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Sample records for acorus tatarinowii schott

  1. A novel sesquiterpene and three new phenolic compounds from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Ying, Shu-Song; Wu, Hong-Hua; Liu, Yan-Ting; Dong, Peng-Zhi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Yan-Tong

    2015-10-01

    A novel sesquiterpene with an unprecedented epoxy lactone skeleton, named tatarinolactone, together with two new amides, a new biphenylpropanoid and two known lignans were isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott. Their structures were identified as 6,7,8-trihydroxy-4α-isobutyl-4,7-dimethylhexahydro-6,8α-epoxychromen-2(3H)-one (1), (E)-methyl 4-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylamido]butanoate (2), (Z)-methyl 4-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylamido]butanoate enol isomer (3), (R)-4-hydroxy-3-[1-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]-5-methoxybenzoic acid (4), (2S,3R)-ceplignan (5), and (2R,3S)-ceplignan (6), respectively, based on extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison to the known compounds. To test their effects on serotonin transporters, a high content assay using hSERT-HEK293 cell line was adopted. Results indicated that compounds 1 and 4 significantly inhibited SERT activity, while compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 significantly enhanced SERT activity, which partly explain the traditional uses of the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott in treatments of neuropsychiatric and digestive disorders. PMID:26296476

  2. Antioxidant Lignans and Neolignans from Acorus tatarinowii

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Xue, Yongbo; Chen, Shenjie; Zhu, Hucheng; Zhang, Jinwen; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wang, Jianping; Liu, JunJun; Qi, Changxing; Du, Guang; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Eleven new lignans and neolignans, named acortatarinowins G–N (1−8), including three pairs of enantiomers (1a/1b−3a/3b) and five optically pure lignans and neolignans (4−8), along with five known analogs (9−14), were isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott. Compounds 1−3 were successfully separated by chiral HPLC to afford 1a/1b−3a/3b. The planar structures of 1−8 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS and NMR. Their absolute configurations were determined by analyses of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and a modified Mosher’s method, assisted by experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1a and 1b were rare 7,8′-epoxy-8,7′-oxyneolignane. Compounds 1−8 were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reducing antioxidant power assay. Compound 6, exhibiting strong DPPH radical scavenging capacity with IC50 value of 16.4 ± 0.22 μg/mL, could interpret the herbal traditional usage. PMID:26961724

  3. Separation of cis- and trans-Asarone from Acorus tatarinowii by Preparative Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, H. L.; Yang, F. Q.; Zhang, X. M.; Xia, Z. N.

    2012-01-01

    A preparative gas chromatography (pGC) method was developed for the separation of isomers (cis- and trans-asarone) from essential oil of Acorus tatarinowii. The oil was primarily fractionated by silica gel chromatography using different ratios of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as gradient elution solvents. And then the fraction that contains mixture of the isomers was further separated by pGC. The compounds were separated on a stainless steel column packed with 10% OV-101 (3 m × 6 mm, i.d.), and then the effluent was split into two gas flows. One percent of the effluent passed to the flame ionization detector (FID) for detection and the remaining 99% was directed to the fraction collector. Two isomers were collected after 90 single injections (5 uL) with the yield of 178 mg and 82 mg, respectively. Furthermore, the structures of the obtained compounds were identified as cis- and trans-asarone by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, respectively. PMID:22448339

  4. Simultaneous determination of α-, β- and γ-asarone in Acorus tatarinowii by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with [BMIM]PF6 as oil phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Feng; Yang, Feng-Qing; Zuo, Hua-Li; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2012-11-15

    In the present study, a rapid and repeatable microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three isomers (α-, β- and γ-asarone) in Acorus tatarinowii by using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF(6)) as oil phase. Experimental parameters including the microemulsion compositions (concentrations of surfactant, co-surfactant and oil phase), pH, concentration of borate buffer, capillary temperature and voltage were intensively investigated. Finally, the main compounds in the methanol extract of A. tatarinowii were well separated within 11 min using a running buffer composed of 40 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2.0 mol/L n-propanol, 8 mmol/L [BMIM]PF(6) in 10 mmol/L borate buffer of pH 9.5. The developed method was applied to determine the contents of α-, β- and γ-asarone in A. tatarinowii from five different producing areas in China (Anhui, Hebei, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Chongqing). The results indicated that the contents of three asarones are quite different in the investigated A. tatarinowii samples. On the other hand, the MEEKC with ionic liquid as oil phase should be a promising method for the analysis of volatile components especially isomers in medicinal herbs. PMID:23158356

  5. Asarone from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma Potentiates the Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured PC12 Cells: A Signaling Mediated by Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kelly Y. C.; Chen, Jianping; Lam, Candy T. W.; Wu, Qiyun; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lin, Huangquan; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR), the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, is being used clinically to treat neurological disorders. The volatile oil of ATR is being considered as an active ingredient. Here, α-asarone and β-asarone, accounting about 95% of ATR oil, were evaluated for its function in stimulating neurogenesis. In cultured PC12 cells, application of ATR volatile oil, α-asarone or β-asarone, stimulated the expression of neurofilaments, a bio-marker for neurite outgrowth, in a concentration-dependent manner. The co-treatment of ATR volatile oil, α-asarone or β-asarone, with low concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiated the NGF-induced neuronal differentiation in cultured PC12 cells. In addition, application of protein kinase A inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, in cultures blocked the ATR-induced neurofilament expression, as well as the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In the potentiation of NGF-induced signaling in cultured PC12 cells, α-asarone and β-asarone showed synergistic effects. These results proposed the neurite-promoting asarone, or ATR volatile oil, could be useful in finding potential drugs for treating various neurodegenerative diseases, in which neurotrophin deficiency is normally involved. PMID:27685847

  6. Kaspar Schott's "encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences"

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    2011-06-01

    In 1661, Kaspar Schott published his comprehensive textbook "Cursus mathematicus" in Würzburg for the first time, his "Encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences". It was so successful that it was published again in 1674 and 1677. In its 28 books, Schott gave an introduction for beginners in 22 mathematical disciplines by means of 533 figures and numerous tables. He wanted to avoid the shortness and the unintelligibility of his predecessors Alsted and Hérigone. He cited or recommended far more than hundred authors, among them Protestants like Michael Stifel and Johannes Kepler, but also Catholics like Nicolaus Copernicus. The paper gives a survey of this work and explains especially interesting aspects: The dedication to the German emperor Leopold I., Athanasius Kircher's letter of recommendation as well as Schott's classification of sciences, explanations regarding geometry, astronomy, and algebra.

  7. Acorus calamus Linn.: phytoconstituents and bactericidal property.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5.0-0.009 mg/mL. Forty constituents were identified which comprised 98.3 % of the total oil. The major compound β-asarone (80.6 %) was identified and confirm by NMR ((1)H- & (13)C-) in rhizome oil of A. calamus. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found to be more susceptible to the oil with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 0.032 ± 0.004 mg/mL, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Micrococcus flavus with MBC values of 0.104 ± 0.016, 0.117 ± 0.017 and 0.143 ± 0.013 mg/mL, respectively. The compound β-asarone was susceptible to the microorganism A. niger with MBC value 0.416 ± 0.065 mg/mL. The present study revealed that tetraploid variety of A. calamus is growing in this region with substantial amount of β-asarone. The oil showed bactericidal property against tested bacteria and fungi. The β-asarone exhibited poorer bactericidal activity against test microorganisms. PMID:27562598

  8. Volatiles from leaves and rhizomes of Fragrant Acorus spp. (Acoraceae).

    PubMed

    Du, Zhizhi; Clery, Robin A; Hammond, Christopher J

    2008-06-01

    Three horticultural selections of Acorus gramineus Soland were investigated to determine the chemical composition of their leaves and rhizomes. The variety 'liquorice' was found to contain methylchavicol (49%) which accounts for the unusual anisic odor of this variety, while beta-asarone was the main component of A. christophii (43%) and 'yodo-no-yuki' (20%). The results are compared with calamus oils, and the possible biosynthetic precursors of the main components methylchavicol and beta-asarone are considered.

  9. Characterization of polysaccharides with antioxidant and immunological activities from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuxia; Song, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tingting; Chen, Lu; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-11-20

    Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, three novel polysaccharides designated RATPW, RATPS1 and RATPS2 were isolated from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography. Their structures were characterized using physicochemical and spectral methods. Chemical analysis indicated that RATPW (6.5×10(3)Da) mainly composed of glucose and fructose. RATPS1 (1.5×10(5)Da) contained galactose and arabinose, while RATPS2 (5.3×10(4)Da) contained ∼49.5% galacturonic acid along with rhamnose, fructose, galactose, and arabinose. In vitro, RATPS2 showed the most significant scavenging activity on DPPH and hydroxyl radical. Three polysaccharides could protect the PC12 cells from H2O2-induced damage. Immunological tests indicated that both RATPW and RATPS2 significantly stimulated NO production and phagocytic activity in RAW264.7, and promoted splenocyte proliferation. These data suggested that polysaccharides RATPW and RATPS2 had the potential as novel natural sources of antioxidative and immunopotentiating agents. PMID:26344267

  10. An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other Acorus species.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Sandeep B; Tonge, Madan B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2014-02-15

    Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) has a long history of use and has numerous traditional and ethnomedicinal applications. Since ancient times, it has been used in various systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Chinese medicine, etc. for the treatment of various aliments like nervous disorders, appetite loss, bronchitis, chest pain, colic, cramps, diarrhea, digestive disorders, flatulence, gas, indigestion, rheumatism, sedative, cough, fever, bronchitis, inflammation, depression, tumors, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, numbness, general debility and vascular disorders. Various therapeutic potentials of this plant have been attributed to its rhizome. A number of active constituents from leaves, rhizomes and essential oils of A. calamus have been isolated and characterized. Of the constituents, alpha and beta-asarone are the predominant bioactive components. Various pharmacological activities of A. calamus rhizome such as sedative, CNS depressant, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cryoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anticancer and antidiabetic has been reported. Genotoxicity and mutagenecity of beta and alpha-asarone is reported, which limits their use at high dosage. Though A. calamus has been used since ancient times, many of its uses are yet to be scientifically validated. In the present review an attempt has been made to explore traditional uses and pharmacological properties of A. calamus. PMID:24200497

  11. Wolfgang Schott (1905-1989): the founder of quantitative paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2016-06-01

    Wolfgang Schott is the pioneer in paleoceanography and has established this research field within marine geology. His papers from the first half of the twentieth century are all published in German; therefore, the most inspiring results are given here as original quotes in English, since they paved the ground for all scientific discussions on climate stratigraphy, past ocean currents, and glacial interglacial cycles.

  12. Antifungal Properties of Haem Peroxidase from Acorus calamus

    PubMed Central

    GHOSH, MODHUMITA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants have evolved a number of inducible defence mechanisms against pathogen attack, including synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. The aim of the study was to purify and characterize antifungal protein from leaves of Acorus calamus. • Methods Leaf proteins from A. calamus were fractionated by cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration and the fraction inhibiting the hyphal extension of phytopathogens was characterized. The temperature stability and pH optima of the protein were determined and its presence was localized in the leaf tissues. • Key Results The purified protein was identified as a class III haem peroxidase with a molecular weight of approx. 32 kDa and pI of 7·93. The temperature stability of the enzyme was observed from 5 °C to 60 °C with a temperature optimum of 36 °C. Maximum enzyme activity was registered at pH 5·5. The pH and temperature optima were corroborated with the antifungal activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was localized in the leaf epidermal cells and lumen tissues of xylem, characteristic of class III peroxidases. The toxic nature of the enzyme which inhibited hyphal growth was demonstrated against phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Trichosporium vesiculosum. Microscopic observations revealed distortion in the hyphal structure with stunted growth, increased volume and extensive hyphal branching. • Conclusions This study indicates that peroxidases may have a role to play in host defence by inhibiting the hyphal extension of invading pathogens. PMID:17056613

  13. Analysis of Acorus calamus chloroplast genome and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Holland, Barbara; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen I; Hellwig, Frank H

    2005-09-01

    Determining the phylogenetic relationships among the major lines of angiosperms is a long-standing problem, yet the uncertainty as to the phylogenetic affinity of these lines persists. While a number of studies have suggested that the ANITA (Amborella-Nymphaeales-Illiciales-Trimeniales-Aristolochiales) grade is basal within angiosperms, studies of complete chloroplast genome sequences also suggested an alternative tree, wherein the line leading to the grasses branches first among the angiosperms. To improve taxon sampling in the existing chloroplast genome data, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of the monocot Acorus calamus. We generated a concatenated alignment (89,436 positions for 15 taxa), encompassing almost all sequences usable for phylogeny reconstruction within spermatophytes. The data still contain support for both the ANITA-basal and grasses-basal hypotheses. Using simulations we can show that were the ANITA-basal hypothesis true, parsimony (and distance-based methods with many models) would be expected to fail to recover it. The self-evident explanation for this failure appears to be a long-branch attraction (LBA) between the clade of grasses and the out-group. However, this LBA cannot explain the discrepancies observed between tree topology recovered using the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the topologies recovered using the parsimony and distance-based methods when grasses are deleted. Furthermore, the fact that neither maximum parsimony nor distance methods consistently recover the ML tree, when according to the simulations they would be expected to, when the out-group (Pinus) is deleted, suggests that either the generating tree is not correct or the best symmetric model is misspecified (or both). We demonstrate that the tree recovered under ML is extremely sensitive to model specification and that the best symmetric model is misspecified. Hence, we remain agnostic regarding phylogenetic relationships among basal angiosperm lineages.

  14. Results of a polishing study for SCHOTT XLD glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Yadwad, Harshwadhan; Dietrich, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Extremely low dispersion glasses (e.g. SCHOTT XLD glasses) play an essential role in the color correction of optical systems. Together with short flint glasses (KZFS Types) they can be used for apochromatic color correction in the visible spectrum or even for broadband color correction in combination with lanthanum crown glasses (LAK Types). Unfortunately the chemical composition of those glasses leads to a high coefficient of thermal expansion, low hardness and low resistance against chemical attacks. As a consequence these glasses tend to be difficult in processing. Therefore the glass engineer's task is to improve processing characteristics while keeping their special optical properties. N-FK58 XLD is an example of a new generation of XLD glasses from SCHOTT with improved workability. In 2014 a processing study has been conducted to optimize the polishing of XLD glasses. This presentation will show the results of this study for N-FK58 XLD and the application to other fluorophosphates glasses.

  15. Eye-safe laser glass development at SCHOTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Davis, Mark J.; Urruti, Eric H.

    2010-04-01

    SCHOTT has developed eye-safe laser glasses for laser range finder and medical/ biophotonics applications. The development described herein covers various combinations of key ions, Er, Yb, and Cr, with and without Ce, at controlled ratios and their perspective reduction - oxidation (REDOX) states to improve glass lasing, thermal lensing, and thermo-mechanical stability for field-based applications under high repetition rate operation. This report covers glass property characterizations and selective modeling results using statistically designed compositions.

  16. Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Timothy A.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2005-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.

  17. Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation.

  18. Comparative studies on growth and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa to Acorus calamus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-H; Chang, J-J; Cao, J-Y; Yang, C-L

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the growth inhibition and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa during coexistence with Acorus calamus, algal densities, chlorophyll a contents, exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) activities, and peroxidase (POD) activities of the two algae strains were analyzed. Although the unicellular and colonial strains of M. aeruginosa were both inhibited by A. calamus, unicellular algae were more sensitive than the colonial algae. The measurement results for EPS, MDA, CAT, and POD showed that unicellular M. aeruginosa had higher levels of stress related damage than colonial strains when they were exposed to the same density of A. calamus, and the cellular defense system of colonial M. aeruginosa was stronger than that of unicellular M. aeruginosa. Natural blooms of Microcystis are typically composed of colonial forms of M. aeruginosa, therefore future efforts to control such blooms, possibly through the development of new algicides, should focus on the unique characteristics of colonial M. aeruginosa strains. PMID:25416545

  19. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott)

    PubMed Central

    Chaïr, H.; Traore, R. E.; Duval, M. F.; Rivallan, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Aboagye, L. M.; Van Rensburg, W. J.; Andrianavalona, V.; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M. A. A.; Saborio, F.; Sri Prana, M.; Komolong, B.; Lawac, F.; Lebot, V.

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements. PMID:27314588

  20. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    Chaïr, H; Traore, R E; Duval, M F; Rivallan, R; Mukherjee, A; Aboagye, L M; Van Rensburg, W J; Andrianavalona, V; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A; Saborio, F; Sri Prana, M; Komolong, B; Lawac, F; Lebot, V

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements.

  1. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    Chaïr, H; Traore, R E; Duval, M F; Rivallan, R; Mukherjee, A; Aboagye, L M; Van Rensburg, W J; Andrianavalona, V; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A; Saborio, F; Sri Prana, M; Komolong, B; Lawac, F; Lebot, V

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements. PMID:27314588

  2. Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 μg/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 μg/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean

  3. Chemical compositions, phytotoxicity, and biological activities of Acorus calamus essential oils from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Poudel, Ambika; Dosoky, Noura S; Moriarity, Debra M; Vogler, Bernhard; Setzer, William N

    2013-08-01

    Four essential oils from the leaf (P23) and rhizomes (P19, P22, P24) of Acorus calamus L., collected from various parts of Nepal, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. From a total of 61 peaks, 57 compounds were identified among the four essential oils accounting for 94.3%, 96.2%, 97.6%, and 94.1% of the oils, respectively. All of the essential oils were dominated by (Z)-asarone (78.1%-86.9%). The essential oils also contained (E)-asarone (1.9%-9.9%) and small amounts of gamma-asarone (2.0-2.3%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.5-2.0%), and linalool (0.2-4.3%). Allelopathic testing of the rhizome oil showed inhibition of seed germination of Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne with IC50 values of 450 and 737 microg/mL, respectively. The rhizome essential oil demonstrated stronger seedling growth inhibition of L. perenne than of L. sativa, however. The rhizome oil also showed notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 = 9.48 microg/mL), cytotoxic activity (92.2% kill on MCF-7 cells at 100 microg/mL), and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 19.5 microg/mL). PMID:24079199

  4. Rapid assessment of beta-asarone content of Acorus calamus by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kim M; Gayton-Ely, Melissa; Holland, Lisa A; Zehr, Peter S; Söderberg, Björn C G

    2005-02-01

    This report outlines a rapid, reproducible method for the determination of beta-asarone, a known carcinogen, using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC)-UV-vis absorbance and a simple alcohol extraction. The MEKC method is based on a running buffer comprised of 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), pH 10. The method is reproducible and provides baseline separation of alpha-asarone and beta-asarone. This protocol was used to determine the beta-asarone content of Acorus calamus rhizome of a diploid variety harvested from the wetlands of the United States and the triploid variety from India obtained commercially. The results indicate raw product that originated from India contained 4.4% w/w beta-asarone, while that from the United States contained 0.2% w/w beta-asarone. Neither sample contained detectable concentrations of alpha-asarone. This is the first report of the use of MEKC to determine asarone in a natural source.

  5. Phytoremediation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous system by riverine macrophyte, Acorus calamus: toxicity and removal rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghai; Li, Cui; Zheng, Ruilun; Que, Xiaoe

    2016-08-01

    The potential of Acorus calamus to remove chlorpyrifos from water was assessed under laboratory conditions. Toxic effects of the insecticide in A. calamus were evaluated using pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence techniques as well. At exposure concentrations above 8 mg L(-1), A. calamus showed obvious phytotoxic symptom with significant reduction in quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) in 20-day test; the inhibition of maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) was accompanied by a significant rise in initial chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) within 15-day exposures. Fv/Fm and Fo recover to the normal level after 20-day exposure. The reduced removal rate to chlorpyrifos was observed with increase of initial chlorpyrifos concentrations. At application levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1), the disappearance rate of chlorpyrifos in the hydroponic system with plants was significantly greater than that without plants during the 20-day test periods. Chlorpyrifos was taken up from medium and transferred to above ground tissues by the plant and significant amounts of chlorpyrifos accumulated in plant tissues. The result indicated that A. calamus can promote the disappearance of chlorpyrifos from water and may be used for phytoremediation of water contaminated with a relatively low concentration of chlorpyrifos insecticide (<4 mg L(-1)). PMID:27154841

  6. A review of the genus Heterodina Kensley & Schotte, 2005 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) with description of a new species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Bruce, Niel L

    2014-01-01

    Heterodina Schotte & Kensley, 2005 is revised with Heterodina qeshmensis sp. nov., described from the subtidal zone of the Qeshm Island, southern Iran. Heterodina qeshmensis sp. nov. is characterized by: unornamented dorsal surfaces, wide and anteriorly concave epistome, and the appendix masculina with sub-parallel margins and not extending beyond the distal margin of the endopod. A key to the species is provided. The penial processes of Heterodina mccaini Schotte & Kensley, 2005 is also re-illustrated.

  7. Efficacy of Acorus calamus on collagen maturation on full thickness cutaneous wounds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Madhukumar, Karuppanan Natarajan; Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Iyappan, Kuttalam; Sangeethapriya, Vilvanathan; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of Acorus calamus and their essential oil are widely used in the flavoring industry and production of alcoholic beverages in Europe. Recent reports have confirmed the presence of several pharmacological components in the rhizomes of A. calamus. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the efficacy of topical administration of ethanolic extract of A. calamus on dermal wound healing in rats. Wound healing is a natural process occurring in living organisms, which results in a complete or partial remodeling of injured tissue and ultimately progresses to the formation of a fibrous scar. Several natural products have been reported to augment the wound healing process. Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of A. calamus was prepared and its wound-healing efficacy was studied. An excision wound was made on the back of the rat and 200 μL (40 mg/kg body weight) of the A. calamus extract was applied topically once daily for the treated wounds. The control wounds were treated with 200 μL of phosphate buffered saline. Results: The granulation tissues formed were removed at 4, 8 and 12 days and biochemical parameters such as deoxyribonucleic acid, total protein, total collagen, hexosamine and uronic acids were measured. The amount of type I/III collagen formed in control and treated wound tissues was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The epithelialization time, tensile strength and histological examination of the wounds were also studied. Biochemical analyses of the granulation tissues revealed a significant increase in collagen, hexosamine and uronic acid when compared with the control. The tensile strength of extract treated wounds was found to increase by 112%. A significant reduction in lipid peroxide levels suggested that A. calamus possesses antioxidant components. Conclusions: The results strongly confirm the beneficial effects of A. calamus in augmenting the wound healing process. PMID

  8. Supplemental ultraviolet-B induced changes in essential oil composition and total phenolics of Acorus calamus L. (sweet flag).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Suruchi; Dubey, N K

    2009-10-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-B radiation (sUV-B) was evaluated on the essential oil contents of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.), a medicinal plant grown under natural field conditions. After the emergence of two leaves, plants were exposed to sUV-B radiation of 1.8 kJ m(-2) above the ambient level of UV-B. The level of essential oil and phenol contents increased with exposure to sUV-B. Exposure of sUV-B resulted in significant increase in p-cymene and carvacrol contents of essential oil. Decrease in the level of major component beta-asarone due to sUV-B treatment is of prime importance, because of its toxicological concern to human health. PMID:19321203

  9. β-Asarone, an active principle of Acorus calamus rhizome, inhibits morphogenesis, biofilm formation and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Sandeep B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-15

    Anti-Candida potential of Acorus calamus rhizome and its active principle, β-asarone, was evaluated against the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. β-Asarone exhibited promising growth inhibitory activity at 0.5mg/ml and it was fungicidal at 8 mg/ml. Time dependant kill curve assay showed that MFC of β-asarone was highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within 120 min of exposure. β-Asarone caused significant inhibition of C. albicans morphogenesis and biofilm development at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Our data indicate that the growth inhibitory activity of β-asarone might be through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Hemolytic assay showed that β-asarone is non-toxic, even at concentrations approaching MIC value. Our results suggest that β-asarone may be safe as a topical antifungal agent. PMID:23123225

  10. First report of taro vein chlorosis virus infecting taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2013, taro plants [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott cv. ‘iliuaua’] with leaves displaying veinal chlorosis and necrosis were observed at a germplasm collection on the island of Molokai. These symptoms were similar to those of taro vein chlorosis, an important disease of taro found in severa...

  11. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.088 cm{sup {minus}1} were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively.

  12. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts from Acorus calamus L.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-bing; Wang, Bing; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Tong-chao; Wang, Chang-li; Sun, Xue-hui; Zong, Wen-tao; Yan, Ming; Zhao, Qing-chun; Chen, Yu-feng; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In folklore medicine, Acorus calamus has been used as a wound-healing agent for thousands of years; however, there have been few scientific reports on this activity so far. Now, we explored deeply the wound-healing effect of aqueous extracts from the fresh roots and rhizomes of A. calamus in vivo, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, so as to provide scientific evidence for the traditional application. The wound-healing effect was determined by the image analysis techniques and the histological analysis in the excisional wounding test, and the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the real-time RT-PCR techniques in the lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells test. Aqueous extracts, administered topically at the dose range from twice to thrice in a day, could enhance significantly the rate of skin wound-healing. Moreover, the extracts could effectively inhibit the mRNA expressions of inflammatory mediators induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells. These results showed significantly the wound-healing activity of aqueous extracts in the animal model of excise wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro.

  13. Repellant and insecticidal activities of shyobunone and isoshyobunone derived from the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Yang, Kai; Zheng, Li-Shi; You, Chun-Xue; Cai, Qian; Wang, Cheng-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Context: It was found that the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes showed insecticidal activity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. calamus rhizomes, evaluate insecticidal and repellant activity against Lasioderma serricorne (LS) and Tribolium castaneum (TC), and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from A. calamus was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal and repellant activity of the essential oil and isolated compounds was tested using a variety of methods. Results: The main components of the essential oil were identified to be isoshyobunone (15.56%), β-asarone (10.03%), bicyclo[6.1.0]non-1-ene (9.67%), shyobunone (9.60%) and methylisoeugenol (6.69%). Among them, the two active constituents were isolated and identified as shyobunone and isoshyobunone. The essential oil showed contact toxicity against LS and TC with LD50 values of 14.40 and 32.55 μg/adult, respectively. The isolated compounds, shyobunone and isoshyobunone also exhibited strong contact toxicity against LS adults with LD50 values of 20.24 and 24.19 μg/adult, respectively, while the LD50 value of isoshyobunone was 61.90 μg/adult for TC adults. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone were strongly repellent (98%, 90% and 94%, respectively, at 78.63 nL/cm2, after 2 h treatment) against TC. Conclusion: The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone possessed insecticidal and repellant activity against LS and TC. PMID:26600710

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone. PMID:16190653

  15. Effects of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides with Different Chemical Structure, Isolated from Acorus calamus L. and Trifolium pratense L., on Nitric Oxide Production: A Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Ligacheva, A A; Danilets, M G; Trofimova, E S; Sherstoboev, E Yu; Zhdanov, V V; Guriev, A M; Belousov, M V; Yusubov, M S; Korzh, A P; Krivoshchekov, S V; Dygai, A M

    2016-01-01

    Screening study of the effects of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.) rhizome and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) aerial part on the production of NO by mouse macrophages was carried out. The polysaccharides were separated by ion exchange chromatography into fractions differing by monomeric composition and ramification type and were used in concentrations of 20, 40, and 100 μg/ml. Four fractions of Acorus calamus L. (PSF-101, PSF-102, PSF-103, and PSF-105), used in different concentrations, moderately stimulated nitrite production by macrophages. Three of five Trifolium pratense L. polysaccharides (PS62-3, PS62-4, and PS62-5) exhibited a significant specific effect on NO production. Rhamnogalactouronans from clover PS63-3 in all concentrations and from PS62-5 in a concentration of 100 μg/ml exhibited the highest activity, comparable to the NO-stimulatory activity of the reference LPS, while polysaccharide PS62-3 in a concentration of 40 μg/ml exhibited even higher activity. PMID:26742749

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone.

  17. Phenolic extracts of Rubus ulmifolius Schott flowers: characterization, microencapsulation and incorporation into yogurts as nutraceutical sources.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Fernandes, Isabel P; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-06-01

    Rubus ulmifolius Schott (Rosaceae), known as wild blackberry, is a perennial shrub found in wild and cultivated habitats in Europe, Asia and North Africa. Traditionally, it is used for homemade remedies because of its medicinal properties, including antioxidant activity. In the present work, phenolic extracts of R. ulmifolius flower buds obtained by decoction and hydroalcoholic extraction were chemically and biologically characterized. Several phenolic compounds were identified in both decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of flowers, ellagitannin derivatives being the most abundant ones, namely the sanguiin H-10 isomer and lambertianin. Additionally, comparing with the decoction form, the hydroalcoholic extract presented both higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The hydroalcoholic extract was thereafter microencapsulated in an alginate-based matrix and incorporated into a yogurt to achieve antioxidant benefits. In what concerns the performed incorporation tests, the obtained results pointed out that, among the tested samples, the yoghurt containing the microencapsulated extract presented a slightly higher antioxidant activity, and that both forms (free and microencapsulated extracts) gave rise to products with higher activity than the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antioxidant potential of the R. ulmifolius hydroalcoholic extract and the effectiveness of the microencapsulation technique used for its preservation, thus opening new prospects for the exploitation of these natural phenolic extracts in food applications.

  18. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  20. Optical materials for astronomy from SCHOTT: the quality of large components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Hengst, Joachim; Elsmann, Frank; Lemke, Christian; Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The new generation of survey telescopes and future giant observatories such as E-ELT or TMT do not only require very fast or very large mirrors, but also high sophisticated instruments with the need of large optical materials in outstanding quality. The huge variety of modern optical materials from SCHOTT covers almost all areas of specification needs of optical designers. Even if many interesting optical materials are restricted in size and/or quality, there is a variety of optical materials that can be produced in large sizes, with excellent optical homogeneity, and a low level of stress birefringence. Some actual examples are high homogeneous N-BK7 blanks with a diameter of up to 1000 mm, CaF2 blanks as large as 300 mm which are useable for IR applications, Fused Silica (LITHOSIL®) with dimensions up to 700 mm which are used for visible applications, and other optical glasses like FK5, LLF1 and F2 in large formats. In this presentation the latest inspection results of large optical materials will be presented, showing the advances in production and measurement technology.

  1. Ability of eugenol to reduce tongue edema induced by Dieffenbachia picta Schott in mice.

    PubMed

    Dip, Etyene Castro; Pereira, Nuno Alvarez; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2004-05-01

    Dieffenbachia picta Schott (Araceae), known in Brazil as "comigo-ninguém-pode" is an ornamental plant with toxic properties. Its juice, when chewed, causes a painful edema of the oral mucous membranes, buccal ulcerations and tongue hypertrophy. This acute inflammation sometimes becomes severe enough to produce glottis obstruction, respiratory compromise and death. Eugenol (4-alil-2-metoxiphenol), the essential oil extracted from Caryophyllus aromaticus (Myrtaceae) is widely used in odontology. In this study, our objective was to standardize, in mice, a measurable methodology for the tongue edema induced by the topical application of the D. picta stem juice; evaluate the effects of eugenol in this model and compare the results with emergency treatment used in hospitals. Our results show that in spite of a small increase in edema a few minutes after administration, emergency treatment reduced by 70% the overall edema. When compared with the combination of the above drugs, eugenol, even at the smallest dose of 5 microg/kg, regardless of the chosen administration route, or the moment the treatment began, presents better results in the reduction and inhibition of the tongue edema induced by the D. picta juice.

  2. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25255750

  3. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy. The amount of active principle in rhizome isolated active fraction of plant was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Later, the standardized rhizome extract of plant and its active principle were tested for in vivo anthelmintic efficacy against experimentally induced Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, infections in rats. Results: The study revealed that b-asarone is the active principle of plant. The HPLC analysis of local variety of A. calamus revealed that active fraction contains 83.54% (w/w) of b-asarone. The in vivo study revealed that treatment of H. diminuta infected rats by a single 800 mg/kg dose of rhizome extract for 5 days results into 62.30% reduction in eggs per gram of feces counts and 83.25% reduction in worm counts of animals. These findings compared well with the efficacy of a reference drug, praziquantel. The active principle b-asarone showed slightly better anthelmintic effects than crude extract. In acute toxicity assay, a single oral 2000 mg/kg dose of extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in mice, and the LD50 of the extract was noted to be >2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that rhizomes of A. calamus bear significant dose-dependent effects against intestinal helminths. Further, the Indian variety of A. calamus contains high b-asarone content. Therefore, there exists a great potential to develop some

  4. AFLP analysis of nephthytis (Syngonium podophyllum Schott) selected from somaclonal variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Henny, R J; Devanand, P S; Chao, C T

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed genetic differences of 19 cultivars selected from somaclonal variants of Syngonium podophyllum Schott along with their parents as well as seven additional Syngonium species and six other aroids using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers generated by 12 primer sets. Among the 19 somaclonal cultivars, 'Pink Allusion' was selected from 'White Butterfly'. Tissue culture of 'Pink Allusion' through organogenesis resulted in the development of 13 additional cultivars. Self-pollination of 'Pink Allusion' obtained a cultivar, 'Regina Red Allusion', and tissue culture propagation of 'Regina Red Allusion' led to the release of five other cultivars. The 12 primer sets generated a total of 1,583 scorable fragments from all accessions, of which 1,284 were polymorphic (81.9%). The percentages of polymorphic fragments within 'White Butterfly' and 'Regina Red Allusion' groups, however, were only 1.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Jaccard's similarity coefficients among somaclonal cultivars derived from 'White Butterfly' and 'Regina Red Allusion', on average, were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Seven out of the 15 cultivars from the 'White Butterfly' group and three out of six from the 'Regina Red Allusion' group were clearly distinguished by AFLP analysis as unique fragments were associated with respective cultivars. The unsuccessful attempt to distinguish the remaining eight cultivars from the 'White Butterfly' group and three from the 'Regina Red Allusion' group was not attributed to experimental errors or the number of primer sets used; rather it is hypothesized to be caused by DNA methylation and/or some rare mutations. This study also calls for increased genetic diversity of cultivated Syngonium as they are largely derived from somaclonal variants.

  5. Attenuating effect of Acorus calamus extract in chronic constriction injury induced neuropathic pain in rats: an evidence of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acorus calamus (family: Araceae), is an indigenous plant, traditionally it is used as an ingredient of various cocktail preparations and for the management of severe inflammatory disorders in Indian system of medicine. Present study investigated the attenuating role of Acorus calamus plant extract in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Methods Hot plate, plantar, Randall Selitto, Von Frey Hair, pin prick, acetone drop, photoactometer and rota-rod tests were performed to assess degree of thermal, radiant, mechanical, chemical sensation, spontaneous motor activity and motor co-ordination changes respectively, at different time intervals i.e., day 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Tissue myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion and total calcium levels were determined after 21st day to assess biochemical alterations. Histopathological evaluations were also performed. Hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered from the day of surgery for 14 days. Results CCI of sciatic nerve significantly induced thermal, radiant, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal, chemical, tactile allodynia, along with increase in the levels of superoxide anion, total calcium and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover significant histological changes were also observed. HAE-AC attenuated CCI induced development of painful behavioural, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of pregabalin serving as positive control. Conclusions Acorus calamus prevented CCI induced neuropathy which may be attributed to its multiple actions including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory actions. PMID:21426568

  6. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  7. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers.

  8. Sapal: a traditional fermented taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm and coconut cream mixture from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gubag, R; Omoloso, D A; Owens, J D

    1996-01-01

    Sapal is a traditional fermented food made by mixing cooked, grated taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm with coconut cream and allowing it to ferment at ambient temperature. The fermentation was primarily due to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which reached 10(10) cfu/ml. Seven out of 10 isolated bacterial strains were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuc. paramesenteroides. The initial microbial flora was derived from the coconut cream. Yeasts grew on the surface of the sapal in the later stages of the fermentation. Overnight storage of the grated taro corm resulted in the glucose concentration increasing from 1.1 to about 5 g/l. During the fermentation the glucose concentration decreased to undetectable levels. The pH value fell from an initial value of 6.1 to 4.1 after 24 h.

  9. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers. PMID:19468953

  10. Colonization and Diversity of AM Fungi by Morphological Analysis on Medicinal Plants in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyuan; Jiang, Pan

    2015-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal distributions in the rhizosphere of 20 medicinal plants species in Zhangzhou, southeast China, were studied. The results showed 66 species of 8 genera of AM fungi were identified, of which 38 belonged to Glomus, 12 to Acaulospora, 9 to Scutellospora, 2 to Gigaspora, 2 to Funneliformis, 1 to Septoglomus, 1 to Rhizophagus, and 1 to Archaeospora. Glomus was the dominant genera and G. melanosporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, G. etunicatum, Funneliformis mosseae, and G. rubiforme were the prevalent species. The highest colonization (100%) was recorded in Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth. while the lowest (8.0%) was in Acorus tatarinowii Schott. The AM fungi spore density ranged from 270 to 2860 per 100 g soil (average 1005), and the species richness ranged from 3 to 14 (average 9.7) per soil sample. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.52 to 2 (average 1.45). In the present study, the colonization had a highly negative correlation with available K and electrical conductivity. Species richness correlated positively with electrical conductivity and organic matter. Shannon-Wiener index had a highly significant negative correlation with pH. This study provides a valuable germplasm and theoretical basis for AM fungal biotechnology on medicinal standardization planting. PMID:25688376

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of tatanans A-C and reinvestigation of their glucokinase-activating properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qing; Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Basak, Ashok; Bowler, Joseph M.; Miller, Brian G.; Zakarian, Armen

    2013-05-01

    The tatanans are members of a novel class of complex sesquilignan natural products recently isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott plants. Tatanans A, B and C have previously been reported to have potent glucokinase-activating properties that exceed the in vitro activity of known synthetic antidiabetic agents. Here, using a series of sequential [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, we report the total synthesis of tatanan A in 13 steps and 13% overall yield. We also complete a concise enantioselective total synthesis of more complex, atropisomeric tatanans B and C via a distinct convergent strategy based on a palladium-catalysed diastereotopic aromatic group differentiation (12 steps, 4% and 8% overall yield, respectively). A plausible biosynthetic relationship between acyclic tatanan A and spirocyclic tatanans B and C is proposed and probed experimentally. With sufficient quantities of the natural products in hand, we undertake a detailed functional characterization of the biological activities of tatanans A-C. Contrary to previous reports, our assays utilizing pure recombinant human enzyme demonstrate that tatanans do not function as allosteric activators of glucokinase.

  12. Complex Interactions Between the Macrophyte Acorus Calamus and Microbial Fuel Cells During Pyrene and Benzo[a]Pyrene Degradation in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zaisheng; Jiang, Helong; Cai, Haiyuan; Zhou, Yanli; Krumholz, Lee R

    2015-05-29

    This study investigated the interaction of the macrophyte Acorus calamus and sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFC) during the degradation of high molecular weight-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) in sediments. Over 367-days, the combination of macrophyte and SMFC led to an increase in pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene degradation rates by at least 70% compared to SMFC or macrophyte alone. While either the macrophyte or SMFC increased redox potential in sediments, redox potentials near the anode (approximately 6 cm depth) in the macrophyte-SMFC combination were markedly lower than that in the only macrophyte treatment. Moreover, rhizospheric bacterial communities in macrophyte-SMFC and macrophyte treatments were distinctly different. Aerobic genera (Vogesella, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Rhizobium) and anaerobic genera (Longilinea, Bellilinea, Desulfobacca and Anaeromyxobacter) became dominant in the rhizosphere in macrophyte and macrophyte-SMFC treatments, respectively. In addition, the macrophyte-SMFC combination improved the numbers of not only aerobic but anaerobic PAHs degraders in sediments. So, the SMFC employment facilitated the formation of anoxic zones in sediments with oxygen loss and exudates from the roots. As a result, cooperation of anaerobic/aerobic microbial metabolism for accelerating HMW-PAHs removal occurred within sediments after combining macrophytes with SMFC.

  13. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

  14. Complex Interactions Between the Macrophyte Acorus Calamus and Microbial Fuel Cells During Pyrene and Benzo[a]Pyrene Degradation in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zaisheng; Jiang, Helong; Cai, Haiyuan; Zhou, Yanli; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction of the macrophyte Acorus calamus and sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFC) during the degradation of high molecular weight-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) in sediments. Over 367-days, the combination of macrophyte and SMFC led to an increase in pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene degradation rates by at least 70% compared to SMFC or macrophyte alone. While either the macrophyte or SMFC increased redox potential in sediments, redox potentials near the anode (approximately 6 cm depth) in the macrophyte-SMFC combination were markedly lower than that in the only macrophyte treatment. Moreover, rhizospheric bacterial communities in macrophyte-SMFC and macrophyte treatments were distinctly different. Aerobic genera (Vogesella, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Rhizobium) and anaerobic genera (Longilinea, Bellilinea, Desulfobacca and Anaeromyxobacter) became dominant in the rhizosphere in macrophyte and macrophyte-SMFC treatments, respectively. In addition, the macrophyte-SMFC combination improved the numbers of not only aerobic but anaerobic PAHs degraders in sediments. So, the SMFC employment facilitated the formation of anoxic zones in sediments with oxygen loss and exudates from the roots. As a result, cooperation of anaerobic/aerobic microbial metabolism for accelerating HMW-PAHs removal occurred within sediments after combining macrophytes with SMFC. PMID:26023748

  15. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum L. Schott

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khadem; Ashraf, Ayesha; Nath Biswas, Nripendra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum L. Schott in treating diarrhea, pain and inflammation using experimental models. Methods In the present study, acetic acid-induced writhing, xylene-induced ear edema and castor oil-induced diarrheal model were used to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities, respectively. Acute toxicity test was carried out to fix the safe doses of the plant extract. Results The plant extract demonstrated a significant inhibition of writhing (P<0.01) compared with the control group in acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The extract also significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema formation (P<0.05). In anti-diarrheal test, the extract significantly decreased the frequency of defecation and increased the mean latent period (P<0.01) in castor oil-induced diarrheal model mice at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions These results suggest that the extract possesses significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities that support to the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant. PMID:23570002

  16. Statistical analysis for improving data precision in the SPME GC-MS analysis of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott) volatiles.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, M F; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I; Giuffrè, A M; Sicari, V; Soria, A C

    2014-07-01

    Statistical analysis has been used for the first time to evaluate the dispersion of quantitative data in the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott) volatiles with the aim of improving their precision. Experimental and randomly simulated data were compared using different statistical parameters (correlation coefficients, Principal Component Analysis loadings and eigenvalues). Non-random factors were shown to significantly contribute to total dispersion; groups of volatile compounds could be associated with these factors. A significant improvement of precision was achieved when considering percent concentration ratios, rather than percent values, among those blackberry volatiles with a similar dispersion behavior. As novelty over previous references, and to complement this main objective, the presence of non-random dispersion trends in data from simple blackberry model systems was evidenced. Although the influence of the type of matrix on data precision was proved, the possibility of a better understanding of the dispersion patterns in real samples was not possible from model systems. The approach here used was validated for the first time through the multicomponent characterization of Italian blackberries from different harvest years.

  17. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people.

  18. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people. PMID:25172708

  19. Alpha-Asarone, a Major Component of Acorus gramineus, Attenuates Corticosterone-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviours via Modulating TrkB Signaling Process

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Bongjun; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic-like activity of α-asarone (AAS) from Acorus gramineus in an experimental rat model of anxiety induced by repeated administration of the exogenous stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). The putative anxiolytic effect of AAS was studied in behavioral tests of anxiety, such as the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and the hole-board test (HBT) in rats. For 21 consecutive days, male rats received 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg AAS (i.p.) 30 min prior to a daily injection of CORT. Dysregulation of the HPA axis in response to the repeated CORT injections was confirmed by measuring serum levels of CORT and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. Daily AAS (200 mg/kg) administration increased open-arm exploration significantly in the EPM test, and it increased the duration of head dipping activity in the HBT. It also blocked the increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and decreased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, in the hippocampus. These results indicated that the administration of AAS prior to high-dose exogenous CORT significantly improved anxiety-like behaviors, which are associated with modification of the central noradrenergic system and with BDNF function in rats. The current finding may improve understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for changes in emotions induced by repeated administration of high doses of CORT or by elevated levels of hormones associated with chronic stress. Thus, AAS did exhibit an anxiolytic-like effects in animal models of anxiety. PMID:24976758

  20. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an alternative oxidase protein of Sauromatum guttatum (Schott).

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, D M; McIntosh, L

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that recognize the 35-, 36-, and 37-kDa alternative oxidase proteins of Sauromatum guttatum (Schott) were used to isolate a cDNA clone, pAOSG81, from an S. guttatum cDNA expression library. A fusion protein with an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa was expressed from a pUC119 derivative of pAOSG81 (pAOSG81-119) in Escherichia coli cells and was recognized by the monoclonal antibodies. When the in vitro translated and immunoprecipitated products made from mRNA hybrid-selected by pAOSG81 were analyzed, a single band corresponding to a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa was observed. DNA sequence characterization showed that pAOSG81 contains the entire coding region of a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 38.9 kDa, a putative 63-amino acid transit peptide, and a 9-amino acid match to the authentic N-terminal sequence of the 36-kDa alternative oxidase protein. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence indicate: (i) that the transit peptide is predicted to form amphiphilic helices, and (ii) that three regions of the processed protein are likely to form transmembrane alpha-helices. We conclude from these data that pAOSG81 represents a nuclear gene, aox1, encoding a precursor protein of one or more of the alternative oxidase proteins of S. guttatum. Images PMID:1706518

  1. Identification of an EcoRI restriction site for a rapid and precise determination of beta-asarone-free Acorus calamus cytotypes.

    PubMed

    Bertea, Cinzia M; Azzolin, Chiara M M; Bossi, Simone; Doglia, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2005-03-01

    Calamus (Acorus calamus L., Araceae) is an aromatic herb, indigenous to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The fragrant oils obtained by alcoholic extraction of the rhizome are mainly used in the pharmaceutical and oenological industries. Nevertheless, the occurrence of beta-asarone [(Z)-1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-prop-1-enyl-benzene] limits the possibility of its use due to the carcinogenic properties of this compound. The aim of this work was to identify a diploid beta-asarone-free A. calamus by using chemical and molecular approaches. For these purposes alcoholic extracts of both diploid and triploid A. calamus were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and comparison of the 700 bp sequence of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) in the 5S-rRNA gene was also performed. Alcoholic extracts of the triploid A. calamus were characterized by a higher percentage of beta-asarone (11%), which was the main compound, followed by higher percentages of camphene (2.27%), E-beta-ocimene (3.28%), camphor (1.54%), calarene (1.42%), alpha-selinene (5.02%) and tau-cadinol (2.00%), when compared to the diploid A. calamus. The latter had higher percentages of iso-shyobunone (8.62%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (3.28%), preiso calamendiol (22.81%) and acorone (26.33%), and completely lacked of beta-asarone. The 5S-rRNA spacer region of both diploid and triploid A. calamus were amplified by PCR using a pair of primers located at the 3' and 5' ends of the coding sequence of 5S-rRNA gene. The resulting PCR products (about 700 bp) were gel purified, subcloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. By aligning the isolated nucleotide sequences of the two varieties and the sequences from different A. calamus chemotypes present in Genbank, sequence diversities were found in the spacer region. Furthermore, the PCR products were digested by using EcoRI. The restriction profile of the spacer domain resulted different for the two cytotypes. Along with chemical analysis of alcoholic extracts

  2. [Influence of perennial flooding and drought on growth restoration of Acorus calamus in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Wu-quan; Zhu, Qi-hong; Ou, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Acorus calamus L. is a common kind of wetland plant species in the Three Gorges Reservoir. In this study, we investigated the influence of perennial flooding on growth restoration of A. calamus in the lightless conditions and the drought stress on this plant species' growth after flooding. Our research provided the scientific basis for the selection of candidate species for vegetations restoration in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. A. calamus plants were exposed to waters in the lightless conditions in September 2009 and September 2010 respectively and taken away from the waters and grew in natural conditions in the following March, April and May (named as S1, S2, S3). All plants in the control, S1 and S2 groups were challenged with drought stress in May for 20 days. During the experiment, the plant number and leaf number were recorded regularly, as well as leaf length and leaf width. The results showed that flooding restrained the germination of the plants with much less plant in flooding groups than the control, and the plant germination rate had inverse relation to the flooding time. Flooding promoted formation and elongation of the leaves in S1 and S2 groups, which showed higher leaf growth parameters, such as leaf length, leaf number, total leaf length of one plant and total leaf length of all plants than the control. However, all of these growth parameters in S3 group had significantly lower values compared to the control. The survival rate of the plants after flooding decreased significantly with longer flooding time. Besides, the leaf length and leaf width in S1 and S2 groups increased significantly but with decreased leaf number. Additionally, all growth parameters (leaf length, leaf width, leaf number, total leaf number, total leaf length of one plant, total leaf length of all plants) in S3 group decreased remarkably. Furthermore, drought decreased the values of all growth parameters and the plant number in the control, S1 and

  3. Optimization of a Solid-Phase Microextraction method for the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott) fruit volatiles.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, M F; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Giuffrè, A M; Sicari, V; Soria, A C

    2015-07-01

    A Solid-Phase Microextraction method for the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of blackberry (Rubus sp.) volatiles has been fully optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimized operating conditions (Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating, 66°C, 20 min equilibrium time and 16 min extraction time) have been applied to the characterization for the first time of the volatile composition of Rubus ulmifolius Schott blackberries collected in Italy and Spain. A total of 74 volatiles of different functionality were identified; esters and aliphatic alcohols were the predominant classes in both sample types. Methylbutanal (2.02-25.70%), ethanol (9.84-68.21%), 2,3-butanedione (2.31-14.71%), trans-2-hexenal (0.49-17.49%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (0.08-7.39%), 1-hexanol (0.56-16.39%), 1-octanol (0.49-10.86%) and methylbutanoic acid (0.53-21.48%) were the major compounds in most blackberries analyzed. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of semiquantitative data showed that only two variables (ethyl decanoate and ethyl acetate) were necessary for a successful differentiation of blackberries according to their harvest location.

  4. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  5. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  6. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332

  7. Optical waveguides formed by silver ion exchange in Schott SG11 glass for waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy: evanescent images of HEK293 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah; Nitsche, Michael; Armstrong, Souzan; Nabavi, Noushin; Harrison, Rene; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Langbein, Uwe; Mittler, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    Planar glass waveguides with a specific number of modes were fabricated by Ag+-Na+ exchange in Schott SG11 glass. The effective refractive indices were determined using m-line spectroscopy in both s- and p-polarization. By using the reversed Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, the index profiles were described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. The diffusion coefficients for Ag+ were established, as well as the penetration depth of the evanescent field in an aqueous environment for the different modes. The integrals of |E|2 fields for the evanescent-guided fields were investigated. These are important when evanescent fields are used for illumination in interface microscopy, an alternative method to total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The photoluminescent behavior of the waveguides was investigated as a function of ion exchange time and excitation wavelengths. Comparable images were obtained of fluorescently labeled HEK293 cells using TIRF microscopy and waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy. Imaging was performed using HEK293 cells, delivering similar images and information.

  8. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively.

  9. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae.

  10. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

  11. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  12. [Analysis on prescription rules of treating senile dementia based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary systems].

    PubMed

    Zong, Xin; Ji, Xu-Ming; Wei, Feng-Qin; Shi, Zuo-Rong

    2014-02-01

    This is designed to analyze and summarize medication rules for treating senile dementia with Chinese medicine in CNKI according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary system. Collect documents in CNKI that account treating senile dementia with Chinese formula; filter and establish a formula database, and then to search for medication rules on the TCM inheritance auxiliary system. It is filtered that 104 formulas are used for treating senile dementia screening treat senile dementia, involving 147 kinds of Chinese medicine. Tonic medicine are most frequently used, followed by the medicine of activating blood circulation and resuscitating; medicine pair most used is Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort-Acorus tatarinowii, accounting for 27.9% of all formula. And then 8 core pairs and 4 new formulas are evolved. Analysis on formulas for treating senile dementia filtered form CNKI by TCM inheritance auxiliary system shows prescription is mainly tonifying, activating blood circulation and resuscitating, that reveals prescription rules, to provide a reference for clinical treatment.

  13. Fritz Schott's Contributions to the Understanding of the Ocean Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ocean circulation and its central significance for global climate lay at the heart of Fritz's research. In the context of hard-won data from his more than 30 research cruises to key regions of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, he made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the wind-driven and thermohaline ocean circulation. His insights and explorations of circulation and dynamics of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans have led the field and provided a large part of the basis for planning large, international experiments. Fritz's work is also distinguished by his making exceptional use of modeling results, increasingly as the models have improved. His research has provided a much clearer correspondence between the observed ocean-structure and dynamical theory-noting both theoretical successes and limitations. Besides his general interest in the physical oceanography of the World Oceans, most of his research was devoted to the dynamics of tropical oceans with its intense and highly variable current systems. Concerning the Indian Ocean, Fritz's investigated the response of the Somali Current system to the variable monsoon winds in the early 1980's, obtaining high-quality, hydrographic surveys and the first long term direct measurement of ocean currents from moored arrays. His analyses and interpretations provided a synthesis of the complex circulations there. In the tropical Atlantic Ocean Fritz research focused on the western boundary circulation with important contributions to the understanding of the North Brazil Current retroflection, and the variability of the shallow and deep western boundary currents. Trying to solve the fundamental question ‘what is the role of the tropical ocean for climate variability', Fritz initiated large multinational research programs under the umbrella of the World Climate Research Projects WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). Fritz was the initiator and driving force behind the Collaborative Research Project "Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation" which was funded from 1996-2006 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Within this project, he and his colleagues made major contributions to our understanding of the sinking of cold, dense waters in the northern North Atlantic, a process critical for the deep ocean circulation as well as the role played by the Gulf Stream and Deep Western Boundary current system for climate. The starting point of this project was again the observation of the ocean. Vertical velocity and hydrographic measurements during active convection carried out in the Greenland Sea, the Labrador Sea and the Gulf of Lions represents the observational basis of the fundamental work regarding the open-ocean convection.

  14. [Analysis on prescription rules of treating senile dementia based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary systems].

    PubMed

    Zong, Xin; Ji, Xu-Ming; Wei, Feng-Qin; Shi, Zuo-Rong

    2014-02-01

    This is designed to analyze and summarize medication rules for treating senile dementia with Chinese medicine in CNKI according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary system. Collect documents in CNKI that account treating senile dementia with Chinese formula; filter and establish a formula database, and then to search for medication rules on the TCM inheritance auxiliary system. It is filtered that 104 formulas are used for treating senile dementia screening treat senile dementia, involving 147 kinds of Chinese medicine. Tonic medicine are most frequently used, followed by the medicine of activating blood circulation and resuscitating; medicine pair most used is Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort-Acorus tatarinowii, accounting for 27.9% of all formula. And then 8 core pairs and 4 new formulas are evolved. Analysis on formulas for treating senile dementia filtered form CNKI by TCM inheritance auxiliary system shows prescription is mainly tonifying, activating blood circulation and resuscitating, that reveals prescription rules, to provide a reference for clinical treatment. PMID:25204138

  15. Role of Acorus calamus and alpha-asarone on hippocampal dependent memory in noise stress exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Sundaramahalingam, Manikandan; Ramasundaram, Srikumar; Rathinasamy, Sheela Devi; Natarajan, Ruvanthika Pulipakkam; Somasundaram, Thangam

    2013-08-15

    Stress is a condition or stimulus that threatens an organism's survival. Noise is an environmental stressor. It is well known that long term as well as acute exposure to noise led to oxidative stress. In the present study, it was investigated that the persistence of noise stress (100 dBA/4 h/d for 30 days) could cause memory impairment in rats and whether ethylacetate extract of AC EAAC (50 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and alpha-Asarone (9 mg kg(-1) b.wt.). treatment can prevent or not. In order to understand the possible mechanism behind it, antioxidant status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus was evaluated after rats were tested in Radial Eight-arm Maze (RAM). Heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) expression in hippocampus was also evaluated to understand the intensity of stress level. Results showed that after noise stress exposure, time taken to visit all the baited arms, working and reference memory errors were increased in RAM. The superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, AChE activity, hsp 70 were significantly increased with concomitant decrease in catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity and G6PD activity of non-enzymatic levels was observed in the 30 days noise stress exposed group. When rats were co-administrated with EAAC and alpha-Asarone prevents the noise stress induced alterations significantly. In Conclusion, noise stress induced oxidative stress, increased AChE activity, and over expression of hsp 70 in hippocampus region might have led to the impairment of spatial memory. EAAC and alpha-Asarone prevents this noise stress induced memory impairment. PMID:24498829

  16. Adsorption studies of Cu(II) on Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata Schott cv. Bostoniensis) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Rifaqat Ali Khan; Khan, Umra

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption studies were done on Boston fern leaves for the effective removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. It has been tested for the first time for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous solution. This promising material has shown remarkable adsorption capacity towards Cu(II) ions which confirm its novelty, ease of availability, non-toxic nature, cheapness, etc., and give the main innovation to the present study. The adsorbent was analyzed by FT-IR, SEM and EDS. The effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on the adsorption was investigated using batch process to optimize conditions for maximum adsorption. The adsorption of Cu(II) was maximum (96 %) at pH 4. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms. The kinetic studies of Cu(II)were carried out at room temperature (30 °C) in the concentration range 10-100 mg L-1. The data obtained fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity (q m) obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be 27.027 mg g-1 at 30 °C. The process was found to be exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 12.5 and 37.5 mg g-1, respectively. Desorption studies showed that 93.3 % Cu(II) could be desorbed with 0.1 M HCl by continuous mode.

  17. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  18. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kreike, C M; Van Eck, H J; Lebot, V

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of germplasm.

  19. cDNAs encoding for storage proteins in the tubers of taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott).

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Nakamura, K; Imai, T; Sato, T

    1993-06-01

    Two major protein groups of taro (Colocasia esculenta) tuber were purified, and their antisera were used for the screening of the cDNA library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of taro tuber. A cDNA clone obtained by screening with an anti-12 kD protein antiserum had an insert 1058 bp-long, and an open reading frame for a peptide of 268 amino acids. The analyses of the N-terminal amino acid sequence and in vitro translation product suggested that the protein was synthesized as a peptide with a molecular weight of 27 kD, and then processed into two mature peptides with a molecular weight of 12.5 and 13.9 kD and an extra peptide with a molecular weight of 0.6 kD. The cDNA clones obtained using the anti-25 kD protein antiserum were highly homologous with each other. One of them had an insert 958 bp-long and an open reading frame for a peptide with 209 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of this clone indicated that the 25 kD proteins were homologous to the trypsin inhibitors of soybean and winged bean as well as sporamins, the storage proteins of sweet potato.

  20. An Efficient In Vitro Propagation Protocol of Cocoyam [Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Anne E.; Hughes, Harrison G.; Abbas, Mohamed S.; Shahba, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Sprouted corm sections of “South Dade” white cocoyam were potted and maintained in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Shoot tips of 3–5 mm comprising the apical meristem with 4–6 leaf primordial, and approximately 0.5 mm of corm tissue at the base. These explants were treated to be used into the culture medium. A modified Gamborg's B5 mineral salts supplemented with 0.05 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used throughout the study. Thidiazuron (TDZ) solution containing 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. Erlenmeyer flasks and test tubes were used for growing cultures. The effect of different media substrate, thidiazuron, and the interaction between TDZ and Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on cocoyam culture were tested. Results indicated that cocoyam can be successfully micropropagated in vitro through various procedures. All concentrations tested (5–20 μM BAP and 1–4 μM TDZ) produced more axillary shoots per shoot tip than the control without cytokinins. Greater proliferation rates were obtained through the use of 20 μM BAP and 2 μM TDZ, respectively, 12 weeks from initiation. Shoots produced with BAP were larger and more normal in appearance than those produced with TDZ, which were small, compressed, and stunted. The use of stationary liquid media is recommended for economic reasons. PMID:22666109

  1. Lead and cadmium induced alterations of cellular functions in leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza L. Schott.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhi-Fang; Lin, Gui-Zhu; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Shao-Wei; Mo, Hui; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2010-09-01

    Alocasia macrorrhiza is a fast growing and propagating herbaceous species commonly found in South China. To determine its physiological responses to Pb and Cd stresses, the biochemical, histochemical and cytochemical changes under PbAC2 and CdCl2 phytotoxicity were detected using leaf discs as an experimental model. After leaf discs were infiltrated in different concentrations of PbAC2 and CdCl2 solutions (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 microM) for 72 h, the formation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2-) in plant tissue were found to be exaggerated together with elevated OH concentration and cell death. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, PhiPSII, qP and NPQ) imaging colours/areas of leaf discs indicated decreased photosystem II functions by both heavy metal treatments and positive reactions of antioxidants under Pb2+ stress. Results showed that fluorescent detection of hydroxylated terephthlate using terephthalic acid as OH trap is a simple, yet valuable and specific method for monitoring OH generation in plant tissue under heavy metal stresses. As compared with Cd2+, Pb2+ was found to be less toxic, indicating that A. macrorrhiza tissue might have a potential tolerance to Pb.

  2. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696

  3. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  4. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  5. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  7. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats. PMID:26687753

  8. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  9. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion.

  11. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant.

  12. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups.

  13. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments.

  14. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  15. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  16. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600

  17. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups. PMID:23718317

  18. Physical Interpretation of the Schott Energy of An Accelerating Point Charge and the Question of Whether a Uniformly Accelerating Charge Radiates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2010-01-01

    A core topic in graduate courses in electrodynamics is the description of radiation from an accelerated charge and the associated radiation reaction. However, contemporary papers still express a diversity of views on the question of whether or not a uniformly accelerating charge radiates suggesting that a complete "physical" understanding of the…

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion. PMID:18301900

  20. Comment on “Hydromagnesite solubility product and growth kinetics in aqueous solution from 25 to 75 °C” by Gautier, Q., Benezeth, P., Mavromatis, V., and Schott, J

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang

    2016-04-16

    Here, Gautier et al. (2014) recently published their determination of hydromagnesite solubility constant and hydromagnesite growth kinetics. Although their raw data appear to be of high quality, there is an oversight in their calculations of the hydromagnesite solubility constants given the solution compositions in their experiments. The oversight lies in the fact that they did not consider the constraint of simultaneous equilibrium with brucite. This oversight causes their newly calculated equilibrium constant for hydromagnesite to be discordant with the literature values (Königsberger et al., 1992 and Xiong, 2011).

  1. 21 CFR 189.110 - Calamus and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.110 Calamus and its derivatives. (a) Calamus is the dried rhizome of Acorus calamus...

  2. Ion implantation for figure correction of thin X-ray telescope mirror substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalifoux, Brandon; Wright, Graham; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    Figure correction of X-ray telescope mirrors will be critical for future missions that require high angular resolution and large collecting areas. In this paper, we show that ion implantation offers a method of correcting figure errors by imparting sub-surface in-plane stress in a controllable magnitude and location in Schott D-263 glass, Corning Eagle XG glass, and crystalline silicon substrates. In addition, we can in theory achieve nearly exact corrections in Schott D-263 glass, by controlling the direction of the stress. We show that sufficient stress may be applied to Schott D-263 glass to achieve figure correction in mirrors with simulated initial figure errors. We also report on progress of a system that will be capable of correcting conical shell mirror substrates.

  3. Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2006-07-01

    The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number.

  4. New glass developments for fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higby, Paige L.; Holst, Karen; Tabor, Kevin; James, William; Chase, Elizabeth; Pucilowski, Sally; Gober-Mangan, Elizabeth; Klimek, Ronald; Karetta, Frank; Schreder, Bianca

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic components for lighting and imaging applications have been in use for decades. Recent requirements such as a need for RoHS compliance, attractive market pricing, or particular optical properties, such as numerical aperture (NA) or transmission, have required SCHOTT to develop and implement new glasses for these applications. From Puravis™ lead-free fibers for lighting applications, to new glasses for digital X-ray imaging and sensor applications, the challenges for SCHOTT scientists are considerable. Pertinent properties of these glasses and methods of determination for suitability will be discussed.

  5. [Effect of plant polysaccharides on TH1-dependent immune response: screening investigation].

    PubMed

    Danilets, M G; Bel'skiĭ, Iu P; Gur'ev, A M; Belousov, M V; Bel'skaia, N V; Trofimova, E S; Uchasova, E G; Alhmedzhanov, R R; Ligacheva, A A; Iusbov, M S; Agefonov, V I

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the influence of water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Tussilago farfara L. leaves, Betula verrucosa Ehrh. leaves, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Acorus calamus rhizomes, Inula helenium L. rhizomes, overground part of Trifolium pretense L., and overground part ofArtemisia absinthium L., on Thl immune response induced by sheep red blood cells and on NO production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. All the investigated polysaccharides have stimulated a Th1 response. Polysaccharides isolated from Betula verrucosa leaves did not influence NO synthesis, while polysaccharides of Tussilago farfara leaves and Acorus calamus rhizomes stimulated NO synthase of murine macrophages on a level comparable with that of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Polysaccharides from Inula helenium rhizomes, Calendula officinalis flowers, and overground parts of Trifolium pretense and Artemisia absinthium also stimulated NO production, but to a lower extent in comparison to LPS. PMID:20726346

  6. Keck telescope primary mirror segments: fabrication and support.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, T. S.; Nelson, J. E.

    1988-10-01

    The fabrication of the mirror segments and segment support systems for the Keck Telescope are currently in progress. High quality mirror blanks are being manufactured and delivered by Schott Optical Technologies on a regular schedule. The segment fabrication facilities at Itek Optical Systems are in the final stage of preparation for production.

  7. Chronology and astronomy in Athanasius Kircher's Organum Mathematicum. (German Title: Die Zeitberechnung und die Astronomie in Athanasius Kirchers Organum Mathematicum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz

    The Organum Mathematicum was developed by Athanasius Kircher in 1661m and was described by Caspar Schott in 1668. With the aid of marked sticks, the Organum Mathematicum permits calculations in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, fortification, chronology, horography (the science of sundials), astronomy, astrology, steganography (encryption), and music. This essay focusses on two applications: chronology and astronomy.

  8. On the Energy and Momentum of an Accelerated Charged Particle and the Sources of Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Erik; Gron, Oyvind

    2007-01-01

    We give a systematic development of the theory of the radiation field of an accelerated charged particle with reference to an inertial reference frame in flat spacetime. Special emphasis is given to the role of the Schott energy and momentum in the energy-momentum balance of the charge and its field. It is shown that the energy of the radiation…

  9. Mapping Wild Taro with Color-infrared Aerial Photography and Image Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] is an exotic ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded many freshwater wetlands in the southeastern United States. Remote sensing techniques were evaluated for distinguishing wild taro along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Field refle...

  10. Transitioning from Elementary School to Middle School: The Ecology of Black Males' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Alma Christienne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study is to explain the ecology Black males experience as they transition from elementary school to middle school in terms of behavior. The Black male graduation rate is well below 50% nationally (Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004; Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Graduating from high school…

  11. Comments on Research: Student Use of Unscheduled Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Everett W.

    1973-01-01

    Author reviews Student Use of Unscheduled Time,'' by Walter J. Foley, Gordon C. Harr, and Larry Smiley (Iowa Educational Information Center), and Comparing Block Scheduling and Traditional Scheduling on Student Achievement and Attitudes,'' by Adrian P. Van Mondrans, James L. Schott, and Denny G. French (paper presented at the convention of the…

  12. Graduation and Dropout Rates by Ethnicity and Gender. Research Note. Volume 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The Shott Foundation for Public Education recently published "Yes We Can: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males." This report focused on the exceedingly low graduation rate for Black males enrolled in schools around the nation. According to the report, the graduation rate for Black males in Miami-Dade County (M-DCPS) was…

  13. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  14. Bridges, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita; Manear, John; Slifkin, Josh M.

    This volume contains articles about writing, best practice, portfolio assessment, and technology, as well as original poetry and book reviews. Articles in the volume are: "Teaching Writing: Making Connections" (Eric Schott); "Empowering Teachers: A Success Story" (Sandra L. Krivak); "Bridging the Gap between the Classroom and Employment" (Linda C.…

  15. Optical limiting in semiconductor-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    We report optical limiting at 527 nm in two Schott semiconductor-doped glasses OG530 and OG515. These two glasses show quite contrasting nonlinear optical behaviour. The glass OG515 shows strong clamping while OG530 shows no clamping in optical limiting inspite of having much larger nonlinear refractive index. Similarly OG530 exhibits saturation of absorption while OG515 does not.

  16. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  17. [Purification efficiency of several wetland macrophytes on COD and nitrogen removal from domestic sewage].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Donghai; Ren, Quanjin; Gao, Shixiang; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Daqiang; Wang, Liansheng

    2004-12-01

    In order to investigate the role of wetland macrophytes in waster water purification and to select appropriate native filter plants in constructed wetland, three vertical-flow constructed wetlands were built with river sands as the substrates of Acorus gramineus, Juncus effusus and Iris japonica, and one without plant as the control. Investigation on the removal of COD and total nitrogen (TN) from domestic sewage showed that within lower concentrations of COD (<200 mg x L(-1)) and TN (<30 mg x L(-1)), more than 90% of COD and 80% of TN were removed from domestic sewage in all constructed wetlands. When the concentration of COD and TN increased, the purification efficiency of all constructed wetlands decreased to some extent. The constructed wetlands with macrophytes had a higher efficiency than control. Among the three constructed wetlands with macrophytes, the one with Acorus gramineus had an average purification efficiency of 80.46% for COD and 77.77% for TN, that with Juncus effusus was 75.53% for COD and 71.17% for TN, and the one with Iris japonica was 70.50% for COD and 66.38% for TN. The constructed wetland without vegetation had an average purification efficiency of 61.39% for COD and 55.81% for TN. Acorus gramineus was more capable of removing COD and TN than Juncus effusus and Iris japonica. Vegetation biomass was the main factor affecting the removal rate of COD and nitrogen, because it significantly correlated with the ability of absorbing organic substance and nitrogen, and with the nitrification and denitrification around roots.

  18. On the construction of a 2-metre mirror blank for the universal reflecting telescope in Tautenburg (German Title: Über die Fertigung eines 2-Meter-Spiegelträgers für das Universal-Spiegelteleskop in Tautenburg )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lödel, Wolfgang

    The astronomers' desire to penetrate deeper into space transforms into a demand for larger telescopes. The primary mirror constitutes the main part of a reflecting telescope, and it determines all subsequent activities. Already in the 1930s activities existed in the Schott company to manufacture mirror blanks up to diameters of 2 metres, which could not be pursued because of political constraints. This ambitious goal was again picked up a few years after the war. At a time when the procurement of raw materials was extremely difficult, the glass workers of Schott in Jena attacked this large project. After some failures, a good mirror blank could be delivered to the Carl Zeiss Company in 1951 for further processing and for the construction of the first 2-metre reflecting telescope. From 1960 to 1986, this mirror made from optical glass ZK7 served its purpose at the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory in Tautenburg. lt was then replaced by a zero expansion glass ceramics mirror.

  19. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  20. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  1. Next generation dilatometer for highest accuracy thermal expansion measurement of ZERODUR®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Engel, Axel; Kunisch, Clemens; Westenberger, Gerhard; Fischer, Peter; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In the recent years, the ever tighter tolerance for the Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of IC Lithography component materials is requesting significant progress in the metrology accuracy to determine this property as requested. ZERODUR® is known for its extremely low CTE between 0°C to 50°C. The current measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient is done using push rod dilatometer measurement systems developed at SCHOTT. In recent years measurements have been published showing the excellent CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® in the one-digit ppb/K range using these systems. The verifiable homogeneity was limited by the CTE(0°C, 50°C) measurement repeatability in the range of ± 1.2 ppb/K of the current improved push rod dilatometer setup using an optical interferometer as detector instead of an inductive coil. With ZERODUR® TAILORED, SCHOTT introduced a low thermal expansion material grade that can be adapted to individual customer application temperature profiles. The basis for this product is a model that has been developed in 2010 for better understanding of the thermal expansion behavior under given temperature versus time conditions. The CTE behavior predicted by the model has proven to be in very good alignment with the data determined in the thermal expansions measurements. The measurements to determine the data feeding the model require a dilatometer setup with excellent stability and accuracy for long measurement times of several days. In the past few years SCHOTT spent a lot of effort to drive a dilatometer measurement technology based on the push rod setup to its limit, to fulfill the continuously demand for higher CTE accuracy and deeper material knowledge of ZERODUR®. This paper reports on the status of the dilatometer technology development at SCHOTT.

  2. 40- to 60-day oscillation in the source region of the Somali Current during 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Mysak, L.A.; Mertz, G.J.

    1984-01-20

    Evidence is presented for a 40- and 60-day oscillation in the longshore current and temperature fluctuations that were measured during 1976 in the Somali Current regime off Kenya by Dueing and Schott (1978). It is suggested that this equatorial oceanic oscillations is excited by long-period local wind fluctuations which are associated with the global tropical 40- to 50-day day oscillation first detected by Madden and Julian (1971,1972).

  3. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  4. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  5. TMA optics for HISUI HSS and MSS imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, R.; Leplan, H.; Rodolfo, J.

    2011-10-01

    Sagem is presently working on a new project for the Japanese HISUI instrument made from a Hyper Spectral Sensor and a Multi Spectral Sensor, both including a Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) main optics. Mirrors are made from Zerodur from Schott but also from NTSIC, the New Technology Silicon Carbide developed in Japan. This report is also the opportunity to show to the community Sagem recent progress in precision TMA optics polishing and alignment.

  6. Optical phase conjugation in semiconductor-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussignol, P.; Ricard, D.; Rustagi, K. C.; Flytzanis, C.

    1985-08-01

    We have studied optical phase conjugation in two types of semiconductor-doped glasses. Corning 3.68 and Schott OG 530 at λ = 0.532 μm using picosecond pulses. We observe a slow nonlinearity in agreement with the slow decay of luminescence. The saturation of the reflectivity is strongly correlated with the absorption saturation of these glasses and may be interpreted in terms of a three-level system model.

  7. Equation of state data of shock compressed liquid CO sub 2 and synthetic Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Erskine, D.J.; McCandless, P.C.; Ravizza, D.L.; Cassidy, L.D.

    1989-09-01

    New Hugoniot equation-of-state data for liquid CO{sub 2}and synthetic Uranus are discussed. These CO{sub 2} data and the previous data of Schott indicate that CO{sub 2} begins to dissociate at about 33 GPa on the Hugoniot. Four double-shock points were obtained for synthetic Uranus up to 220 GPa and 3 g/cm{sup 3}. These data are coincident with the adiabat of Uranus calculated by Hubbard and Marley. 3 refs.

  8. Components Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Parabolic trough technology is the most mature of the various concentrating solar power (CSP) options. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continue to make advances on trough systems through innovative research on various components in industrial partnerships with Acciona Solar Power, SkyFuel, Schott Solar, and others. The results are leading to improved system efficiencies and lower costs for CSP plants.

  9. Performance of industrial scale production of ZERODUR mirrors with diameter of 1.5 m proves readiness for the ELT M1 segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, Thomas; Hartmann, Peter; Jedamzik, Ralf; Werz, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    The two Extremely Large Telescopes under discussion, the Thirty Meter Telescope and the European Extremely Large Telescope, will use a multitude of hexagonal shaped mirror segments to achieve the large aperture of 30 m and 39 m, respectively. The proper functionality of both telescopes will strongly depend upon the variation of material properties between individual segments. SCHOTT has a well proven experience in production of mirror substrates for segmented telescopes. Today five of the world's six segmented telescopes are using ZERODUR® as mirror substrate material. Since 2003 SCHOTT delivered more than 260 mirrors of 1.5 m in diameter for industrial application not related to astronomy. In this paper the achievements during the serial production of those are presented for specified material properties and dimensional parameters. The presentation includes data on the fulfillment of the CTE specification, the achieved tolerances on surface figure and flatness and other geometrical quality parameters. The data to be presented will demonstrate the excellent reproducibility of ZERODUR®'s material properties and its manufacturing process. The production capabilities at SCHOTT for the successful delivery in time of the multitude of ZERODUR® segments are presented and discussed. They will demonstrate that ZERODUR® is well prepared for the demands of industrial scale production for the two large segmented ELT's in quality, quantity, and in the requested time period.

  10. Comparative genomic analyses in Asparagus.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Joseph C; Havey, Michael J; Martin, William J; Cheung, Foo; Yuan, Qiaoping; Landherr, Lena; Hu, Yi; Leebens-Mack, James; Town, Christopher D; Sink, Kenneth C

    2005-12-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) belongs to the monocot family Asparagaceae in the order Asparagales. Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Asparagus officinalis are 2 of the most economically important plants of the core Asparagales, a well supported monophyletic group within the Asparagales. Coding regions in onion have lower GC contents than the grasses. We compared the GC content of 3374 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from A. officinalis with Lycoris longituba and onion (both members of the core Asparagales), Acorus americanus (sister to all other monocots), the grasses, and Arabidopsis. Although ESTs in A. officinalis and Acorus had a higher average GC content than Arabidopsis, Lycoris, and onion, all were clearly lower than the grasses. The Asparagaceae have the smallest nuclear genomes among all plants in the core Asparagales, which typically have huge genomes. Within the Asparagaceae, European Asparagus species have approximately twice the nuclear DNA of that of southern African Asparagus species. We cloned and sequenced 20 genomic amplicons from European A. officinalis and the southern African species Asparagus plumosus and observed no clear evidence for a recent genome doubling in A. officinalis relative to A. plumosus. These results indicate that members of the genus Asparagus with smaller genomes may be useful genomic models for plants in the core Asparagales. PMID:16391674

  11. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  12. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges in a Gravitational Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind

    The electrodynamics of a radiating charge and its electromagnetic field based upon the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac (LAD) equation are discussed both with reference to an inertial reference frame and a uniformly accelerated reference frame. It is demonstrated that energy and momentum are conserved during runaway motion of a radiating charge and during free fall of a charge in a field of gravity. This does not mean that runaway motion is really happening. It may be an unphysical solution of the LAD equation of motion of a radiating charge due to the unrealistic point particle model of the charge upon which it is based. However it demonstrates the consistency of classical electrodynamics, including the LAD equation which is deduced from Maxwell's equations and the principle of energy-momentum conservation applied to a radiating charge and its electromagnetic field. The decisive role of the Schott energy in this connection is made clear and an answer is given to the question: What sort of energy is the Schott energy and where is it found? It is the part of the electromagnetic field energy which is proportional to (minus) the scalar product of the velocity and acceleration of a moving accelerated charged particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field of a point charge it is localized at the particle. This energy is negative if the acceleration is in the same direction as the velocity and positive if it is in the opposite direction. During runaway motion the Schott energy becomes more and more negative and in the case of a charged particle with finite extension, it is localized in a region with increasing extension surrounding the particle. The Schott energy provides the radiated energy of a freely falling charge. Also it is pointed out that a proton and a neutron fall with the same acceleration in a uniform gravitational field, although the proton radiates and the neutron does not. It is made clear that the question as to whether or not a charge radiates has a reference

  13. Proton-induced coloring of multicomponent glasses. [absorption saturation due to irradiation in space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartusiak, M. F.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the coloring induced by 85-MeV protons in three Schott glasses representative of glass types used as focusing elements in the International Ultraviolet Explorer Fine Error Sensor. It is shown that the absorption (i.e., coloring) induced in each glass by the radiation can be resolved into three optical absorption bands in the near UV-visible range. It is also discussed how that absorption grows with increasing dosages of protons, thus providing the means to predict degradation in any of the three glasses for a particular fluence of proton radiation.

  14. Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future.

  15. Prediction of long-term radiation kinetics of transmission spectra of commerical optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, Andrei I.; Doyle, Dominic B.; Fruit, Michel; Kinet, Damien P.

    2002-09-01

    We analyze the applicability of a number of exponent-type phenomenological kinetics for transmission degradation prediction in commercial optical glasses during and after irradiation. The analysis is based on post-radiation transmission measurements over a 5 years time interval of a commercial boro-silicate glass (BK7, Schott). A conclusion is drawn that the choice should be made between the stretched-exponential and the multi-exponential functions. We apply those kinetics to simulate kinetics of BK7 glass transmission spectra subject to Co60 gamma-radiation in the framework of the previously developed phenomenological model. Calculated transmission spectra agree well with our experimental data.

  16. Direct CO(2) laser-based generation of holographic structures on the surface of glass.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L; Weston, Nicholas J; Ardron, Marcus; Hand, Duncan P

    2016-01-25

    A customized CO(2) laser micromachining system was used for the generation of phase holographic structures directly on the surface of fused silica (HPFS(®)7980 Corning) and Borofloat(®)33 (Schott AG) glass. This process used pulses of duration 10µs and nominal wavelength 10.59µm. The pulse energy delivered to the glass workpiece was controlled by an acousto-optic modulator. The laser-generated structures were optically smooth and crack free. We demonstrated their use as diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which could be exploited as anti-counterfeiting markings embedded into valuable glass-made components and products. PMID:26832525

  17. Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future. PMID:21564697

  18. Characterization & Modeling of Materials in Glass-To-Metal Seals: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M.; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.

    2014-01-01

    To support higher fidelity modeling of residual stresses in glass-to-metal (GTM) seals and to demonstrate the accuracy of finite element analysis predictions, characterization and validation data have been collected for Sandia’s commonly used compression seal materials. The temperature dependence of the storage moduli, the shear relaxation modulus master curve and structural relaxation of the Schott 8061 glass were measured and stress-strain curves were generated for SS304L VAR in small strain regimes typical of GTM seal applications spanning temperatures from 20 to 500 C. Material models were calibrated and finite element predictions are being compared to measured data to assess the accuracy of predictions.

  19. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  20. Performance of a half-saturated vertical flow wetland packed with volcanic gravel in stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoping; Park, Kisoo; Niu, Siping; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-01-01

    A half-saturated pilot-scale wetland planted with Acorus calamus was built to treat urban stormwater. The design comprises a sedimentation tank for pretreatment, and a vertical flow volcanic gravel wetland bed equipped with a recirculation device. Eighteen rainfall events were monitored in 2012. The treatment system achieved total removal efficiencies of 99.4, 81, 50, and 86% for suspended solids, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, and 29, 68, and 25% for copper, zinc, and lead, respectively, at a 3-day hydraulic residence time. In the wetland bed, the removal of ammonia, total nitrogen, and zinc were improved by recirculation. Plant uptake provided 18% of nitrogen removal and 39% of phosphorus removal. During the experimental stage, only 1.4% of the pore volume in substrate was reduced due to clogging, implying that the wetland can operate without clogging for a relatively long period.

  1. Preisocalamendiol, Shyobunol and Related Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes from Bolivian Schinus molle Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    St-Gelais, Alexis; Mathieu, Michel; Levasseur, Virginie; Ovando, Jesús Flores; Escamilla, Ruben; Marceau, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Five batches of Bolivian Schinus molle essential oils were obtained from pilot and industrial-scale hydrodiffusions. They were analyzed by gas chromatography to find 80 known compounds and two unknown molecules. In particular, preisocalamendiol (5.6-11.0 %) was found to be an important constituent of these oils, along with shyobunol (0.6-3.2 %) and several other related oxygenated sesquiterpenes. These compounds, usually found in Acorus calamus, had not been reported altogether in S. molle essential oils previously. These findings, in light of the GABAA positive modulating effect of shyobunone and preisocalamendiol, along with some traditional uses of S. molle, suggest that further investigation of the tranquilizing properties of these Bolivian oils would be of interest.

  2. Phytoremediation of atrazine by three emergent hydrophytes in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghai; Zhang, Wei; Li, Cui; Xiao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic system was used to evaluate atrazine (ATZ) removal and uptake by three emergent hydrophytes, Iris pseudacorus, Lythrum salicaria and Acorus calamus, determining their potential as phytoremediation agents for ATZ-contaminated water. After 20 days of exposure, the relative growth rate of plants in sterile conditions was less than in natural conditions. ATZ amount in a culture solution planted with emergent plants decreased significantly compared with an unplanted solution, and the removal rate of ATZ in natural conditions was greater than in sterile conditions (p < 0.05). The degradation contributions of I. pseudacorus, L. salicaria and A. calamus were 75.6, 65.5 and 61.8%, respectively. Those of the corresponding microbial population in the solution were 5.4, 11.4 and 17.4%, respectively. Emergent plants play a dominant role in reducing the ATZ level in the water body and could be used as phytoremediation agents.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

  4. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: Evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    A new species (Mayoa portugallica genus novum species novum) of highly characteristic inaperturate, striate fossil pollen is described from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian) of Torres Vedras in the Western Portuguese Basin. Based on comparison with extant taxa, Mayoa is assigned to the tribe Spathiphylleae (subfamily Monsteroideae) of the extant monocotyledonous family Araceae. Recognition of Araceae in the Early Cretaceous is consistent with the position of this family and other Alismatales as the sister group to all other monocots except Acorus. The early occurrence is also consistent with the position of Spathiphylleae with respect to the bulk of aroid diversity. Mayoa occurs in the earliest fossil floras (from circa 110 to 120 million years ago) that contain angiosperm flowers, carpels, and stamens. The new fossil provides unequivocal evidence of monocots in early angiosperm assemblages that also include a variety of key “magnoliid” lineages (e.g., Chloranthaceae) but only a limited diversity of eudicots. PMID:15546982

  5. Phytotoxicity assessment of atrazine on growth and physiology of three emergent plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghai; Que, Xiaoe; Zheng, Ruilun; Pang, Zuo; Li, Cui; Xiao, Bo

    2015-07-01

    The emergent plants Acorus calamus, Lythrum salicaria, and Scirpus tabernaemontani were exposed to atrazine for 15, 30, 45, and 60 days in a hydroponic system. Effects were evaluated investigating plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Results showed that selected plants survived in culture solution with atrazine ≤8 mg L(-1), but relative growth rates decreased significantly in the first 15-day exposure. Chla content decreased, but MDA increased with increasing atrazine concentration. S. tabernaemontani was the most insensitive species, followed by A. calamus and L.salicaria. The growth indicators exhibited significant changes in the early stage of atrazine exposure; subsequently, the negative impacts weakened and disappeared. Plant growth may be more representative of emergent plant fitness than physiological endpoints in toxicity assessment of herbicides to emergent plants.

  6. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  7. An authenticity survey of herbal medicines from markets in China using DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jianping; Pang, Xiaohui; Liao, Baosheng; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Adulterant herbal materials are a threat to consumer safety. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to investigate the proportions and varieties of adulterant species in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) markets. We used a DNA barcode database of TCM (TCMD) that was established by our group to investigate 1436 samples representing 295 medicinal species from 7 primary TCM markets in China. The results indicate that ITS2 barcodes could be generated for most of the samples (87.7%) using a standard protocol. Of the 1260 samples, approximately 4.2% were identified as adulterants. The adulterant focused on medicinal species such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen), Radix Rubi Parvifolii (Maomeigen), Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum (Jiangxiang), Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shichangpu), Inulae Flos (Xuanfuhua), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), Acanthopanacis Cortex (Wujiapi) and Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu). The survey revealed that adulterant species are present in the Chinese market, and these adulterants pose a risk to consumer health. Thus, regulatory measures should be adopted immediately. We suggest that a traceable platform based on DNA barcode sequences be established for TCM market supervision. PMID:26740340

  8. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  9. An authenticity survey of herbal medicines from markets in China using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianping; Pang, Xiaohui; Liao, Baosheng; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-07

    Adulterant herbal materials are a threat to consumer safety. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to investigate the proportions and varieties of adulterant species in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) markets. We used a DNA barcode database of TCM (TCMD) that was established by our group to investigate 1436 samples representing 295 medicinal species from 7 primary TCM markets in China. The results indicate that ITS2 barcodes could be generated for most of the samples (87.7%) using a standard protocol. Of the 1260 samples, approximately 4.2% were identified as adulterants. The adulterant focused on medicinal species such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen), Radix Rubi Parvifolii (Maomeigen), Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum (Jiangxiang), Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shichangpu), Inulae Flos (Xuanfuhua), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), Acanthopanacis Cortex (Wujiapi) and Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu). The survey revealed that adulterant species are present in the Chinese market, and these adulterants pose a risk to consumer health. Thus, regulatory measures should be adopted immediately. We suggest that a traceable platform based on DNA barcode sequences be established for TCM market supervision.

  10. Embryological Features of Tofieldia glutinosa and Their Bearing on the Early Diversification of Monocotyledonous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Samuel J.; Friedman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Methods Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Key Results Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further

  11. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of two Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajoy; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Chowdhury, Anusua; Shill, Manik Chandra; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Muhit, Md Abdul

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate phytochemical screening and to assay cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of two medicinal plants, Aglaonema hookerianum Schott (Family: Araceae) and Lannea grandis Engl. (Family: Anacardiaceae) available in Bangladesh. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed that the ethanolic extracts of Aglaonema hookerianum and Lannea grandis possessed cytotoxic activities with LC50 5.25 (microg mL(-1)) and 5.75 (microg mL(-1)) and LC90 10.47 (microg mL(-1)) and 9.55 (microg mL(-1)), respectively. Two extracts obtained from leaves were examined for their antibacterial activities against some gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus, also gram negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi and Vibrio cholerae. Agar disc diffusion method was applied to observe the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts. Results indicated that both plant extracts (500 microg disc(-1)) displayed antibacterial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. These results were also compared with the zones of inhibition produced by commercially available standard antibiotic, Amoxicillin at concentration of 10 microg disc(-1). Observed antibacterial properties of the ethanolic extract of Aglaonema hookerianum Schott and Lannea grandis Engl. showed that both plants might be useful sources for the development of new potent antibacterial agents.

  12. Infrared thermography ofArum lily inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Skubatz, H; Nelson, T A; Dong, A M; Meeuse, B J; Bendich, A J

    1990-10-01

    The infrared radiation emitted from the surface of inflorescences of 12 aroid species was monitored with an infrared camera, capable of 0.1°C resolution, and the data were converted to temperature values by means of temperature reference standards. Images representing surface temperatures were obtained forAmorphophallus bulbifer Blume,A. campanulatus Blume,A. forbesii Engl. et Gehrm.,A. rivieri Dur.,Philodendron selloum Koch,Monstera deliciosa Liebm.,Dracunculus vulgaris Schott,Arum italicum Mill.,A. dioscoridis Sibth.,A. creticum Boiss et Heldr.,Caladium sp., andRemusatia vivipara Schott. These images were different among species with respect to temperature, duration of detectable heat development, and organ type (male and female flowers, spathe and appendix) found to be thermogenic. All these species, however, exhibited three common characteristics: 1) production of heat by the male flowers; 2) pollen-shedding immediately after heat production had ceased; and 3) when male flowers were some distance away from female flowers along the spadix, heat was not detected in female flowers. Heat emission was associated with the alternative, cyanide-insensitive pathway that was fully operative.

  13. 650 nm Laser stimulated dating from Side Antique Theatre, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, M.; Meriç, N.

    2014-03-01

    Samples were taken from the archeological excavation site, which was at the backs of the Side Antique Theatre. Samples were taken from under the base rock in this area. Polymineral fine grains were examined to determine the ages of the sediments. Samples gathered from the Side Antique Theatre were investigated through using the SAR method. Firstly, one part of the samples were evaluated by using conventional IRSL reading head model of (ELSEC-9010) which is infrared (880±80 nm) stimulation source with Schott BG39 filter. The IRSL age dating with feldspar minerals, gives a number of overestimated or underestimated age values as a result. A new reading head was proposed with the following configuration attachments for overestimation of equivalent dose rates. Measurements were done with this newly designed red laser stimulating reading head which works with Elsec 9010 OSL age dating system. SAR measurements were performed by (650±10 nm) red laser light source with two Schott BG3 filters. With usage of the new designed reading head; closer results were obtained in comparision with the Antique Theatre's expected age range. Fading rates were taken into consideration and these corrections were also handled for true age results.

  14. An automated protocol for performance benchmarking a widefield fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Halter, Michael; Bier, Elianna; DeRose, Paul C; Cooksey, Gregory A; Choquette, Steven J; Plant, Anne L; Elliott, John T

    2014-11-01

    Widefield fluorescence microscopy is a highly used tool for visually assessing biological samples and for quantifying cell responses. Despite its widespread use in high content analysis and other imaging applications, few published methods exist for evaluating and benchmarking the analytical performance of a microscope. Easy-to-use benchmarking methods would facilitate the use of fluorescence imaging as a quantitative analytical tool in research applications, and would aid the determination of instrumental method validation for commercial product development applications. We describe and evaluate an automated method to characterize a fluorescence imaging system's performance by benchmarking the detection threshold, saturation, and linear dynamic range to a reference material. The benchmarking procedure is demonstrated using two different materials as the reference material, uranyl-ion-doped glass and Schott 475 GG filter glass. Both are suitable candidate reference materials that are homogeneously fluorescent and highly photostable, and the Schott 475 GG filter glass is currently commercially available. In addition to benchmarking the analytical performance, we also demonstrate that the reference materials provide for accurate day to day intensity calibration. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  15. Plug and Play Components for Building-Integrated PV Systems: Phase I--Final Report, 20 February 2002--19 February 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the development by RWE Schott Solar, Inc., of innovative new products to facilitate the broad use of its PV systems in the current markets. RWE manufactures and sells the 300-watt ASE-300 PV module and also provides complete photovoltaic system engineering, design, and turnkey PV system installation services. RWE Schott Solar has many years of experience designing PV arrays and installing them on flat roofs and pitched roofs, and had plans to improve these designs. Specifically, wind-tunnel testing and analyses were needed for the new flat-roof PV array mounting system that avoids roof penetrations. In addition, to simplify large grid-tied PV systems for flat-roof applications, the company's line of wiring junction boxes needed to be updated with new components and higher-power multi-circuit configurations. For pitched-roof residential applications, testing was planned to determine the holding power of three different fasteners in a wide range of wood-sheathing types found in residential construction to help optimize fastening methods. A device for connecting PV to the grid at a meter socket was innovated and is also being developed.

  16. Progress on glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Weber, Peter; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Semiconductor Industry is making continuous progress in shrinking feature size developing technologies and process to achieve < 10 nm feature size. The required Overlay specification for successful production is in the range one nanometer or even smaller. Consequently, materials designed into metrology systems of exposure or inspection tools need to fulfill ever tighter specification on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR®. This paper is focusing on the "Advanced Dilatometer" for determination of the CTE developed at SCHOTT in the recent years and introduced into production in Q1 2015. The achievement for improving the absolute CTE measurement accuracy and the reproducibility are described in detail. Those achievements are compared to the CTE measurement accuracy reported by the Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The CTE homogeneity is of highest importance to achieve nanometer precision on larger scales. Additionally, the paper presents data on the short scale CTE homogeneity and its improvement in the last two years. The data presented in this paper will explain the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the extreme precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  17. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  18. Investigation of antibacterial activity of aspidin BB against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang; Guo, Na; Li, Na; Peng, Xiao; Wang, Peng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, antibacterial activity of four kinds of phloroglucinol derivatives extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes has been tested. Aspidin BB exerted the strongest antibacterial activity with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values ranging from 7.81 to 15.63 μg/mL. The time-kill assay indicated that aspidin BB could kill P. acnes completely at 2 MIC (MBC) within 4 h. By using AFM, we demonstrated extensive cell surface alterations of aspidin BB-treated P. acnes. SDS-PAGE of supernatant proteins and lipid peroxidation results showed that aspidin BB dose-dependently affected membrane permeability of P. acnes. DNA damage and protein degradation of P. acnes were also verified. SDS-PAGE of precipitated proteins revealed possible targets of aspidin BB, i.e., heat shock proteins (26 kDa) and lipase (33 kDa) which could all cause inflammation. Aspidin BB also seriously increased the inhibition rate of lipase activity from 10.20 to 65.20 % to possibly inhibit the inflammation. In conclusions, the effective constituents of D. fragrans (L.) Schott to treat acne might be phloroglucinol derivatives including aspidin BB, aspidin PB, aspidinol and dryofragin. Among this, aspidin BB inhibited the growth of P. acnes by disrupting their membrane, DNA and proteins and finally leaded to the cell death. The obtained data highlighted the potential of using aspidin BB as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:26596576

  19. High-throughput allogeneic antibody detection using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jed; Sahaf, Bita; Perloff, Spenser; Schoenrock, Kelsi; Wu, Fang; Nakasone, Hideki; Coller, John; Miklos, David

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have traditionally been used to detect alloantibodies in patient plasma samples post hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, protein microarrays have the potential to be multiplexed, more sensitive, and higher throughput than ELISAs. Here, we describe the development of a novel and sensitive microarray method for detection of allogeneic antibodies against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded on the Y chromosome, called HY antigens. Six microarray surfaces were tested for their ability to bind recombinant protein and peptide HY antigens. Significant allogeneic immune responses were determined in male patients with female donors by considering normal male donor responses as baseline. HY microarray results were also compared with our previous ELISA results. Our overall goal was to maximize antibody detection for both recombinant protein and peptide epitopes. For detection of HY antigens, the Epoxy (Schott) protein microarray surface was both most sensitive and reliable and has become the standard surface in our microarray platform. PMID:26902899

  20. Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, S. S.; Drevinskas, R.; Lotarev, S. V.; Lipatiev, A. S.; Beresna, M.; ČerkauskaitÄ--, A.; Sigaev, V. N.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembled nanostructures created by femtosecond laser irradiation are demonstrated in alkali-free aluminoborosilicate glass. The growth of the induced retardance associated with the nanograting formation is three orders of magnitude slower than in silica glass and is observed only within a narrow range of pulse energies. However, the strength of retardance asymptotically approaches the value typically measured in pure silica glass, which is attractive for practical applications. A similar intensity threshold for nanograting formation of about 1 TW/cm2 is observed for all glasses studied. The radially polarized vortex beam micro-converter designed as a space-variant quarter-wave retarder for the near-infrared spectral range is imprinted in commercial Schott AF32 glass.

  1. Investigation of the neutral-solution etch process for refractive SOE antireflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Antireflection of optically clear glass used in photovoltaic concentrator refractive secondary optical elements (SOE's) was investigated using the neutral-solution etch process developed by Schott Glass. Test coupons and SOE's made from barium zinc glass, which does not solarize under ultraviolet exposure, were successfully etched at the center point process variable conditions of 87{degrees}C and 24 hours. Reflectance of the plano-plano dropped from 7.7% to 0.8%, with a corresponding increase in transmission from 91.7% to 98.5%. The etching process uses non-hydrofluoric, relatively non-toxic chemicals in a low-cost process well suited for use by photovoltaic system manufacturers during production. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Using small glass catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, John C.

    2000-07-01

    Changes in glass catalogs from the major manufacturers, Schott, Ohara, Hoya, Corning, and Summita, are a future certainty. The ongoing efforts of these companies to eliminate arsenic, lead, and other environmentally unfriendly materials may well have an additional effect on the size of their catalogs also. We should not assume a zero-sum game, however. Environmental concerns may not lead to permanently smaller catalogs, though many have speculated that in the near term this might be so. However, from the designer's perspective, very small, abbreviated class catalogs, constructed for special purposes, can speed the glass selection process. Several examples will be discussed, based on derivative libraries suggested by Zhang, Shannon, and Walker. Streamlined libraries tailored for special purposes can be used effectively in the latest lens design software. Future software tools may speed this selection process by the use of algorithms that treat the problem as a `black box' using logic tools derived from probability studies of the patent literature.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus, a putative cytorhabdovirus infecting taro.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV).

  4. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Mace, Emma S; Godwin, Ian D

    2002-10-01

    Microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott). The sequencing of 269 clones yielded 77 inserts containing repeat motifs. The majority of these (81.7%) were dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats. The GT/CA repeat motif was the most common, accounting for 42% of all repeat types. From a total of 43 primer pairs designed, 41 produced markers within the expected size range. Sixteen (39%) were polymorphic when screened against a restricted set of taro genotypes from Southeast Asia and Oceania, with an average of 3.2 alleles detected on each locus. These markers represent a useful resource for taro germplasm management, genome mapping, and marker-assisted selection.

  5. Mutagenic effects of solar UV-radiation on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2001-08-01

    A decrease of the stratospheric ozone layer will result in an increase of shorter wavelengths of the solar radiation reaching in earth. To investigate the biological efficiency, especially the mutagenic specificity, of ranges of polychromatic UVA and UBV irradiations with wavelengths between 280 nm and 400 nm, the plasmid DNA pUC19 and its E. coli host strain JM83 were used as a model system. Different ranges of solar UV radiation were simulated with the SOL 2 sun simulator (Dr. Hönle) and a variety of cut-off filters (Schott). Three wavelength bands were investigated: 280 - 400 nm (simulating UV-range under a stratospheric ozone layer depletion), 300-400 nm (simulating the UV-range today) and 315-400 nm to examine the effects induced by UVA alone.

  6. Science fiction and the history of the astro-department of Carl Zeiss Jena (German Title: Science Fiction und die Geschichte der Astroabteilung von Carl Zeiss Jena)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hans G.

    This contribution uses the literary form of science fiction in retrospect, in order to display the initial conditions given in the run-up of the founding of the astro-department of the Zeiss factory. Written minutes (supposedly found during restoration works in the people's house in Jena) introduce the participants of a sort of founding party of the main actors Ernst Abbe, Otto Schott, Siegfried Czapski, Hans Harting, Albert König, Franz Meyer and Walter Villiger. Their contributions to the discussion yield a market analysis, based on the past development of the technology of astronomical instruments, the international competitors' state of the art, and the assessment of the future development in astronomy and especially of astrophysics. The contribution presents a piece of modern history of the year 1987; it was presented as a talk on May 13 of the same year, when Rolf Riekher celebrated his 65th birthday.

  7. Femtosecond laser ablation properties of transparent materials: impact of the laser process parameters on the machining throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matylitsky, V. V.; Hendricks, F.; Aus der Au, J.

    2013-03-01

    High average power, high repetition rate femtosecond lasers with μJ pulse energies are increasingly used for bio-medical and material processing applications. With the introduction of femtosecond laser systems such as the SpiritTM platform developed by High Q Lasers and Spectra-Physics, micro-processing of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses have obtained new perspectives for industrial applications [1]. The unique advantage of material processing with subpicosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition, which leads to high ablation efficiency and accuracy in nearly all kinds of solid materials. The study on the impact of the laser processing parameters on the removal rate for transparent substrate using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. In particular, examples of micro-processing of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) - bio-degradable polyester and XensationTM glass (Schott) machined with SpiritTM ultrafast laser will be shown.

  8. The pressure sensitivity of wrinkled B-doped nanocrystalline diamond membranes

    PubMed Central

    Drijkoningen, S.; Janssens, S. D.; Pobedinskas, P.; Koizumi, S.; Van Bael, M. K.; Haenen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) membranes are promising candidates for use as sensitive pressure sensors. NCD membranes are able to withstand harsh conditions and are easily fabricated on glass. In this study the sensitivity of heavily boron doped NCD (B:NCD) pressure sensors is evaluated with respect to different types of supporting glass substrates, doping levels and membrane sizes. Higher pressure sensing sensitivities are obtained for membranes on Corning Eagle 2000 glass, which have a better match in thermal expansion coefficient with diamond compared to those on Schott AF45 glass. In addition, it is shown that larger and more heavily doped membranes are more sensitive. After fabrication of the membranes, the stress in the B:NCD films is released by the emergence of wrinkles. A better match between the thermal expansion coefficient of the NCD layer and the underlying substrate results in less stress and a smaller amount of wrinkles as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and 3D surface imaging. PMID:27767048

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigation of a multipass, plane mirror, femtosecond dye laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, M.; Penzkofer, A.; Gössl, G.

    1995-08-01

    Femtosecond pulses of a passive mode-locked Rhodamine-6G dye laser are amplified in a double-stage, three-pass, plane mirror, Sulforhodamine-101 amplifier system. Saturable filters (Schott glass RG645 and Malachite Green) are used to suppress amplified spontaneous emission. Input pulses of 110-fs duration are broadened to 240 fs in the amplifier system and recompressed to 75 fs in a prism-pair compressor. Using a 20-Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG pump laser of 50-mJ second-harmonic output energy, we obtained amplified and recompressed pulses of 180- mu J energy at 625 nm starting with 40-pJ input pulses. The small-signal amplification dynamics is studied numerically. Relevant gain dye and saturable filter parameters are derived. The influence of amplified spontaneous emission is analyzed.

  10. Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Euser, T G; Abdolvand, A; Babic, F; Tani, F; Joly, N Y; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the first soft-glass hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is made from a high-index lead-silicate glass (Schott SF6, refractive index 1.82 at 500 nm). Fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, the fiber incorporates a 7-cell hollow core embedded in a highly uniform 6-layer cladding structure that resembles a kagomé-like lattice. Effective single mode guidance of light is observed from 750 to 1050 nm in a large mode area (core diameter ~30 µm) with a low loss of 0.74 dB/m. The underlying guidance mechanism of the fiber is investigated using finite element modeling. The fiber is promising for applications requiring single mode guidance in a large mode area, such as particle guidance, fluid and gas filled devices.

  11. Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Euser, T. G.; Abdolvand, A.; Babic, F.; Tani, F.; Joly, N. Y.; Travers, J. C.; St. J. Russell, P.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the first soft-glass hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is made from a high-index lead-silicate glass (Schott SF6, refractive index 1.82 at 500 nm). Fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, the fiber incorporates a 7-cell hollow core embedded in a highly uniform 6-layer cladding structure that resembles a kagomé-like lattice. Effective single mode guidance of light is observed from 750 to 1050 nm in a large mode area (core diameter ~30 μm) with a low loss of 0.74 dB/m. The underlying guidance mechanism of the fiber is investigated using finite element modeling. The fiber is promising for applications requiring single mode guidance in a large mode area, such as particle guidance, fluid and gas filled devices.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus, a putative cytorhabdovirus infecting taro.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV). PMID:26687584

  13. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants. PMID:21598766

  14. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3

  15. Forty years of ZERODUR mirror substrates for astronomy: review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Jedamzik, Ralf; Thomas, Armin; Hartmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Initiated in 1968 by the first order of the Max-Planck-Institute in Heidelberg the successful history of ZERODUR® continues now since 40 years. ZERODUR® zero expansion glass ceramic from SCHOTT has been the material of choice in astronomy for decades, thanks to its special properties such as its extremely high thermal and mechanical stability. Today most of the major modern optical telescopes of the 4 m class and of the 8 m to 10 m class are equipped with ZERODUR®. For the future several Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects are in development, which are designed with even larger primary mirrors ranging from 30 m to 42 m. Also here ZERODUR® is under consideration. A historical review, the actual status of developments and an outlook to the future is given in this paper.

  16. Heritage of ZERODUR® glass ceramic for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter; Lentes, Frank-Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Davis, Mark J.

    2009-08-01

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors and in industrial applications. This paper points out that it is also well suited for satellite applications, especially with respect to the space radiation environment. Recent developments show that highly lightweighted components can be manufactured and that such structures are strong enough to survive launch vibrations. A series of thirty reference applications, where ZERODUR® has been or is currently used (including METEOSAT, SPOT, ROSAT, CHANDRA, and HST), demonstrate the high and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. The ongoing successful missions and upcoming new satellites continue to enlarge the space heritage of this unique material.

  17. Four decades of ZERODUR mirror substrates for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas; Hartmann, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Initiated in 1968 by the first order of Max-Planck-Institute in Heidelberg successful history of ZERODUR(R) continues now since 40 years. ZERODUR(R) zero expansion glass ceramic from SCHOTT has been the material of choice in astronomy for decades, thanks to its special properties such as its extremely high thermal and mechanical stability. Today most of the major modern optical telescopes of the 4 m class and of the 8 m to 10 m class are equipped with ZERODUR(R) . For the future several Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects are in development, which are designed with even larger primary mirrors ranging from 30 m to 42 m. Also here ZERODUR(R) is under consideration. A historical review, prominent examples of astronomical projects with glass ceramic mirror substrates, and an outlook to the future is given in this paper.

  18. Slumping technique for the manufacturing of a representative x-ray grazing incidence mirror module for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, Mauro; Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Giampiero; Vecchi, Gabriele; Zambra, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Tintori, Matteo; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ferrario, Ivan; Burwitz, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB, Italy), with the financing support of the European Space Agency (ESA), has concluded a study regarding a glass shaping technology for the production of grazing incidence segmented x-ray optics. This technique uses a hot slumping phase, in which pressure is actively applied on thin glass foils being shaped, to form a cylindrical approximation of Wolter I x-ray segments, and a subsequent cold slumping phase, in which the final Wolter I profile is then freeze into the glass segments during their integration in elemental X-ray Optical Units. The final goal of this study was the manufacturing of a prototype containing a number of slumped pair plates (meaning parabola and hyperbola couples) having representative dimensions to be tested both in UV light and in x-rays at the Panter facility (Germany). In this paper, the INAF-OAB slumping technique, comprising a shaping step and an integration step is described, together with the results obtained on the manufactured prototype modules: the first prototype was aimed to test the ad-hoc designed and built semi-automatic Integration MAchine (IMA) and debug its control software. The most complete module comprises 40 slumped segments of Schott D263 glass type of dimension 200 mm x 200 mm and thickness of 0.4 mm, slumped on Zerodur K20 mould and stacked together through glued BK7 glass structural ribs to form the first entire x-ray optical module ever built totally composed by glass. A last prototype was aimed at demonstrate the use of Schott glass AF32 type instead of D263. In particular, a new hot slumping experimental set-up is described whose advantage is to permit a better contact between mould and glass during the shaping process. The integration procedure of the slumped segments into the elemental module is also reviewed.

  19. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. PMID:26917101

  20. Preliminary physico-chemical profile of Brahmi Ghrita.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kapil D; Reddy, Konduru R C; Agarwal, Alka

    2013-07-01

    Brahmi Ghrita was processed as per the process of Snehapaka procedure described in classics. It contained Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushtha (Sassurea lappa), Shankhapushpi (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purana Ghrita. In the preparation of Brahmi Ghrita, Brahmi Swarasa, Kalka Dravya of Brahmi, Vacha, Kushtha, and Shankhapushpi were mixed in Purana Ghrita and heated for three hours at 110°C every day for three days. On the third day Ghrita was filtered to obtain the finished product. In this manner, three samples of Brahmi Ghrita were prepared. To understand the changes that occurred during the preparation, Brahmi Ghrita and Purana Ghrita were analyzed by using modern parameters such as Acid value, Saponification value, and so on. After the analysis, it was found that the Acid values of Sample A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 4.26, 4.03, and 4.03; the Saponification values of Samples A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 227.2, 230.01, and 230.01, and the Iodine values of Samples A, B, and C were 34.75, 35.88, and 35.88, respectively, and the Acid value, Saponification value, and Iodine value of Purana Ghrita were 1.57, 199.15, and 31.04, respectively. The present study revealed that, there was no significant variation in the analytical values among all three samples of Brahmi Ghrita.

  1. Preliminary physico-chemical profile of Brahmi Ghrita.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kapil D; Reddy, Konduru R C; Agarwal, Alka

    2013-07-01

    Brahmi Ghrita was processed as per the process of Snehapaka procedure described in classics. It contained Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushtha (Sassurea lappa), Shankhapushpi (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purana Ghrita. In the preparation of Brahmi Ghrita, Brahmi Swarasa, Kalka Dravya of Brahmi, Vacha, Kushtha, and Shankhapushpi were mixed in Purana Ghrita and heated for three hours at 110°C every day for three days. On the third day Ghrita was filtered to obtain the finished product. In this manner, three samples of Brahmi Ghrita were prepared. To understand the changes that occurred during the preparation, Brahmi Ghrita and Purana Ghrita were analyzed by using modern parameters such as Acid value, Saponification value, and so on. After the analysis, it was found that the Acid values of Sample A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 4.26, 4.03, and 4.03; the Saponification values of Samples A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 227.2, 230.01, and 230.01, and the Iodine values of Samples A, B, and C were 34.75, 35.88, and 35.88, respectively, and the Acid value, Saponification value, and Iodine value of Purana Ghrita were 1.57, 199.15, and 31.04, respectively. The present study revealed that, there was no significant variation in the analytical values among all three samples of Brahmi Ghrita. PMID:24501526

  2. Study of Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam in amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Kapil Deo; Reddy, K. R. C.; Kumar, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghṛta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia. Materials and Methods: Brāhmī Ghṛta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāṇa Ghṛta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study. Results: Brāhmī Ghṛta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta and standard drug. Conclusion: Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them. PMID:23929987

  3. Vegetation effects on anammox spatial distribution and nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands treated with domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Tian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) (planted and unplanted) were constructed and compared to investigate the effects of vegetation on nitrogen removal and anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) spatial distribution and enrichment. Calamus (Acorus calamus L.), which has a large root system, was selected as the vegetation. Removal of total nitrogen from the planted wetland was much higher than that from the unplanted one. Radial oxygen loss from calamus provided the planted wetland with better oxygen restoration ability, benefitting ammonium removal in the CW, especially when anammox was inhibited under winter temperatures. Enrichment of anammox bacteria in planted wetlands was much greater than that in unplanted ones. The greatest enrichment of anammox bacteria occurred in the middle layer, which had a better anaerobic environment and moderate root system. The reduced rate of metabolism in plants during winter led to a sharp decrease in anammox bacteria copy numbers in the planted wetland. Under cold temperature, the degree of enrichment with anammox bacteria in the planted wetland was similar to or slightly superior to that in the unplanted wetland.

  4. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%). PMID:26264423

  6. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  7. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  8. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  9. The effect of acori graminei rhizoma and extract fractions on spatial memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in amyloid beta 1-42 injected mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Tian, Sumin; Sun, Lingzhi; Yao, Shizhang; Liang, Zihao; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Jing; Zang, Linquan; Li, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    Acori graminei Rhizoma (AGR), the dry rhizoma of Acorus gramineus Soland (Araceae), has been used as an Asian traditional herbal medicine against senile dementia, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have revealed neuroprotective effects of AGR on neuronal damage and learning impairment, while mostly focused on the effect of volatile oil fraction of AGR. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of different extract fractions from AGR against Alzheimer disease-like symptoms induced by Amyloid Beta (Aß) 1-42 intra-hippocampal injection. On day 7 after intra-hippocampal injection of saline or Aβ1-42, spatial memory was assessed by the first Morris water maze, followed by 3-week intra-gastric administration of saline or water extract, volatile oil fraction, or defatted decoction fraction of AGR respectively. Mice were subsequently subjected to the second Morris water maze task. Levels of Aβ1-42 and expressions of doublecortin and nestin in the hippocampus were examined using immunohistochemistry. Our results suggested that treatment with these different extract fractions from AGR could ameliorate cognitive impairment and down-regulate expressions of doublecortin and nestin in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42 injected mice, in which water extract and volatile oil fractions were more effective in spatial memory than defatted decoction fraction.

  10. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Pawłowska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00.

  11. Preliminary physico-chemical profile of Brahmi Ghrita

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Kapil D.; Reddy, Konduru R. C.; Agarwal, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Brahmi Ghrita was processed as per the process of Snehapaka procedure described in classics. It contained Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushtha (Sassurea lappa), Shankhapushpi (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purana Ghrita. In the preparation of Brahmi Ghrita, Brahmi Swarasa, Kalka Dravya of Brahmi, Vacha, Kushtha, and Shankhapushpi were mixed in Purana Ghrita and heated for three hours at 110°C every day for three days. On the third day Ghrita was filtered to obtain the finished product. In this manner, three samples of Brahmi Ghrita were prepared. To understand the changes that occurred during the preparation, Brahmi Ghrita and Purana Ghrita were analyzed by using modern parameters such as Acid value, Saponification value, and so on. After the analysis, it was found that the Acid values of Sample A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 4.26, 4.03, and 4.03; the Saponification values of Samples A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 227.2, 230.01, and 230.01, and the Iodine values of Samples A, B, and C were 34.75, 35.88, and 35.88, respectively, and the Acid value, Saponification value, and Iodine value of Purana Ghrita were 1.57, 199.15, and 31.04, respectively. The present study revealed that, there was no significant variation in the analytical values among all three samples of Brahmi Ghrita. PMID:24501526

  12. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil.

  13. Screening of 20 Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants Against Urease

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product “ammonia” in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24711846

  14. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  15. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  16. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β–asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process. PMID:26283803

  17. Metabolism of the carcinogen alpha-asarone in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Cartus, Alexander T; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-asarone (1) is a naturally occurring phenylpropene found in several plants, e.g. Acorus calamus. 1-containing plant materials and essential oils thereof are used for flavoring foods and in many phytopharmaceuticals. 1 has been claimed to have positive pharmacological effects, however, it is carcinogenic in male mice (liver) and probably genotoxic. Since the metabolic pathways of 1 have not been investigated and its carcinogenic mode of action is unknown, we investigated the metabolism of 1 in liver microsomes of rat, bovine, porcine, and human origin using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS and derived kinetic data on the metabolite formation. The main metabolic pathway was the side-chain hydroxylation leading to (E)-3'-hydroxyasarone (2). Epoxidation of 1 presumably led to (E)-asarone-1',2'-epoxide (4) which instantly hydrolyzed to form erythro- and threo-configured diols (5b+5a). As a minor reaction O-demethylation of 1 was observed. The metabolite formation showed little species-specific differences with the exception of porcine liver microsomes for which the formation of diols 5b+5a exceeded the formation of alcohol 2. The kinetic parameters imply a dependence of the pattern of metabolite formation from substrate concentration. On the basis of our results and earlier findings we hypothesize the genotoxic epoxide 4 being the ultimate carcinogen metabolically formed from 1.

  18. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits.

  19. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  20. Phytodegradation of Ethanolamines by Cyperus alternifolius: Effect of Molecular Size.

    PubMed

    Dolphen, R; Thiravetyan, P

    2015-01-01

    Our screening of plants showed that Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella papyrus) had the highest efficiency removal in real wastewater containing monoethanolamine-higher than Echinodorus cordifolius (Creeping Burrhead), Thalia geniculata (Alligator Flag), Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag), and Dracaena sanderiana (Lucky Bamboo). Therefore, this research studied the degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) by C. alternifolius. Plants could degrade TEA into DEA, then into MEA, and then further into acetic acid. The accumulation of ethanolamines was found mainly in plant stems, which had the highest biomass. This demonstrated that the molecular size is closely related to a diffusion coefficient that affects the removal rate through plant bodies. A smaller molecular weight-MEA (MW = 61.08 g mol(-1))-was taken up the fastest, followed by DEA (MW = 105.14 g mol(-1)) and TEA (MW = 149.19 g mol(-1)), the highest molecular weight. The plants' toxicity when exposed to ethanolamines elucidated that MEA had the highest toxicity, followed by DEA and TEA. In addition, the application of C. alternifolius in monoethanolamine-contaminated wastewater revealed that plant could completely uptake MEA at day 5 from an initial MEA concentration of 18 mM. The result indicated that C. alternifolius has the potential to remove ethanolamines and can be applied to ethanolamine-contaminated wastewater. PMID:25976882

  1. Alpha-asarone improves striatal cholinergic function and locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guozhen; Chen, Shengqiang; Guo, Jialing; Wu, Jie; Yi, Yong-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Hyperactivity is a symptom found in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The animal model of FXS, fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, exhibits robust locomotor hyperactivity. Alpha (α)-asarone, a major bioactive component isolated from Acorus gramineus, has been shown in previous studies to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In this study, we show that treatment with α-asarone alleviates locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this improvement, we evaluated the expressions of various cholinergic markers, as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) levels, in the striatum of Fmr1 KO mice. We also analyzed the AChE-inhibitory activity of α-asarone. Striatal samples from Fmr1 KO mice showed decreased m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m1 mAChR) expression, increased AChE activity, and reduced ACh levels. Treatment with α-asarone improved m1 mAChR expression and ACh levels, and attenuated the increased AChE activity. In addition, α-asarone dose-dependently inhibited AChE activity in vitro. These results indicate that direct inhibition of AChE activity and up-regulation of m1 mAChR expression in the striatum might contribute to the beneficial effects of α-asarone on locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. These findings might improve understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for locomotor hyperactivity.

  2. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of "Bala compound" on Infants.

    PubMed

    Appaji, Rao R; Sharma, R D; Katiyar, G P; Sai, Prasad A J V

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd" PMID:22557316

  3. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity. PMID:26666188

  4. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Lindsay, Bruce G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Carlson, John E.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth–death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella. PMID:16702410

  5. Screening of 20 commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product "ammonia" in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24711846

  6. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research.

  7. Phytodegradation of Ethanolamines by Cyperus alternifolius: Effect of Molecular Size.

    PubMed

    Dolphen, R; Thiravetyan, P

    2015-01-01

    Our screening of plants showed that Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella papyrus) had the highest efficiency removal in real wastewater containing monoethanolamine-higher than Echinodorus cordifolius (Creeping Burrhead), Thalia geniculata (Alligator Flag), Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag), and Dracaena sanderiana (Lucky Bamboo). Therefore, this research studied the degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) by C. alternifolius. Plants could degrade TEA into DEA, then into MEA, and then further into acetic acid. The accumulation of ethanolamines was found mainly in plant stems, which had the highest biomass. This demonstrated that the molecular size is closely related to a diffusion coefficient that affects the removal rate through plant bodies. A smaller molecular weight-MEA (MW = 61.08 g mol(-1))-was taken up the fastest, followed by DEA (MW = 105.14 g mol(-1)) and TEA (MW = 149.19 g mol(-1)), the highest molecular weight. The plants' toxicity when exposed to ethanolamines elucidated that MEA had the highest toxicity, followed by DEA and TEA. In addition, the application of C. alternifolius in monoethanolamine-contaminated wastewater revealed that plant could completely uptake MEA at day 5 from an initial MEA concentration of 18 mM. The result indicated that C. alternifolius has the potential to remove ethanolamines and can be applied to ethanolamine-contaminated wastewater.

  8. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of “Bala compound” on Infants

    PubMed Central

    Appaji, Rao R.; Sharma, R.D.; Katiyar, G. P.; Sai, Prasad A.J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd” PMID:22557316

  9. PMC-12, a Prescription of Traditional Korean Medicine, Improves Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Deficits through Modulation of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Young; Jung, Yeon Suk; Park, Jung Hwa; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Cheol Min; Baek, Jin Ung; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PMC-12 is a prescription used in traditional Korean medicine that consists of a mixture of four herbal medicines, Polygonum multiflorum, Rehmannia glutinosa, Polygala tenuifolia, and Acorus gramineus, which have been reported to have various pharmacological effects on age-related neurological diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether PMC-12 improves cognitive deficits associated with decreased neuroinflammation in an amyloid-β-(Aβ-) induced mouse model and exerts the antineuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) stimulated murine BV2 microglia. Intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25−35 in mice resulted in impairment in learning and spatial memory, whereas this was reversed by oral administration of PMC-12 (100 and 500 mg/kg/day) in dose-dependent manners. Moreover, PMC-12 reduced the increase of Aβ expression and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the Aβ25−35-injected brain. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data showed that inflammatory mediators were significantly decreased by administration of PMC-12 in Aβ-injected brains. Consistent with the in vivo data, PMC-12 significantly reduced the inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells without cell toxicity. Moreover, PMC-12 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via downregulation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that the protective effects of PMC-12 may be mediated by its antineuroinflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment; accordingly, PMC-12 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:25945111

  10. Adaptive strategies against drought stress of six plant species with different growth forms from karst habitats of southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees

  11. Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open

  12. Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D

  13. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  14. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, C S; Mishra, Dhirendra; Pandey, K N

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents. Cinnamomum tamala leaf oil contained (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the principal component. Quantitative variations in (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (5.8-7.1%), linalool (6.4-8.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (4.7-5.2%) were significant. The antifungal activity of the hydro-distilled essential oils of A. calamus, O. vulgare and C. tamala were evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of the inhibitory effect. O. vulgare essential oil exhibited the highest activity. Moreover, all three essential oils inhibit the growth of A. flavus and A. niger. PMID:21707253

  15. Assessment of litter degradation in medicinal plants subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Kumari, Rima

    2013-07-01

    Litter decomposition is an important component of global carbon budget. Elevated influx of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) as a consequence of depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) layer may affect litter decomposition directly or/modifying the plant tissue quality. Chemical composition of plant can affect litter decomposition. In the present study, three important medicinal plant species i.e. Acorus calamus, Ocimum sanctum and Cymbopogon citratus were exposed to two levels of supplemental UV-B (sUV and sUV,) during the growth period and examined the changes in leaf quality and degradation of leaf litters. The sUV, treatment (+3.6 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) increased the rate of decomposition by 45% and 31% respectively; in leaf litters from O. sanctum and C. citratus, while no significant effect was noticed in A. calamus leaf litter. Higher accumulation of sclerenchymatous tissue around vascular bundles and increased concentrations of total phenols by 39 mg g(-1) probably lowered the decomposition rate; finding k value: 0.0049 g g(-1) d(-1) in leaf litters of A. calamus. The C/N ratio was increased by 14% at sUV2 in C. citratus, whereas in O. sanctum it decreased by 13.6% after treatment. Results of the present experiment illustrates that firstly UV-B can modify the decomposition rate of leaf litter of test plant species, secondly it can alter the tissue chemistry particularly leaf phenolics, N and P concentrations strongly and thus affecting the decay rate and thirdly UV-B effects on decay rate and leaf chemistry is species specific. PMID:24640251

  16. α-Asarone attenuates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by inhibiting NF kappa B activation and mitigates MPTP-induced behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Koppula, Sushruta; Kumar, Hemant; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Il-Woung; More, Sandeep V; Kim, In-Su; Han, Sang-Don; Kim, Si-Kwan; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2015-10-01

    The selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with microglial activation. Therefore, the importance of early therapeutic intervention to inhibit microglial activation would be an effective strategy to alleviate the progression of PD. α-Asarone, an active compound found in Araceae and Annonaceae plant species has been used to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In the present study the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic effects of α-asarone isolated from the rhizome of Acorus gramineus Solander was evaluated on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and neuroprotection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells were used to evaluate in vitro effects. 1-methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD was developed to study the neuroprotective effects of α-asarone in vivo. The results indicated that α-asarone significantly attenuated the LPS-stimulated increase in neuroinflammatory responses and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production in BV-2 cells. Mechanistic study revealed that α-asarone inhibited the LPS-stimulated activation via regulation of nuclear factor kappa-B by blocking degradation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha signaling in BV-2 microglial cells. In in vivo studies, MPTP intoxication to mice resulted in brain microglial activation and significant behavioral deficits. Prophylactic treatment with α-asarone suppressed microglial activation and attenuated PD-like behavioral impairments as assessed by the Y-maze and pole tests. Taken together, these data demonstrate that α-asarone is a promising neuroprotective agent that should be further evaluated and developed for future prevention and treatment of microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory conditions including PD.

  17. Responses of butachlor degradation and microbial properties in a riparian soil to the cultivation of three different plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changming; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the biodegradation dynamics and related microbial ecophysiological responses to butachlor addition in a riparian soil planted with different plants such as Phragmites australis, Zizania aquatica, and Acorus calamus. The results showed that there were significant differences in microbial degradation dynamics of butachlor in the rhizosphere soils among the three riparian plants. A. calamus displays a significantly higher degradation efficiency of butachlor in the rhizosphere soils, as compared with Z. aquatica and P. australis. Half-life time of butachlor degradation in the rhizospheric soils of P. australis, Z. aquatica, and A. calamus were 7.5, 9.8 and 5.4 days, respectively. Residual butachlor concentration in A. calamus rhizosphere soil was 35.2% and 21.7% lower than that in Z. aquatica and P. australis rhizosphere soils, respectively, indicating that A. calamus showed a greater improvement effect on biodegradation of butachlor in rhizosphere soils than the other two riparian plant. In general, microbial biomass and biochemical activities in rhizosphere soils were depressed by butachlor addition, despite the riparian plant types. However, rhizospheric soil microbial ecophysiological responses to butachlor addition significantly (P < 0.05) differed between riparian plant species. Compared to Z. aquatica and P. australis, A. calamus showed significantly larger microbial number, higher enzyme activities and soil respiration rates in the rhizosphere soils. The results indicated that A. calamus have a better alleviative effect on inhibition of microbial growth due to butachlor addition and can be used as a suitable riparian plant for detoxifying and remediating butachlor contamination from agricultural nonpoint pollution.

  18. Influence of rhizosphere microbial ecophysiological parameters from different plant species on butachlor degradation in a riparian soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changming; Wang, Mengmeng; Li, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Biogeochemical processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. However, little research has been reported on the microbial process and degradation potential of herbicide in a riparian soil. Field sampling and incubation experiments were conducted to investigate differences in microbial parameters and butachlor degradation in the riparian soil from four plant communities in Chongming Island, China. The results suggested that the rhizosphere soil had significantly higher total organic C and water-soluble organic C relative to the nonrhizosphere soil. Differences in rhizosphere microbial community size and physiological parameters among vegetation types were significant. The rhizosphere soil from the mixed community of Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus had the highest microbial biomass and biochemical activity, followed by A. calamus, P. australis and Zizania aquatica. Microbial ATP, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and basal soil respiration (BSR) in the rhizosphere of the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus were 58, 72, and 62% higher, respectively, than in the pure P. australis community. Compared with the rhizosphere soil of the pure plant communities, the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus displayed a significantly greater degradation rate of butachlor in the rhizosphere soil. Residual butachlor concentrations in rhizosphere soil of the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus and were 48, 63, and 68% lower than three pure plant communities, respectively. Butachlor degradation rates were positively correlated to microbial ATP, DHA, and BSR, indicating that these microbial parameters may be useful in assessing butachlor degradation potential in the riparian soil.

  19. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing

  20. Beta-asarone induces LoVo colon cancer cell apoptosis by up-regulation of caspases through a mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Liu, Shen-Lin; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Wu, Jian; Ling, Bo-Fan; Wang, Rui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Beta-asarone is one of the main bioactive constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Acorus calamu. Previous studies have shown that it has antifungal and anthelmintic activities. However, little is known about its anticancer effects. This study aimed to determine inhibitory effects on LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation and to clarify the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Dose-response and time-course anti-proliferation effects were examined by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that LoVo cell viability showed dose- and time-dependence on β-asarone. We further assessed anti-proliferation effects as β-asarone-induced apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay using a flow cytometer and observed characteristic nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation of apoptosis by microscopy. Moreover, we found the apoptosis to be induced through the mitochondrial/caspase pathway by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reducing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, in addition to activating the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Additionally, the apoptosis could be inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK). When nude mice bearing LoVo tumor xenografts were treated with β-asarone, tumor volumes were reduced and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of excised tissue also demonstrated apoptotic changes. Taken together, these findings for the first time provide evidence that β-asarone can suppress the growth of colon cancer and the induced apoptosis is possibly mediated through mitochondria/caspase pathways.

  1. Ammonia- and methane-oxidizing microorganisms in high-altitude wetland sediments and adjacent agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Shan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation is known to be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), while methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB)) play an important role in mitigating methane emissions from the environment. However, the difference of AOA, AOB, and MOB distribution in wetland sediment and adjacent upland soil remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and community structures of AOA, AOB, and MOB in sediments of a high-altitude freshwater wetland in Yunnan Province (China) and adjacent agricultural soils. Variations of AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes and structures were found in water lily-vegetated and Acorus calamus-vegetated sediments and agricultural soils (unflooded rice soil, cabbage soil, and garlic soil and flooded rice soil). AOB community size was higher than AOA in agricultural soils and lily-vegetated sediment, but lower in A. calamus-vegetated sediment. MOB showed a much higher abundance than AOA and AOB. Flooded rice soil had the largest AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes. Principal coordinate analyses and Jackknife Environment Clusters analyses suggested that unflooded and flooded rice soils had relatively similar AOA, AOB, and MOB structures. Cabbage soil and A. calamus-vegetated sediment had relatively similar AOA and AOB structures, but their MOB structures showed a large difference. Nitrososphaera-like microorganisms were the predominant AOA species in garlic soil but were present with a low abundance in unflooded rice soil and cabbage soil. Nitrosospira-like AOB were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Type I MOB Methylocaldum and type II MOB Methylocystis were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that AOA Shannon diversity was positively correlated with the ratio of organic carbon to nitrogen (p < 0.05). This work could provide some new insights toward ammonia and methane oxidation in soil and wetland sediment

  2. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing

  3. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  4. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in seven aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Daiyong; Liu, Jin; Xu, Meiying; Zheng, Guolu; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial plant uptake of PBDEs from contaminated soils has been widely reported recently. In this study the fate of deca-BDE within a plant/PBDEs/aquatic environment system was investigated through simulated pot experiments. Accumulations of the total PBDEs and deca-BDE were observed in tissues of seven test aquatic plant species, namely Phragmites australis, Cyperus papyrus, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Colocasia esculenta, Scirpus validus, Acorus calamus and Oryza sativa. In all seven plants, O. sativa leads the uptake and accumulation both in the total PBDEs (444.8 ng g(-1)) and deca-BDE (368.0 ng g(-1)) in roots. Among the six common phytoremediation aquatic plants, A. calamus leads the uptake (236.2 ng g(-1)), and P. australis leads the translocation (Cshoot/Croot = 0.35), while A. philoxeroides (43.4%) and P. australis (80.0%) lead in the metabolism efficiencies in the root and shoot, respectively. The detection of seventeen lesser brominated PBDE congeners provided the debromination evidence, and the specific PBDEs profiles in test plant species indicated there is no common metabolic pattern. Furthermore, a relative high proportion of lesser brominated PBDE congeners in shoots suggested the possible metabolic difference between roots and shoots. Finally, a noticeable percentage of penta- and octa-BDE derived from deca-BDE also hint the ecological risk in deca-BDE use. This comparative research on the aquatic plants provide a broad vision on the understanding of plant/PBDEs/aquatic environment interaction system, and may be applied to remediate PBDEs in contaminated waters and sediments. PMID:26994429

  5. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result.

  6. Effect of α-asarone on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jung; Lee, Soo-Jin; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2015-05-01

    α-Asarone is a main component of Acorus gramineus widely known as an oriental traditional medicinal stuff. A. gramineus has been known to have a variety of medicinal efficacies such as anti-gastric ulcer and anti-allergic activities, inhibition of histamine release and antioxidant effect. However, its effect on angiogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of α-asarone on induction of angiogenesis through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). First of all, MTT assay was performed to evaluate the effect of α-asarone on cell viability using MTT assay, and then tube formation assay with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro and rat aorta ring assay ex vivo were carried out to elucidate its effect on angiogenesis. Treatment with α-asarone below 6μM showed no cytotoxicity in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) and HUVEC. It was observed that α-asarone not only promotes tube formation of HUVEC but also induces angiogenesis of rat aorta. In addition, the effects of α-asarone on the expressions of protein and gene were evaluated using western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. α-Asarone increased the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 stimulated by phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in HT1080. Especially, the expression level of antioxidant enzyme such as glutathione reductase was increased in the presence of α-asarone. Therefore, above findings suggest that α-asarone may play an important role in pathological diseases related to MMP and angiogenesis. PMID:25912851

  7. Assessment of litter degradation in medicinal plants subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Kumari, Rima

    2013-07-01

    Litter decomposition is an important component of global carbon budget. Elevated influx of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) as a consequence of depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) layer may affect litter decomposition directly or/modifying the plant tissue quality. Chemical composition of plant can affect litter decomposition. In the present study, three important medicinal plant species i.e. Acorus calamus, Ocimum sanctum and Cymbopogon citratus were exposed to two levels of supplemental UV-B (sUV and sUV,) during the growth period and examined the changes in leaf quality and degradation of leaf litters. The sUV, treatment (+3.6 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) increased the rate of decomposition by 45% and 31% respectively; in leaf litters from O. sanctum and C. citratus, while no significant effect was noticed in A. calamus leaf litter. Higher accumulation of sclerenchymatous tissue around vascular bundles and increased concentrations of total phenols by 39 mg g(-1) probably lowered the decomposition rate; finding k value: 0.0049 g g(-1) d(-1) in leaf litters of A. calamus. The C/N ratio was increased by 14% at sUV2 in C. citratus, whereas in O. sanctum it decreased by 13.6% after treatment. Results of the present experiment illustrates that firstly UV-B can modify the decomposition rate of leaf litter of test plant species, secondly it can alter the tissue chemistry particularly leaf phenolics, N and P concentrations strongly and thus affecting the decay rate and thirdly UV-B effects on decay rate and leaf chemistry is species specific.

  8. A comparison on the phytoremediation ability of triazophos by different macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Xiao, Huiping; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhang, Liping; Xiel, Xiaolong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-02-01

    The strategy of choosing suitable plants should receive great performance in phytoremediation of surface water polluted by triazophos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP), which is an organophosphorus pesticide widespread applied for agriculture in China and moderately toxic to higher animal and fish. The tolerance, uptake, transformation and removal of TAP by twelve species of macrophytes were examined in a hydroponic system and a comprehensive score (CS) of five parameters (relative growth rate (RGR), biomass, root/shoot ratio, removal capacity (RC), and bio-concentration factor (BCF)) by factor analysis was employed to screen the potential macrophyte species for TAP phytoremediation. The results showed that Thalia dealbata, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica and Acorus calamus had higher RGR values, indicating these four species having stronger growth capacity under TAP stress. The higher RC loading in Iris pseudacorus and Cyperus rotundus were 42.11 and 24.63 microg/(g fw x day), respectively. The highest values of BCF occurred in A. calamus (1.17), and TF occurred in Eichhornia crassipes (2.14). Biomass and root/shoot ratio of plant showed significant positive correlation with first-order kinetic constant of TAP removal in the hydroponic system, indicating that plant biomass and root system play important roles in remediation of TAP. Five plant species including C. alternifolius, A. calamus, T. dealbata, C. indica and Typha orientalis, which owned higher CS, would be potential species for TAP phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. PMID:25077355

  9. Roles of root porosity, radial oxygen loss, Fe plaque formation on nutrient removal and tolerance of wetland plants to domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiu-Qin; Yang, Yang; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Wang, Ya-Wen; Li, Li

    2014-03-01

    Root properties including rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, and Fe plaque formation on the root surface, in six wetland plant species, namely Acorus calamus, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Cyperus flabelliformis, Canna indica, Iris tectorum, and Scirpus validus, and their relationships with nutrient removal and tolerance to domestic wastewater were investigated. Results showed that different species had different root porosities (18-36%) and Fe plaque formation (1.76-5.3 mg Fe g(-1) root d.w.), which were significantly correlated with ROL (67-157 mmol O2 kg(-1) root d.w. d(-1)) (p < 0.001). The ROL rates were also positively correlated with plant tolerance to domestic wastewater (p < 0.001) and removal of total nitrogen (35-76%), total phosphate (22-62%), and chemical oxygen demand (58-86%). Among the six species, C. flabelliformis and C. indica had significantly higher ROL, greater Fe plaque formation, higher tolerance to domestic wastewater, and better removal of TN, TP, and COD. These two species also had greater influences on changes in redox potential, pH, dissolved oxygen, and the quotients of [NH4(+)-N]:[NO3(-)-N] in rhizosphere soil solution, as well as greater N and P uptake in plant tissues, particularly belowground parts, than in the other species. For all plant species investigated, wastewater significantly decreased the rates of ROL and root porosity but induced greater Fe plaque formation. These results suggested that root properties are useful for selecting tolerant and efficient species in constructed wetland wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:24370658

  10. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Papenfus, H B; Kulkarni, M G; Pošta, M; Van Staden, J

    2015-07-01

    Plant-derived smoke stimulates seed germination in numerous plant species. Smoke also has a positive stimulatory effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The range of plant families affected my smoke still needs to be established since the initial study was restricted to only three species from the Amaryllidaceae. The effects of smoke-water (SW) and the smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB) on pollen growth characteristics were evaluated in seven different plant families. Smoke-water (1:1000 and 1:2000 v:v) combined with either Brewbaker and Kwack's (BWK) medium or sucrose and boric acid (SB) medium significantly improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Aloe maculata All., Kniphofia uvaria Oken, Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. var. aloides and Tulbaghia simmleri P. Beauv. Karrikinolide (10(-6) and 10(-7) m) treatment significantly improved pollen tube growth in A. maculata, K. uvaria, L. aloides and Nematanthus crassifolius (Schott) Wiehle compared to the controls. BWK or SB medium containing TMB (10(-3) m) produced significantly longer pollen tubes in A. maculata, K. uvaria and N. crassifolius. These results indicate that plant-derived smoke and the smoke-isolated compounds may stimulate pollen growth in a wide range of plant species.

  11. Production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR mirror blank for the Advanced Technology Solar telescope (ATST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Werner, Thomas; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. It is currently being built by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in a height of 3000 m above sea level on the mountain Haleakala of Maui, Hawaii. The primary mirror blank of diameter 4.26 m is made of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® of SCHOTT AG Advanced Optics. The DKIST primary mirror design is extremely challenging. With a mirror thickness of only 78 to 85 mm it is the smallest thickness ever machined on a mirror of 4.26 m in diameter. Additionally the glassy ZERODUR® casting is one of the largest in size ever produced for a 4 m class ZERODUR® mirror blank. The off axis aspherical mirror surface required sophisticated grinding procedures to achieve the specified geometrical tolerance. The small thickness of about 80 mm required special measures during processing, lifting and transport. Additionally acid etch treatment was applied to the convex back-surface and the conical shaped outer diameter surface to improve the strength of the blank. This paper reports on the challenging tasks and the achievements on the material property and dimensional specification parameter during the production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR® primary mirror blank for AURA.

  12. Karyotype analysis and visualization of 45S rRNA genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization in aroids (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Van Laere, Katrijn; Eeckhaut, Tom; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Karyotype analysis and FISH mapping using 45S rDNA sequences on 6 economically important plant species Anthuriumandraeanum Linden ex André, 1877, Monsteradeliciosa Liebmann, 1849, Philodendronscandens Koch & Sello, 1853, Spathiphyllumwallisii Regel, 1877, Syngoniumauritum (Linnaeus, 1759) Schott, 1829 and Zantedeschiaelliottiana (Knight, 1890) Engler, 1915 within the monocotyledonous family Araceae (aroids) were performed. Chromosome numbers varied between 2n=2x=24 and 2n=2x=60 and the chromosome length varied between 15.77 µm and 1.87 µm. No correlation between chromosome numbers and genome sizes was observed for the studied genera. The chromosome formulas contained only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, except for Philodendronscandens in which also telocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes were observed. The highest degree of compaction was calculated for Spathiphyllumwallisii (66.49Mbp/µm). B-chromosome-like structures were observed in Anthuriumandraeanum. Their measured size was 1.87 times smaller than the length of the shortest chromosome. After FISH experiments, two 45S rDNA sites were observed in 5 genera. Only in Zantedeschiaelliottiana, 4 sites were seen. Our results showed clear cytogenetic differences among genera within Araceae, and are the first molecular cytogenetics report for these genera. These chromosome data and molecular cytogenetic information are useful in aroid breeding programmes, systematics and evolutionary studies. PMID:26140158

  13. North Atlantic Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  14. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. PMID:24702940

  15. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  16. Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2011-05-11

    The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species.

  18. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  19. Development of a safe ultraviolet camera system to enhance awareness by showing effects of UV radiation and UV protection of the skin (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Wedzinga, Rosaline; van Montfrans, Bibi; Stok, Mirte; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-03-01

    The significant increase of skin cancer occurring in the western world is attributed to longer sun expose during leisure time. For prevention, people should become aware of the risks of UV light exposure by showing skin damage and the protective effect of sunscreen with an UV camera. An UV awareness imaging system optimized for 365 nm (UV-A) was develop using consumer components being interactive, safe and mobile. A Sony NEX5t camera was adapted to full spectral range. In addition, UV transparent lenses and filters were selected based on spectral characteristics measured (Schott S8612 and Hoya U-340 filters) to obtain the highest contrast for e.g. melanin spots and wrinkles on the skin. For uniform UV illumination, 2 facial tanner units were adapted with UV 365 nm black light fluorescent tubes. Safety of the UV illumination was determined relative to the sun and with absolute irradiance measurements at the working distance. A maximum exposure time over 15 minutes was calculate according the international safety standards. The UV camera was successfully demonstrated during the Dutch National Skin Cancer day and was well received by dermatologists and participating public. Especially, the 'black paint' effect putting sun screen on the face was dramatic and contributed to the awareness of regions on the face what are likely to be missed applying sunscreen. The UV imaging system shows to be promising for diagnostics and clinical studies in dermatology and potentially in other areas (dentistry and ophthalmology)

  20. EFG Technology and Diagnostic R&D for Large-Scale PV Manufacturing; Final Subcontract Report, 1 March 2002 - 31 March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Kalejs, J.; Aurora, P.; Bathey, B.; Cao, J.; Doedderlein, J.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kubasti, J.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, S.; Xavier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this subcontract was to carry out R&D to advance the technology, processes, and performance of RWE Schott-Solar's wafer, cell, and module manufacturing lines, and help configure these lines for scaling up of edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) ribbon technology to the 50-100 MW PV factory level. EFG ribbon manufacturing continued to expand during this subcontract period and now has reached a capacity of 40 MW. EFG wafer products were diversified over this time period. In addition to 10 cm x 10 cm and 10 cm x 15 cm wafer areas, which were the standard products at the beginning of this program, R&D has focused on new EFG technology to extend production to 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm EFG wafers. Cell and module production also has continued to expand in Billerica. A new 12-MW cell line was installed and brought on line in 2003. R&D on this subcontract improved cell yield and throughput, and optimized the cell performance, with special emphasis on work to speed up wafer transfer, hence enhancing throughput. Improvements of wafer transfer processes during this program have raised cell line capacity from 12 MW to over 18 MW. Optimization of module manufacturing processes was carried out on new equipment installed during a manufacturing upgrade in Billerica to a 12-MW capacity to improve yield and reliability of products.

  1. NANOSECOND INTERFEROMETRIC STUDIES OF SURFACE DEFORMATIONS OF DIELECTRICS INDUCED BY LASER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. GREENFIELD; ET AL

    2000-05-01

    Transient surface deformations in dielectric materials induced by laser irradiation were investigated with time-resolved interferometry. Deformation images were acquired at various delay times after exposure to single pulses (100 ps at 1.064 {micro}m) on fresh sample regions. Above the ablation threshold, we observe prompt ejection of material and the formation of a single unipolar compressional surface acoustic wave propagating away from the ablation crater. For calcite, no deformation--either transient or permanent--is discernable at laser fluences below the threshold for material ejection. Above and below-threshold behavior was investigated using a phosphate glass sample with substantial near infrared absorption (Schott filter KG3). Below threshold, KG3 exhibits the formation of a small bulge roughly the size of the laser spot that reaches its maximum amplitude by {approx}5 ns. By tens of nanoseconds, the deformations become quite complex and very sensitive to laser fluence. The above-threshold behavior of KG3 combines the ablation-induced surface acoustic wave seen in calcite with the bulge seen below threshold in KG3. A velocity of 2.97 {+-} 0.03 km/s is measured for the KG3 surface acoustic wave, very close to the Rayleigh wave velocity calculated from material elastic parameters. Details of the transient interferometry system will also be given.

  2. Karyotype analysis and visualization of 45S rRNA genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization in aroids (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Van Laere, Katrijn; Eeckhaut, Tom; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis and FISH mapping using 45S rDNA sequences on 6 economically important plant species Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André, 1877, Monstera deliciosa Liebmann, 1849, Philodendron scandens Koch & Sello, 1853, Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel, 1877, Syngonium auritum (Linnaeus, 1759) Schott, 1829 and Zantedeschia elliottiana (Knight, 1890) Engler, 1915 within the monocotyledonous family Araceae (aroids) were performed. Chromosome numbers varied between 2n=2x=24 and 2n=2x=60 and the chromosome length varied between 15.77 µm and 1.87 µm. No correlation between chromosome numbers and genome sizes was observed for the studied genera. The chromosome formulas contained only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, except for Philodendron scandens in which also telocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes were observed. The highest degree of compaction was calculated for Spathiphyllum wallisii (66.49Mbp/µm). B-chromosome-like structures were observed in Anthurium andraeanum. Their measured size was 1.87 times smaller than the length of the shortest chromosome. After FISH experiments, two 45S rDNA sites were observed in 5 genera. Only in Zantedeschia elliottiana, 4 sites were seen. Our results showed clear cytogenetic differences among genera within Araceae, and are the first molecular cytogenetics report for these genera. These chromosome data and molecular cytogenetic information are useful in aroid breeding programmes, systematics and evolutionary studies. PMID:26140158

  3. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  4. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  5. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practical methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.

  6. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practicalmore » methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.« less

  7. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  8. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  9. Accumulation of ENOD2-Like Transcripts in Non-Nodulating Woody Papilionoid Legumes1

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol M.; Horner, Harry T.; Graves, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Japanese pagodatree (Styphnolobium japonicum [L.] Schott) and American yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea Dum.-Cours.) Rudd are the first woody, non-nodulating papilionoid legumes shown to possess putative early nodulin 2 (ENOD2) genes. ENOD2 cDNAs from Japanese pagodatree (807 bp) and American yellowwood (735 bp) have 75% to 79% sequence identity to ENOD2 sequences and encode deduced proteins that possess conserved ENOD2 pentapeptides (PPHEK and PPEYQ). Lower percentages of glucose and higher percentages of histidine and valine suggest that SjENOD2 and CkENOD2 are different from other ENOD2s. Hybridization analyses indicate the clones represent ENOD2 gene families of two to four genes in Japanese pagodatree and American yellowwood genomes, and ENOD2-like transcripts were detected in stems and flowers, as well as roots. Only roots of control species that nodulate, Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), produced pseudonodules after treatment with zeatin or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor. Accumulation of MaENOD2 transcripts was enhanced during the first 10 d of treatment, but 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and zeatin enhanced transcript accumulation after 30 d in roots of Japanese pagodatree and American yellowwood. Characteristics that distinguish ENOD2 gene families in basal, non-nodulating woody legumes from other ENOD2 genes may provide new information about the function of these genes during symbiotic and non-symbiotic organ development. PMID:11027723

  10. Fructus sophorae attenuates secretion of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines through the modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun; Kang, Hye-Joo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanisms of fructus sophorae, the dried ripe fruit of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, on the production of proinflammatory molecules in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of fructus sophorae extract (FSE) significantly inhibited the release of the proinflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2), which were associated with the downregulation of both mRNA and protein for inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively, in LPS-challenged RAW 264.7 cells. FSE also blocked the LPS-induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, the results showed that FSE efficiently attenuated the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 MAPK. These results suggest that FSE exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators and cytokines through the inactivation of NF-κB, ERK and JNK, and it may offer therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory diseases accompanied with macrophage activation. PMID:27045671

  11. Accumulation of ENOD2-like transcripts in non-nodulating woody papilionoid legumes.

    PubMed

    Foster, C M; Horner, H T; Graves, W R

    2000-10-01

    Japanese pagodatree (Styphnolobium japonicum [L.] Schott) and American yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea Dum.-Cours.) Rudd are the first woody, non-nodulating papilionoid legumes shown to possess putative early nodulin 2 (ENOD2) genes. ENOD2 cDNAs from Japanese pagodatree (807 bp) and American yellowwood (735 bp) have 75% to 79% sequence identity to ENOD2 sequences and encode deduced proteins that possess conserved ENOD2 pentapeptides (PPHEK and PPEYQ). Lower percentages of glucose and higher percentages of histidine and valine suggest that SjENOD2 and CkENOD2 are different from other ENOD2s. Hybridization analyses indicate the clones represent ENOD2 gene families of two to four genes in Japanese pagodatree and American yellowwood genomes, and ENOD2-like transcripts were detected in stems and flowers, as well as roots. Only roots of control species that nodulate, Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), produced pseudonodules after treatment with zeatin or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor. Accumulation of MaENOD2 transcripts was enhanced during the first 10 d of treatment, but 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and zeatin enhanced transcript accumulation after 30 d in roots of Japanese pagodatree and American yellowwood. Characteristics that distinguish ENOD2 gene families in basal, non-nodulating woody legumes from other ENOD2 genes may provide new information about the function of these genes during symbiotic and non-symbiotic organ development. PMID:11027723

  12. Using Shrub Clearing, Draining, and Herbivory to Control Bramble Invasion in Mediterranean Dry Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Solène; Mesléard, François; Dutoit, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble ( Rubus ulmifolius Schott), which preferentially colonizes areas that were formerly cultivated and/or exposed to water infiltration. To identify a strategy for effective control of this colonization, in situ experiments testing disturbance regimes (shrub clearing and/or mixed grazing by sheep and goats) combined with the control of access to water resources (with or without drainage trenches) were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Only clearing and grazing combined over 3 years led to significant changes in vegetation height and bramble cover as well as modifications in the floristic composition, diversity, similarity, and richness of the plant community. Neither a clearing operation carried out in 2010 alone, nor grazing alone, reduced bramble cover, and neither treatment increased the species richness of the plant community. Similarly, digging drainage trenches had no significant impact either on the plant community or on bramble cover. Our study suggests that only annual mechanical clearing coupled with sheep and goats grazing can significantly reduce bramble cover. This combined restoration treatment needs to be applied for at least 3 consecutive years to induce significant changes and enable this ecosystem to return to the dry grassland succession.

  13. Achromatic lens systems for near infrared instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, E.; Gennari, S.

    1995-11-01

    The chromatic characteristics of glasses transmitting in the near infrared (λ<=2.5μm) are analyzed. Achromatic systems with superb characteristics can be obtained by coupling the crystals BaF_2_, SrF_2_ and CaF_2_ with the IR Schott glasses irg2, irg3 and irg7, respectively. The best performances are obtained using BaF_2_-irg2 and SrF_2_- irg3 while CaF_2_-irg7 is worse (due to the lower Abbe number of CaF_2_) but significantly better than other pairs normally used in IR astronomical instrumentation. Use of these combinations could much simplify the design of astronomical focal plane instruments. Measurements of the refraction index of the IR glasses at cryogenic temperatures are however necessary. As a practical application we present the preliminary design of a F/11-F/4.3 focal reducer for the Italian 3.5 m Galileo telescope. The system employs 6 spherical lenses and its image quality matches the requirements of a 1024^2^ array with 18.5μm pixels in both the imaging and spectroscopic (with grism) modes.

  14. New MADS-box gene in fern: cloning and expression analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans.

  15. Genetic Drift Linked to Heterogeneous Landscape and Ecological Specialization Drives Diversification in the Alpine Endemic Columbine Aquilegia thalictrifolia.

    PubMed

    Lega, Margherita; Fior, Simone; Li, Mingai; Leonardi, Stefano; Varotto, Claudio

    2014-05-26

    The European Alpine system is an extensive mountain range, whose heterogeneous landscape together with Quaternary climatic oscillations significantly affected organismal diversity and distribution in Europe. The model genus Aquilegia represents a textbook example of a rapid and recent radiation through the Northern hemisphere, with the majority of the European taxa occuring in the Alpine system. However, the processes governing genetic differentiation of the genus in this complex geographic area are still widely unexplored. In this work, we used 9 microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure and diversity of 11 populations of Aquilegia thalictrifolia Schott & Kotschy, an alpine taxon characterized by a marked ecological specificity. We found that, despite the endemic and fragmented distribution, A. thalictrifolia has overall high levels of heterozygosity, which is consistent to the substantial inbreeding depression that characterizes the genus. Strong spatial genetic structuring of populations suggests a historical prevalence of genetic drift over gene flow, with natural barriers and ecological niche hindering migration. An analytical comparison of fixation and population differentiation indexes allowed us to infer hypotheses of the postglacial history and more recent demographic events that have influenced the genetics of the species. Overall, our results indicate allopatry as a major force of differentiation in the European scenario, likely to underlie the development of taxonomic boundaries in a broader geographic context. This adds to previous notions on the primary evolutionary forces shaping the Aquilegia radiation in Europe.

  16. A technique for production glass macro-shells for ICF targets. Final report, 1 November 1986--31 October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.E.; Wang, S.C.P.

    1987-11-25

    A study of bubble formation, movement and distortion in viscous glass is described. A glass rod containing an irregularly shaped hole is heated to a temperature at where the glass viscosity is low enough to let the hole form a spherical bubble. Spheration occurs as the bubble moves upward in the glass rod. At the proper time, the rising bubble is decelerated and brought to a stop by increasing the glass viscosity by slowly reducing the temperature. The entrapped bubble is then cut from the glass rod and heated again, if necessary, to a lower temperature, to reduce distortion of the bubble. Conditions distorting the bubble and ways to reduce the distortion have been investigated. With the present technique, bubbles have been produced in Corning 7740 and Schott BK-7 glasses with a nominal diameter of 3 and 6 mm that have a distortion of 0.3%. Glass macro shells can be formed from the bubbles trapped in the glass by grinding the outside surface concentric with the perfectly spherical inside surface. These high quality glass shells, with a high degree of geometrical perfection, should be adequate for inertial confinement fusion targets.

  17. Femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguide bundles in bulk glass.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Markus; Flachenecker, Günter; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waveguide bundles in bulk glass materials, consisting of several parallel scans of refractive index modifications, have been generated with a low-repetition femtosecond laser. Additionally, Bragg grating (BG) structures for 840 and 1550 nm have been introduced by segmentation of the central scan. A spectral loss in the transmission signal of >36  dB was achieved at 1550 nm with a second-order Bragg grating waveguide (BGW) in fused silica, which corresponds to an intrinsic grating efficiency of >16  dB/cm. This is to our knowledge the strongest BG structure realized in glass with a femtosecond laser. The BGW were proven to be stable up to a temperature of 250°C in fused silica. The diameter of the waveguide bundles can be adapted very easily for a broad range of wavelengths and have been demonstrated for diameters between 1 and 50 μm. The transmission properties of the waveguide bundles are affected minorly by the insertion of BG structures, which opens the ability for adjusting the BGW for a broad range of wavelength in single-mode or multimode optical circuits. BGW have been realized successfully in fused silica, borosilicate glass (BOROFLOAT 33), and AF 32 eco Thin Glass from Schott.

  18. New MADS-Box Gene in Fern: Cloning and Expression Analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75bp 5′-UTR and a 169bp 3′-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans. PMID:24466046

  19. A high temperature, plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.; Scrivener, M.S.; Unites, W.G.; Campbell, J.H. ); Johnson, W.L. )

    1990-02-01

    We have designed and built a high-temperature, plasma-assisted, chemical vapor deposition system to deposit multilayer optical coatings of SiO{sub 2} and doped-SiO{sub 2} flat substrates. The coater concept and design is an outgrowth of our recent work with Schott Glasswerke demonstrating the use of plasma assisted CVD to prepare very high damage threshold optical coatings. The coater is designed to deposit up to several thousand alternating quarterwave layers of SiO{sub 2} and doped SiO{sub 2} substrate at deposition rates up to several microns per minute. The substrate is resistively heated to about 1000{degree}C during the deposition phase of the process. The plasma is driven by a 13.56 MHz RF unit capable of producing power densities of up to 140 W cm{sup {minus}3} in the reaction zone. The coater is designed to be adaptable to microwave generated plasmas, as well as RF. Reactant gas flow rates of up to 10 slm can be achieved at a 10 tar operating pressure. Reactants consist of O{sub 2}, SiCl{sub 4} and a volatile halogenated dopant. These gases react in the plasma volume producing SiO{sub 2} with dopant concentrations of up to a few percent. A variable dopant concentration is used to produce index differences between adjacent optical layers.

  20. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  1. Design examples of diffraction-limited catadioptric objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallert, Frank

    1996-08-01

    The paper relates to different inventions, comprising three diffraction-limited catadioptric designs. All the systems use only spherical shaped surfaces and are designed from one kind of optical material only. In the examples the glass BK7 from the Schott-catalogue was used. The first example gives a three element design reaching equal performance as a Schmidt camera but with only 25 percent of its length. Additionally the field is flat and conveniently located behind the system. The second example is designed to reduce the central obstruction. It's somewhat based on the principle of the Houghton-camera. For a f-number 4 system with 1000 millimeters focal length it gives outstanding image quality at a 5 degree's field--even capable for diffraction-limited visual use. For reduced f-number 5,6 the image is diffraction-limited at the whole field. In terms of color correction it outperforms every Schmidt-Cassegrain or apochromatic triplet of even arbitrarily more reduced light gathering power. The third example is the equivalent for the so-called Wynne corrector triplet that corrects the aberrations of a parabolical mirror. But the invented corrector corrects additionally the spherical aberration of a spherical mirror. The corrector is able to correct all third order aberrations without introducing longitudinal and lateral color.

  2. The 2014 IODC lens design problem: the Cinderella lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juergens, Richard C.

    2014-12-01

    The lens design problem for the 2014 IODC is to design a 100 mm focal length lens in which all the components of the lens can be manufactured from ten Schott N-BK7 lens blanks 100 mm in diameter x 30 mm thick. The lens is used monochromatically at 587.56 nm. The goal of the problem is to maximize the product of the entrance pupil diameter and the semi-field of view while holding the RMS wavefront error to <= 0.070 wave within the field of view. There were 45 entries from 13 different countries. Four different commercial lens design programs were used, along with six custom, in-house programs. The number of lens elements in the entries ranged from 10 to 52. The winning entry from Jon Ehrmann had 25 lens elements, and had an entrance pupil diameter of 33.9 mm and a semi-field of view of 62.5° for a merit function product of 2,119.

  3. Measuring space radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses; measurement results and recommendations from testing a selected set of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruit, Michel; Gusarov, Andrei I.; Doyle, Dominic B.

    2002-09-01

    Radiation sensitivity of glass is a general concern for the designer of Space optical instruments. ASTRIUM, in cooperation with SCK-CEN, has conducted a study (under ESA sponsorship) to define the approach for the gathering of a comprehensive database to quantify these effects through the use of linear sensitivity coefficients (called "Dose Coefficients"). These "Dose coefficients" cover not only transmittance but also other characteristics such as refractive index. After having recalled the basics of the proposed approach, results of the first irradiation tests which have been run on a selected set of classical glasses nd their Radiation hardened Cerium doped analogs (including BK7, K5, LaK9 and other Schott glasses) will be discussed. PRotons and gamma radiation have been performed with the aim to demonstrate equivalence, thus allowing to further considering only gamma radiation for an extensive testing of available glasses. Relaxation impacts on some months period have been tentatively analyzed. All these measurements have been processed and the modeling approach of the radiations impacts has been derived, as shown in the publication from A. Gusarov at this conference. This will constitute the grounds for the building of a comprehensive "Dose Coefficients" data base, as expressed in the publication from D. Doyle also at this conference. From this, recommendations for a sound characterization of radiation impacts on refractive optical materials have been established and are the subject of this publication.

  4. Comparison of radiation-induced transmission degradation of borosilicate crown optical glass from four different manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, Andrei; Doyle, Dominic; Glebov, Leonid; Berghmans, Francis

    2005-09-01

    Space-born optical systems must be tolerant to radiation to guarantee that the required system performance is maintained during prolonged mission times. The radiation-induced absorption in optical glasses is often related with the presence of impurities, which are, intentionally or not, introduced during the manufacturing process. Glass manufacturers use proprietary fabrication processes and one can expect that the radiation sensitivity of nominally identical optical glasses from different manufacturers is different. We studied the gamma-radiation induced absorption of several crown glasses with nd ≈ 1.516 and vd ≈ 64, i.e. NBK7 (Schott), S-BSL7 (Ohara), BSC 517642 (Pilkington) and K8 (Russia). NBK7 recently replaced the well-known BK7. We therefore also compared the radiation response of NBK7 and BK7 glass. Our results show that whereas the glasses are optically similar before irradiation, they show a different induced absorption after irradiation and also different post-radiation recovery kinetics. Taking these differences into account can help to improve the radiation tolerance of optical systems for space applications.

  5. [The architectural rods by Nikolaus Goldmanns (1611-1665)].

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    By the end of the 19th century the Philosophical Faculty of Würzburg University had compiled a notable collection of mathematical and scientific instruments as teaching aids. Early items are attributed to KASPAR SCHOTT (1608-1666), who was professor of mathematics in Würzburg from 1655 until 1666. Most of these "old-fashioned" instruments were sold to the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum München in 1877. One of the items is a set of six brass rods in a leather-covered case of unknown meaning and of uncertain origin. This paper identifies the instrument as "Architectural rods" designed by NIKOLAUS GOLDMANN (1611-1665), a German mathematician and architect who lived in Leiden. He described the rods in his 'Tractatus de stylometris', Leiden 1662. The University library of Würzburg owns a copy of this book that belonged to the Philosophical Faculty in 1754. On the basis of this treatise the following paper analyses the use and importance of these rods for the construction of the five classical orders of columns. PMID:17153312

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species. PMID:26309277

  7. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

  8. Using Shrub Clearing, Draining, and Herbivory to Control Bramble Invasion in Mediterranean Dry Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Masson, Solène; Mesléard, François; Dutoit, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble (Rubus ulmifolius Schott), which preferentially colonizes areas that were formerly cultivated and/or exposed to water infiltration. To identify a strategy for effective control of this colonization, in situ experiments testing disturbance regimes (shrub clearing and/or mixed grazing by sheep and goats) combined with the control of access to water resources (with or without drainage trenches) were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Only clearing and grazing combined over 3 years led to significant changes in vegetation height and bramble cover as well as modifications in the floristic composition, diversity, similarity, and richness of the plant community. Neither a clearing operation carried out in 2010 alone, nor grazing alone, reduced bramble cover, and neither treatment increased the species richness of the plant community. Similarly, digging drainage trenches had no significant impact either on the plant community or on bramble cover. Our study suggests that only annual mechanical clearing coupled with sheep and goats grazing can significantly reduce bramble cover. This combined restoration treatment needs to be applied for at least 3 consecutive years to induce significant changes and enable this ecosystem to return to the dry grassland succession. PMID:26013075

  9. Depolarization properties of the femtosecond supercontinuum generated in condensed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Sai Santosh; Deepak, K. L. N.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we present a study of depolarization of a supercontinuum across its spectral range as a function of the femtosecond laser pump intensity for an anisotropic crystalline condensed medium, potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate (KDP) crystal, and compare our results with commonly used supercontinuum generation (SCG) materials, namely borosilicate glass Schott (BK-7) glass (representing isotropic amorphous condensed media) and BaF2 (isotropic crystalline condensed media). Our results show that at higher input powers, depolarization in the continuum increases for BK-7, BaF2 , and along the direction of the optic axis of the KDP crystal. However, in the case of KDP crystal, we observe that the depolarization properties are strongly dependent on (i) the plane of polarization of incident light and (ii) the orientation of the crystal with respect to the incident light. Our studies also confirm that one can achieve SCG in a KDP crystal that maintains the same state of input polarization even at high input intensities when proper orientation of the crystal is used.

  10. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  11. Periodic nanostructuring of Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.; Pissadakis, S.

    2006-12-01

    The patterning of submicron period ({approx_equal}500 nm) Bragg reflectors in the Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 Schott, phosphate glass is demonstrated. A high yield patterning technique is presented, wherein high volume damage is induced into the glass matrix by exposure to intense ultraviolet 213 nm, 150 ps Nd:YAG laser radiation and, subsequently, a chemical development in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution selectively etches the exposed areas. The electronic changes induced by the 213 nm ultraviolet irradiation are examined by employing spectrophotometric measurements, while an estimation of the refractive index changes recorded is provided by applying Kramers-Kronig transformation to the absorption change data. In addition, real time diffraction efficiency measurements were obtained during the formation of the volume damage grating. After the exposure, the growth of the relief grating pattern in time was measured at fixed time intervals and the dependence of the grating depth on the etching time and exposure conditions is presented. The gratings fabricated are examined by atomic and scanning electron microscopies to reveal the relief topology of the structures. Gratings with average depth of 120 nm and excellent surface quality were fabricated by exposing the IOG1 phosphate glass to 36 000 pulses of 208 mJ/cm{sup 2} energy density, followed by developing in the KOH/EDTA agent for 6 min.

  12. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    PubMed

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  13. Optical glass: deviation of relative partial dispersion from the normal line-need for a common definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The design of high-quality imaging lenses continues to strive for the best color trueness over wider and wider wavelength ranges such as for multiwavelength fluorescence microscopy or hyperspectral imaging. Glasses suitable for sharp images at more than two wavelengths must differ in their dispersion from the classical crown and flint glass types, which gather along a straight line in a plot of the relative partial dispersion against the Abbe number. Glasses suitable for multicolor correction can be recognized by a considerable deviation of their relative partial dispersion from this normal line. Originally, the normal lines for different relative partial dispersions were defined by using the SCHOTT glass types K7 and F2. Today's data sheets of all glass manufacturers contain numerical values for deviations of relative partial dispersions from the normal lines. A comparison of almost identical glasses shows differences between these deviations being too large, obviously coming from different versions of K7 and F2 dispersion curves used. For preselection in designs and for direct comparison of glass types, it is necessary to agree on common dispersion curves each for K7 and for F2 in order to obtain really comparable values for deviations of the relative partial dispersion from the normal line.

  14. Optical glass with tightest refractive index and dispersion tolerances for high-end optical designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Reichel, S.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-03-01

    In high end optical designs the quality of the optical system not only depends on the chosen optical glasses but also on the available refractive index and Abbe number tolerances. The primary optical design is based on datasheet values of the refractive index and Abbe number. In general the optical position of the delivered glass will deviate from the catalog values by given tolerances due to production tolerances. Therefore in many cases the final optical design needs to be modified based on real glass data. Tighter refractive index and Abbe number tolerances can greatly reduce this additional amount of work. The refractive index and Abbe number of an optical glass is a function of the chemical composition and the annealing process. Tight refractive index tolerances require not only a close control and high reliability of the melting and fine annealing process but also best possible material data. These data rely on high accuracy measurement and accurate control during mass production. Modern melting and annealing procedure do not only enable tight index tolerances but also a high homogeneity of the optical properties. Recently SCHOTT was able to introduce the tightest available refractive index and Abbe number tolerance available in the market: step 0.5 meaning a refractive index tolerance of +/- 0.0001 and an Abbe number tolerance of +/- 0.1%. This presentation describes how the refractive index depends on the glass composition and annealing process and describes the requirements to get to this tightest refractive index and Abbe number tolerance.

  15. REOSC Delivers the Best Astronomical Mirror in the World to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    employs about 15,500 people - more information is available at URL: www.sagem.com. Information about the ESO and the VLT project is available via the ESO website: www.eso.org. Some Key Dates The polishing at REOSC of the main mirrors for the four VLT Unit Telescopes has been a major industrial feat. Here are some of the main dates: July 1989 ESO and REOSC sign contract for the polishing of the four 8.2-m and various associated activities July 1989 - April 1992 Design activities, construction of REOSC production plant April 1992 Mirror Container and concrete dummy mirror blank completed - test transport May 1992 Inauguration of REOSC production plant July 1993 Delivery of first 8.2-m mirror blank to ESO at Schott Glaswerke AG (Mainz, Germany) October 1994 Delivery of second 8.2-m mirror blank to ESO at Schott Glaswerke AG September 1995 Delivery of third 8.2-m mirror blank to ESO at Schott Glaswerke AG May 1996 Acceptance by ESO of first polished mirror at REOSC September 1996 Delivery of fourth 8.2-m mirror blank to ESO at Schott Glaswerke AG October 1996 Acceptance by ESO of second polished mirror at REOSC June 1997 Acceptance by ESO of third polished mirror at REOSC October - December 1997 Transport and delivery of first mirror to Paranal by Gondrand (France) August - September 1998 Transport and delivery of second mirror to Paranal by Gondrand December 1998 - January 1999 Transport and delivery of third mirror to Paranal by Gondrand December 1999 Acceptance by ESO of fourth polished mirror at REOSC February 1999 - April 2000 Transport and delivery of fourth mirror to Paranal by Gondrand Note [1] A Press Release on the REOSC event and the delivery of the fourth VLT main mirror to ESO is also published by SAGEM (in French and English). How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO PR Photo 44/99 may be reproduced, if credit is given to SAGEM and the European Southern Observatory.

  16. Covalent and Noncovalent Dimers of the Cyanide-Resistant Alternative Oxidase Protein in Higher Plant Mitochondria and Their Relationship to Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed Central

    Umbach, A. L.; Siedow, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence for a mixed population of covalently and noncovalently associated dimers of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase protein in plant mitochondria is presented. High molecular mass (oxidized) species of the alternative oxidase protein, having masses predicted for homodimers, appeared on immunoblots when the sulfhydryl reductant, dithiothreitol (DTT), was omitted from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel sample buffer. These oxidized species were observed in mitochondria from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom), Sauromatum guttatum Schott, and mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilcz). Reduced species of the alternative oxidase were also present in the same mitochondrial samples. The reduced and oxidized species in isolated soybean cotyledon mitochondria could be interconverted by incubation with the sulfhydryl reagents DTT and azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide). Treatment with chemical cross-linkers resulted in cross-linking of the reduced species, indicating a noncovalent dimeric association among the reduced alternative oxidase molecules. Alternative pathway activity of soybean mitochondria increased following reduction of the alternative oxidase protein with DTT and decreased following oxidation with diamide, indicating that electron flow through the alternative pathway is sensitive to the sulfhydryl/disulfide redox poise. In mitochondria from S. guttatum floral appendix tissue, the proportion of the reduced species increased as development progressed through thermogenesis. PMID:12231983

  17. Effects of the first heat up procedure on mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell sealing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautanen, Markus; Pulkkinen, Valtteri; Tallgren, Johan; Himanen, Olli; Kiviaho, Jari

    2015-06-01

    SOFC stack seals need to be correctly dimensioned to achieve a gas tight stack with low electrical contact resistances. Mechanical properties of SOFC stack sealing materials are presented for three assembly and first heat up procedures: applying full compressive stress at room temperature before first heat up (1), applying no compressive stress before first heat up and applying the full compressive stress at operating temperature (2), applying partial compressive stress at room temperature and full compressive stress at operating temperature after first heat up (3). The behaviour of the glass seal (Schott GM31107) is not affected significantly by compressive force during heat up. Compressibility of both compressible sealing material (Thermiculite CL87) and hybrid sealing material (Thermiculite CL87LS) was found to be about 40% (between 0.1 and 0.9 MPa) at room temperature but only about 4% (between 0.1 and 0.9 MPa) at 700 °C. Therefore it is beneficial to carry out as much of the compression as possible at room temperature before first heat up. This allows for maximum amount of deformability in the sealing materials resulting in the highest ability to compensate for stack manufacturing and assembly tolerances, which is needed to realize a gas tight stack with low electrical contact resistances.

  18. Proof Test Diagrams for a Lithia-Alumina-Silica Glass-Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    2003-01-01

    The glass-ceramic (Zerodur, Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany) contains 70% to 78% by weight crystalline phase of high-quartz structure with a mean crystal size of 50-55 nm. The vitreous phase has a positive thermal expansion coefficient which is practically balanced by the negative coefficient of the crystalline phase. This results in a material which can maintain longitudinal stability during thermal cycling. This was one of the reasons for its choice as the material for the grazing incidence mirrors for the Chandra X-Ray Facility. Brittle materials such as glass and glass-ceramics which exhibit slow crack growth and subsequent fast fracture to failure exhibit a time dependence in strength. The decrease in strength for a constant applied load is known as static fatigue. In many cases, environment plays a major role in the material lifetime. It has been shown for silicate glasses that crack velocity will increase as the amount of water vapor in the environment surface finish and rate of loading. A rough surface finish leads to a lower tensile strength than for an optically polished surface. The strength of glass is observed in general to increase with increasing load rate. This phenomena is known as dynamic fatigue. This was observed for Zerodur by Tucker and Gent and Tucker in previous dynamic fatigue studies, in which lifetimes were obtained. All of the above named factors need to be considered when glass is to be used in load bearing applications.

  19. ZERODUR: progress in CTE characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, SCHOTT introduced a method for the modeling of the thermal expansion behavior of ZERODUR® under arbitrary temperature profiles for an optimized production of material for the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects. In 2012 a new product was introduced based on this method called ZERODUR® TAILORED. ZERODUR® TAILORED provides an evolution in the specification of the absolute Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) value by including the individual customer requirements in this process. This paper presents examples showing the benefit of an application oriented approach in the design of specifications using ZERODUR®. Additionally it will be shown how the modeling approach has advanced during the last years to improve the prediction accuracy on long time scales. ZERODUR® is known not only for its lowest CTE but also for its excellent CTE homogeneity as shown in the past for disc shaped blanks typical for telescope mirror substrates. Additionally this paper presents recent results of CTE homogeneity measurements in the single digit ppb/K range for a rectangular cast plate proving that the excellent CTE homogeneity is independent of the production format.

  20. Characterization of selected wild Mediterranean fruits and comparative efficacy as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in emulsified raw pork burger patties.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Estévez, Mario; Kylli, Petri; Heinonen, Marina; Morcuende, David

    2010-08-11

    In the present study, water, ethanolic, and methanolic extracts from seven selected wild fruits originally from the Mediterranean area, namely, strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo L., AU), azarole ( Crataegus azarolus L., CA), common hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna L., CM), blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L., PS), dog rose ( Rosa canina L., RC), elm-leaf blackberry ( Rubus ulmifolius Schott, RU), and rowan ( Sorbus aucuparia L., SA), were analyzed for the total amount and profile of phenolic compounds and for the in vitro antioxidant activity against the DPPH and ABTS radicals (study 1). The seven fruits showed different chemical compositions, which consequently led to different antioxidant potentials. Among the seven fruits initially analyzed, AU, CM, RC, and RU had the highest amount of phenolic compounds and displayed the greatest antioxidant activity in vitro. Extracts from these four fruits were tested as inhibitors of lipid oxidation in raw pork burger patties subjected to refrigerated storage at 2 degrees C for 12 days (study 2). The quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), hexanal content, and color stability were used as indicators of oxidative reactions. The four selected fruits displayed intense antioxidant activity against lipid oxidation, which highlights the potential usage of these fruits as ingredients for the manufacture of healthy meat products. Among them, RC and AU were particularly efficient as their protective effect against lipid oxidation was more intense than that displayed by quercetin (230 mg/kg of burger patty). PMID:20681673

  1. Using Shrub Clearing, Draining, and Herbivory to Control Bramble Invasion in Mediterranean Dry Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Masson, Solène; Mesléard, François; Dutoit, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble (Rubus ulmifolius Schott), which preferentially colonizes areas that were formerly cultivated and/or exposed to water infiltration. To identify a strategy for effective control of this colonization, in situ experiments testing disturbance regimes (shrub clearing and/or mixed grazing by sheep and goats) combined with the control of access to water resources (with or without drainage trenches) were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Only clearing and grazing combined over 3 years led to significant changes in vegetation height and bramble cover as well as modifications in the floristic composition, diversity, similarity, and richness of the plant community. Neither a clearing operation carried out in 2010 alone, nor grazing alone, reduced bramble cover, and neither treatment increased the species richness of the plant community. Similarly, digging drainage trenches had no significant impact either on the plant community or on bramble cover. Our study suggests that only annual mechanical clearing coupled with sheep and goats grazing can significantly reduce bramble cover. This combined restoration treatment needs to be applied for at least 3 consecutive years to induce significant changes and enable this ecosystem to return to the dry grassland succession.

  2. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  3. Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2011-05-11

    The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples. PMID:21425858

  4. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

  5. Polarizing properties of silver/glass nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemer, Mark J.; Haus, Joseph W.

    1997-10-01

    The absorption of visible light by metal colloids provides beautiful colored glass for aesthetic as well as practical purposes. Since the metal particles dispersed in the colloid have diameters much smaller than the wavelength of light, on the order of 10nm, the elastic scattering cross section is negligible. In typical colloidal solutions the metal particles are approximately spherical and therefore the optical constants are isotropic. Some metal/glass nanocomposites such as RG6 Schott glass contain nonspherical metal particles but the orientation of the particles in the host is random. In order to obtain a polarizing nanocomposite, the nonspherical metal particles must be aligned along a common axis. A fabrication technique based on ultrathin metal deposition has been found to provides the necessary size, shape, and orientation of the metal particles for highly anisotropic optical constants in the visible and near-IR. The measured absorption spectra of the films are analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett theory. The nanocomposite films have extinction coefficients that vary by 2 orders of magnitude depending on the polarization of the incident light. These metal nanocomposite films are useful for micro-optic and waveguide polarizers.

  6. In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Taioba) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Caxito, Marina L. C.; Correia, Rachell R.; Gomes, Anne Caroline C.; Justo, Graça; Coelho, Marsen G. P.; Sakuragui, Cássia M.; Kuster, Ricardo M.; Sabino, Katia C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott is a herb of the Araceae family, popularly known as taioba, which is consumed as food in some regions of Brazil, Africa, and Asia. This species has already been evaluated for the antifungal activities. However, based on its potential antitumor activity, the present study further aimed to examine the antitumor, as well as chelation, activity of X. sagittifolium leaf extract. Results showed that hydroethanolic extract of X. sagittifolium leaves (HEXs-L) exhibits cytotoxic effects against the immortalized line of human T-lymphocytic (Jurkat) and myelogenous (K562) leukemia cells, but not nontumor RAW 264.7 macrophages or NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. HEXs-L inhibited 50.3% of Jurkat cell proliferation, reducing by 20% cells in G2/M phase, but increasing cells in sub-G1 phase, thereby inducing apoptosis by 54%. In addition, HEXs-L inhibited NO production by 59%, as determined by Griess reaction, and chelated 93.8% of free Fe(II), as demonstrated by ferrozine assay. Phytochemical studies were carried out by ESI-MS, identifying apigenin di-C-glycosides as major compounds. Overall, this work revealed that leaf extract of Xanthosoma sagittifolium presented chelating activity and in vitro antitumor activity, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells, thus providing evidence that taioba leaves may have practical application in cancer therapy. PMID:26180533

  7. Tracking the radiation reaction energy when charged bodies accelerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2015-08-01

    We consider radiation reaction and energy conservation in classical electromagnetism. We first treat the well-known problem of energy accounting during radiation from a uniformly accelerating particle. This gives rise to the following paradox: when the self-force vanishes, the system providing the applied force does only enough work to give the particle its kinetic energy—so where does the energy that is eventually radiated away come from? We answer this question using a modern treatment of radiation reaction and self-force, as it appears in the expression due to Eliezer and Ford and O'Connell. We clarify the influence of the Schott force, and we find that the radiated power is 2 q 2 a 0 . f 0 / ( 3 m c 3 ) , which differs from Larmor's formula. Finally, we present a simple and highly visual argument that enables one to track the radiated energy without the need to appeal to the far field in the distant future (the "wave zone").

  8. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded.

  9. Bending strength measurements at different materials used for IR-cut filters in mobile camera devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Volker; Hartmann, Peter; Kerz, Franca

    2015-03-01

    Digital cameras are present everywhere in our daily life. Science, business or private life cannot be imagined without digital images. The quality of an image is often rated by its color rendering. In order to obtain a correct color recognition, a near infrared cut (IRC-) filter must be used to alter the sensitivity of imaging sensor. Increasing requirements related to color balance and larger angle of incidence (AOI) enforced the use of new materials as the e.g. BG6X series which substitutes interference coated filters on D263 thin glass. Although the optical properties are the major design criteria, devices have to withstand numerous environmental conditions during use and manufacturing - as e.g. temperature change, humidity, and mechanical shock, as wells as mechanical stress. The new materials show different behavior with respect to all these aspects. They are usually more sensitive against these requirements to a larger or smaller extent. Mechanical strength is especially different. Reliable strength data are of major interest for mobile phone camera applications. As bending strength of a glass component depends not only upon the material itself, but mainly on the surface treatment and test conditions, a single number for the strength might be misleading if the conditions of the test and the samples are not described precisely,. Therefore, Schott started investigations upon the bending strength data of various IRC-filter materials. Different test methods were used to obtain statistical relevant data.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parallaxes for 1507 nearby mid-to-late M dwarfs (Dittmann+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Irwin, J. M.; Charbonneau, D.; Berta-Thompson, Z. K.

    2016-08-01

    The MEarth Observatory is an array consisting of eight identical f/9 40cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes on German equatorial mounts at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The telescopes are controlled robotically and collect data every clear night from September through July. The facility is closed every August for the summer monsoons. Each telescope contains a 2048*2048 pixel CCD with a pixel scale of ~0.76/pixel and a Schott RG715 glass filter with anti-reflection coating. The cutoff is defined by the CCD response, and the effective bandpass is similar to the union of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i and z filters. The MEarth target list consists of ~1800 nearby M dwarfs selected from Lepine 2005 (cat. J/AJ/130/1680), a subset of the LSPM-North catalog (Lepine & Shara 2005, cat. I/298) believed to be within 33pc of the Sun. The subset of the MEarth sample presented here includes 1507 mid-to-late M dwarfs (see Table2) for which we can obtain reliable results. Of the 1507 stars, 1267 had no previous trigonometric parallax measurement. The data presented here covers the time period from 2008 September through 2013 July. (1 data file).

  11. New MADS-box gene in fern: cloning and expression analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans. PMID:24466046

  12. Modeling of the thermal expansion behaviour of ZERODUR at arbitrary temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Johansson, Thoralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Modeling of the thermal expansion behavior of ZERODUR® for the site conditions of the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope's (ELT's) allows an optimized material selection to yield the best performing ZERODUR® for the mirror substrates. The thermal expansion of glass ceramics is a function of temperature and a function of time, due to the structural relaxation behavior of the materials. The application temperature range of the upcoming ELT projects varies depending on the possible construction site between -13°C and +27°C. Typical temperature change rates during the night are in the range between 0.1°C/h and 0.3°C/h. Such temperature change rates are much smaller than the typical economic laboratory measurement rate, therefore the material behavior under these conditions can not be measured directly. SCHOTT developed a model approach to describe the structural relaxation behavior of ZERODUR®. With this model it is possible to precisely predict the thermal expansion behavior of the individual ZERODUR® material batches at any application temperature profile T(t). This paper presents results of the modeling and shows ZERODUR® material behavior at typical temperature profiles of different applications.

  13. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  14. Microfabricated planar glass gas chromatography with photoionization detection.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alastair C; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Rhodes, Christopher N; Halliday, Jaydene; Bartle, Keith D; Homewood, Philip; Grenfell, Robin J P; Goody, Brian; Harling, Alice M; Brewer, Paul; Vargha, Gergely; Milton, Martin J T

    2010-01-29

    We report the development of a microfabricated gas chromatography system suitable for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compatible with use as a portable measurement device. Hydrofluoric acid etching of 95x95mm Schott B270 wafers has been used to give symmetrical hemi-spherical channels within a glass substrate. Two matching glass plates were subsequently cold bonded with the channels aligned; the flatness of the glass surfaces resulted in strong bonding through van der Waals forces. The device comprised gas fluidic interconnections, injection zone and 7.5 and 1.4m long, 320microm internal diameter capillaries. Optical microscopy confirmed the capillaries to have fully circular channel profiles. Direct column heating and cooling could be achieved using a combination of resistive heaters and Peltier devices. The low thermal conductivity of glass allowed for multiple uniform temperature zones to be achieved within a single glass chip. Temperature control over the range 10-200 degrees C was achieved with peak power demand of approximately 25W. The 7.5m capillary column was static coated with a 2microm film of non-polar dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase. A standard FID and a modified lightweight 100mW photoionization detector (PID) were coupled to the column and performance tested with gas mixtures of monoaromatic and monoterpene species at the parts per million concentration level. The low power GC-PID device showed good performance for a small set of VOCs and sub ng detection sensitivity to monoaromatics. PMID:20022335

  15. Dryofragin inhibits the migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells by suppressing MMP-2/9 and elevating TIMP-1/2 through PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Wan, Daqian; Song, Wenqi

    2016-08-01

    Dryofragin, a phloroglucinol derivative extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in the suppression of cancer cell metastasis by dryofragin remains unclear. Our study investigated the mechanisms for the antitumor properties of dryofragin on the migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Dryofragin suppressed the migration and invasive ability of U2OS cells, and it decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and elevated the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Western blotting assays indicated that dryofragin was effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and p38 MAPK. These results suggest that dryofragin inhibited U2OS cell migration and invasion by reducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and elevating the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 through the PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Above all, we conclude that dryofragin represents an anti-invasive agent and may potentially be applicable in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:27243922

  16. Recent results on bulk laser damage threshold of optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Elsmann, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Modern pulsed laser applications cover a broad range of wavelength, power and pulse widths. Beam guiding optics in laser systems do not only have specific requirements on the imaging quality but also have to withstand high laser power. The laser damage threshold of an optical component depends on the surface (polishing, coating ...) and also on the bulk material properties. Actual values of bulk laser damage thresholds, particularly at pulse lengths less than 1 nanosecond (1 ns), of optical glasses are rarely found in literature, except for fused silica, which is known as a key optical material for components in high power laser. However, fused silica is rather expensive and limited in optical properties. That is the reason why customers often ask for laser damage threshold data of optical glasses. Therefore, SCHOTT has started a project for the characterization of the bulk laser damage threshold of optical glasses at the wavelengths 532 nm and 1064 nm with pulse lengths in the nano- and pico-second range. Bulk and surface laser damage testing has been performed by the Laser Zentrum Hannover in Germany according to the S-on-1 test of DIN EN ISO 11254-2 / DIN EN ISO 21254.

  17. Investigations with Gaseous Electron Multipliers for use on the ISIS spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Spill, E.

    2012-01-01

    Several investigations have been undertaken to ascertain the suitability of gaseous electron multipliers (GEMs) for use as a neutron detector on the ISIS spallation neutron source. Our initial investigations focused purely on whether these devices could be operated at the elevated pressure of 3He and CF4 necessary for 1mm position resolution (2.6 bars of CF4). In fact we were able to operate the GEMs at suitable gains with 3.5 bars of CF4. However encouraging these results were, we found that the GEMs charged up over time, which we postulated was due to the kapton substrate. A similar problem was seen at the early stages of the development of the microstrip gas chamber (MSGC), a solution of which was to use the semiconducting glass Schott S8900 as the substrate. Therefore we focused our attention to the manufacture of a GEM structure on an S8900 substrate. Our first devices were manufactured from 1mm thick glass and exhibit gains in excess of 1 × 104 for a single GEM stage in an argon isobutane gas mixture, when illuminated with 55Fe x-rays. A small amount of charging under irradiation has been observed in a flowing gas mixture, but the GEMs quickly stabilise and track atmospheric conditions. Further measurements in a 3He:CF4 atmosphere will show how suited these devices are to the needs of ISIS.

  18. Concentration gradients at the mineral-solution interface: implications for understanding dissolution mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Patiño-López, Luis David; Putnis, Christine V.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Dissolution is a key process in fluid-rock interactions, such as in chemical weathering, CO2 carbonation reactions, metasomatism, and metamorphism. Many multicomponent rock-forming minerals are reported to dissolve incongruently, because the elemental molar ratios, measured in the fluid during dissolution experiments, that differ from those in the solid. This frequently results in the formation of chemically and structurally altered zones at the fluid-solid interface of varying thickness that are depleted in some elements relative to the bulk mineral composition. Although the mechanisms of the formation of these altered layers is still a matter of debate (see e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012 and Schott et al. 2012), recent AFM studies on the dissolution of two multicomponent minerals, dolomite, Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 (Urosevic et al. 2012), and wollastonite, CaSiO3 (Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012), provide experimental evidence showing that these layers are formed in a two-step process: (i) stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and (ii) precipitation of a secondary phase. This occurs despite the fact that the bulk solution is undersaturated with respect to such a phase. It has been suggested that after stoichiometric dissolution of the mineral, a boundary layer of fluid in contact with the surface becomes supersaturated with respect to a secondary phase that then precipitates. Here we present in situ observations of the evolution of the fluid composition at the interface during dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 1.5) of dolomite and wollastonite using real-time phase-shift interferometry. We show that immediately when the sparingly soluble dolomite or wollastonite crystals are in contact with the solution, the refractive index of the solution at the crystal surface sharply increases. A steep refractive index gradient (i.e., concentration gradient) develops as a consequence of mineral dissolution producing an interfacial fluid with a different composition to the

  19. Manganese and the limits of high potential phototrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W. W.; Hemp, J.; Johnson, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers create high-energy electrons using light, harnessing the charge separation to simultaneously provide the cell with a strong oxidant and strong reductant. Many substrates can be used as electron donors for phototrophy, however there appears to be important energetic limits. In oxygenic photosynthesis photosystem II (PSII) provides a very strong oxidant that is capable of oxidizing water (ca. +830 mV) to molecular oxygen at the water-oxidizing complex, a redox-active tetra-manganese cluster. Anoxygenic photosystems however appear to only be able to oxidize lower potential electron donors (Fe2+, H2, S0, HS, S2O32-, NO2-, AsO33-).. Several transitional photosystems have been proposed as evolutionary intermediates between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis, with electron donors of higher redox potentials such as nitrite (ca. +431 mV) or Mn2+ (ca. +780 mV) bridging the redox gap to water. While a range of observations from the geological record support a Mn2+-based transitional photosystem (Johnson et al. 2013), this proposed photochemical scheme is distinct from that observed in anoxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Mechanistically all anoxygenic reaction centers receive their electrons indirectly via soluble electron carriers such as cytochrome c, high potential iron sulfur proteins or cupredoxins. Conversely Mn2+ oxidation is only known to occur today via direct oxidation, such as during photoassembly of the water-oxidizing complex of PSII, or by two distinct, non-energy-conserving mechanisms using molecular oxygen. No natural photosystem is known to solely perform Mn2+-oxidation. The highest redox-potential accessed by known anoxygenic phototrophs oxidizes nitrite (Schott et al. 2010), but it has been unclear until now whether the reaction center is specially adapted to produce high potential oxidants, similar to that of PSII to oxidize Mn2+ and water. To constrain this we sequenced the genome of the nitrite-oxidizing phototroph

  20. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Michael J.; Souleimanova, Razima

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  1. Biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized with Acorous calamus rhizome extract.

    PubMed

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2014-10-01

    Nanomedicine utilize biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (ACRE) and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial as well as anticancer effects of synthesized A. calamus silver nanoparticles (ACAgNPs). The formation of ACAgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and their average size was found to be 31.83 nm by DLS particle size analyzer. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed spherical shape of ACAgNPs and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) data showed the presence of metallic silver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the presence of phenol/alcohol, aromatic amine and carbonyl groups in ACRE that were involved in reduction and capping of nanoparticles. ACRE and ACAgNPs exhibited substantial free radical quenching ability in various in vitro antioxidant assays performed in this study. ACAgNPs also displayed appreciable antibacterial activity against three different pathogenic bacteria and the growth kinetic study with Escherichia coli designated the inhibition of bacterial growth at the log phase. The cytotoxic effect of ACAgNPs was assessed by MTT assay in HeLa and A549 cells. The IC50 value of ACAgNPs respectively after 24 and 48 h was found to be 92.48 and 69.44 μg/ml in HeLa cells and in A549 cells it was 53.2 and 32.1 μg/ml. Apoptotic cell death in ACAgNPs treated cells was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and annexinV-Cy3 staining techniques. Staining with propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) also confirmed nuclear changes such as condensation and fragmentation. Further, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed distribution of ACAgNPs treated cells in the late apoptotic stage. These findings emphasize that such biocompatible green nanoparticles with multifaceted biological

  2. Hepatotoxic potential of asarones: in vitro evaluation of hepatotoxicity and quantitative determination in herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhavalkumar N.; Ho, Han K.; Tan, Liesbet L.; Tan, Mui-Mui B.; Zhang, Qian; Low, Min-Yong; Chan, Cheng-Leng; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2015-01-01

    α and β asarones are natural constituents of some aromatic plants, especially species of the genus Acorus (Araceae). In addition to reports of beneficial properties of asarones, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are also reported. Due to potential toxic effects of β-asarone, a limit of exposure from herbal products of ~2 μg/kg body weight/day has been set temporarily until a full benefit/risk assessment has been carried out by the European Medicines Agency. Therefore, it is important to monitor levels of β-asarone in herbal products. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid and validated GC-MS method for quantitative determination of asarones and applied it in 20 pediatric herbal products after detecting high concentrations of β-asarone in a product suspected to be implicated in hepatotoxicity in a 3 month old infant. Furthermore, targeted toxicological effects were further investigated in human hepatocytes (THLE-2 cells) by employing various in vitro assays, with the goal of elucidating possible mechanisms for the observed toxicity. Results showed that some of the products contained as much as 4–25 times greater amounts of β-asarone than the recommended levels. In 4 of 10 samples found to contain asarones, the presence of asarones could not be linked to the labeled ingredients, possibly due to poor quality control. Cell-based investigations in THLE-2 cells confirmed the cytotoxicity of β-asarone (IC50 = 40.0 ± 2.0 μg/mL) which was associated with significant lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion. This observed cytotoxic effect is likely due to induction of oxidative stress by asarones. Overall, the results of this study ascertained the usability of this GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of asarones from herbal products, and shed light on the importance of controlling the concentration of potentially toxic asarones in herbal products to safeguard consumer safety, especially when the target consumers are young children. Further

  3. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  4. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  5. Comparative investigation of the mutagenicity of propenylic and allylic asarone isomers in the Ames fluctuation assay.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Bischoff, Roland; Stegmüller, Simone; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    α-, β- and γ-asarone are naturally occurring phenylpropenes that occur in different plant families, mainly in Aristolochiaceae, Acoraceae and Lauraceae. Plants containing asarones are used as flavouring ingredients in alcoholic beverages (bitters), traditional phytomedicines and the rhizome of e.g. Acorus calamus is used to prepare tea. Although α- and β-asarone show a potential in the treatment of several diseases, previous studies have shown carcinogenicity in rodents (duodenum, liver). However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Studies on the mutagenicity of propenylic α- and β-asarone are inconsistent and data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of allylic γ-asarone are lacking completely. Thus, the present study determined the mutagenicity of the three asarone isomers using the Ames fluctuation assay with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix) in the standard Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. A concentration dependent increase in mutagenicity could be verified for α- and β-asarone in strain TA100 in the presence of rat liver homogenate. The side-chain epoxides of α- and β-asarone, major metabolites formed in liver microsomes, caused mutations in TA100, supporting the hypothesis that epoxidation of the side chain plays a key role in mutagenicity of the propenylic alkenylbenzenes. The allylic γ-asarone, not undergoing detectable side-chain epoxidation in liver microsomes, was supposed to be activated via side-chain hydroxylation and further sulphonation, a typical pathway for other allylic alkenylbenzenes like estragole or methyleugenol. However, neither y-asarone nor 1'-OH-γ-asarone showed any mutagenic effect even in the human SULT-expressing Salmonella strains (TA100-hSULT1A1 and TA100-hSULT1C2), while 1'-OH-methyleugenol used as a positive control was mutagenic under these conditions. These results indicate that the propenylic asarones are genotoxic via metabolic formation of side-chain epoxides while the side

  6. Comparative investigation of the mutagenicity of propenylic and allylic asarone isomers in the Ames fluctuation assay.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Bischoff, Roland; Stegmüller, Simone; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    α-, β- and γ-asarone are naturally occurring phenylpropenes that occur in different plant families, mainly in Aristolochiaceae, Acoraceae and Lauraceae. Plants containing asarones are used as flavouring ingredients in alcoholic beverages (bitters), traditional phytomedicines and the rhizome of e.g. Acorus calamus is used to prepare tea. Although α- and β-asarone show a potential in the treatment of several diseases, previous studies have shown carcinogenicity in rodents (duodenum, liver). However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Studies on the mutagenicity of propenylic α- and β-asarone are inconsistent and data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of allylic γ-asarone are lacking completely. Thus, the present study determined the mutagenicity of the three asarone isomers using the Ames fluctuation assay with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix) in the standard Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. A concentration dependent increase in mutagenicity could be verified for α- and β-asarone in strain TA100 in the presence of rat liver homogenate. The side-chain epoxides of α- and β-asarone, major metabolites formed in liver microsomes, caused mutations in TA100, supporting the hypothesis that epoxidation of the side chain plays a key role in mutagenicity of the propenylic alkenylbenzenes. The allylic γ-asarone, not undergoing detectable side-chain epoxidation in liver microsomes, was supposed to be activated via side-chain hydroxylation and further sulphonation, a typical pathway for other allylic alkenylbenzenes like estragole or methyleugenol. However, neither y-asarone nor 1'-OH-γ-asarone showed any mutagenic effect even in the human SULT-expressing Salmonella strains (TA100-hSULT1A1 and TA100-hSULT1C2), while 1'-OH-methyleugenol used as a positive control was mutagenic under these conditions. These results indicate that the propenylic asarones are genotoxic via metabolic formation of side-chain epoxides while the side

  7. Biphasic Effects of α-Asarone on Immobility in the Tail Suspension Test: Evidence for the Involvement of the Noradrenergic and Serotonergic Systems in Its Antidepressant-Like Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chellian, Ranjithkumar; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha (α)-asarone is one of the main psychoactive compounds, present in Acorus species. Evidence suggests that the α-asarone possess an antidepressant-like activity in mice. However, the exact dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity are not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and the underlining mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity of α-asarone in the mouse model of tail suspension test (TST). In this study, the acute effect of α-asarone per se at different doses (10–100 mg/kg, i.p.) on immobility in the TST was studied. Additionally, the possible mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like effect of α-asarone was studied using its interaction with noradrenergic and serotonergic neuromodulators in the TST. The present results reveal that the acute treatment of α-asarone elicited biphasic responses on immobility such that the duration of the immobility time is significantly reduced at lower doses (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) but increased at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST. Besides, α-asarone at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with noradrenergic neuromodulators such as AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p., a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and with serotonergic neuromodulators such as PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for four consecutive days, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor,) and WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) significantly reversed the anti-immobility effect of α-asarone (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, our results suggest that the acute treatment with α-asarone elicited biphasic actions in the TST in which antidepressant-like effect was seen at relatively lower doses (15

  8. The Observatorio Astrofisico de Javalambre: project status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Gruel, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Maicas, N.; Marín-Franch, A.; Moles, M.; Montero, J.; Rueda, S.; Valdivielso, L.; Viironen, K.

    2011-11-01

    The Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA;http://www.cefca.es/) is in charge of the definition, design, construction andoperation of the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ). The OAJ isa robotic observatory under construction at the Sierra de Javalambre, Teruel(Spain), particularly thought for carrying out large scale surveys with twotelescopes of large field of view (FoV): T250 (2.5 m aperture; 3 deg diameterFoV) and T80 (0.8 m aperture; 2 deg diameter FoV). The OAJ, apart from thebuildings of the two telescopes, will contain four annex buildings: 1) thegeneral building (control room, laboratories and residence), 2) the mirroraluminizing plant, 3) the seeing and extinction monitor building, and 4) theinstallations building (generators, tanks, etc). All the buildings will beconnected by underground galleries.The OAJ telescopes are in their design phases. The optical designs of bothtelescopes are approved and the blanks of their M1 and M2 mirrors are inpolishing process. The M1 blank of T250 (made of Zerodur by Schott AG) wasaccepted on November 9th, 2010, and has recently started to be ground at theAMOS (http://www.amos.be) factory. The Preliminary Design Review of T250 waspassed in October 27th, 2010. The bulk of the civil work related with theannex buildings is planed to be finished in 2010, while the telescopebuildings and domes are due for 2011. T80 and T250 are expected to beoperative in 2011 and 2012 respectively.

  9. Inter-subject, inter-ocular and inter-session repeatability of the photopic negative response of the electroretinogram recorded using DTL and skin electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Katharine E; Binns, Alison M; Aldebasi, Yousef H; North, Rachel V

    2010-10-01

    The photopic negative response (PhNR) has attracted interest as a flash ERG component reflecting inner retinal activity, with investigators adopting various approaches to analysing the response. This study has two principal aims: first to determine the most reliable technique for assessing the PhNR amplitude; secondly to compare the repeatability characteristics of the PhNR recorded using DTL and skin active electrodes. Electroretinograms were recorded in 31 subjects, using both electrode types, in response to a Ganzfeld red stimulus (Lee filter "bright red"; 1.76 log phot td.s; 4 Hz) presented over a steady blue background (Schott glass filter BG28; 3.9 log scot td). Sixteen subjects returned to assess repeatability. PhNR amplitude was measured from b-wave peak-to-PhNR trough, pre-stimulus baseline to trough, and from peak and baseline to a fixed time-point; a ratio of b-wave/PhNR amplitude was also calculated. Coefficients of variation (CoV), and inter-ocular and inter-session limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated for all measures. The ratio of b-wave/PhNR amplitude showed the lowest CoV (14.3% DTL; 23.2% skin), inter-ocular LoA (22.2% DTL; 25.0% skin), and inter-session LoA (22.8% DTL; 20.3% skin). The peak-to-trough and peak-to-fixed-time measurements were also consistently reliable. Least reliable measures were those measured from baseline. While skin electrode responses were significantly smaller than DTL responses (P < 0.0001), the variability was only slightly increased. This study suggests that peak-to-trough measurements are the most reliable means of measuring the PhNR and ratio calculation further improves repeatability. Skin electrodes provided a viable alternative to DTL electrodes for recording the PhNR.

  10. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C.

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  11. Interaction of N-FK5 and L-BAL35 optical glass with various carbide and other precision glass mold tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, E.; Wachtel, P.; Musgraves, J. David; Richardson, K.; Mourad, S.; Huber, M.; Kunz, A.; Forrer, M.

    2013-09-01

    Precision glass molding (PGM) is an optical manufacturing process used to hot press optical glass into a specified lens shape. This is done by taking the glass to a temperature above Tg and exerting force using an upper and lower mold. These molds will, together, give the pressed lens its shape. This study focuses on the high temperature interactions between the mold tooling material and two optical oxide glasses, Ohara's L-BAL35 and Schott's N-FK5. Flat molds were used to press flat glass work pieces at high temperature and force; key post process parameters such as sample and mold surface contamination using EDS and visible degradation via SEM were catalogued and analyzed. The molds used were bare tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon carbide (SiC) with an amorphous SiC chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating. The results showed that raw WC molds suffered the most degradation including physical damage as well as chemical adherence and reaction. The Ti binder used in the WC as well as some the tungsten itself transferred to both glasses and caused a white reflective layer to appear on the molded glass surface. Severe damage was evident after only 2 pressing cycles with potassium from N-FK5 being the most prominent chemical contaminant. N-FK5 proved to be the more corrosive of the two glasses in all occasions. The SiC coated molds fared better in terms of degradation than the WC, however sticking of glass to mold was a problem.

  12. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Sphere. Updating the Lorentz-Abraham Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    "This is a remarkable book. […] A fresh and novel approach to old problems and to their solution." Fritz Rohrlich, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Syracuse University This book takes a fresh, systematic approach to determining the equation of motion for the classical model of the electron introduced by Lorentz more than 100 years ago. The original derivations of Lorentz, Abraham, Poincaré and Schott are modified and generalized for the charged insulator model of the electron to obtain an equation of motion consistent with causal solutions to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations and the equations of special relativity. The solutions to the resulting equation of motion are free of pre-acceleration and runaway behavior. Binding forces and a total stress momentum energy tensor are derived for the charged insulator model. General expressions for synchrotron radiation emerge in a form convenient for determining the motion of the electron. Appendices provide simplified derivations of the self-force and power at arbitrary velocity. In this Second Edition, the method used for eliminating the noncausal pre-acceleration from the equation of motion has been generalized to eliminate pre-deceleration as well. The generalized method is applied to obtain the causal solution to the equation of motion of a charge accelerating in a uniform electric field for a finite time interval. Alternative derivations of the Landau-Lifshitz approximation to the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation of motion are also given, along with Spohn’s elegant solution of this approximate equation for a charge moving in a uniform magnetic field. The book is a valuable resource for students and researchers in physics, engineering and the history of science.

  13. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiansheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2008-02-01

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 microg per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  14. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Veitch, Nigel C

    2007-05-01

    Two flavonol tetraglycosides comprising a trisaccharide at C-3 and a monosaccharide at C-7 were isolated from the leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott and characterised as the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosides of quercetin and kaempferol. The 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside of kaempferol, the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranosides of kaempferol and quercetin and the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside of kaempferol were also obtained from this species for the first time. Some or all of these flavonol tetra- and triglycosides were detected in 17 of 18 specimens of S. japonicum examined from living and herbarium material, although the most abundant flavonoid in the leaves was generally quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (rutin). The triglycosides, but not the tetraglycosides, were detected in herbarium specimens of Styphnolobium burseroides M. Sousa, Rudd & Medrano and Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd, but specimens of Styphnolobium affine (Torrey & A. Gray) Walp. contained a different profile of flavonol glycosides. The flavonol tetra- and triglycosides of S. japonicum were also present in leaves of Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd, a representative of a genus placed close to Styphnolobium in current molecular phylogenies. An additional constituent obtained from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum was identified as the maltol derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one 3-O-(4'-O-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:17462679

  15. Design Study of an 8 Meter Monolithic Mirror UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper will review a recent NASA MSFC preliminary study that demonstrated the feasibility of launching a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic primary mirror telescope to Sun-Earth L2 using an Ares V. The study started with the unique capabilities of the Ares V vehicle and examined the feasibility of launching a large aperture low cost low risk telescope based on a conventional ground based glass primary mirror. Specific technical areas studied included optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN & C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing, mass budget and system cost. The study telescope was an on-axis three-mirror anastigmatic design with a fine steering mirror. The observatory has a 100 arc-minute (8.4 X 12 arc-minutes) of diffraction limited field of view at a wavelength les than 500 nm. The study assumed that the primary mirror would be fabricated from an existing Schott Zerodur residual VLT blank edged to 6.2 meters, 175 mm thick at the edge with a mass of 11,000 kg. The entire mass budget for the observatory including primary mirror, structure, light baffle tube, instruments, space craft, avionics, etc. is less than 40,000 kg - a 33% mass margin on the Ares V's 60,000 kg Sun-Earth L2 capability. An 8 meter class observatory would have a total mass of less than 60,000 kg of which the primary mirror is the largest contributor.

  16. Polar distribution of annexin-like proteins during phytochrome-mediated initiation and growth of rhizoids in the ferns Dryopteris and Anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Turnwald, S.; Tirlapur, U. K.; Haas, C. J.; von der Mark, K.; Roux, S. J.; Scheuerlein, R.

    1995-01-01

    Although the calcium requirement of phytochrome-mediated fern spore germination and early rhizoid growth is well established, the calcium-binding proteins that serve as transducers for these responses are not known. Here we report the presence of annexin-like proteins in germinating spores of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott and Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw. and evidence that they may be important participants in early photomorphogenic changes in gametophytes. Immunolocalization and immunoblot assays of these proteins were carried out using polyclonal antibodies raised either against a 35-kDa annexin-like protein from pea or against anchorin CII from chicken. Western-blot analysis showed that crude protein extracts obtained from both species after red-light treatment contained two cross-reactive protein bands with molecular weights around 70 kDa. These proteins were annexin-like in that they bound to a phosphatidylserine affinity column in a calcium-dependent fashion. Using this column, two protein bands around 70 kDa, i.e. 67 and 73 kDa, were partially purified together with proteins at 36 kDa and a doublet at 54 kDa. Proteins of these latter molecular weights are suggested to be members of the annexin family, but no cross-reactivity could be found between these and the two antibodies used in our investigations. Immunodetectable levels of these proteins were observed only after light-mediated induction of spore germination. Imaging of the immuno-localization patterns observed with both antibodies showed that the annexin-like proteins are concentrated at the extreme tips of the rhizoids in D. filix-mas and A. phyllitidis during rhizoid initiation and all stages of elongation. We suggest that these proteins may play a major role in the tip-oriented exocytosis events that are critical for the initiation and growth of fern rhizoids.

  17. Minocycline-loaded cellulose nano whiskers/poly(sodium acrylate) composite hydrogel films as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Pathak, V; Soni, Bhawna

    2015-08-01

    In this work, antibiotic drug Minocycline (Mic) loaded cellulose nano-whiskers (CNWs)/poly(sodium acrylate) hydrogel films were prepared and investigated for their drug releasing capacity in physiological buffer solution (PBS) at 37 °C. The (CNWs)/poly(sodium acrylate) film, containing 9.7% (w/w) of CNWs, demonstrated Mic release of 2500 μg/g while the plain poly(acrylate) film showed 3100 μg/g of drug release. In addition, with the increase in the concentration of cross-linker N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MB) from to, the drug release from the resulting films decreased from 507 to 191 μg/g. The release exponent 'n' for films with different compositions was found in the range of 0.45 to 0.89, thus indicating non-Fickian release mechanism. The Schott model was employed to interpret the kinetic drug release data successfully. The film samples poly(SA) and CNWs/poly(SA) (both not containing drug) showed thrombus formation of 0.010±0.001 g and 0.007±0.001 g, respectively, thus showing the non-thrombogenic behavior. In percent Hemolysis, both of the film samples of 1.136±0.012 and 0.5±0.020, respectively, thus indicating non-hemolytic behavior. In addition, both of the film samples demonstrated protein adsorption of 49.02±0.59μ g/μL and 51.20±0.51 μg/μL per cm(2), thus revealing a fair degree of protein adsorption. Finally, the Mic-loaded films showed fair anti-fungal and antibacterial properties.

  18. New ultra low permittivity composites for use in ceramic packaging of Ga:As integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents work performed to develop materials systems for use in the ceramic packaging of Ga:As integrated circuits. Topics under study at Penn State are: dielectrics produced from Macro-Defect-Free (MDF) cements. Both aluminate and silicate based cements have been studied. The objectives of the first year's work have been to show that suitable test tablets can be produced which exhibit dielectric losses less than 1% into the frequency range of 2.5 GHz. Current work is focused upon lowering the permittivity level using silica microballoons dispersed in the matrix. Sol-gel preparation of both thick (25 microns) and thin (0.5 microns) SiO2 and silica:alumina films has shown that in the diphasis system, it is possible to produce crack-free monoliths with permittivities in the range 1.6 to 2.0 and loss tangents below .003. In the thin films, capping of columnar sputtered etched films has been demonstrated. For etched Schott and Vycor glass structures, permittivities in the range 2.5 to 3.0 have been measured with excellent low loss properties. Sputtered silicon films have been sucessfully etched to yield highly planar columnar structures up to 25 microns meters thick. Experiments are in progress to convert the silicon to SiO2 by an oxidation step and capping of the columnar structure using sol-gel coatings has been achieved. In a parallel program at Interamics, new families of borosilicate glass bonded alumina ceramics are being developed.

  19. Spatially controlled optogenetic light stimulation and recording platform via imaging fiber bundles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Javier I.; Sengupta, Parijat; Mun, Jonathan; Iyer, Rajashekar; Rhodes, Justin; Gillette, Martha U.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    Current methods for light delivery in in vivo optogenetic applications are typically accomplished via a single multimode fiber that diffuses light over a large area of the brain, and relies on the spatial distribution of transfected light-sensitive neurons for targeted control. In our investigations, an imaging fiber bundle (Schott) containing 4,500 individual fibers, each with a diameter of 7.5 µm, and an overall outer bundle diameter of 530 µm, served as a conduit for light delivery and optical recording/imaging. The use of this fiber bundle, in contrast to a single multimode fiber, allows for individually-addressable fibers, spatial selectivity at the stimulus site, more precise control of light delivery, and full field-of-view imaging and/or optical recordings of individual neurons in local neural circuits. An objective coupled the two continuous wave diode laser sources (561nm/488nm) (Coherent) for stimulation and imaging into the fiber bundle while a set of galvanometer-scanning mirrors was used to couple the light stimulus to distinct fibers within the proximal end of the imaging fiber bundle. In our study, C1V1(E122T/E162T)-TS-p2A-mCherry (Karl Deisseroth, Stanford) and GCaMP6s transgenic mice (Jackson Labs) were utilized for this all-optical approach. The results of our investigation demonstrate that imaging fiber bundles provide a new level of spatial selectivity and control of light delivery to specific neurons, as well as function as a conduit for optical imaging and recording at the in vivo site of stimulation, in contrast to the use of single multimode fibers that diffusely illuminate neural tissue and lack in vivo imaging capabilities.

  20. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Zn(BO2)2:Ce3+ under beta irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Kucuk, Ilker; Yüksel, Mehmet; Topaksu, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of undoped and various Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 powder samples excited by beta irradiation are reported for the first time. Zn(BO2)2:Ce(3+) powder samples were prepared by the nitric acid method (NAM) using the starting oxides [zinc oxide (ZnO), boric acid (H3BO3) and doped element oxide (CeO2)]. The formations of the obtained samples were confirmed by an X-ray diffraction study. Dose responses of Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were investigated after the beta irradiation in the dose range from 143 mGy to 60 Gy. All TL measurements were made on using an automated Risø TL/OSL DA-20 reader. TL emission was detected through a filter pack (Schott BG-39 and Corning 7-59) transmitting between 330 and 480 nm. TL glow curves were obtained using a constant heating rate of 5°C s(-1) from room temperature (RT) to 450°C in an N2 atmosphere. The dose response and minimum detectable dose (MDD) values of the samples were determined. The dose responses of all the samples tested exhibited a superlinear behaviour. MDD value of 4 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 sample, which shows a high temperature peak at about 230°C, was determined as 96 mGy. MDD values for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were also determined as 682, 501, 635, 320 and 824 mGy, respectively. The trap parameters of undoped and 4 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were estimated by the computerised glow curve deconvolution method. PMID:26142459

  1. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

    2006-01-01

    In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro.

  2. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  3. Flavonol tetraglycosides from fruits of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and the authentication of Fructus Sophorae and Flos Sophorae.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Boalch, Martha E; Lewis, Gwilym P; Leon, Christine J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2009-04-01

    The dried fruits and seeds of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott (syn. Sophora japonica L.) are used in traditional Chinese medicine and known as Fructus Sophorae or Huai Jiao. The major flavonoids in these fruits and seeds were studied by LC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques to aid the chemical authentication of Fructus Sophorae. Among the flavonoids were two previously unreported kaempferol glycosides: kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-glucopyranoside, the structures of which were determined by NMR. Two further tetraglycosides were identified for the first time in S. japonicum as kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside; the latter was the main flavonoid in mature seeds. The chromatographic profiles of 27 recorded flavonoids were relatively consistent among fruits of similar ages collected from five trees of S. japonicum, and those of maturing unripe and ripe fruits were similar to a market sample of Fructus Sophorae, and thus provide useful markers for authentication of this herbal ingredient. The flower buds (Huai Mi) and flowers (Huai Hua) of S. japonicum (collectively Flos Sophorae) contained rutin as the main flavonoid and lacked the flavone glycosides that were present in flower buds and flowers of Sophora flavescens Ait., reported to be occasional substitutes for Flos Sophorae. The single major flavonoid in fruits of S. flavescens was determined as 3'-hydroxydaidzein. PMID:19447452

  4. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149

  5. Electro-optical circuit board with single-mode glass waveguide optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Pernthaler, Dominik; Weber, Daniel; Sirbu, Bogdan; Herbst, Christian; Frey, Christopher; Queisser, Marco; Wöhrmann, Markus; Manessis, Dionysios; Schild, Beatrice; Oppermann, Hermann; Eichhammer, Yann; Schröder, Henning; Hâkansson, Andreas; Tekin, Tolga

    2016-03-01

    A glass optical waveguide process has been developed for fabrication of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB). Very thin glass panels with planar integrated single-mode waveguides can be embedded as a core layer in printed circuit boards for high-speed board-level chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical interconnects over an optical backplane. Such singlemode EOCBs will be needed in upcoming high performance computers and data storage network environments in case single-mode operating silicon photonic ICs generate high-bandwidth signals [1]. The paper will describe some project results of the ongoing PhoxTroT project, in which a development of glass based single-mode on-board and board-to-board interconnection platform is successfully in progress. The optical design comprises a 500 μm thin glass panel (Schott D263Teco) with purely optical layers for single-mode glass waveguides. The board size is accommodated to the mask size limitations of the fabrication (200 mm wafer level process, being later transferred also to larger panel size). Our concept consists of directly assembling of silicon photonic ICs on cut-out areas in glass-based optical waveguide panels. A part of the electrical wiring is patterned by thin film technology directly on the glass wafer surface. A coupling element will be assembled on bottom side of the glass-based waveguide panel for 3D coupling between board-level glass waveguides and chip-level silicon waveguides. The laminate has a defined window for direct glass access for assembling of the photonic integrated circuit chip and optical coupling element. The paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of glass-based electro-optical circuit board with format of (228 x 305) mm2.

  6. Estimate of absolute geostrophic velocity from the density field in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.A.

    1981-09-20

    A pair of hydrographic sections (35/sup 0/N, 155/sup 0/W) were analyzed to compute absolute velocity by using a variation of the technique by Stommel and Schott (1977). Absolute velocity is determined from an integrated form of the potential vorticity equation by a technique suggested by Davis (1978). This study is the first application of this technique that allows a direct comparison between the uncertainty in estimating a smooth density field and the amount of imbalance in the system of model equations. Because the amount of incompatibility (imbalance) in the system of equations is far smaller than is allowed by the uncertainty in defining the smooth field, the model equation is considered adequate for this set of data. Below 400 m, the nearly constant zonal isopycnal slope indicates that potential vorticity is uniform on isopycnal surfaces. Since the method depends on resolving flow directions from the intersection of isopycnals and surfaces of constant potential vorticity, the absolute velocity is indeterminate in this region. The model equation does, however, constrain the structure of the meridional density field and requires a poleward shift in the latitude which successively deeper isopycnals reach their maximum depth. The fact that this poleward translation can be predicted over several degrees of latitude suggests potential vorticity is uniform over a substantial portion of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. This poleward translation of the density field is an aspect of subtropical density fields, in general, and occurs in conjunction with a translation in the field of geopotential anomaly. It is directly related to the curvature in the deep portion of the beta spiral.

  7. Wavelength-dependent induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid in a rice-field cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune: role of inhibitors and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Ambasht, Navin K; Sinha, Jiweshwar P; Häder, Donat-P

    2003-02-01

    Wavelength-dependent induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) was studied in a nitrogen-fixing rice-field cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune. HPLC studies showed the presence of shinorine, a bisubstituted MAA containing both glycine and serine groups and having an absorption maximum at 334 nm. Exposure of cultures to simulated solar radiation in combination with various cut-off filters (WG 280, 295, 305, 320, 335, 345, GG 400, 420, 455, 475, OG 515, 530, 570, RG 645, 665; all Schott filter series) clearly indicated that MAAs were induced by UV-B radiation, while UV-A and PAR had very little effect on MAA induction in this organism. The ratio of the absorption at 334 nm (shinorine) to 665 nm (chlorophyll a) and the derived action spectrum also revealed the induction of MAAs to be UV-B dependent with a prominent peak at 290 nm and a second small peak at 310 nm. Various concentrations (50-300 mM) of NaCl were used to test whether another common stress factor, such as osmotic stress, also induces MAAs, as has been reported for other cyanobacterial species. The results indicate that cells grown at high concentration of NaCl but without UV-B did not show any MAA induction. In order to elucidate the possible photoreceptors, the effects of various inhibitors/quenchers on the induction of MAAs were studied. There was a marked reduction in the amount of MAA when the cells were irradiated with UV-B in the presence of inhibitors of the shikimate pathway (glyphosate, 1 mM), photosynthesis [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, 20 microM], protein synthesis (chloramphenicol, 25 microg ml(-1)), pterin synthesis (N-acetylserotonin, 5 mM, and 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, 5 mM) and a quencher of the excited state of flavins and pterins (phenylacetic acid, 1 mM).

  8. Hybrid Nd 3+-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser made by ion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Bastard, Lionel; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    In the mid 80's, the doping of optical fiber's core with rare earth atoms has been a major breakthrough in the field of optical telecommunications since it allowed the realization of in-line optical amplifiers. However, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are a few meters long and a huge effort has been made in order to realize compact and efficient active devices based on rare-earth-doped waveguides. For this purpose the use of phosphate glasses instead of silicate ones has been investigated because they allow a better solubility of the inserted rare earths. In this paper we present the realization of a hybrid Neodymium-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser made by ion exchange on a Schott IOG-1 phosphate laser glass combined with the deposition of a BDN saturable absorber diluted in a cellulose acetate polymer cladding. In a first step, we present the CW operation of the laser with an undoped cladding. We show that for a 3.5-μm wide, 1.4-cm long waveguide realized by a silver-sodium ion exchange, a 6 mW output has been achieved by creating a Fabry-Perot cavity with dielectric multilayers mirrors sticked to the chip facets. Then, the characterizations performed on the BDN doped layers are presented. It is shown that a proper selection of the hybrid guiding structure and saturable absorber concentration entail an excess absorption ranging from 1 to 10 dB/cm at zero flux. Finally, results on Q-switched behavior are presented. Optical pulse duration of 2-ns (FWHM) was obtained with repetition rates ranging from 5 to around 50 kHz for a 22 W pulse peak power.

  9. Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Friedrich, P.; Gallieni, D.; Guldimann, B.; Martelli, F.; Negri, R.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Scaglione, F.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Terzi, L.; Tintori, M.; Vongehr, M.; Wille, E.; Winter, A.; Zambra, A.

    2010-07-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) consist of a large number of high quality segments delivering a spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec. A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory. We are investigating two approaches, the "Direct" and "Indirect" slumping technologies, being respectively based on the use of convex and concave moulds. In the first case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface, while in the second case it is the rear side of the foil which touches the master. Both approaches present pros and cons and aim of this study is also to make an assessment of both processes and to perform a trade-off between the two. The thin plates are made of D263glass produced by Schott. Each plate is 0.4 mm thick, with a reflecting area of 200 mm x 200 mm; the mould are made of Fused Silica. After the thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized to define their optical quality and microroughness. The adopted integration process foresees the bonding of the slumped foils to a rigid backplane by means of reinforcing ribs. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact to the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of a vacuum pump suction. In this way spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we present the preliminary results concerning achieved during the first part of the project.

  10. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Zn(BO2)2:Ce3+ under beta irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Kucuk, Ilker; Yüksel, Mehmet; Topaksu, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of undoped and various Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 powder samples excited by beta irradiation are reported for the first time. Zn(BO2)2:Ce(3+) powder samples were prepared by the nitric acid method (NAM) using the starting oxides [zinc oxide (ZnO), boric acid (H3BO3) and doped element oxide (CeO2)]. The formations of the obtained samples were confirmed by an X-ray diffraction study. Dose responses of Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were investigated after the beta irradiation in the dose range from 143 mGy to 60 Gy. All TL measurements were made on using an automated Risø TL/OSL DA-20 reader. TL emission was detected through a filter pack (Schott BG-39 and Corning 7-59) transmitting between 330 and 480 nm. TL glow curves were obtained using a constant heating rate of 5°C s(-1) from room temperature (RT) to 450°C in an N2 atmosphere. The dose response and minimum detectable dose (MDD) values of the samples were determined. The dose responses of all the samples tested exhibited a superlinear behaviour. MDD value of 4 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 sample, which shows a high temperature peak at about 230°C, was determined as 96 mGy. MDD values for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were also determined as 682, 501, 635, 320 and 824 mGy, respectively. The trap parameters of undoped and 4 % Ce(3) (+)-doped Zn(BO2)2 samples were estimated by the computerised glow curve deconvolution method.

  11. Simulated stratospheric ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet radiation: effects on photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Forbes, P D; Davies, R E; Urbach, F; Berger, D; Cole, C

    1982-07-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the earth is a recognized cause of skin cancer. Postulated anthropogenic reductions in the thickness of the ozone layer would lead to an increased amount of ultraviolet radiation and hence would be expected to increase the risk of skin carcinogenesis. This study uses hairless (Skh:HR) mice as an animal model to study this increased risk. The mice were exposed 5 days/week to graded doses of ultraviolet radiation from a xenon arc lamp attenuated by five different thicknesses of Schott glass filters (WG320) to simulate various ozone layer thicknesses. A Robertson-Berger sunburning ultraviolet meter was used as one of the forms of dosimetry. The results of the various exposure treatments are expressed as the percentage of animal with tumors (incidence) versus time after commencing irradiation and as cumulative tumor yield (average number of tumors per survivor) versus time. With any given filter, the time to 50% incidence is inversely related to daily dose in Robertson-Berger meter units. The time to 50% incidence for comparable Robertson-Berger meter doses through different filter thicknesses increases with increasing thickness. These results indicate that the effective dose for skin cancer induction may be estimated from the Robertson-Berger meter dose but that the Robertson-Berger meter response spectrum underestimates the photocarcinogenic effectiveness of the shorter wavelengths. The cumulative tumor yield data are also consistent with these conclusions. Alternate weighting of the source spectra with the acute-response action spectrum for mouse skin edema gave a better correlation between unit dose and time to a tumor response, independent of the source spectral distribution. This suggests that the mouse skin edema action spectrum, indistinguishable from a human skin erythema action spectrum for lambda greater than 295 nm, is similar in shape to the mouse skin photocarcinogenesis action spectrum for lambda greater than

  12. Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Bedini, Peter D.; Boldt, John D.; Cavender, Peter J.; Choo, Tech H.; Darlington, Edward H.; Donald, Erik T.; Fasold, Melissa J.; Fort, Dennis E.; Gurnee, Reid S.; Hayes, Allen T.; Hayes, John R.; Hemler, James B.; Humm, David C.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Lee, Robert E.; Lees, William J.; Lohr, David A.; Murchie, Scott L.; Murphy, Graham A.; Reiter, Ralph A.; Rossano, Edigio; Seagrave, Gordon G.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Strohbehn, Kim; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Tossman, Barry E.; Wilson, Paul, IV; Robinson, Mark S.; Green, Robert; Mitchell, Steven E.

    2004-10-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM"s two Offner relay spectrometers share a single entrance slit with a dichroic beamsplitter. The IR focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) HgCdTe FPA with a 980 nm to 3960 nm spectral bandpass. It is cooled to 110 K to minimize dark current, and coupled to a 28 mm long cold shield to minimize thermal background. The spectrometer housing is cooled to -90 C for the same reason. A three-zone IR filter consisting of two broadband filters and a linear variable filter overlays the IR focal plane, eliminating multiple grating orders and providing additional attenuation of the thermal background. The visible focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) silicon photodiode array, with a 380-1050 nm spectral bandpass occupying approximately 106 rows of the detector. A two-zone filter comprised of two different Schott glasses eliminates multiple grating orders. The two focal planes together cover 544 spectral channels with a dispersion of 6.55 nm/channel in the VNIR and 6.63 nm/channel in the IR. The optics and focal planes are gimbaled, and a pre-programmed slew can be used to remove groundtrack motion while superimposing a scan across a target. CRISM will operate in two basic modes: a scanning, high resolution mode to hyperspectrally map small, targeted areas of high scientific interest, and a fixed, nadir-pointed, lower resolution pixel-binned mode using selected wavelength channels to obtain near-global coverage to find targets. Preliminary performance of the CRISM instrument is presented, and is compared with prior system design predictions.

  13. Picosecond laser cutting and drilling of thin flex glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Brunton, Adam; Rumsby, Phil; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the feasibility of cutting and drilling thin flex glass (TFG) substrates using a picosecond laser operating at wavelengths of 1030 nm, 515 nm and 343 nm. 50 μm and 100 μm thick AF32®Eco Thin Glass (Schott AG) sheets are used. The laser processing parameters such as the wavelength, pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, scan speed and the number of laser passes which are necessary to perform through a cut or to drill a borehole in the TFG substrate are studied in detail. Our results show that the highest effective cutting speeds (220 mm/s for a 50 μm thick TFG substrate and 74 mm/s for a 100 μm thick TFG substrate) are obtained with the 1030 nm wavelength, whereas the 343 nm wavelength provides the best quality cuts. The 515 nm wavelength, meanwhile, can be used to provide relatively good laser cut quality with heat affected zones (HAZ) of <25 μm for 50 μm TFG and <40 μm for 100 μm TFG with cutting speeds of 100 mm/s and 28.5 mm/s, respectively. The 343 nm and 515 nm wavelengths can also be used for drilling micro-holes (with inlet diameters of ⩽75 μm) in the 100 μm TFG substrate with speeds of up to 2 holes per second (using 343 nm) and 8 holes per second (using 515 nm). Optical microscope and SEM images of the cuts and micro-holes are presented.

  14. Tryptophan depletion and formation of alpha-aminoadipic and gamma-glutamic semialdehydes in porcine burger patties with added phenolic-rich fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-03-24

    The effect of added fruit extracts on the oxidation of muscle proteins in porcine burger patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Extracts from arbutus berries (Arbutus unedo L., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogyna L., CM), dog roses (Rosa canina L., RC), and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifolius Schott, RU) were prepared, characterized, added to burger patties (3% of total weight), and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin, 230 mg/kg, Q) groups were also included in the design. Protein oxidation was assessed by means of tryptophan loss using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and formation of the specific protein carbonyls alpha-aminoadipic (AAS) and gamma-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Both advanced methodologies (FS and LC-MS) were found to be reliable and specific protein oxidation measurements that allow us to gain chemical insight into protein oxidation. The mechanisms likely involved in the oxidative reactions affecting proteins during cooking and storage of burger patties are profusely discussed. Phenolic-rich fruit extracts protected tryptophan residues against oxidation and inhibited the formation of both semialdehydes in burger patties during cooking and subsequent chill storage. In general, RC, RU, and AU were the most effective inhibitors of protein oxidation, with this effect being more intense than that of pure polyphenols like quercetin. These fruit extracts could be considered functional ingredients as their antioxidant actions contribute to the enhancement of the nutritional value of the meat products. PMID:20170109

  15. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values. PMID:16452079

  16. Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  17. Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

  18. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  19. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by aspidin PB through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Daqian; Jiang, Chaoyin; Hua, Xin; Wang, Ting; Chai, Yimin

    2015-10-01

    Aspidin PB is a natural product extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, which has been characterized for its various biological activities. We reported that aspidin PB induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells. Aspidin PB inhibited the proliferation of Saos-2, U2OS, and HOS cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Aspidin PB induced changes in the cell cycle regulators (cyclin A, pRb, CDK2, p53, and p21), which caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase. We also explored the role of siRNA targeted to p53; it led to a dose-dependent attenuation of aspidin PB-induced apoptosis signaling. Moreover, after treatment with aspidin PB, the p21-silenced cells decreased significantly at the S phase. Aspidin PB increased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. Western blot analysis showed that aspidin PB inhibited Bcl-2 expression and induced Bax expression to disintegrate the outer mitochondrial membrane and caused cytochrome C release. Mitochondrial cytochrome C release was associated with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Furthermore, the double-stranded DNA breaks and reactive oxygen species signaling were both involved in aspidin PB-induced DNA damage. In addition, aspidin PB inhibited tumor growth significantly in U2OS xenografts. Above all, we conclude that aspidin PB represents a valuable natural source and may potentially be applicable in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:26181229

  20. Continued advancement of laser damage resistant optically functional microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.; Sabatino, Ernest

    2012-11-01

    Micro- and nano-structured optically functional surface textures continue to exhibit higher performance and longer term survivability than thin-film coatings for an increasing number of materials used within high energy laser (HEL) systems. Anti-reflection (AR) microstructures (ARMs) produce a graded refractive index yielding high transmission over wide spectral ranges along with a chemical, mechanical and laser damage resistance inherited from the bulk optic material. In this study, ARMs were fabricated in the relevant HEL materials sapphire, neodymium-doped YAG, fused silica, BK7 glass, and the magnesium aluminate known as SPINEL. Standardized pulsed laser induced damage threshold (LiDT) measurements were made using commercial testing services to directly compare the damage resistance of ARMs-treated optics to uncoated and thin-film-AR-coated (TFARC) optics at wavelengths of 532nm, 694nm, 800nm, 1064nm, and 1538nm. As found with prior work, the LiDT of ARMs etched in fused silica was typically in the range of 35 J/cm2 at a wavelength of 1064nm and a pulse width of 10ns, a level that is comparable to uncoated samples and 3.5 times greater than the level specified by six prominent TFARC providers. The Army Research Laboratory measured the pulsed LiDT at 532nm (10ns) of ARMs in fused silica to be up to 5 times the level of the ion beam sputtered TFARC previously employed in their HEL system, and 2 times higher than a low performance single layer MgF2 TFARC. This result was repeated and expanded using a commercial LiDT testing service for ARMs in two types of fused silica and for Schott N-BK7 glass. An average damage threshold of 26.5 J/cm2 was recorded for the ARMs-treated glass materials, a level 4 times higher than the commercial IBS TFARCs tested.

  1. Precise dispersion equations of absorbing filter glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Biertümpfel, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The refractive indices versus wavelength of optical transparent glasses are measured at a few wavelengths only. In order to calculate the refractive index at any wavelength, a so-called Sellmeier series is used as an approximation of the wavelength dependent refractive index. Such a Sellmeier representation assumes an absorbing free (= loss less) material. In optical transparent glasses this assumption is valid since the absorption of such transparent glasses is very low. However, optical filter glasses have often a rather high absorbance in certain regions of the spectrum. The exact description of the wavelength dependent function of the refractive index is essential for an optimized design for sophisticated optical applications. Digital cameras use an IR cut filter to ensure good color rendition and image quality. In order to reduce ghost images by reflections and to be nearly angle independent absorbing filter glass is used, e.g. blue glass BG60 from SCHOTT. Nowadays digital cameras improve their performance and so the IR cut filter needs to be improved and thus the accurate knowledge of the refractive index (dispersion) of the used glasses must be known. But absorbing filter glass is not loss less as needed for a Sellmeier representation. In addition it is very difficult to measure it in the absorption region of the filter glass. We have focused a lot of effort on measuring the refractive index at specific wavelength for absorbing filter glass - even in the absorption region. It will be described how to do such a measurement. In addition we estimate the use of a Sellmeier representation for filter glasses. It turns out that in most cases a Sellmeier representation can be used even for absorbing filter glasses. Finally Sellmeier coefficients for the approximation of the refractive index will be given for different filter glasses.

  2. Coal fly ash as an amendment to container substrate for Spathiphyllum production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2006-10-01

    Coal fly ash, possessing alkalinity and containing some essential mineral elements, could be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant growth. This study examined physiochemical properties of three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and container substrates formulated by incorporating commercial dolomite and the three fly ashes, respectively into a soilless basal substrate. The basal, dolomite- and fly ash-amended substrates were used to grow peace lily (Spathiphyllum Schott 'Ty's Pride'), a popular ornamental foliage plant, in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Electrical conductivities and pH of the substrates were monitored monthly. Plant canopy heights and widths, shoot fresh and dry weights were recorded five months after transplanting, and tissue nutrient contents were measured. Three fly ashes and the commercial dolomite were able to raise pH of the basal substrate from 3.8 to about 6.8. Canopy heights and widths as well as shoot fresh and dry weights of plants produced from fly ash-amended substrates were comparable to those produced from dolomite-amended substrate but significantly different from those produced from the basal substrate. On an average, five necrotic leaves appeared from plants produced in the basal substrate; however, less than one necrotic leaf occurred on plants produced in either dolomite- or fly ash-amended substrates. As a result, the quality grade of plants grown in the basal substrate was low, and plants were not marketable. Additionally, electrical conductivities of fly ash-amended substrates were consistently higher during the course of plant growth, suggesting that, in addition to neutralizing pH, the amended fly ashes provide nutrients for peace lily growth, which was confirmed by high nutrient contents in plant shoots. This study demonstrates that the three fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites used as amendments

  3. Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility Delivery Delayed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-12-01

    create and disperse many of the elements necessary for new stars, planets and life. The Marshall Space Flight Center manages development of the observatory for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. Made of glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Danbury, CT, and assembled by Eastman-Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. The science instruments are being integrated into the science instrument module at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, Boulder, CO, before being tested and shipped to TRW.

  4. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and

  5. Reaching the Next Generation of College Students via Their Digital Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmeyer, S. J.; De Paor, D. G.; Bentley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cooper, Mladen Dordevic, Marissa Dudek, Brandon Fitzwater, Bridget Gomez, Tyler Hansen, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Alan Pitts, Robin Rohrback, Bill Richards, Caroline Robinson, Jeff Rollins, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury. Supported by NSF DUE 1323419 and by Google Geo Curriculum Awards.

  6. Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, Melville

    2015-11-01

    In this paper wepresent a method to correct the surface profile of an X-ray mirror by using a stress manipulated coating on the back side of mirror shells. The ability to fabricate a thin walled mirror by some replication process is required if future affordable X-ray space missions are to have ~30 times the effective area of the current best X-ray observatory, i.e., the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). Thus, some process is necessary for using replicated X-ray optics to make the next generation X-ray observatory. However, although the surface roughness of sub-100 μm length scales can be replicated, no known replication technique can make 1 arc-second or better CXO-like optics. Yet, because the images produced by the CXO are so exquisite, many X-ray astronomers are not willing to settle for less in the future. Therefore, a post replication technique must be developed to make future major X-ray astronomy missions possible. In this paper, we describe a technique based on DC magnetron sputtering. For figure correction, we apply a controlled bias voltage on the surface during the sputtering. We show that we can produce, in 1-D, shape changes large enough (1 μm over 10 mm) to correct the typical figure errors in replicated optics. We demonstrate reproducibility on an order of 0.6%, and stability over weeks on a scale of less than 1 μm over 10 mm. For these tests, we used 200 μm thick pieces of D263 Schott glass, about 5 mm x 20 mm. In addition to the basic concept of controlling the stress with the coating, we describe a new optimization software design to calculate the stress distribution for a desired surface profile. We show that the combination of the stress optimization software coupled with the coating process, can reduce the slope error of a 5 mm x 20 mm glass sample by a factor of ten.

  7. Migration of bisphenol A from can coatings--effects of damage, storage conditions and heating.

    PubMed

    Goodson, A; Robin, H; Summerfield, W; Cooper, I

    2004-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy resins for internal food can linings. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different storage conditions and can damage on the migration of BPA to foods. These experiments were conducted in a systematic fashion by filling empty epoxyphenolic coated cans with four foods: soup, minced beef, evaporated milk and carrots and a food simulant (10% ethanol). Filled cans of each food type or simulant were then sealed and processed using appropriate conditions, before storage at three different temperatures: 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C. For each of the storage regimes, 50% of the cans were dented to establish if this would lead to increased BPA migration. Cans were removed from these stocks at intervals of 1, 3 and 9 months storage at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C or 10 days, 1 and 3 months at 40 degrees C. Some initial problems of heterogeneity between samples was overcome by determining the amount of BPA in food as well as in the can lining. It was found that 80-100% of the total BPA present in the coating had migrated to foods directly after can processing by pilot plant filling with food or simulant, sealing and sterilization. This level was not changed by extended storage (up to 9 months) or can damage, indicating most migration was occurring during the can processing step. There was no noticeable difference, in this respect, between the different foods or the food simulant. Analysis of control samples (foods fortified with approximately 0.1 mg kg(-1) BPA and contained in Schott bottles) showed that BPA was stable under both processing and storage. Experiments were also conducted to investigate the potential effects, on the migration of BPA from can coatings, of cooking or heating foods in the can prior to consumption. Food cans were purchased and the food either cooked or heated in the can. BPA was analysed prior to and after the heating/cooking process. It was

  8. TU-C-12A-07: Characterization of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Quantitative Diffusion Imaging Data Acquired with Four Different Protocols Using a Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Buzzelli, M; Randazzo, W; Yanasak, N

    2014-06-15

    diffusion imaging sequences from different platforms. Schott Glass North America and The Phantom Laboratory have donated materials and personnel time to this project.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical observations of LS I +61 303 (Paredes-Fortuny+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Ribo, M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Casares, J.; Fors, O.; Nunez, J.

    2015-01-01

    In Table 1 we present the already reduced differential optical photometry of the gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303 obtained with the robotic Telescope Fabra-ROA Montsec (TFRM; 0.5m aperture, 0.78m primary mirror) at the Observatori Astronomic del Montsec (Lleida, Spain; see Fors et al. 2013PASP..125..522F). The observations span from 2012 July 31 to 2014 March 7 with 71 nights of good data. The target was observed around 20 times per night with exposures of 5-10s. The passband filter is SCHOTT GG475 (lambda>475nm). We conducted the data reduction and analysis using a pipeline developed in Python following these steps: standard calibration of the images using IRAF (implemented through PyRAF), aperture photometry using the PHOT package from IRAF (PyRAF) with an aperture radius of 7.5-pixels, and correction of the lightcurves using a weighted average differential magnitude correction method based on Broeg et al. (2005AN....326..134B). The lightcurve of LS I +61 303 has been corrected using 145 weighted reference stars up to 4mag fainter than the target and as close as possible to it (<0.25deg). Finally, we averaged the corrected magnitudes of the target on a nightly basis, and we used and artificial offset to a mean magnitude of 10.7mag. The nightly photometric uncertainties are estimated as the standard deviation of the magnitudes of the target obtained from the individual images for each night. In Table 2 we present the already reduced H-alpha equivalent width (EW) data of LS I +61 303 obtained using FRODOspec on the robotic 2.0m Liverpool telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). The data span from 2012 July to 2014 January 15 with 104 measurements, with one 600s exposure per night. The data have been obtained with the same setup, and reduced in the same way as in Casares et al. (2012MNRAS.421.1103C). We assumed that the uncertainties of the EW are at the 10% level. The adopted convention is positive for emission. (2 data files).

  10. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  11. Using Google Streetview Panoramic Imagery for Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    geoscience educators both to use existing Streetview imagery and to generate new imagery for specific locations of geological interest. The GEODE team includes the authors and: H. Almquist, C. Bentley, S. Burgin, C. Cervato, G. Cooper, P. Karabinos, T. Pavlis, J. Piatek, B. Richards, J. Ryan, R. Schott, K. St. John, B. Tewksbury, and S. Whitmeyer.

  12. Optical lead flint glasses: key material in optics since centuries and in future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2015-09-01

    fluorescence light bands simultaneously. These outstanding properties of the lead flint glass types caused SCHOTT to keep them in the glass program and not to replace them completely as other glass companies have done. The improvements of the last two decades with respect to homogeneity and transmittance underline their suitability for future extreme quality optics with applications in medical and general research and in astronomy for large beam shaping and atmospheric dispersion correction.

  13. Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, Melville

    2015-11-01

    In this paper wepresent a method to correct the surface profile of an X-ray mirror by using a stress manipulated coating on the back side of mirror shells. The ability to fabricate a thin walled mirror by some replication process is required if future affordable X-ray space missions are to have ~30 times the effective area of the current best X-ray observatory, i.e., the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). Thus, some process is necessary for using replicated X-ray optics to make the next generation X-ray observatory. However, although the surface roughness of sub-100 μm length scales can be replicated, no known replication technique can make 1 arc-second or better CXO-like optics. Yet, because the images produced by the CXO are so exquisite, many X-ray astronomers are not willing to settle for less in the future. Therefore, a post replication technique must be developed to make future major X-ray astronomy missions possible. In this paper, we describe a technique based on DC magnetron sputtering. For figure correction, we apply a controlled bias voltage on the surface during the sputtering. We show that we can produce, in 1-D, shape changes large enough (1 μm over 10 mm) to correct the typical figure errors in replicated optics. We demonstrate reproducibility on an order of 0.6%, and stability over weeks on a scale of less than 1 μm over 10 mm. For these tests, we used 200 μm thick pieces of D263 Schott glass, about 5 mm x 20 mm. In addition to the basic concept of controlling the stress with the coating, we describe a new optimization software design to calculate the stress distribution for a desired surface profile. We show that the combination of the stress optimization software coupled with the coating process, can reduce the slope error of a 5 mm x 20 mm glass sample by a factor of ten. PMID:26561130

  14. Coal fly ash as an amendment to container substrate for Spathiphyllum production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2006-10-01

    Coal fly ash, possessing alkalinity and containing some essential mineral elements, could be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant growth. This study examined physiochemical properties of three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and container substrates formulated by incorporating commercial dolomite and the three fly ashes, respectively into a soilless basal substrate. The basal, dolomite- and fly ash-amended substrates were used to grow peace lily (Spathiphyllum Schott 'Ty's Pride'), a popular ornamental foliage plant, in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Electrical conductivities and pH of the substrates were monitored monthly. Plant canopy heights and widths, shoot fresh and dry weights were recorded five months after transplanting, and tissue nutrient contents were measured. Three fly ashes and the commercial dolomite were able to raise pH of the basal substrate from 3.8 to about 6.8. Canopy heights and widths as well as shoot fresh and dry weights of plants produced from fly ash-amended substrates were comparable to those produced from dolomite-amended substrate but significantly different from those produced from the basal substrate. On an average, five necrotic leaves appeared from plants produced in the basal substrate; however, less than one necrotic leaf occurred on plants produced in either dolomite- or fly ash-amended substrates. As a result, the quality grade of plants grown in the basal substrate was low, and plants were not marketable. Additionally, electrical conductivities of fly ash-amended substrates were consistently higher during the course of plant growth, suggesting that, in addition to neutralizing pH, the amended fly ashes provide nutrients for peace lily growth, which was confirmed by high nutrient contents in plant shoots. This study demonstrates that the three fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites used as amendments

  15. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William; Bevan Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication is making very large space based telescopes possible. In the many applications, only monolithic mirrors meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass. Again, available and planned payload shroud size limits near term designs to 4 meter class mirror. Practical 8 meter and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors lower mass and larger mirrors, presents the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system and be launched. This paper shows how the design of the suspension system and mirror blank needs to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems, which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass. The AMTD project is developing and maturing the processes for future replacements for HUBBLE, creating the design tools, validating the methods and techniques necessary to manufacture, test and launch extremely large optical missions. This paper will use the AMTD 4 meter "design point" as an illustration of the typical use of the modeler in generating the multiple models of mirror and suspension systems used during the conceptual design phase of most projects. The influence of Hexapod geometry, mirror depth, cell size and construction techniques (Exelsis Deep Core Low Temperature Fusion (c) versus Corning Frit Bonded (c) versus Schott Pocket Milled Zerodur (c) in this particular study) are being evaluated. Due to space and time consideration we will only be able to present snippets of the study in this paper. The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low

  16. Hepatic metabolism of carcinogenic β-asarone.

    PubMed

    Cartus, Alexander T; Stegmüller, Simone; Simson, Nadine; Wahl, Andrea; Neef, Sylvia; Kelm, Harald; Schrenk, Dieter

    2015-09-21

    β-Asarone (1) belongs to the group of naturally occurring phenylpropenes like eugenol or anethole. Compound 1 is found in several plants, e.g., Acorus calamus or Asarum europaeum. Compound 1-containing plant materials and essential oils thereof are used to flavor foods and alcoholic beverages and as ingredients of many drugs in traditional phytomedicines. Although 1 has been claimed to have several positive pharmacological effects, it was found to be genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents (liver and small intestine). The mechanism of action of carcinogenic allylic phenylpropenes consists of the metabolic activation via cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulfotransferases. In vivo experiments suggested that this pathway does not play a major role in the carcinogenicity of the propenylic compound 1 as is the case for other propenylic compounds, e.g., anethole. Since the metabolic pathways of 1 have not been investigated and its carcinogenic mode of action is unknown, we investigated the metabolism of 1 in liver microsomes of rats, bovines, porcines, and humans using (1)H NMR, HPLC-DAD, and LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. We synthesized the majority of identified metabolites which were used as reference compounds for the quantification and final verification of metabolites. Microsomal epoxidation of the side chain of 1 presumably yielded (Z)-asarone-1',2'-epoxide (8a) which instantly was hydrolyzed to the corresponding erythro- and threo-configurated diols (9b, 9a) and the ketone 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetone (13). This was the main metabolic pathway in the metabolism of 1 in all investigated liver microsomes. Hydroxylation of the side chain of 1 led to the formation of three alcohols at total yields of less than 30%: 1'-hydroxyasarone (2), (E)- and (Z)-3'-hydroxyasarone (4 and 6), with 6 being the mainly formed alcohol and 2 being detectable only in liver microsomes of Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats. Small amounts of 4 and 6 were further oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl

  17. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    PubMed

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-01

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (< 0.05%, w/w) but contains more than 8% carboxy alkyl esters (CAEs) as their active ingredients. Three groups of 10 outbred SK-1 hairless or SK-II hairless strains of mice each were treated with AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank

  18. Late-Holocene environmental and climatic changes in central part of the Western Sayan Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenaderova, Anna; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan

    2016-04-01

    with most stable hydrological conditions. During this period, the flood waters have supplied the least amount of allochthonous contaminants on the surface of the swamp. On the peatlands, sedge and sedge-moss plant communities were developed. Main plant species which grows in the peatlands are Carex altaica (Gorodk.) V.Krecz, Carex limosa L. Tomentypnum nitens Hedw., Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr., Warnstorfia exannulata (B.S.G.) Loeske., Thelypteris palustris Schott, Baeothryon caespitosum (L.) A.Dietr. During the last 500 years an increase of allochthonous contaminants inputs to marsh sediments is observed. In our opinion, the main causes of the increase were reduction the forest area, sharper contrast of summer and winter temperatures and more rapid melting of snow in early summer. The last cause lead to increased levels of floods. Eutrophic-mesotrophic sphagnum communities (Sphagnum warnstorfii Russ., Sph.subsecundum Nees,, Sphagnum angustifolium Jensen., Sph. fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr.), which are growing at the moment, begin to develop in the peatlands since 500 years ago.

  19. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and

  20. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    PubMed

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-16

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (< 0.05%, w/w) but contains more than 8% carboxy alkyl esters (CAEs) as their active ingredients. Three groups of 10 outbred SK-1 hairless or SK-II hairless strains of mice each were treated with AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank

  1. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the

  2. Revisiting classical silicate dissolution rate laws under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollet-Villard, Marion; Daval, Damien; Saldi, Giuseppe; Knauss, Kevin; Wild, Bastien; Fritz, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    apparent modification of silicate dissolution rate over time. In addition, we evidenced that the relation between K-spar dissolution rate and ΔG depends on the crystallographic orientation of the altered surface, and differs from the transition state theory currently implemented into geochemical codes. Importantly, this theoretical curve overestimates the dissolution rates measured in close-to-equilibrium conditions. Taken together, the new findings show promise as a means for improving the accuracy of geochemical simulations. [1] Schott, J., Pokrovsky, O. S., and Oelkers, E. H., 2009. The Link Between Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation Kinetics and Solution Chemistry. Rev Mineral Geochem 70, 207-258. [2] Daval, D., Hellmann, R., Saldi, G. D., Wirth, R., and Knauss, K. G., 2013. Linking nm-scale measurements of the anisotropy of silicate surface reactivity to macroscopic dissolution rate laws: New insights based on diopside. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 107, 121-134.

  3. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  4. The influence of Cl, F and Mg ions on the experimental replacement of Carrara marble by apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade Pedrosa, Elisabete; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    : whether the reaction front is more effective through the grain boundaries towards the centre of the grains, or through the developing porous structures towards the centre of the rock. Moreover, the micro-porosity of the replaced product also shows significant dependence on the solution composition, varying from being very heterogeneous as reported by Jonas et al., (2013), to a more uniform micro-porosity distribution as observed in this study. References: Jonas, L., John, T., King, H. E., Geisler, T., & Putnis, A. (2014). The role of grain boundaries and transient porosity in rocks as fluid pathways for reaction front propagation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 386, 64-74. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.10.050 Putnis A. (2009) Mineral Replacement Reactions. In: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Water-Rock Interaction. Oelkers E. H & Schott J (eds). Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry 30, 87-124 (2009)

  5. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Erick

    characterization technique is comprised of three main components: experimental measurements, fitting of configurational length change, and description of glass behavior by analysis of fitting parameters. N-BK7 optical glass from Schott was used as the proof of concept glass but the main scientific interest was in three chalcogenide glasses: As40Se 60, As20Se80, and Ge17.9As19.7 Se62.4. The dilatometric experiments were carried out using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) on glass sample that were synthesized by the author, in all cases except N-BK7. Isothermal structural relaxation measurements were done on (12 mm tall x 3 mm x 3 mm) beams placed vertically in the TMA. The samples were equilibrated at a starting temperature (T 0) until structural equilibrium was reached then a temperature down step was initiated to the final temperature (T 1) and held isothermally until relaxation concluded. The configurational aspect of length relaxation, and therefore volume relaxation was extracted and fit with a Prony series. The Prony series parameters indicated a number of relaxation events occurring within the glass on timescales typically an order of magnitude apart in time. The data analysis showed as many as 4 discrete relaxation times at lower temperatures. The number of discrete relaxation decreased as the temperature increased until just one single relaxation was left in the temperature range just at or above Tg. In the case of N-BK7 these trends were utilized to construct a simple model that could be applied to glass manufacturing in the areas of annealing or PGM. A future development of a rather simple finite element model (FEM) would easily be able to use this model to predict the exponential-like, temperature and time dependent relaxation behaviors of the glass. The predictive model was not extended to the chalcogenide glass studied here, but could easily be applied to them in the future. The relaxation time trends versus temperature showed a definite region of transition between a

  6. A Novel Method For Predicting Carbon Monoxide Apparent Quantum Yield Spectra in Coastal Water Using Remote Sensing Reflectance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, H. E.; Miller, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    irradiating samples in a Suntest Solar Simulator, under duplicate Schott glass long-pass cutoff filters. CO photoproduction was determined using an SRI Gas Chromatograph fitted with a reduced gas detector. The mathematical equation for CO spectral AQY was determined by fitting the production data to the equation AQY(λ) = exp(-(m1 +m2(λ-m3))) using the MATLAB routine nlinfit. AQY(350) ranged from 8.2E-5 to 2.5E-4 mol CO/mol photon absorbed. It was determined that the absorption coefficient of the CDOM at 320nm (ag320) in the original sample (prior to irradiation) accurately predicted the 3 coefficients in the AQY equation and the accuracy of this relationship is presented. The SeaUV algorithm for determining in situ attenuation and CDOM absorption coefficients at 320nm (Fichot and Miller 2008) was modified for application to AISA hyperspectral remote sensing data obtained from flyovers of the Duplin River and Doboy Sound (Georgia, USA) in the summer of 2006. Photoproduction estimates of CO photoproduction from optical data are determined for this area using our new methods to estimate AQY variability in dark waters.

  7. Assembly of NASA's Most Powerful X-Ray Telescope Completed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    holes, many of which are invisible to us now. We may even see the processes that create the elements found here on Earth." Assembly of the observatory began in 1997 with the arrival of the high resolution mirror assembly at TRW Space and Electronics Group. In August 1997, the telescope's optical bench was mated with the mirrors, followed by integration of the telescope with the spacecraft in October. In February 1998, the observatory's science instrument module was mated to the top of the telescope. The complete observatory is 45 feet long, has a solar array wing span 64 feet wide, and weighs more than 5 tons. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., Danbury, Conn. The mirrors were coated by Optical Coating Laboratory Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif.; and assembled by Eastman-Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. The observatory's charged coupled device imaging spectrometer was developed by Pennsylvania State University at University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), at Cambridge. One diffraction grating was developed by MIT, the other by the Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany. The high resolution camera instrument was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation of Boulder, Colo., developed the science instrument module. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., will operate the observatory for NASA. NOTE TO EDITORS: A photo of the integrated telescope is available via the World Wide Web at URL: http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/images.html Prepared by John Bryk

  8. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  9. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Erick

    characterization technique is comprised of three main components: experimental measurements, fitting of configurational length change, and description of glass behavior by analysis of fitting parameters. N-BK7 optical glass from Schott was used as the proof of concept glass but the main scientific interest was in three chalcogenide glasses: As40Se 60, As20Se80, and Ge17.9As19.7 Se62.4. The dilatometric experiments were carried out using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) on glass sample that were synthesized by the author, in all cases except N-BK7. Isothermal structural relaxation measurements were done on (12 mm tall x 3 mm x 3 mm) beams placed vertically in the TMA. The samples were equilibrated at a starting temperature (T 0) until structural equilibrium was reached then a temperature down step was initiated to the final temperature (T 1) and held isothermally until relaxation concluded. The configurational aspect of length relaxation, and therefore volume relaxation was extracted and fit with a Prony series. The Prony series parameters indicated a number of relaxation events occurring within the glass on timescales typically an order of magnitude apart in time. The data analysis showed as many as 4 discrete relaxation times at lower temperatures. The number of discrete relaxation decreased as the temperature increased until just one single relaxation was left in the temperature range just at or above Tg. In the case of N-BK7 these trends were utilized to construct a simple model that could be applied to glass manufacturing in the areas of annealing or PGM. A future development of a rather simple finite element model (FEM) would easily be able to use this model to predict the exponential-like, temperature and time dependent relaxation behaviors of the glass. The predictive model was not extended to the chalcogenide glass studied here, but could easily be applied to them in the future. The relaxation time trends versus temperature showed a definite region of transition between a

  10. Hohenpeissenberg temperatures are too high between 1781 and 1850

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P.

    2009-04-01

    A detailed study of historical sources with relevance to the early instrumental observations at Hohenpeissenberg resulted in the Having been in use at Hohenpeissenberg from 1781 to 1841, the Palatina thermometer was found to suffer from a positive bias of 0.5°R (or 0.63°C) as discovered by Lamont following a re-calibration made in 1842. Although this fault had become known, no correction was ap-plied to the Hohenpeissenberg temperature series until now. The main reason was due to the composition of the glass used during the early instrumental period. Glass of this period shows a long-term rise of the freezing-point position that newer types of glass do not suffer from. These early glasses showed a thermal after effect extending over several years which mani-fested in a shrinking of the thermometer bulb with the consequence that the freezing-point rose. While originally this effect was interpreted to be a consequence of the external air pres-sure compressing the evacuated thermometer, it took many decades to find out that the mix-ture of certain glass ingredients were responsible and around 1886 Schott succeeded in find-ing a glass most suitable for manufacturing thermometers which were nearly free from ther-mal after effects. Hemmer calibrated his thermometers at an air pressure of 27 Paris inches instead of 28 inches (sea level pressure). This bias, however, seems to be small (<0.1°R) in comparison to other disturbances. In rare cases, the graduation at the lowest end of the scale of the Palatina-thermometer was insufficient to exactly observe the temperature. Since only 22 such occasions occurred, the overall trend will not be influenced by these missing data. Other stations of the Societas Meteorologica Palatina, which were also supplied with ther-mometers from Hemmers manufacturer Artari can be expected to suffer from a similar bias of the gradually rising zero-point and this bias may partly be responsible for the discrepancy between instrumental and proxy

  11. Boric acid adsorption on humic acids: Ab initio calculation of structures, stabilities, 11B NMR and 11B, 10B isotopic fractionations of surface complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    Boric acid, B(OH) 3, forms complexes in aqueous solution with a number of bidentate O-containing ligands, HL -, where H 2L is C 2O 4H 2 (oxalic acid), C 3O 4H 4 (malonic acid), C 2H 6O 2 (ethylene glycol), C 6H 6O 2 (catechol), C 10H 8O 2 (dioxynaphthalene) and C 2O 3H 4 (glycolic acid). McElligott and Byrne [McElligott, S., Byrne, R.H., 1998. Interaction of B(OH)30 and HCO3- in seawater: Formation of B(OH)CO3-. Aquat. Geochem.3, 345-356.] have also found B(OH) 3 to form an aqueous complex with HCO3-1. Recently Lemarchand et al. [Lemarchand, E., Schott, J., Gaillardeet, J., 2005. Boron isotopic fractionation related to boron sorption on humic acid and the structure of surface complexes formed. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta69, 3519-3533] have studied the formation of surface complexes of B(OH) 3 on humic acid, determining 11B NMR shifts and fitted values of formation constants, and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations for a number of surface complexation models. Their work helps to clarify both the nature of the interaction of boric acid with the functional groups in humic acid and the nature of some of these coordinating sites on the humic acid. The determination of isotope fractionations may be seen as a form of vibrational spectroscopy, using the fractionating element as a local probe of the vibrational spectrum. We have calculated quantum mechanically the structures, stabilities, vibrational spectra, 11B NMR spectra and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations of a number of complexes B(OH) 2L - formed by reactions of the type: B(OH)3+HL-⇒B(OH)2L+HO using a 6-311G(d,p) basis set and the B3LYP method for determination of structures, vibrational frequencies and isotopic fractionations, the highly accurate Complete Basis Set-QB3 method for calculating the free energies and the GIAO HF method with a 6-311+G(2d,p) basis for the NMR shieldings. The calculations indicate that oxalic acid, malonic acid, catechol and glycolic acid all form stable complexes (Δ G < 0 for Reaction (1

  12. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    the Operations Control Center after launch. "As is usually the case, we identified a few issues to be resolved before launch," said Wojtalik. "Overall, however, the observatory performed exceptionally well." The observatory test team discovered a mechanical problem with one of the primary science instruments, the Imaging Spectrometer. A door protecting the instrument did not function when commanded by test controllers. "We do these tests to check and double check every aspect of satellite operation that could affect the ultimate success of the science mission," said Craig Staresinich, TRW Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program manager. "Discovering a problem now is a success. Discovering a problem later, after launch, would be a failure." A team of NASA and contractor engineers are studying the mechanical problem and developing a plan to correct it. The instrument will be sent back to its builder, Lockheed-Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colo., where it will be repaired while the rest of the observatory continues other testing. This should still allow an on-time delivery of the observatory to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Fla., in August, where it will be readied for launch in January. With a resolving power 10 times greater than previous X-ray telescopes, the new X-ray observatory will provide scientists with views of previously invisible X-ray sources, including black holes, exploding stars and interstellar gasses. The third of NASA's Great Observatories, it will join the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. TRW Space & Electronics Group is assembling the observatory and doing verification testing. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany

  13. Astronomical Honeymoon Continues as X-Ray Observatory Marks First Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    of the X-ray background, a glow throughout the universe whose source or sources are unknown. Astronomers are now pinpointing the various sources of the X-ray glow because Chandra has resolution eight times better than that of previous X-ray telescopes, and is able to detect sources more than 20 times fainter. "The Chandra team had to develop technologies and processes never tried before," said Tony Lavoie, Chandra program manager at Marshall. "One example is that we built and validated a measurement system to make sure the huge cylindrical mirrors of the telescope were ground correctly and polished to the right shape." The polishing effort resulted in an ultra-smooth surface for all eight of Chandra's mirrors. If the state of Colorado were as smooth as the surface of Chandra's mirrors, Pike's Peak would be less than an inch tall. "Chandra has experienced a great first year of discovery and we look forward to many more tantalizing science results as the mission continues," said Alan Bunner, program director, Structure and Evolution of the universe, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Marshall manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters. TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., Danbury, CT, coated by Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA, and assembled and inserted into the telescope portion of Chandra by Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY. The scientific instruments were supplied by collaborations led by Pennsylvania State University, University Park; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; and the Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and operations from Cambridge, working with astronomers around the globe to record the activities

  14. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Danbury, CT. The mirrors were coated by Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA; and assembled by Eastman-Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. The AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument was developed by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA. One of the two gratings was developed by MIT. The other was developed by the Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht, Netherlands, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany. The High Resolution Camera instrument was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Note to editors: Digital images to accompany this release are available via the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/images.html A photograph is available from the NASA Headquarters Audio Imaging Branch to news media to illustrate this story. The Photograph number is 97-HC-138. Photographs also are available from the Marshall Public Affairs office at 205/544-0034.

  15. Hydrothermal mobilization of pegmatite-hosted REE and Zr at Strange Lake, Canada: A reaction path model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2013-12-01

    , particularly at high temperature (400 °C). The LREE are more mobile than the HREE in saline HCl-bearing fluids due to the greater stability of LREE-chloride complexes. The simulated mineralogy is consistent with the zonation observed in the pegmatites and with fluid-rock interaction at conditions that were rock-buffered in the pegmatite borders (low fluid/rock ratio; and pH > 4) and fluid-buffered in the cores (high fluid/rock ratio; pH ⩽ 2). We propose a model in which saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids created pathways during acidic alteration from the pegmatite cores outward. This led to the mobilization of REE and Zr due to progressive alteration of primary silicate minerals and increased acidity upon cooling. The key requirement for REE and Zr mobilization in peralkaline igneous intrusions is the formation of an acidic subsystem with high fluid/rock ratios that increases the overall permeability of the rocks. In these zones, the extent of late stage hydrothermal redistribution and concentration of REE and Zr depends on the buffering capacity of the rocks and the availability of fluids that may produce autometasomatic rock alteration, interact with external rock units and/or mix with fluids from other sources. b The detection limits of Yb were 1043 ppm for zircon, 380 ppm for gadolinite-group minerals and 380 ppm for REE-F-(CO2)-minerals. bAja et al. (1995). cMigdisov et al. (2011). dTagirov et al. (1997). eTagirov and Schott (2001). fMigdisov et al. (2009) with REE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). b Calculated using the methods of the Chermak and Rimstidt (1989), Berman and Brown (1985) and Holland (1989) with molar volume of arfvedsonite from Hawthorne (1976). cZotov et al. (1998). d GEM-Selektor v.3 database (http://gems.web.psi.ch). eMigdisov et al. (2009).

  16. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  17. Full Speed Ahead for Eso's Very Large Telescope First Enclosure on its way to PARANAL!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    During the past months, vast progress has been made in the construction of ESO's 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT). This major scientific and technological project aims at installing the world's largest optical telescope in the form of four interconnected telescopes with 8.2-metre mirrors on the Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama desert. It continues to be on schedule as it heads towards its completion, just after the year 2000. An important milestone will be reached in early October 1994 when the first large shipment containing heavy steel parts of the enclosure for VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 leaves the Italian port of Genova [1]. Meanwhile the construction work on the Paranal site is also progressing very well. It is now expected that, as planned, the first enclosure will be ready in May 1995 to receive the first 8.2-metre telescope. This Press Release is accompanied by four colour pictures that illustrate some of the most recent developments. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS IN EUROPE Considerable progress has been made by ESO's industrial partners in Europe, and the VLT Project has now entered into a new and dynamic phase of construction. The first 8.2-metre mirror is currently in the middle of a two-year polishing process at the REOSC company near Paris, and the first interferometric tests have shown that this very delicate operation is progressing well. The enormous mirror surface, with a total area of more than 50 m^2, is slowly but steadily approaching the desired shape which must be achieved within a few hundred-thousandths of one millimetre over the entire surface. Mirror blank no. 2 is now ready at the Schott factory in Mainz (Germany) and will be delivered by barge transport to REOSC in October 1994. Blank no. 3 has successfully completed the critical ceramization phase and blank no. 4 will soon receive the same treatment. The circular steel track, 18 metres in diameter, that will support Telescope no. 1 has now been successfully machined at the

  18. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  19. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    (UT4). Mirrors and Instruments As earlier announced, ESO officially received the first 8.2-metre VLT mirror from REOSC in Paris [3] on November 21. The polishing of the second mirror has already started and, based on the experience gained with the first, it is expected that this work will be accomplished in less time. The third blank is already at REOSC and the fourth will soon be ready at Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). Following extended studies, and as yet another move towards new technology within the VLT project, it has now been decided to make the 1.2-metre secondary VLT mirrors of beryllium, a very light, exotic metal. The contracting firm is Dornier of the DASA group (Germany). This saves much weight and allows these relatively large mirrors to be efficiently used in the `chopping and tilting' mode needed for observations in the infrared wavelength region as well as for the critical, image-sharpening adaptive optics system. Significant progress has also been achieved on the first astronomical instruments which will be installed at the VLT. The integration of the first two of these, ISAAC and CONICA which will be installed on UT1 in the course of 1997, has already started in the ESO laboratories at the Headquarters in Garching. Important advances have also taken place within the FORS (managed by a consortium of Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Universitaets-Sternwarte Goettingen and Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik der Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen) and FUEGOS (Paris Observatory, Meudon Observatory, Toulouse Observatory, Geneva Observatory and Bologna Observatory) projects. More details about these and other VLT instruments will be given in later communications. Notes: [1] The Council of ESO consists of two representatives from each of the eight member states. It is the highest legislative authority of the organisation and normally meets twice a year. This time, Council was invited to Milan by the Director of the Osservatorio di Brera (Milan