing number of diseases, including cancer. Most ROS are created in the cell through normal cellular metabolism. They can be produced by environmental insults such as ultraviolet light and toxic chemicals, as well as by the inflammatory process. Interception of ROS or limiting their cellular effects is a major role of antioxidants. Due to their content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, berries exhibit high antioxidant potential, exceeding that of many other foodstuffs. Through their ability to scavenge ROS and reduce oxidative DNA damage, stimulate antioxidant enzymes, inhibit carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation and enhance DNA repair, berry compounds have been shown to inhibit mutagenesis and cancer initiation. Berry constituents also influence cellular processes associated with cancer progression including signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This review article summarizes laboratory and human studies, demonstrating the protective effects of berries and berry constituents on oxidative and other cellular processes leading to cancer development. PMID:18544560

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  18. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  19. Comparison of major taste compounds and antioxidative properties of fruits and flowers of different Sambucus species and interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Ivancic, Anton; Schmitzer, Valentina; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, total phenolics and antioxidative activity have been evaluated among three different elderberry species (Sambucus nigra, Sambucus cerulea, Sambucus javanica) and seven interspecific hybrids. The highest content of sugars has been determined in the fruits of JA×CER hybrid and the lowest in fruits of (JA×NI)×cv. Black Beauty hybrid. S. nigra berries contained highest levels of total organic acids. S. nigra and (JA×NI)×CER flower extracts were characterized by 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher content of total sugars compared to other species/hybrids analyzed. Total phenolic content (TPC) in berries ranged from 3687 to 6831 mg GAE per kg FW. The highest TPC has been determined in S. nigra fruits and flowers. The ABTS scavenging activity differed significantly among species and hybrids and ranged from 3.2 to 39.59 mM trolox/kgF W in fruits and 44.87-118.26 mM trolox/kg DW in flowers. PMID:26830570

  20. Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Employing ACoRN Respiratory Sequence Protocol versus Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Pedram; Faghani, Asadallah; Afjeh, Seyed-Abolfazl; Moradinazer, Mehdi; Bahman-Bijari, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of respiratory distress in premature infants. This study was designed to evaluate two different RDS treatment protocols by comparing the outcomes. Methods: This study was a double center cross sectional study performed from June to December 2012. During that period, 386 neonates with RDS were hospitalized and treated according to two different therapeutic protocols so-called Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN) respiratory sequence protocol (group I) and Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (E-NCPAP) protocol (group II). The variables and main outcomes of this study were gestational age, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), pulmonary hemorrhage (PH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), air leak and mortality rate (MR). Findings : Out of 386 infants, 202 infants were in group I (male 60.4%, female 39.6%, mean gestational age 316/7 weeks, mean birth weight=1688 grams) and group II included 184 infants (male 61.4%, female 38.6%, mean gestational age 32 weeks, mean birth weight 1787 grams), P= 0.07. The ratios of BPD of group I to group II and PH of group I to group two were not significant (P=0.63 and P=0.84, respectively). Air leak ratio in group I was higher than in group II (P=0.001). Although IVH ratio in group II was higher than in group I (P=0.01), grade III and IV IVH was higher in group I (30% vs. 4.6%). In case of MR, it was higher in group I than in group II (P=0.001). Conclusion: According to the findings the incidence of air leak, grade III and IV IVH and MR was less common in E-NCPAP protocol, so it may show the effectiveness of this protocol. The authors suggest that more researches are needed for more accurate results. PMID:25793046

  1. Control of the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta, Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Laboratory and Fruit Bin Assays

    PubMed Central

    Riga, E.; Lacey, L. A.; Guerra, N.; Headrick, H. L.

    2006-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), which is among the most important insect pests of peaches and nectarines, has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides. We investigated the ability of the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), S. feltiae (Filipjev), S. riobrave (Cabanillas et al.), and Heterorhabditis marelatus (Liu and Berry) to control OFM under laboratory and fruit bin conditions. At a dosage of 10 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm2 in the laboratory, S. carpocapsae caused 63%, S. feltiae 87.8%, S. riobrave 75.6%, and H. marelatus 67.1% OFM mortality. All four nematode species caused significant OFM larval mortality in comparison to the nontreated controls. Steinernema feltiae was used for the bin assays due to the higher OFM mortality it caused than the other tested EPN species and to its ability to find OFM under cryptic environments. Diapausing cocooned OFM larvae in miniature fruit bins were susceptible to IJ of S. feltiae in infested corner supports and cardboard strips. Treatment of bins with suspensions of 10 or 25 S. feltiae IJ/ml water with wetting agent (Silwet L77) resulted in 33.3 to 59% and 77.7 to 81.6% OFM mortality in corner supports and cardboard strips, respectively. This paper presents new information on the use of EPN, specifically S. feltiae, as nonchemical means of OFM control. PMID:19259443

  2. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  3. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  5. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  6. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  7. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  8. Proteomic and metabolic analyses of early berry development in Vitis spp. including the period of ontogenic gain of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early development of grape berries is marked by several biological changes, including cell division and expansion, as berries initiate double sigmoid growth. In most genotypes, a significant gain of ontogenic resistance (OR) to some pathogens, including powdery mildew (PM) (Uncinula necator), also o...

  9. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  10. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  11. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  12. The antioxidant response induced by Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts in animals bearing experimental solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gruia, Maria Iuliana; Oprea, Eliza; Gruia, Ion; Negoita, Valentina; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Lonicera caerulea is a species of bush native to the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East) whose berries have been extensively studied due to their potential high antioxidant activity. The aim of our work was to investigate the in vivo effects of the antioxidant action of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts on the dynamics of experimentally-induced tumors. Our data showed that aqueous Lonicera caerulaea extracts reduced the tumor volume when administered continuously during the tumor growth and development stages, but augmented the tumor growth when the administration of extracts started three weeks before tumor grafting. Prolonged administration of Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts induced the antioxidant defense mechanism in the tumor tissues, while surprisingly amplifying the peripheral oxidative stress. PMID:18560338

  13. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wei, L. F.; Jia, W. Z.; Liang, J. Q.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.89.220404 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  14. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Shen-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Liu, Jia; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2008-12-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ɛ plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  15. Potentials of small, lightweight and low cost Multi-Echo Laser Scanners for detecting Grape Berries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, A.; Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile sensor devices offer great opportunities for automatic scene analysis and object recognition. Nowadays a new generation of ranging devices is available, like laser scanners which are small and light weighted. Concerning these improvements specific applications can be tackled. In this contribution we focus on vineyard monitoring for detecting and counting grape berries with a small, lightweight and low cost multi-echo laser scanner. Therefore a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laser range finder is utilized for capturing the data in close range up to 1m. In order to process the data the following methodology is proposed: after smoothing and morphological techniques are applied on the laserscanning intensity and range images the number of visible grape berries is determined from the resulting segments. The approach performs with a detection accuracy of above 84%. The results reveal the high potential of such close range ranging devices for locating and counting grape berries. Thus, the methodology provides practical support for viticulture applications.

  16. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865

  17. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  18. Surface metabolic composition of berries collected from 13 Bulgarian grapevine plants.

    PubMed

    Todorova, I T; Batovska, D I; Parushev, S P; Djakova, G J; Popov, S S

    2010-06-01

    The surface metabolic composition of berries, collected from the Bulgarian grapevine variety Storgozia, and 12 of its seedlings were studied by GC/MS. Diverse surface metabolites were identified. The main components were long chain n-alkanes, terpenoids, and esterified long-chain fatty acids. Amongst them, the terpenoids were most abundant, including, as are typical for plants, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids. Cyperene, a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, was identified for the first time in grapes. This compound and most of the other identified metabolites are known to possess biological functions that most probably contribute to the quality of grape berries and their defences against biotic and abiotic stressors. PMID:20496231

  19. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-08-07

    The behaviour of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest {sup 210}Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples.

  20. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. PMID:25732407

  1. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Ippei; Seo, Shujiro; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant), Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra (elderberry), were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS). Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities. PMID:15577184

  2. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes. PMID:10722101

  3. Berry's phase in cavity QED: Proposal for observing an effect of field quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, A.; Santos, M. Franca; Vedral, V.

    2003-06-01

    We propose a feasible experiment to investigate quantum effects in geometric phases, arising when a classical source drives not a single quantum system, but two interacting ones. In particular, we show how to observe a signature of the quantization of the electromagnetic field through a vacuum effect in Berry's phase. To do so, we describe the interaction of an atom and a quantized cavity mode altogether driven by an external quasiclassical field. We also analyze the semiclassical limit recovering the usual Berry's phase results.

  4. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  5. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; DELOIRE, ALAIN; CARBONNEAU, ALAIN; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; LOPEZ, FRANÇOIS

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bundles without damaging either these or the pulp tissue of the berry. The sites of sugar phloem unloading are thus made directly accessible and may be regulated by the buffer solution. In addition, the unloaded photoassimilates are easily transported into the buffer solution in the berry‐cup. With the berry‐cup technique, it takes 60 min to purge the sugar already present in the apoplast, after which the amount of sugar in the buffer solution is a direct measure of the sugar unloading from the grape berry phloem. The optimum times for sampling were 20 or 30 min, depending on the type of experiment. Sugar phloem unloading was significantly inhibited by the inclusion of either 7·5 mm NaF or 2·5 mm PCMB in the buffer solution. This study indicates that sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries is via the apoplastic network and that the process requires the input of energy. The system was shown to be an appropriate experimental system with which to study sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries, and was applied successfully to the study of berry sugar unloaded from grapevines subjected to water stress. The results showed that water deficiency inhibits sugar unloading in grape berries. PMID:12907466

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Grape Berry Cell Cultures Reveals that Developmentally Regulated Ripening Related Processes Can Be Studied Using Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharathchandra, Ramaschandra G.; Stander, Charmaine; Jacobson, Dan; Ndimba, Bongani; Vivier, Melané A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This work describes a proteomics profiling method, optimized and applied to berry cell suspensions to evaluate organ-specific cultures as a platform to study grape berry ripening. Variations in berry ripening within a cluster(s) on a vine and in a vineyard are a major impediment towards complete understanding of the functional processes that control ripening, specifically when a characterized and homogenous sample is required. Berry cell suspensions could overcome some of these problems, but their suitability as a model system for berry development and ripening needs to be established first. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report on the proteomic evaluation of the cytosolic proteins obtained from synchronized cell suspension cultures that were established from callus lines originating from green, véraison and ripe Vitis vinifera berry explants. The proteins were separated using liquid phase IEF in a Microrotofor cell and SDS PAGE. This method proved superior to gel-based 2DE. Principal component analysis confirmed that biological and technical repeats grouped tightly and importantly, showed that the proteomes of berry cultures originating from the different growth/ripening stages were distinct. A total of twenty six common bands were selected after band matching between different growth stages and twenty two of these bands were positively identified. Thirty two % of the identified proteins are currently annotated as hypothetical. The differential expression profile of the identified proteins, when compared with published literature on grape berry ripening, suggested common trends in terms of relative abundance in the different developmental stages between real berries and cell suspensions. Conclusions The advantages of having suspension cultures that accurately mimic specific developmental stages are profound and could significantly contribute to the study of the intricate regulatory and signaling networks responsible for berry

  7. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  8. Effects of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa on the markers of oxidative stress and blood platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kedzierska, Magdalena; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive substances found in numerous foods can be successfully and safely used to modify various cellular functions and affect the oxidative stress. Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances shown to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidative and antiplatelet activities. We investigated antioxidant properties of the extract from berries of A. melanocarpa by the estimation of the selected and other biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e. the level of 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) (8-EPI) (by immunoassay kit) and the amount of glutathione (by HPLC method) in control platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) (a marker of platelet activation) was measured by flow cytometer. The antioxidative and antiplatelet properties of the tested extract were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa (at the highest tested concentration -100 microg/ml) decreased the production of 8-EPI (a marker of lipid peroxidation) in control blood platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (2 mM). A combined action of the tested plant extract and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced form of glutathione in platelets compared with cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. Moreover, the tested plant extract (at the highest used concentration -100 microg/ml) reduced the expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) on blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that the tested plant extract was found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20218910

  9. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  10. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  11. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  12. The effects of dietary dried fruit pomaces on growth performance and gastrointestinal biochemistry of turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Juskiewicz, J; Jankowski, J; Kosmala, M; Zdunczyk, Z; Slominski, B A; Zdunczyk, P

    2016-10-01

    One-day-old female turkeys were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and were fed for 15 weeks diets containing 5% of cellulose (control, C) or 5% of dried fruit pomaces (apple, black currant, strawberry, seedless strawberry; AP, BCP, SP, SSP respectively). In weeks 11-15 of feeding, all diets were supplemented with 2.5% of linseed oil. The crude fibre content of fruit pomaces ranged from 56.5% in AP to 62.9% in SP. In comparison with AP, berry fruit pomaces (BCP, SP and SSP) were characterised by a higher content of neutral detergent fibre - NDF (41.2% vs. 52.7-59.3%) and lignin (13.24% vs. 21.80-25.56%). A monomer analysis revealed that cellulose was the main non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) in fruit pomaces, whereas their pectin content was low. Polyphenol content was determined at below 6 g/kg in AP, at approximately 12 g/kg in BCP and SP, and at 32.8 g/kg in SSP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in final body weight of birds. After 15 weeks of feeding fruit pomaces to turkeys, the relative weight of the small intestine with digesta was higher in group AP, and lower in group SSP, as compared to controls. Dietary fruit pomaces decreased the dry matter (DM) concentration and lowered the pH of the small intestinal digesta, except the AP and SSP treatments respectively. In the caeca, significantly reduced concentrations of ammonia or putrefactive short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) upon dietary fruit pomaces were observed. Fruit pomaces did not influence the concentrations or the total pool of short-chain fatty acids, but led to a significant increase in butyric proportion in the SCFA profile at the expense propionate. PMID:26614114

  13. LIMITED FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS AFFECT BERRY ROT SEVERITY AND RESVERATROL CONTENT OF MUSCADINE GRAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases reduce yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but those losses may be minimized by fungicide applications. The fungicides, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole, were applied sequentially to two muscadine cultivars every ten days beginning at early bloom and stopping at pr...

  14. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  15. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  16. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. PMID:23692745

  17. ISOLATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA FROM ITS INVASIVE ALTERNATIVE HOST, PORCELAIN BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of X. fastidiosa was isolated from an invasive alternative host species, porcelain berry. Its genetic relationship with strains isolated from a native alternative host, wild grape, and other economically important hosts including grape, peach, plum, oak, mulberry, maple and oleander was det...

  18. Increasing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer females (1, 2, or 5) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae and adults. When data for the three different experiments were analyzed, decreased fecundity was observe...

  19. Inhibition of lung tumor development by berry extracts in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Denev, Petko; Kratchanov, Christo; Polasa, Kalpagam; D'Agostini, Francesco; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2012-11-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) and dietary factors play a major role in cancer epidemiology. At the same time, however, the diet is the richest source of anticancer agents. Berries possess a broad array of health protective properties and were found to attenuate the yield of tumors induced by individual carcinogens in the rodent digestive tract and mammary gland but failed to prevent lung tumors induced by typical CS components in mice. We exposed whole-body Swiss ICR mice to mainstream CS, starting at birth and continuing daily for 4 months. Aqueous extracts of black chokeberry and strawberry were given as the only source of drinking water, starting after weaning and continuing for 7 months, thus mimicking an intervention in current smokers. In the absence of berries, CS caused a loss of body weight, induced early cytogenetical damage in circulating erythrocytes and histopathological alterations in lung (emphysema, blood vessel proliferation, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and adenomas), liver (parenchymal degeneration) and urinary bladder (epithelial hyperplasia). Both berry extracts inhibited the CS-related body weight loss, cytogenetical damage, liver degeneration, pulmonary emphysema and lung adenomas. Protective effects were more pronounced in female mice, which may be ascribed to modulation by berry components of the metabolism of estrogens implicated in lung carcinogenesis. Interestingly, both the carcinogen and the chemopreventive agents tested are complex mixtures that contain a multitude of components working through composite mechanisms. PMID:22328465

  20. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  1. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  2. Jobs and Income for Rome and Floyd County: The Berry College Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Charles D.

    The economic impact of Berry College on Rome County, Georgia, was assessed using a differential value-added technique to measure the amount of induced spending. Direct spending sources associated with the college are direct purchase of goods and services and spending by faculty, staff, students, and visitors. Since every dollar initially spent in…

  3. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Liu, J Y; Graf, D; Radmanesh, S M A; Adams, D J; Chuang, A; Wang, Y; Chiorescu, I; Wei, J; Spinu, L; Mao, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  4. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  5. Analysis of anthocyanins in powdered berry extracts by planar chromatography linked with bioassay and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Georgiana C; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2014-03-01

    Major anthocyanins were extracted with acidified methanol and characterised in powdered berry extracts of bilberry, blueberry, chokeberry, açai berry and cranberry by HPTLC-Vis-MS for the first time. A combined 2-step normal phase separation was applied, first for separation of anthocyanins and secondly of anthocyanidins. Documentation was performed under white light illumination (transmission mode). In the powdered berry extracts, especially the 3-glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, malvidin and peonidin, further cyanidin glycosides and respective anthocyanidins were found. Calibration data revealed a good correlation, with r between 0.9988 and 0.9999. The repeatability of the sample analysis (n=3) was ⩽3.6%. Based on the results obtained, this method can be used for rapid routine quality control of powdered berry extracts. For confirmation of the results or characterisation of unknown anthocyanin zones, mass spectra were recorded. Chromatography was directly linked to the effect using DPPH(∗) reagent and luminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay. PMID:24176320

  6. Berry phase, Lorentz covariance, and anomalous velocity for Dirac and Weyl particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Michael; Dwivedi, Vatsal; Zhou, Tianci

    2015-01-01

    We consider the relation between spin and the Berry-phase contribution to the anomalous velocity of massive and massless Dirac particles. We extend the Berry connection that depends only on the spatial components of the particle momentum to one that depends on the space and time components in a covariant manner. We show that this covariant Berry connection captures the Thomas-precession part of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin evolution, and contrast it with the traditional (unitary, but not naturally covariant) Berry connection that describes spin-orbit coupling. We then consider how the covariant connection enters the classical relativistic dynamics of spinning particles due to Mathisson, Papapetrou and Dixon. We discuss the problems that arise with Lorentz covariance in the massless case, and trace them mathematically to a failure of the Wigner-translation part of the massless-particle little group to be an exact gauge symmetry in the presence of interactions, and physically to the fact that the measured position of a massless spinning particle is necessarily observer dependent.

  7. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Graf, D.; Radmanesh, S. M. A.; Adams, D. J.; Chuang, A.; Wang, Y.; Chiorescu, I.; Wei, J.; Spinu, L.; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted.

  8. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Liu, Jinyu; Graf, David; Radmanesh, Seyed; Adams, Daniel; Chuang, Alyssa; Wang, Yu; Chiorescu, Irinel; Wei, Jiang; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear π Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. We report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. Supported by the DOE (DE-SC0012432) and the NSF (EPS- 1003897).

  9. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols are an important class of secondary metabolites with significant benefits to human nutrition and health. As a part of our effort to assess grape germplasm for its potential health and nutrition value, we evaluated the polyphenolic profiles in the ripe berry samples of 344 European grape ...

  10. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro. PMID:25109845

  11. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) acting as behavioral attractants for female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent...

  12. The work of local culture: Wendell Berry and communities as the source of farming knowledge.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    When Wendell Berry and others criticize contemporary agriculture, their arguments are often dismissed as naive and grounded in longstanding agrarian myth, rather than engagement with contemporary problems. But Berry's proposals developed in response to a series of learning methods he encountered, and options for advocacy he explored, during the 1960s and 1970s. Agricultural institutions sought to assign more power to institutionalized scientific knowledge, shrinking the role of farmers. Berry sought an alternative definition of knowledge, drawing upon his training as a writer, as well as his experiences with manual farm work and the methods of environmentalist organic growers. He eventually concluded that only a community of farmers could produce and store effective knowledge and insisted that knowledge must be tacit -- largely situated in locality, skills, and culture. His ideas had little influence on most people employed in contemporary agriculture. However, those ideas profoundly shape the work of sustainable food advocates, such as Michael Pollan, who like Berry fear reductionism and celebrate the values of traditions. PMID:21563605

  13. Water productivity, yield, and berry composition in sustained versus regulated deficit irrigation of Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wine grape cultivar Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) was irrigated at incremental fractions of estimated crop evapotranspiration or a regulated deficit (RDI) regime to identify which practice best optimized water productivity and berry composition without compromising yield. Three severities of susta...

  14. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Graf, D.; Radmanesh, S. M. A.; Adams, D. J.; Chuang, A.; Wang, Y.; Chiorescu, I.; Wei, J.; Spinu, L.; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  15. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  16. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  17. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  18. From villous strawberry shams to hairy huckleberries: the wild side of berry exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis was established as the US berry genebank in 1981. Since then the USDA has sponsored numerous exploration missions throughout the United States and in foreign countries to obtain ...

  19. Robustness of optically-controlled Berry phase in a diamond spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Yale, Christopher G.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Awschalom, David D.; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido

    The intrinsic noise resilience of geometric phases has motivated their application as an alternative protocol for realizing high fidelity quantum operations. Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) to cyclically evolve the dark state of a lambda system, we demonstrate all-optical control over Berry phase for a single spin in the solid state, the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Here we introduce both phase and amplitude noise into the optical control fields for a class of `tangerine slice' trajectories on the Bloch sphere. We examine the response of Berry phase to scaling of the noise amplitude and adiabatic cycle time, finding Berry phase to be unaffected by deviations parallel to the trajectory and to increase in robustness for long cycle times. Moreover, our noise resilience is independent of the value of the accumulated Berry phase, a property that differs from the behavior of circular trajectories investigated by prior microwave techniques. We also discuss potential improvements to our work. This work is supported by the AFOSR, NSF, and German Research Foundation.

  20. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  1. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  2. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  3. Berry phases and profiles of line wings and rainbow satellites induced by optical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuryło, R.; Szudy, J.; Baylis, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of Berry phase is included in an analysis of the intensity distribution in far wings of pressure-broadened spectral lines emitted or absorbed by atoms placed in an external cone-rotating electric field. Particular attention is focused on frequency regions where rainbow satellite bands appear. A classical-path treatment that employs the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to derive an expression for the line shape, and it uses a dipole transition moment calculated with quasimolecular wave functions given by the Berry version of the adiabatic approximation. It is found that in the presence of an external rotating electric field, the intensity distribution in far wings can be expressed in terms of the universal line shape function of the unified Franck-Condon theory once energy shifts due to Stark and Berry effects are taken into account. We show that the influence of Berry phase in the profiles of the far wings can be manifested either in the form of deviations of observed profiles from the quasistatic distribution or the appearance of additional features in the vicinity of the maximum of the rainbow satellite band. As an example, the modification of the rainbow satellite at 162.3 nm in the red wing of the self-broadened Lyman-α line of hydrogen, caused by an external rotating electric field, is considered.

  4. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  5. Anthocyanin profiling of Berberis lycium Royle berry and its bioactivity evaluation for its nutraceutical potential.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prakash Chandra; Saha, Supradip

    2016-02-01

    Berberis lycium Royle (Kashmal) belongs to Berberidaceae family and it has a small edible purple berry. It is grown wildly grown in Himalaya. The berry anthocyanins were characterised by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrophotometer (MS) detectors. Twelve anthocyanins were identified in the purified extract of berberis berry. Two anthocyanins delphinidin-3-glucoside (35.3 %) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (47.2 %) were characterized as major components. Ten minor anthocyanins were Cyanidin-3-lathyroside (0.08 %), Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (0.53 %), Cyanidin-3-galactoside (1.62 %), Pelargonidin-3-pentoxilhexoside (2.26 %), Malvidin-3,5-dihexoside (4.21 %), Pelargonidin-hexoside (0.58 %), Pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside (1.05 %), Cyanidin-3,5-dihexoside (6.12 %), peonidin-3-rutinoside (0.77 %), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (0.22 %). Apart from anthocyanins, six phenolics were also identified as chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and quercetin. Antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH assay revealed IC50 value of anthocyanin was 25.3 μg ml(-1). FRAP and CUPRAC assay also gave significant antioxidant activity. MTT assay gave the absorbance of 0.53 at 250 μg ml(-1). It may be concluded that the wild berry should be exploited as a source of nutraceuticals for its constitutive phenolics and its activity. PMID:27162400

  6. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  7. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    PubMed

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  8. Optimisation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries.

    PubMed

    Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Alexandersson, Erik O; Gouws, Liezel M; Young, Philip R; Vivier, Melané A

    2012-02-15

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to profile major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries. Sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries were extracted by chloroform/polyvinylpolypyrrolidone purification. The extracts were chromatographed on an Aminex HPX-87H ion-exchange HPLC column with 5mM sulphuric acid as mobile phase. Chromatography was visualised via a diode array detector combined with a refractive index detector. The analysis was calibrated using external standard calibration and a novel equation was used to calculate the concentrations of malic acid and fructose from unresolved separation. For the method to be utilised for analysing a large numbers of berry samples, each sample was directly injected after sample extraction and the extraction step was downscaled to allow the use of small amounts of sample material. The concentrations of sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples were normalised to the internal standard concentrations obtained after extraction of an internal standard mixture. The analysis method exhibits a good precision and a high analyte recovery from samples spiked with the standard mixture and is suitable for the profiling of major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples at different stages of berry development. This is the first report on the combined profiling of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries using milligram amounts of plant material with direct injection after sample extraction. PMID:22265666

  9. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  10. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jonathan R.; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species’ functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  11. Biological efficacy evaluation of mating disruption against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, in grape in glasshouses.

    PubMed

    Thys, T; Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2013-01-01

    The grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is an important pest of grapes. In Belgium, severe losses of production appeared due to the presence of L. botrona in grapes commercially grown in glasshouses. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards after being tested for several years. In other (European) countries, mating disruption is already applied in grapes but there is no registration in Belgium for use in grapes. Searching for an interesting residue free technique for application in small glasshouses, we evaluated the effect of mating disruption for control of L. botrana under protected conditions (glasshouse trials) during three consecutive years (2010-2012). A prerequisite for successful mating disruption is the treatment of large contiguous areas, as the pheromone product will not remain in sufficient quantities on narrow sites and, moreover, a larger portion of the crop remains at risk from migrating mated females. The glasshouses are rather small, however, we hypothesized that these so called border effects are not present due to the secluded spaces of the glasshouses. Pheromone dispensers were deployed and flights of L botrano moths were monitored (pheromone traps/UV-traps) during the whole time period of the trials. In the mating disrupted glasshouses hardly any moth was caught anymore in pheromone traps, in contrast to UV-traps or catches by pheromone traps in comparable non-mating disrupted glasshouse compartments. This indicates the incapability of the males to localize sex pheromone sources, and hence, the inability of finding females for mating. In line with these flight monitoring data, the nearly absence or strongly decreased L. botrana caused damage symptoms in the mating disrupted glasshouses demonstrates the benefits of the mating disruption technique under protected conditions of grape growing in glasshouses. PMID:25145258

  12. From UVR8 to flavonol synthase: UV-B-induced gene expression in Sauvignon blanc grape berry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Gregan, Scott; Winefield, Chris; Jordan, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of development and UV-B on flavonols and the regulation of gene activity in Vitis vinifera L. var. Sauvignon blanc grapes. Particular emphasis was placed on gene activity associated with the low and high fluence UV-B responses. Flavonols, particularly quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, increased substantially upon fruit exposure due to UV-B, with spatial analysis locating the changes to the berry skin. Of five VvFLS genes in grapes, two (VvFLS4 and 5) were found to be transcriptionally active, with VvFLS4 also being responsive to UV-B but VvFLS5 was not. Of the transcription factors known to regulate FLS (VvMYB12, VvMYCA1 and VvWDRs), only VvMYB12 was found to be responsive to UV-B. A number of candidate genes associated with the low and high UV-B fluence responses were also studied (VvUVR8, VvHY5, VvCOP1 and VvCHS; PR genes and VvMAPK3; respectively). The genes associated with the low fluence response exhibited transcriptional regulation in line with reports from other species, while the PR genes and VvMAPK3 only appeared to be responsive in a high UV-B fluence environment. Together, these data supports the view flavonol biosynthesis in grape is stimulated predominantly through the low fluence UV-B response pathway. PMID:24738597

  13. Berry fruit can improve age-associated neuronal and cognitive deficits: from the laboratory to the clinic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that cognitive functioning decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. The cause of these functional declines is not entirely understood; however, neuronal losses and the associat...

  14. Extracts of Strawberry Fruits Induce Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Musini, Anjaneyulu; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB) fruits in leukaemia (CEM) and breast cancer (T47D) cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated. Conclusions/Significance The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved. PMID:23071702

  15. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  16. Dependence of Berry's phase for atom on a sign of the g factor in the rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Morinaga, Atsuo; Aoki, Takatoshi; Yasuhara, Makoto

    2005-05-15

    Berry's phase of the atom in the state with a positive or negative g factor for partial cycles of a rotating magnetic field was determined free from the dynamical phase shift using a time-domain atom interferometer. The experimental phase shift is in good agreement with the prediction of Berry's phase for partial cycles. It was found that the sense of Berry's phase depends on the sign of the magnetic quantum number, the sense of the rotating magnetic field, and the sign of the g factor of the state.

  17. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  18. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  19. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

  20. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from a salad ... coleslaw, or include orange sections, dried cranberries, or grapes in a tossed salad. 9 snack on fruits ...