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Sample records for acoustic borehole televiewer

  1. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  2. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Use of an acoustic borehole televiewer to investigate casing corrosion in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.; Bauman, T.

    1986-03-01

    Corrosion of well and surface equipment due to the presence of hot, corrosive brines is one of the major problems facing geothermal operators. For wellbore casing, this problem is complicated by the fact that in-place inspection is difficult at best. In an attempt to improve this situation, a prototype acoustic borehole televiewer designed to operate in geothermal wells was used to study the corrosion damage to casing in three commercial wells. The results of this experiment were promising. The televiewer returns helped to define areas of major corrosion damage and to indicate the extent of the damage. This paper briefly discusses the corrosion problem, describes the acoustic borehole televiewer, and then summarizes the results of the field test of the televiewer's capability for investigating corrosion.

  4. Acoustic televiewer log images of natural fractures and bedding planes in the Toa Baja Borehole, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Goldberg, David

    Although borehole conditions made acoustic televiewer logging difficult in the Toa Baja borehole, more than 180 meters of continuous, acceptable quality televiewer logs were obtained in the intervals from 730 to 880 meters and from 2,515 to 2,675 meters in depth, indicating the presence of fractures that appear to be open in situ. Most of the largest, possibly open fractures in these intervals are either nearly parallel to directions given by the dipmeter log and may represent solution openings or minor washouts along bedding planes, or dip steeply to the south or southwest across bedding. The televiewer log confirms the presence of an apparently open set of fractures near 867 meters in depth, where circulation was lost during drilling, and in the interval from 2,600 to 2,650 meters in depth, where the temperature log indicates anomalous heat flow in the surrounding formation.

  5. Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

  6. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  7. Acoustic-televiewer and acoustic-waveform logs used to characterize deeply buried basalt flows, Hanford site, Benton County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic-waveform and acoustic-televiewer logs were obtained for a 400-meter interval of deeply buried basalt flows in three boreholes, and over shorter intervals in two additional boreholes located on the U.S. Department of Energy 's Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. Borehole-wall breakouts were observed in the unaltered interiors of a large part of individual basalt flows; however, several of the flows in one of the five boreholes had almost no breakouts. The distribution of breakouts observed on the televiewer logs correlated closely with the incidence of core disking in some intervals, but the correlation was not always perfect, perhaps because of the differences in the specific fracture mechanisms involved. Borehole-wall breakouts were consistently located on the east and west sides of the boreholes. The orientation is consistent with previous estimates of the principal horizontal-stress field in south-central Washington, if breakouts are assumed to form along the azimuth of the least principal stress. The distribution of breakouts repeatedly indicated an interval of breakout-free rock at the top and bottom of flows. Because breakouts frequently terminate at major low-angle fractures, the data indicate that fracturing may have relieved some of the horizontal stresses near flow tops and bottoms. Unaltered and unfractured basalt appeared to have a uniform compressional velocity of 6.0 + or - 0.1 km/sec and a uniform shear velocity of 3.35 + or - 0.1 km/sec throughout flow interiors. Acoustics-waveform logs also indicated that borehole-wall breakouts did not affect acoustic propagation along the borehole; so fracturing associated with the formation of breakouts appeared to be confined to a thin annulus of stress concentration around the borehole. Televiewer logs obtained before and after hydraulic fracturing in these boreholes indicated the extent of induced fractures, and also indicated minor changes to pre-existing fractures that may have been inflated

  8. Analysis of the borehole televiewer log from DSDP hole 395A: Results from the Dianaut Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Roger H.; Moos, Daniel; Hess, Alfred E.

    1992-03-01

    The French wireline re-entry expedition known as DIANAUT culminated in the successful completion of a series of downhole measurements in three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes in the north-central Atlantic Ocean. Among these measurements was a borehole televiewer (BHTV) log obtained in Hole 395A from bottom of casing at 112 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to a depth of 605 mbsf. In contrast with a BHTV survey previously conducted in this well during DSDP Leg 78B in 1981, televiewer data were not degraded by random cable oscillations due to ship heave and the quality of this log is excellent. These latest data were digitized and processed in terms of acoustic travel time and amplitude to compute hole size and shape, evaluate the structural integrity of the surrounding rock, and characterize intersecting fractures. The acoustic caliper and reflectivity logs correlate well with the lithologic column, particularly at the boundaries between major units which often are marked by breccias. Fractures in the lower part of the hole appear to be effectively sealed, in contrast with the open fractures identified in the upper sections. This supports a systematic pattern derived from complementary geophysical logs of increasing density, electrical resistivity, and elastic-wave velocity, and decreasing in situ permeability as a function of depth. Fractures intersecting the well exhibit a wide range of orientations marked by some clustering of dip azimuths approximately east-west. The presence of moderately dipping fractures striking subparallel to the ridge axis is consistent with both ridge-parallel topographic elongations observed in this area and with azimuthal seismic anisotropy reported elsewhere, suggesting that fractures such as those identified from the BHTV record contribute to these effects.

  9. Analysis of borehole televiewer measurements in the Vorotilov drillhole, Russia - First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, K.; Fuchs, K.; Palmer, J.; Roth, F.; Khakhaev, B.N.; Van-Kin, L. E.; Pevzner, L.A.; Hickman, S.; Moos, D.; Zoback, M.D.; Schmitt, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the Eurasian part of the World Stress Map almost the whole region east of the Tornquist-Teisseyre line is terra incognita. The closure of this information gap is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the geodynamics of the Eurasian continent. A detailed analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts has been performed over a 4.1-km-long depth interval in the Vorotilov drillhole (VGS). The borehole is located in the central part of the Russian platform, right in the center of the Vorotilov meteorite impact crater 60 km to the NNE of the city of Nizni Novgorod. An ultrasonic borehole televiewer (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. With an interactive system for analyzing BHTV data the azimuth and shape of borehole breakouts occurring in the depth range of 1.3-4.8 km were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the resulting orientation profile of the breakout azimuths yields an overall direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress SH of N 137??E ?? 15??. Variations of breakout orientation with depth ranging from a few degrees up to more than 90?? are seen on various depth scales. The observed stress direction of N 137??E agrees very well with the average SH orientation of N 145??E in Central Europe. If this measurement is taken as representative for the Russian platform, the stress field in Russia is only slightly rotated in comparison to Central Europe. This can possibly be interpreted as indicative for the stress field to be governed by broad scale tectonic forces, such as a strong contribution from the forces exerted by the collision zone in the Alpine-Himalayan belt and by the Mid-Atlantic ridge.

  10. Ultrasonic borehole televiewer investigation of oceanic crustal layer 2A, Costa Rice Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.D.; Anderson, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In situ lithostratigraphy and the distribution of fracture and void zones in oceanic layer 2A were examined with an ultrasonic borehole televiewer at IPOD sites 501 and 504B on the south flank of the Costa Rice Rift. These records indicate a decrease in the size of basalt pillows with depth and a corresponding increase in fracture and void density. The observed increase in P-wave velocity with depth in this hole, as layer 2A merges into 2B, is best explained by an increase in the degree to which clays and zeolites fill fractures and voids. This also explains the order-of-magnitude drop in permeability observed in hole 504B. An increase in alteration-filling with age could explain the transition from convective to conductive heat flow and the correlative disappearance of layer 2A on the flanks of oceanic spreading centres. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Stress-induced borehole elongation: A comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the borehole televiewer in the Auburn geothermal well

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.A.; Hickman, S.H.

    1985-06-10

    The nature and origin of borehole elongation recorded by the four-arm dipmeter calipers is studied utilizing information obtained from hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and borehole televiewer data taken in a well located in Auburn, New York. A preferred orientation N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E, +- 10/sup 0/ and a less prominant E-W orientation of borehole elongation, was observed on two runs of the dipmeter. Comparisons of borehole geometry determined using the televiewer and the dipmeter show that both tools give the same orientation of borehole elongation provided that the zone of elongation is longer than 30 cm. Comparisons of dipmeter caliper data with orientation of in situ stress and natural fractures, obtained from hydrofracturing tests and televiewer data show that the N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E borehole elongations (1) are axisymmetric, (2) are aligned with the minimum horizontal stress S/sub h/, and (3) are not associated with natural fractures intersecting the well. These elongations are interpreted as stress-induced well bore breakouts. The E-W elongation direction is characterized by an asymmetric borehole cross section in thinly bedded rocks and is not caused by breakouts. This asymmetric geometry can be discriminated from breakouts using the oriented electric measurements provided by the dipmeter. This study demonstrates that the dipmeter can be used to determine the orientation of S/sub h/ (by mapping breakouts), confirming the results of earlier less detailed studies, and provides a firm basis for mapping regional stress patterns using existing dipmeter data.

  12. Analysis of fractures from borehole televiewer logs in a 500m deep hole at Xiaguan, Yunnan province, Southwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhai, Qingshan; Springer, J.E.; Zoback, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fractures from a 500 m deep hole in the Red River fault zone were analyzed using an ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Four hundred and eighty individual fractures were identified between 19 m and 465 m depth. Fracture frequency had no apparent relation to the major stratigraphic units and did not change systematically with depth. Fracture orientation, however, did change with stratigraphic position. The borehole intersected 14 m of Cenozoic deposits, 363 m of lower Ordovician clastic sediments, and 106 m of older ultramafic intrusions. The clastic sequence was encountered again at a depth of 484 m, suggesting a large fault displacement. Fractures in the top 162 m of the sedimentary section appear randomly distributed. Below that depth, they are steeply dipping with northerly and north-westerly strikes, parallel to the major active faults in the region. Fractures in the ultramafic section strike roughly eastwest and are steeply dipping. These orientations are confined to the ultramafic section and are parallel to an older, inactive regional fault set. ?? 1990.

  13. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual texture for automated characterisation of geological features in borehole televiewer imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sit, Waleed; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Marelli, Matteo; Al-Ataby, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterisation of the structure of subsurface fractures is greatly facilitated by digital borehole logging instruments, the interpretation of which is typically time-consuming and labour-intensive. Despite recent advances towards autonomy and automation, the final interpretation remains heavily dependent on the skill, experience, alertness and consistency of a human operator. Existing computational tools fail to detect layers between rocks that do not exhibit distinct fracture boundaries, and often struggle characterising cross-cutting layers and partial fractures. This paper presents a novel approach to the characterisation of planar rock discontinuities from digital images of borehole logs. Multi-resolution texture segmentation and pattern recognition techniques utilising Gabor filters are combined with an iterative adaptation of the Hough transform to enable non-distinct, partial, distorted and steep fractures and layers to be accurately identified and characterised in a fully automated fashion. This approach has successfully detected fractures and layers with high detection accuracy and at a relatively low computational cost.

  15. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  16. True location and orientation of fractures logged with the acoustic televiewer (including programs to correct fracture orientation)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kierstein, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The attitude of fractures measured on acoustic-televiewer logs may be misorientated by as much as 180 degrees in a drill hole that is deviated significantly from vertical, because of the effect of the vertical component of the magnetic field on the tilted magnetometer that is used to orient the log. A method has been developed to correct for the misorientation by analyzing the orientation of the magnetometer with respect to the magnetic-field vector acting at the magnetometer 's center. Computer programs were written to correct the attitude of fractures for both magnetic effects and hole deviation. For the reorientation of a single fracture, a stereographic solution is illustrated. Test results suggest that the fracture orientation can be corrected to plus or minus five degrees of true orientation, provided there are no other magnetic effects, such as magnetite in the rocks. (USGS)

  17. EFFECTS OF LITHOLOGY ON TELEVIEWER-LOG QUALITY AND FRACTURE INTERPRETATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Keys, W.S.; Hess, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Representative televiewer logs illustrating natural fractures in such common rock types as granite, gabbro, basalt, schist, sandstone, limestone and shale are presented in addition to photographs of the same fractures in core samples. These examples demonstrate the many difficulties in recognizing fractures on televiewer logs compared to fractures in logs because of the vertical scale distortion on televiewer logs and from drilling damage to the fractures at the borehole wall. All of these results demonstrate that significant fracture widening usually occurs during drilling, explaining why fractures described by the core logger as closed can be consistently detected on televiewer logs.

  18. Horizontal stress anisotropy determined from acoustic full waveforms in borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2003-04-01

    Drilling inside competent formations, such as crystalline rocks, hard carbonated rocks or sandstones, involves stable stress modifications around the hole. For vertical boreholes, these modifications depend essentially on the horizontal state of stress, particularly on its anisotropy. They may significantly spread up to more than 0.5 meter from the hole. As the usual frequencies of the borehole acoustic waveforms are about 20 KHz, these modified stress areas should be taken into account in order to interpret the records of the body waves, because their corresponding wavelengths range between 0.25 m for P waves and 0.175 m for S waves. The observation of the borehole acoustic body waves which propagate inside gneisses and metabasites (KTB borehole in Bavaria), granites (boreholes of Soultz-sous-forest in Alsace, and those in Vendée), and compact sandstones and dolomites (Balazuc1 borehole in the South of France), allows us to determine two or sometimes three successive arrivals of P and S waves, although the formations are homogeneous and there is no reflector, such as a fracture. The hypothesis that the double P and S waves may be the result of the reflection of the body waves inside the stress modified areas is consistent with the calculated sizes of the paths of the supposed reflected waves. The theory of borehole rock mechanics does not predict sharp changes in the sizes of these areas as overburdened pressure increases ; but the values of the supposed sizes of the modified areas are, as a function of depth, scattered above and steady below the depth where the overburdened pressure appears equal to the maximum horizontal stress. The squeezing of micro-cracks by pressure is assumed to homogenise formation rheology, and therefore, only the steady values may be considered as representative. Matching the calculated steady values with the possible models of stress deformation can be managed from the horizontal stress anisotropy values, but the solutions are not

  19. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in deep Columbia River Basalts ( Washington State, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, K.

    1987-01-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in S central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic- fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. -from Authors

  20. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  1. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  2. Method and apparatus for multipole acoustic wave borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Winbow, G.A.; Baker, L.J.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described for determining the radial thickness of an invaded zone of an earth formation surrounding a borehole where a virgin earth formation surrounds the borehole and is separated from the borehole by the invaded zone. The method comprises: (a) transmitting a 2/sup n/-pole P-wave from a point in the borehole into the earth formation surrounding the borehole, n being an integer greater than zero; (b) measuring the P-wave velocity of a zone of the earth formation located at a first radial distance from the borehole by detecting the arrival of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave at a first location and at a second location in the borehole spaced longitudinally along the borehole from the point of transmission and from each other. The second location is spaced farther from the point of transmission than is the first location, the time arrival between the detections of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave arrival is measured at the first location and the second location; and (c) repeating the steps (a) and (b) with successively increased longitudinal spacings between the point of transmission and the first location and between the point of transmission and the second location to measure the P-wave velocities of zones of the earth formation located successively radially farther away from the borehole.

  3. Acoustic-electromagnetic effects of tectonic movements of the crust - borehole survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. N.; Malkin, E. I.; Druzhin, G. I.; Sannikov, D. V.; Pukhov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Borehole radiophysical properties are briefly described. Borehole investigation of lithosphere acoustic-electromagnetic radiation was carried out in a seismically active region. Four main types of anomalies of acoustic-electromagnetic radiation were distinguished. They correspond to shear and bulk relaxations of tectonic stress. Stability of phase relations of acoustic and electromagnetic signals in the region of anomalies was detected that allows us to state their coherence. It was concluded that the reason of mutual coherence of acoustic and electromagnetic signals is the magnetoelastic effect of the casing pipe. A mechanism of generation of rock self-induced vibrations during tectonic stress relaxation causing acoustic-electromagnetic emission was suggested. It was concluded that "sigmoid" anomalies may correlate with excitation of eigen vibrations in a fracture cavity during brittle shear relaxation of rock tectonic stress. An explanation of the change of anomalous "sigmoid" signal frequency was given. It is considered to be the result of growth of rock fracture cavity and the decrease of tectonic stress relaxation. It was concluded that a borehole, cased in a steel pipe, together with a system of inductance coils and a hydrophone is the effective sounding sensor for acoustic fields of interior deep layers. It may be applied to investigate and to monitor the geodynamic activity, in particular, in earthquake forecasts and in monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits during their production.

  4. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.

  5. Anisotropy-induced coupling in borehole acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Andrew N.; Sinha, Bikash K.

    1996-07-01

    The guided wave modes of a circular borehole in a weakly anisotropic formation are composed of linear superpositions of the associated modes for an isotropic formation. At moderate frequencies the major modes of concern are the quasi-Stoneley and quasi-flexural modes. These guided modes in anisotropic formations can be estimated from a perturbation analysis in terms of the unperturbed solutions for an isotropic formation. When the formation anisotropy is of monoclinic or lower symmetry, the normal and shear stresses become functions of both normal and shear strains through some additional anisotropic constants that are not present in materials with orthorhombic or higher symmetry. These additional elastic constants cause a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Under these circumstances, an on-axis monopole or dipole source excites both modes. Coupling coefficients account for the excitation of quasi-flexural motion by a monopole source, and of the quasi-Stoneley mode by a dipole. A transversely isotropic (TI) formation with its symmetry axis obliquely inclined with the borehole exhibits monoclinic symmetry in its rotated constants referred to the borehole axis. The monoclinic symmetry of the surrounding formation in such cases causes a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Computational results show that a borehole inclined at an angle of 60° from the symmetry axis of Austin chalk, a slow TI medium, exhibits coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural mode acceleration amplitudes of the order of 20 dB or less in the frequency range of interest. A similar obliquely inclined borehole in Bakken shale, a fast TI formation, exhibits a far weaker coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural modes. The stronger coupling in the case of Austin chalk is a result of relatively large anisotropic constants together with close proximity of the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions. On the other hand, weaker coupling in

  6. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Johnson Paul A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Guyer, Robert; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  7. Determination of formation properties in cased boreholes using full waveform acoustic logs

    SciTech Connect

    Tubman, K.M.; Cheng, C.H.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    Wave propagation in bonded and unbonded cased boreholes is examined through the calculation of synthetic full waveform acoustic logs. The models consist of a central fluid borehole surrounded by a number of fluid and solid annuli. Waveforms calculated for a variety of formation and cement parameters demonstrate that the first arrivals observed on full waveform acoustic logs in well bonded cased holes are those of the formation and not the casing. Waves refracted along the casing are generally too small to be observed. The presence of the steel and cement can make the determination of formation velocities more difficult than in an open hole. The formation body wave arrivals are decreased substantially if the cement velocities are near or greater than the formation velocities.

  8. APPLICATIONS OF BOREHOLE-ACOUSTIC METHODS IN ROCK MECHANICS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic-logging methods using a considerable range of wavelengths and frequencies have proven very useful in the in situ characterization of deeply buried crystalline rocks. Seismic velocities are useful in investigating the moduli of unfractured rock, and in producing a continuous record of rock quality for comparison with discontinuous intervals of core. The considerable range of frequencies makes the investigation of scale effects possible in both fractured and unfractured rock. Several specific methods for the characterization of in situ permeability have been developed and verified in the field.

  9. Geophysical data from boreholes DM1, DM2, DM3, and DM3a, New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C S

    1987-03-01

    A comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained from four deep monitoring boreholes at the New Hydrofracture Facility. The logging was an attempt to obtain stratigraphic, structural, and hydrologic information on the subsurface environment surrounding the hydrofracture facility. Logs obtained include caliper, gamma, neutron, density, single-point resistance, long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous potential, temperature, acoustic velocity, variable density, and borehole televiewer. Analysis and interpretation of the geophysical logs allowed the stratigraphic section at the facility to be determined and, by comparison with calibrated geophysical logs from borehole ORNL-Joy No. 2, allowed detailed inferences to be drawn about rock types and properties at the hydrofracture facility. Porosity values measured from the logs for Conasauga Group strata, as well as permeability values inferred from the logs, are low. Several intervals of apparently greater permeability, associated primarily with limestone-rich portions of the Maryville Limestone and sandstone-rich portions of the Rome Formation, were noted. Numerous fractures were identified by using several logs in combination. No one geophysical log was reliable for fracture identification although the acoustic-televiewer log appeared to have the greatest success. In addition to their characterization of subsurface conditions in the vicinity of the hydrofracture facility, the geophysical logs provided data on the extent of hydraulic fractures. Anomalies on single-point resistance logs that corresponded to prominent fractures identified on televiewer logs indicate intervals affected by hydraulic fractures associated with waste injection at the New Hydrofracture Facility. 14 refs.

  10. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-07-31

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  11. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-09-04

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  12. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2010-11-23

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  13. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  14. The Role of Active Fractures on Borehole Breakout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D.; Kohl, T.; Schoenball, M.; Müller, B.

    2013-12-01

    The properties of georeservoirs are strongly related to the stress field and their interpretation is a major target in geotechnical management. Borehole breakouts are direct indicators of the stress field as they develop due to the concentration of the highest compressional stress toward the minimum horizontal stress direction. However, the interaction with fractures might create local perturbations. Such weakened zones are often observed by localized anomalies of the borehole breakout orientation. We examined high-quality acoustic borehole televiewer (UBI) logs run in the entire granite sections at the deep well GPK4 at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The borehole is moderately inclined (15° - 35°) in its middle section. Detailed analysis of 1221 borehole elongation pairs in the vicinity of 1871 natural fractures observed in GPK4 well is used to infer the role of fractures on the borehole breakouts shape and orientation. Patterns of borehole breakout orientation in the vicinity of active fractures suggest that the wavelength of the borehole breakout orientation anomalies in this granite rock depend on the scale of the fracture while the rotation amplitude and direction is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation. In the upper and middle part of the well even a linear trend between fracture and breakout orientations could be established. In addition to the rotation, breakouts typically are found to be asymmetrically formed in zones of high fracture density. We find that major faults tend to create a systematic rotation of borehole breakout orientation with long spatial wavelength while abrupt changes are often observed around small fractures. The finding suggest that the borehole breakout heterogeneities are not merely governed by the principal stress heterogeneities, but that the effect of mechanical heterogeneities like elastic moduli changes, rock strength anisotropy and fracturing must be taken into account. Thus, one has to be careful to infer the

  15. Applications of a downhole programmable microprocessor for a geothermal borehole inspection tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jermance, R.L.; Moore, T.K.; Archuleta, J.; Hinz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-temperature scanning borehole inspection system is currently being developed jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany. The downhole instrument is a digital televiewer that utilized a microprocessor to digitize, process and transmit the acoustic information to the surface acquisition and control system. The primary operation of the downhole acoustic assembly uses a piezoelectric crystal acting as a receiver-transmitter which is mounted on the rotating head. The crystal emits a burst of acoustic energy that propagates through the borehole fluid with a portion of the energy reflected by the borehole wall back to the crystal. The time of travel and the amplitude of the reflected signal are conditioned by the microprocessor and transmitted along with other pertinent data to the surface data processing center. This instrument has been designed specifically for use in geothermal borehole environments to determine the location of fractures intersecting the borehole and provide information concerning overall borehole conditions. It may also be used for definitive casing inspection. The instrument essentially eliminates operator interaction for downhole control and simplifies assembly and maintenance procedures.

  16. Bibliography of borehole geophysics as applied to ground-water hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ticie A.; Dey, Joyce A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the references on borehole geophysics that are relevant to ground-water hydrology are contained in this bibliography, but it does not include every reference that is available under each subject heading; the literature is much too extensive to compile a complete listing. Some of the references may appear under more than one subject heading because the references commonly relate to more than one main topic. Many articles have been cross-referenced in order to assist the reader in locating an article. For example, the article entitled, 'Application of the acoustic televiewer to the characterization of hydraulic fractures in geothermal wells' is listed under both 'Acoustic televiewer,' and 'Geothermal'. The bibliography is intended to lead the reader to other articles on borehole-geophysical logging and related subjects, because each article cited also will have a list of references, which may be more specialized, covering many subjects with related applications, such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, electronics, acoustics, hydrology, and surface geophysics. However, not all of these related subject headings could be included in this bibliography.

  17. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logging, aquifer-isolation tests, distribution of contaminants, and water-level measurements at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquiferisolation (packer) tests were conducted at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund site in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. Caliper, naturalgamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and digital acoustic-televiewer logs and borehole television surveys were collected in 32 new and previously drilled wells that ranged in depth from 68 to 302 feet. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole- fluid movement, select depths to set packers, and locate appropriate screen intervals for reconstructing new wells as monitoring wells. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in four wells to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of discrete water-bearing zones. Specific capacities of isolated zones during packer testing ranged from 0.12 to 15.30 gallons per minute per foot. Most fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. The acoustic-televiewer logs define two basic fracture sets, bedding-plane partings with a mean strike of N. 62? E. and a mean dip of 27? NW., and high-angle fractures with a mean strike of N. 58? E. and a mean dip of 72? SE. Correlation of heatpulse-flowmeter data and acoustic-televiewer logs showed 83 percent of identified water-bearing fractures were high-angle fractures.

  18. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  19. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  20. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  1. Reflection of no equilibrium two Phase Processes of Filtration in heterogeneous Media in the active seism acoustic borehole monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Dryagin, Veniamin; Igolkina, Galina; Khachay, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    It is provided a comparison of no equilibrium effects by independent hydro dynamical and seism acoustic influence on an oil layer. It is known, that by drainage and steeps the hysteresis effect on curves of the relative phase permeability in dependence from porous medium water saturation by some cycles of influence: drainage-steep-drainage is observed. In earlier papers the analysis of the seism acoustic monitoring data in regimes of phone radiation, response on the first influence of given frequency and on the second influence is developed. For the analysis of seism acoustic response in time on fixed intervals along the borehole an algorithm of phase diagrams of the state of many phase medium is suggested In that paper on the base of developed algorithm a new algorithm of analyze of space, but integral in time for equal observation periods changing by the method of phase diagram state of many phase medium in the oil layer is developed. The paper was supported by the Program of Presidium UB RAS 2012-2014. Key words: Oil and gas deposits, seism acoustic borehole monitoring data, new method of processing, reflection of no equilibrium two phase processes, heterogeneous media.

  2. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, Jr., John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the

  3. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  4. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from

  5. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  6. Acoustic Emission and Velocity Measurements using a Modular Borehole Prototype Tool to Provide Real Time Rock Mass Characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. S.; Pettitt, W. S.; Young, R. P.

    2003-04-01

    Permanent changes to rock mass properties can occur due to the application of excavation or thermal induced stresses. This project involves the design of hardware and software for the long term monitoring of a rock volume, and the real time analysis and interpretation of induced microcracks and their properties. A set of borehole sondes have been designed with each sonde containing up to 6 sensor modules. Each piezoelectric sensor is dual mode allowing it to either transmit an ultrasonic pulse through a rock mass, or receive ultrasonic waveform data. Good coupling of the sensors with the borehole wall is achieved through a motorized clamping mechanism. The borehole sondes are connected to a surface interface box and digital acquisition system and controlled by a laptop computer. The system allows acoustic emission (AE) data to be recorded at all times using programmable trigger logic. The AE data is processed in real time for 3D source location and magnitude, with further analysis such as mechanism type available offline. Additionally the system allows velocity surveys to be automatically performed at pre-defined times. A modelling component of the project, using a 3D dynamic finite difference code, is investigating the effect that different microcrack distributions have on velocity waveform data in terms of time and frequency amplitude. The modelling codes will be validated using data recorded from laboratory tests on rocks with known crack fabrics, and then used in insitu experimental tests. This modelling information will be used to help interpret, in real time, microcrack characteristics such as crack density, size, and fluid content. The technology has applications in a number of branches of geotechnical and civil engineering including radioactive waste storage, mining, dams, bridges, and oil reservoir monitoring.

  7. Report on televiewer log and stress measurements in core hole USW-G1, Nevada Test Site, December 13-22, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.; Zoback, M.D.; Ellis, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The operations and the preliminary results of televiewer logging and stress measurements in USW-G1 on Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, carried out between December 13 and December 22, 1981 are described. We anticipate that additional measurements in this area will be made in the future and a more complete interpretation of these data will be attempted. USW-G1 is a core hole drilled on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain at Nevada coordinates N-770,500, E-561,000. The hole was drilled to evaluate the site as a potential repository for radioactive waste. The work reported here is part of an array of geological, geophysical, and hydrologic studies designed to provide data needed for the evaluation of a potential nuclear waste repository. Information on the state of stress in the rocks is needed for the design and construction of a repository, for the prediction of long-term tectonic stability of the region, and for the evaluation of the hydrologic properties of the site. The stress measurements are made using the hydrofrac method. This method involves isolating a short section of the borehole between two rubber packers and then fracturing the rock in this section with fluid pressure applied through drilling pipe or tubing from the surface. The shape of the pressure-volume time curves can be used to infer the state of stress. An ultrasonic borehole televiewer is used to locate unfractured sections of the borehole suitable for stress measurements. Orientations of the induced fractures are determined from the post-frac televiewer logs or from impression packers that are used when the televiewer records do not show the fractures.

  8. Stress Analysis in Boreholes Drag Bh and Leknes Bh, Nordland, North Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, Maria V. S.; Ask, Daniel; Elvebakk, Harald; Olesen, Odleiv

    2015-07-01

    Nordland in northern Norway is characterized by enhanced seismicity and uplift that makes it the most tectonically active area in Norway. This study is part of a project entitled Neotectonics in Norway—Implications for Petroleum Exploration, which aims at enhancing the understanding of regional-scale stress and strain dynamics in Nordland, and to impact risk and hazard assessment and petroleum exploration. This paper attempts to constrain the orientation of in situ horizontal stress using high-resolution acoustic televiewer logging data. The Geological Survey of Norway has drilled two 0.8 km deep near-vertical boreholes on opposite sides of the Vestfjord in Nordland, the open bight of sea that separates the Lofoten archipelago from the Norwegian mainland. Both boreholes are drilled just North of 68°N, with borehole Leknes Bh located near the geographic center of the Lofoten archipelago, and borehole Drag Bh located on approximate equal distance from the shore, on the Norwegian mainland. The results of this study are in most practical aspects inconclusive, mainly due to poor data quality. The data analysis has revealed erroneously high-borehole diameter, and several artifacts such as eccentric logging tool, rugose borehole wall, spiral hole, tool sticking and missing data. Four intervals with passive in situ stress indicators (borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures) were found in travel time and amplitude images of the Drag Bh, suggesting approximately N-S orientation of maximum horizontal stress. However, these intervals are not found in cross-plots. Either result yields the lowest World Stress Map ranking quality (E).

  9. Multiple-Component Crystal Fabric Measurements from Acoustically-Generated Normal Modes in Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluskiewicz, D. J.; Waddington, E. D.; McCarthy, M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Voigt, D.; Matsuoka, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sound wave velocities in ice are a proxy of crystal orientation fabric. Because p- and s-waves respectively travel faster and slower in the direction of an ice crystal c-axis, the velocities of these waves in a fabric are related to the clustering of ice crystal c-axes in the direction of wave propagation. Previous sonic logs at Dome C, NGRIP, WAIS, and NEEM have inferred a single component fabric description from the velocities of vertically-propagating p-waves around each ice core borehole. These records supplement thin-section measurements of crystal fabric by sampling larger numbers of crystals in a depth-continuous log. Observations of azimuthally anisotropic vertical-girdle fabrics at ice-core sites such as WAIS, NGRIP, and EDML underly a benefit for logging methods that are sensitive to such fabrics. We present a theoretical framework for using borehole flexural modes to measure azimuthal crystal-fabric anisotropy, and describe ongoing efforts to develop a sonic logging tool for this purpose. We also present data from p-wave logs and thin section measurements at the WAIS Divide, and describe how a flexural wave log could supplement the existing measurements.

  10. Contribution of the 3-D visualization of acoustic borehole signals (full waveforms) to a quick formation evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, André; Jeantet, Dominique

    1994-02-01

    Logging and continuous coring are carried out when drilling and looking for materials such as gravels, sand, and clay or in order to evaluate the fracture state of a deep site intended for waste storage. However, in some cases of non-consolidated formations, the results may be disappointing because of the borehole conditions. Full waveforms, as seismic signals, provide information about physical parameters of the grounds crossed by the sonic tool, and this information is almost independent of borehole conditions. Traditional displays in variable area or density show the wave arrival times and the frequencies with depth; for variable density, a color scale permits to see clustered instantaneous phases. In order to determine precisely and simultaneously the three signal parameters (arrival time, frequency, and amplitude) in the depth-propagation time domain, a 3-D visualization software has been developed. The "view" parameters, which give a nice display of the 3-D→2-D projection of the signals in a parallel perspectives relative to depth, are estimated on the monitor screen in an interactive way. A larger size version of the software is available for displaying in detail the acoustic signals for the whole borehole. However, this program needs a large computer, and the maximum size of the drawing depends on the computer memory available for use. The comparison between traditional and 3-D displays shows that without previous preprocessing, the 3-D visualization (1) shows the very small and continuous variations of amplitude (and, therefore, of attenuation) with depth better; and (2) can bring out interferences and "energetic peaks" by simply changing the "view" parameters. As the attenuation of the different waves is directly determined, fresh zones can be distinguished immediately from fracture zones and hard ground from soft ground. The geometry of major fracturing can be deduced directly from graphical representation; i.e. open or closed, and horizontal or

  11. Topical report on subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Phase I. Pulsed radar techniques. Phase II. Conventional logging methods. Phase III. Magnetic borehole ranging

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

    1980-09-01

    To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, an evaluation is made of (i) the use of radar to map far-field fractures, (ii) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, and (iii) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. Improvements in both data interpretation techniques and high temperature operation are required. The surveying of one borehole from another appears feasible at ranges of up to 200 to 500 meters by using a low frequency magnetic field generated by a moderately strong dipole source (a solenoid) located in one borehole, a sensitive B field detector that traverses part of the second borehole, narrow band filtering, and special data inversion techniques.

  12. In Situ Stresses in Borehole Blanche-1/South Australia Derived from Breakouts, Core Discing and Hydraulic Fracturing to 2 km Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, G.; Bunger, A.; Meyer, G.; Rummel, F.; Shen, B.

    2011-09-01

    The development of Hot-Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy in Australia with drillings to some kilometres depth yields an impetus for deep stress logging. For the Olympic Dam HDR-project, borehole Blanche-1 was drilled to almost 2 km depth and provided the possibility to estimate the in situ stresses within the granitic borehole section by the analysis of borehole breakouts and core discing, as well as by hydraulic fracturing combined with acoustic borehole televiewer logging for fracture orientation determination. Although the stress magnitudes derived by the different methods deviate significantly, they clearly indicate for the depth range between 800 and 1,740 m a compressional stress regime of S v ≤ S h < S H and a consistent East-West orientation of maximum horizontal compression in agreement with existing stress data for Australia. The minor horizontal stress S h derived from the hydraulic fracturing closure pressure values is about equal to the overburden stress and may be regarded as most reliable.

  13. Mapping permeable fractures at depth in crystalline metamorphic shield rocks using borehole seismic, logging, and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of major fluid pathways in subsurface exploration can be identified by understanding the effects of fractures, cracks, and microcracks in the subsurface. Part of a feasibility study of geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of the investigation of subsurface fluid pathways in the Precambrian basement rocks. One of the selected sites for this study is in the Fort McMurray area, where the deepest well drilled in the oilsands region in Northeastern Alberta is located. This deep borehole has a depth of 2.3 km which offers substantial depth coverage to study the metamorphic rocks in the Precambrian crystalline basement of this study area. Seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the borehole reveal NW-SE dipping reflectors within the metamorphic shield rocks some of which appear to intersect the wellbore. An extensive logging and borehole seismic program was carried out in the borehole in July, 2011. Gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic televiewer, electrical resistivity, and full-waveform sonic logs were acquired to study the finer scale structure of the rock formations, with vertical resolutions in the range of 0.05 cm to 80 cm. These logs supplement earlier electrical microscanner images obtained by the well operator when it was drilled. In addition, we are also interested in identifying other geological features such as zones of fractures that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The interpretation of the borehole logs reveals a highly conductive 13 m thick zone at 1409 m depth that may indicate communication of natural brines in fractures with the wellbore fluid. The photoelectric factor and magnetic susceptibility also appear anomalous in this zone. Formation MicroImager (FMI) log was used to verify the presence of fractures in the borehole in this conductive zone. This fracture zone may coincide with the dipping seismic reflectors in the

  14. Hydrogeologic Characterization of Fractured Crystalline Bedrock on the Southern Part of Manhattan, New York, Using Advanced Borehole Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, F.; Chu, A.; Joesten, P. K.; Lane, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT. Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y. The majority of boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock, and had an average depth of 591 ft (180 m) below land surface (BLS). In this study we use a combination of advanced and conventional borehole geophysical logs, and hydraulic measurements to characterize the fractured-rock ground-water flow system in southern Manhattan, N.Y. Borehole-geophysical logs collected in this study included natural gamma, single-point-resistance (SPR), short-normal resistivity (R), mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, specific conductance (SpC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, redox, heat-pulse flowmeter (at eight selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer (ATV and OTV), and directional borehole radar (at 23 selected boreholes). A new geophysical probe that collects multiple fluid parameters, included fluid- temperature, SpC, DO, pH, and redox logs; these were used to help delineate transmissive fractures in the boreholes. All boreholes penetrated moderately fractured bedrock that contained medium and large fractures. A total of 208 large fractures were delineated in the 31 boreholes logged with the OTV. Stereonet analysis of the large fractures indicates most are part of a subhorizontal population cluster with a mean orientation of N43 degrees E, 07 degrees SE and a smaller secondary population cluster dipping toward the northwest. A total of 53 faults were delineated with two major population clusters--one with a mean orientation of N12 degrees W, 66 degrees W and the other with a mean orientation of N11 degrees W, 70 degrees E. Foliation was fairly consistent throughout the study area with dip azimuths ranging from northwest to southwest and dip angles ranging from 30 to 70 degrees

  15. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs and hydraulic tests, phase III, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and aquifer-isolation tests were used to characterize the ground-water-flow system at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site. The site is underlain by fractured carbonate rocks. Caliper, natural- gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature logs were run in six wells, and an acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation log was run in one well. The direction and rate of borehole- fluid movement was measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter for both nonpumping and pumping conditions in four wells. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed flow within the borehole during nonpumping conditions in three of the four wells tested. Flow rates up to 1.4 gallons per minute were measured. Flow was upward in one well and both upward and downward in two wells. Aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four wells to determine depth-discrete specific capacity values, to obtain depth-discrete water samples, and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone in one well on water levels in nearby wells. Water-level data collected during aquifer-isolation tests were consistent with and confirmed interpretations of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. Seven of the 13 fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water at a rate equal to or greater than 7.5 gallons per minute when isolated and pumped. The specific capacities of isolated fractures range over three orders of magnitude, from 0.005 to 7.1 gallons per minute per foot. Vertical distribution of specific capacity between land surface and 298 feet below land surface is not related to depth. The four highest specific capacities, in descending order, are at depths of 174-198, 90-92, 118-119, and 34-37 feet below land surface.

  16. Delineation of the fractured-rock and unconsolidated overburden ground-water flow systems on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through use of advanced borehole-geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, Frederick

    2005-11-01

    Advanced borehole-geophysical techniques were used to assess the geohydrology of crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y. Ten wells were screened in the unconsolidated overburden (glacial aquifer) to determine water-table elevation, transmissivity, and chloride concentration. The borehole-logging techniques included natural gamma, single-point resistance, short-normal resistivity, mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, borehole-fluid specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox, heat-pulse flowmeter (at selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer, and borehole radar (at selected boreholes). The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures penetrated are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under pumping and nonpumping (ambient) conditions, together with other geophysical logs, indicate transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. The 60-megahertz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole. Fifty-three faults had mean orientation populations of N12°W, 66°W or N11°W, 70°E. Seventy-seven transmissive fractures delineated using the heat-pulse flowmeter had mean orientations of N11°E, 14°SE (majority) and N23°E, 57°NW (minority). The first potentiometric-surface and water-table maps were completed for southern Manhattan of the bedrock and glacial aquifer, respectively. Bedrock transmissivity ranged from 0.7 to 871 feet squared per day. Glacial aquifer transmissivity ranged from 2 to 93,000 feet squared per day. Chloride concentrations ranged from 25 to 17,800 milligrams per liter in the bedrock, and 28 to 15,250 milligrams

  17. Application of Borehole Geophysical Methods for Assessing Agro-Chemical Flow Paths in Fractured Bedrock Underlying the Black Brook Watershed, Northwestern New Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, A.; Butler, K.

    2009-05-01

    The upper Saint John River valley represents an economically important agricultural region that suffers from high nitrate levels in the groundwater as a result of fertilizer use. This study focuses on the fractured bedrock aquifer beneath the Black Brook Watershed, near Saint-Andre (Grand Falls), New Brunswick, where prediction of nitrate migration is limited by a lack of knowledge of the bedrock fracture characteristics. Bedrock consists of a fine-grained, siliciclastic unit of the Grog Brook Group gradationally overlain by a carbonate unit assigned to the Matapédia Group. Groundwater flow through the fractured bedrock is expected to be primarily influenced by the distribution and orientation of fractures in these rock units. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the select suite of borehole-geophysical tools used to identify and describe the fractured bedrock characteristics, and assists in understanding the migration pathways of agrochemical leachate from farm fields. Fracture datasets were acquired from five new vertical boreholes that ranged from 50 to 140 metres in depth, and from three outcrop locations along the new Trans-Canada Highway, approximately two kilometres away. The borehole-geophysical methods used included natural gamma ray (GR), single point resistance (SPR), spontaneous potential (SP), slim-hole optical borehole televiewer (OBI) and acoustic borehole televiewer (ABI). The ABI and OBI tools delivered high-resolution oriented images of the borehole walls, and enabled visualization of fractures in situ, and provided accurate information on the location, orientation, and aperture. The GR, SPR and SP logs identified changes in lithology, bed thickness and conductive fracture zones. Detailed inspection of the borehole televiewer images identified 390 fractures. Equal-area stereographic and rose diagrams of fracture planes have been used to identify three discrete fracture sets: 1) steeply dipping fractures that strike 068o/248o, with

  18. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  19. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  20. Using borehole flow data to characterize the hydraulics of flow paths in operating wellfields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.; Lundy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the flow paths in the vicinity of water well intakes is critical in the design of effective wellhead protection strategies for heterogeneous carbonate aquifers. High-resolution flow logs can be combined with geophysical logs and borehole-wall-image logs (acoustic televiewer) to identify the porous beds, solution openings, and fractures serving as conduits connecting the well bore to the aquifer. Qualitative methods of flow log analysis estimate the relative transmissivity of each water-producing zone, but do not indicate how those zones are connected to the far-field aquifer. Borehole flow modeling techniques can be used to provide quantitative estimates of both transmissivity and far-field hydraulic head in each producing zone. These data can be used to infer how the individual zones are connected with each other, and to the surrounding large-scale aquifer. Such information is useful in land-use planning and the design of well intakes to prevent entrainment of contaminants into water-supply systems. Specific examples of flow log applications in the identification of flow paths in operating wellfields are given for sites in Austin and Faribault, Minnesota. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  1. Elastic anisotropy and borehole stress estimation in the Seve Nappe Complex from the COSC-1 well, Åre, Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Quinn; Almquist, Bjarne; Ask, Maria; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zappone, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogeny, preserved in Scandinavia and Greenland, began with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and culminated in the collision of Baltica and Laurentia cratons during the middle Paleozoic. The COSC scientific drilling project aims at understanding the crustal structure and composition of the Scandinavian Caledonides. The first well of the dual phase drilling program, completed in Summer of 2014, drilled through ~2.5 km of the Seve Nappe Complex near the town of Åre, Sweden. Newly acquired drill core and borehole logs provide fresh core material for physical rock property measurements and in-situ stress determination. This contribution presents preliminary data on compressional and shear wave ultrasonic velocities (Vp, Vs) determined from laboratory measurements on drill cores, together with in-situ stress orientation analysis using image logs from the first borehole of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides project (COSC-1). An hydrostatically oil pressurized apparatus is used to test the ultrasonic Vp and Vs on three orthogonally cut samples of amphibolite, calcium bearing and felsic gneiss, meta-gabbro, and mylonitic schist from drill core. We measure directional anisotropy variability for each lithology using one sample cut perpendicular to the foliation and two additional plugs cut parallel to the foliation with one parallel to the lineation and the other perpendicular. Measurements are performed using the pulse transmission technique on samples subjected to hydrostatic pressure from 1-350 MPa at dry conditions. We present preliminary results relating Vp and Vs anisotropy to geologic units and degree of deformation. Additionally, we use acoustic borehole televiewer logs to estimate the horizontal stress orientation making use of well developed techniques for observed borehole breakouts (compressive failure) and drilling induced fractures (tensile failure). Preliminary observations show that very few drilling-induced tensile

  2. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass

  3. Borehole Geophysics, Hydraulic Characteristics and Chemistry of Groundwater Flow in Fractured Granite With Very Low Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, J.; Rukavickova, L.; Paces, T.

    2005-12-01

    Three test boreholes 10.9 and 10.5 meters apart were drilled in a compact granite at locality Podles' in the Bohemian Massif of central Europe. The depths of the drill boreholes were 349, 300 and 296 m. The location of the boreholes form a triangle. The main goal of this study was to determine the degree to which the very compact granite is fractured and what is the hydraulic conductivity of the fracture system. A combination of neutron log, electrical resistivity logs, gama gama log, fluid-resistivity log, and acoustic log was used to test the function of the fracture system. The hydraulic connection among the boreholes was determined from the fluid-resistivity log using injected salt as a tracer. The pressure communication through fractures among boreholes was investigated by a set of water pressure tests (WPT) in one borehole with simultaneous monitoring of responses in the other two holes equipped by a multipacker system. The connection of selected permeable fracture systems was verified by a combination of hydraulic stress tests in one borehole and simultaneous fluid-resistivity logging in other two boreholes. Indication of salt in water in adjoining boreholes was registered as anomalies on curves of the fluid-resistivity record. Several communications between boreholes were along a horizontal level, however, some connections were through combination of both horizontal and vertical fractures. The hydraulic connection between two of the boreholes was fast and straightforward. The connection with the third borehole was inexpressive. This difference was due to the position of the boreholes with regard to the direction of main fractures and the direction of natural groundwater flow. All fractures were identified using acoustic tele-viewer and inspection of core. The density of the fractures varied with depth. The density was 3 fractures per meter near surface, the density dropped to 0.9 fractures per meter at the depth of 80 m. Between 80 and 300 m, the density

  4. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  5. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  6. Characteristics of fractures in crystalline bedrock determined by surface and borehole geophysical surveys, eastern surplus superfund site, Meddybemps, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Bruce P.; Stone, Janet Radway; Lane, Jr., John W.

    1999-01-01

    Surface and borehole geophysical methods were used to determine fracture orientation in crystalline bedrock at the Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine. Fracture-orientation information is needed to address concerns about the fate of contaminants in ground water at the site. Azimuthal square-array resistivity surveys were conducted at 3 locations at the site, borehole-acoustic televiewer and borehole-video logs were collected in 10 wells, and single-hole directional radar surveys were conducted in 9 wells. Borehole-video logs were used to supplement the results of other geophysical techniques and are not described in this report. Analysis of azimuthal square-array resistivity data indicated that high-angle fracturing generally strikes northeast-southwest at the three locations. Borehole-acoustic televiewer logs detected one prominent low-angle and two prominent high-angle fracture sets. The low-angle fractures strike generally north-northeast and dip about 20 degrees west-northwest. One high-angle fracture set strikes north-northeast and dips east-southeast; the other high-angle set strikes east-northeast and dips south-southeast. Single-hole directional radar surveys identified two prominent fracture sets: a low-angle set striking north-northeast, dipping west-northwest; and a high-angle fracture set striking north-northeast, dipping east-southeast. Two additional high-angle fracture sets are defined weakly, one striking east-west, dipping north; and a second striking east-west, dipping south. Integrated results from all of the geophysical surveys indicate the presence of three primary fracture sets. A low-angle set strikes north-northeast and dips west-northwest. Two high-angle sets strike north-northeast and east-northeast and dip east-southeast and south-southeast. Statistical correction of the fracture data for orientation bias indicates that high-angle fractures are more numerous than observed in the data but are still less numerous than the

  7. Information extraction from noisy televiewer logs of inclined holes in hard rock

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    A feature-extraction method was adapted from satellite image-processing to the problem of extracting information from extremely noisy and narrow-range televiewer imagery from GT-2 at Fenton Hill. From televiewer logs, 733 structures were recovered, compared with 42 from core. The average spacings were 3.13 and 0.55 feet, respectively, indicating that the televiewer yielded only 17.5% of the information available from core. Two televiewer runs overlapped between 4000 and 4275 feet depth, but no detectable structures were repeated on both runs. The lack of repetition was explained as due to random processes arising from thermally-induced electronic noise and manually-operated narrow-range recording. Two new coefficients of association were defined, termed ''coplanarity'' P, and ''collinearity'', L, respectively. The coplanarity of foliations demonstrated that, despite no repetition of individuals, the two runs could be correlated. The coplanarity averaged 60 degrees, falling to 43.5 degrees at match, at a lag of -4.5 feet. There was no systematic maximum in the coplanarity for fractures, indicating that these were not serially-correlated. A periodicity in the collinearity for foliations indicated a set of folds with wavelength of 80 feet. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    , acoustic televiewer logs, and tests for hydraulic conductivity using straddle packers as well as rock core VOC data, where available, that show deep penetration and many migration pathways. Confidence in the use of temperature profiles and the conceptual model is provided by numerical simulation and the demonstrated reproducibility of the evolution of the temperature signal measured in the lined holes with and without heating. This approach for using temperature profiling in lined holes with heating is a practical advance in fractured rock hydrogeology because the liners are readily available, the equipment needed for heating is low cost and rugged, and the time needed to obtain the profiles is not excessive for most projects.

  9. Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1987-07-01

    Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

  10. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  11. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (ΔHo) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ΔHo, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ΔHo, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ΔHo increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ΔHo must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  12. Fracture-frequency prediction from borehole wireline logs using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, E.M.; Bean, C.J.; Reilly, R.

    1999-11-01

    Borehole-wall imaging is currently the most reliable means of mapping discontinuities within boreholes. As these imaging techniques are expensive and thus not always included in a logging run, a method of predicting fracture frequency directly from traditional logging tool responses would be very useful and cost effective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) show great potential in this area. ANNs are computational systems that attempt to mimic natural biological neural networks. They have the ability to recognize patterns and develop their own generalizations about a given data set. Neural networks are trained on data sets for which the solution is known and tested on data not previously seen in order to validate the network result. The authors show that artificial neural networks, due to their pattern recognition capabilities, are able to assess the signal strength of fracture-related heterogeneity in a borehole log and thus fracture frequency within a borehole. A combination of wireline logs (neutron porosity, bulk density, P-sonic, S-sonic, deep resistivity and shallow resistivity) were used as input parameters to the ANN. Fracture frequency calculated from borehole televiewer data was used as the single output parameter. The ANN was trained using a back-propagation algorithm with a momentum learning function. In addition to fracture frequency within a single borehole, an ANN trained on a subset of boreholes in an area could be used for prediction over the entire set of boreholes, thus allowing the lateral correlation of fracture zones.

  13. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  14. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  15. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  16. Analysis of stress-induced oval fractures in a borehole at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 504, eastern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Flamand, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 504B is located in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and extends to a total depth of 2111 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). Several acoustic televiewer logs have been obtained in this well during successive stages of drilling, and the resulting digital images have revealed numerous oval-shaped fractures seemingly etched into the borehole wall. A theoretical examination of these stress-induced features identifies a unique and ephemeral set of stress distributions and magnitudes that are necessary for their production. Consequently, the ovals provide a basis for quantifying the magnitudes and orientations of the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses, SH and Sh, at this site. Vertical, truncated breakouts and horizontal tensile fractures define the spatial boundaries of the ovals. Explicit criteria for their occurrence are combined with estimates for various physical properties of the rock to yield a range of possible values for the horizontal principal stresses. The conspicuous oval geometry is completed by a curved fracture that joins the vertical and horizontal components. Its degree of curvature is delineated by the modified Griffith failure criterion and is directly related to the principal stress difference (SH - Sh). Matching a series of type curves corresponding to specific values for (SH - Sh) with the actual undistorted well bore images allows the magnitude of the stress difference to be further constrained. With a value for (SH - Sh) of 45 ?? 5 MPa the individual magnitudes of SH and Sh are determined more precisely. Final estimates for the horizontal principal stresses in DSDP Hole 504B at a depth of 1200 mbsf are 141 MPa ??? SH ??? 149 MPa and 91 MPa ??? Sh ??? 109 MPa. Stress magnitudes derived from this approach rely heavily upon the values of a variety of physical properties, and complementary laboratory measurements performed on relevant rock samples provide critical information. Uncertainties in

  17. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. On Boreholes and PBO Borehole Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, M. T.; Mee, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Borehole tensor strainmeters (GTSM) installed in Australia and California have established a baseline of data spanning more than twenty years. The current baseline of data allows characterisation of a moderate number of instruments in a range of very different environments in a way which defines reasonable performance expectations for the upcoming PBO deployments. A generic understanding of effects which result from the process of installation of the instrument in a stressed rock mass emerges. This indicates that, provided due allowance is made for experimentally determined borehole recovery effects, the contribution of borehole strain meters more than adequately fills the observational gap between high stability/long term geodetic measurements of strain and strain rates and high resolution/high frequency seismic observations of earth deformation processes. The various strain relief processes associated with the installation procedures and borehole recovery effects associated with pre-existing stress fields will be documented. Procedures for calibration of the total borehole inclusion and for progressive removal of effects due to rock anisotropy and visco-elastic creep of the grout and rock close to the borehole from far field tectonic effects will be defined and illustrated with examples. Observed deviations from these processes will be shown to be small and consistent with otherwise observed or implied fault motions. Full details of these borehole induced processes are, however, difficult to determine in the early years following installation, particularly if there is significant tectonic activity at the time. Once quantified for each site, the effects can be robustly removed from data streams.

  19. Analysis of borehole breakouts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Kemeny, J.; Cook, N. G. W.

    1989-06-10

    Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such breakouts are valuable indicators of the direction of the minimum compressive stress orthogonal to the axis of the borehole. Their shapes may provide information about the magnitudes of both the maximum and minimum stresses relative to the strength of the rock. Borehole breakouts also may be impediments to drilling and to in situ measurement techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing. Observations and analyses of borehole breakouts raise three important questions. First, how does the shape of the borehole breakout evolve Second, why are breakout shapes stable despite the very high compressive stress concentrations that they produce Third, how is the shape of the breakout related to the magnitudes of the stresses in the rock In this paper, extensile splitting of rock in unconfined, plane strain compression is assumed to be the process of rock failure adjacent to the circumference of the borehole, by which a breakout forms. To simulate the evolution of a borehole breakout, this process is combined with a numerical boundary element analysis of the stresses around a borehole as its cross section evolves from the originally circular shape to that of a stable breakout.

  20. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOEpatents

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  1. Borehole logging method for fracture detection and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, B.E.; Johnson, D.L

    1989-05-16

    A method is describe for locating a fracture in a subsurface earth formation traversed by a borehole, the method using an acoustic source and at lest one acoustic detector traversing the borehole at a plurality of depths, the fracture positioned outside the direct path from the acoustic source to the at least acoustic detector, the method consists of the steps of: generating a first signal from the acoustic source, the first signal representative of Stoneley wave propagating in the borehole, receiving the first signal at the at least one detector, the first signal representative of Stoneley waves propagating in the borehole from the acoustic source to the at least one detector, receiving a second signal at the at least one detector, the second signal representative of reflections of the Stoneley wave, the reflections arising from an interaction of the Stoneyle waves and the fracture; and combining the first and second received signals to derive a fracture signal indicative of a characteristic of the fracture.

  2. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  3. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  4. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-11-05

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating a first low frequency acoustic wave within the borehole, wherein the first low frequency acoustic wave induces a linear and a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a radius of the borehole; directing a first sequence of high frequency pulses in a direction perpendicularly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the borehole into the material contemporaneously with the first acoustic wave; and receiving one or more second high frequency pulses at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole produced by an interaction between the first sequence of high frequency pulses and the one or more features undergoing linear and nonlinear elastic distortion due to the first low frequency acoustic wave to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  5. PBO Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Hasting, M.; Jackson, M.; Dittmann, S. T.; Johnson, W.; Venator, S.; Andersen, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Mueller, B.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results but there are still major hurdles to overcome in production, installation processes, data quality control, data processing and near real time delivery of calibrated strain data. PBO has made significant steps forward with the installation of 19 borehole strainmeters as of September 1st, 2006 with 28 total instruments planned by early December. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and represents the first dense

  6. Borehole seismic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Tao

    In many borehole seismic experiments, the velocity of the tube wave is higher than that of the surrounding rock shear wave. This fast tube wave creates a strong conical shear wave in the surrounding rock, similar to the Mach wave in supersonic aviation and the Cherenkov radiation in electrodynamics. Many geophysicists have tried to utilize the conical signal in VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and cross borehole data interpretation, using quasi static approximations to model the borehole effect. Two popular quasi static approximations are: the effective source array method for source borehole modeling and the squeeze strain method for receiver borehole modeling. These quasi static approximations are sensible as they qualitatively conform to Hueygen's principle and the typical wavelength of a VSP or a cross borehole seismic experiment is much larger than the borehole radius. However, they have not been quantitatively benchmarked against other non approximation method such as the frequency wave number method. The frequency wave number method is a rigorous, non approximation method for modeling straight boreholes without lengthwise variation. The boreholes may consist of many coaxial, homogeneous and axially symmetric shells. In this thesis, the results of the quasi static approximations are compared to the results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The comparison demonstrates that both the effective source array method and squeeze strain method gives the correct arrival time. The effective source array method gives incorrect amplitude and waveform for direct arrivals and tube waves due to its arbitrary assumption of the elementary source radiation pattern. The squeeze strain method gives fairly accurate amplitude and waveform for P and S direct arrivals but it fails to match the tube wave results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The omission of tube wave dispersion and amplitude loss by the quasi static approximation methods also

  7. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  8. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  9. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  10. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  11. Acoustic apparatus and method for detecting borhole wall discontinuities such as vertical fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Havira, R.M.; Seeman, B.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an acoustic investigation method for detecting discontinuities in a wall of a borehold penetrating an earth formation. It comprises: directing from inside the borehole pulses of acoustic energy each at beam forming frequencies towards the borehold wall with orientations of the beams selected to preferentially enhance the excitation of transverse acoustic waves traveling away from the borehole wall segments in directions determined by the angle of incidence of the acoustic beams upon the borehole wall segment, while substantially maintaining the beam orientations, varying the direction which the acoustic beams are incident upon the borehole wall segments to correspondingly vary the directions which the transverse waves travel from the borehole wall segments; detecting acoustic reflections produced by the transverse waves when these are incident upon a discontinuity in the borehole wall; deriving fracture signals representative of the presence of a the discontinuity from the detected acoustic reflections; and recording the derived signals.

  12. Method and apparatus for investigating stand-off in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, M.P.; Havira, R.M.

    1987-09-08

    A method is described for investigating an earth formation penetrated by a borehole with a tool having a segment which is provided with a laterally extending array of small current emitting electrodes arranged to make resistivity measurements. A contiguous lateral area of the borehole is investigated as the tool segment, while being pressed towards the borehole wall, is operatively moved along the borehole wall. The electrodes are sized to enable a high resolution resistivity investigation of the earth formation with a resolution of the order of millimeters, comprising the steps of: generating high resolution beams of acoustic energy in the form of pulses and directing these at segments of the borehole wall from places that are from at least laterally separated places that are generally in vertical alignment with the array of electrodes and are pressed with the array towards the borehole wall; detecting at the places acoustic reflections originating from the borehole wall segments and caused by the pulses of acoustic energy; and deriving from the detected acoustic reflections acoustic travel times indicative of the magnitude of tool standoff at the places as well as lateral tool lift-off at the array of electrodes with an accuracy and resolution sufficient to resolve, in the resistivity measurements, ambiguities attributable to stand-off, and vertical and lateral tool tilt.

  13. System and method for sonic wave measurements using an acoustic beam source

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2015-08-11

    A method and system for investigating structure near a borehole are described herein. The method includes generating an acoustic beam by an acoustic source; directing at one or more azimuthal angles the acoustic beam towards a selected location in a vicinity of a borehole; receiving at one or more receivers an acoustic signal, the acoustic signal originating from a reflection or a refraction of the acoustic wave by a material at the selected location; and analyzing the received acoustic signal to characterize features of the material around the borehole.

  14. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  15. Microexplosions in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moren, P.

    1983-12-01

    At present micro explosions are the only known source that provides sufficient energy for large scale (about 0.5 to 1 km) seismic crosshole measurements. Results from a test of nondestructiveness on bore-hole walls from micro explosions are summarized. From geophysical well loggings in the holes it was found that only micro explosions with yields of 100 g and greater have a measurable effect on the bore-hole walls. However, the chemical properties of the bore-hole water changed as a result of collodial carbon of the explosive paste. Geophone-recordings from a series of shots with yields in the range 5 up to 200 g showed that the recorded maximum amplitude was linearly dependent of explosion yield.

  16. Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

  17. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  18. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  19. Analysis of geophysical logs from six boreholes at Lariat Gulch, former U.S. Air Force site PJKS, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hodges, Richard E.; Corland, Barbara S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and describes geophysical logs for six boreholes in Lariat Gulch, a topographic gulch at the former U.S. Air Force site PJKS in Jefferson County near Denver, Colorado. Geophysical logs include gamma, normal resistivity, fluid-column temperature and resistivity, caliper, televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. These logs were run in two boreholes penetrating only the Fountain Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age (logged to depths of about 65 and 570 feet) and in four boreholes (logged to depths of about 342 to 742 feet) penetrating mostly the Fountain Formation and terminating in Precambrian crystalline rock, which underlies the Fountain Formation. Data from the logs were used to identify fractures and bedding planes and to locate the contact between the two formations. The logs indicated few fractures in the boreholes and gave no indication of higher transmissivity in the contact zone between the two formations. Transmissivities for all fractures in each borehole were estimated to be less than 2 feet squared per day.

  20. Seismoelectric waves in a borehole excited by an external explosive source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiu-Guang; Cui, Zhi-Wen; Lü, Wei-Guo; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ke-Xie

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of energy between seismic and electromagnetic wave fields has been described by Pride's coupled equations in porous media. In this paper, the seismoelectric field excited by the explosive point source located at the outside of the borehole is studied. The scattering fields inside and outside a borehole are analyzed and deduced under the boundary conditions at the interface between fluid and porous media. The influences of the distance of the point source, multipole components of the eccentric explosive source, and the receiving position along the axis of vertical borehole, on the converted waves inside the borehole are all investigated. When the distance from the acoustic source to the axis of a borehole is far enough, the longitudinal and coseismic longitudinal wave packets dominate the acoustic and electric field, respectively. The three components of both electric field and magnetic field can be detected, and the radial electric field is mainly excited and converted by the dipole component. Owing to the existence of borehole, the electric fields and magnetic fields in the borehole are azimuthal. The distance from the point where the maximum amplitude of the axial components of electric field is recorded, to the origin of coordinate indicates the horizontal distance from the explosive source to the axis of vertical borehole.

  1. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  2. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  3. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  5. Borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, H.E.; Lin, J.W. III; Macha, E.S.; Smither, M.A.

    1984-12-04

    A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member upon a film disposed below the compass member. This arrangement permits the centering post for the compass member to be of minimum diameter consistent with rigidity requirements and permits a high angle compass member to indicate angles of inclination approaching ninety degrees. A multiple light bulb light source is utilized and each light bulb is mounted in a manner which permits a single light bulb to illuminate the entire compass member. A hand-held programming and diagnostic unit is provided which may be momentarily electrically mated with the borehole survey tool to input a programmed timed delay and diagnostically test both the condition of the light bulbs utilized as the illumination source and the state of the batteries within the instrument. This hand-held programmable unit eliminates all the mechanical programming switches and permits the instrument to be completely sealed from the pressure, fluids and contaminants normally found in a well bore.

  6. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  7. Experimental measurements of seismoelectric signals in borehole models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An experimental system is built for the electrokinetic measurements with a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer (1 MS s-1, 22 bits). The acoustic and seismoelectric experiments are carried out in different borehole models at the high frequency of 90 kHz in the laboratory. All the localized seismoelectric signals that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are first clearly observed with a monopole source in sandstone boreholes that are saturated by tap water. The amplitudes of these signals are measured in the range of 1-120 μV, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. Then the amplitude ratio of electric signal to acoustic pressure (REP) for each of the three waves is calculated and compared with the theoretical simulations. Based on the experimental data, we find that seismoelectric logging signals as well as REP become stronger at the more permeable borehole model. We also find that seismoelectric logging signals are more sensitive to permeability and porosity compared with acoustic logging signals. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and further indicates that the seismoelectric logging technique might be a preferable method to estimate formation parameters in the field measurements.

  8. Data Acquisition and Processing with a Three-Component Borehole Magnetometer in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hoerdt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2011-12-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008. The aim of this project was the understanding of the ore formation process in the Outokumpu mining region. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.75 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.2 ° in inclination. The vector information of the magnetic anomalies was used to compute models of the magnetized rock units of the environment of the borehole via numerical simulations. By differentiating between short scale (wavelength < 10 m) and long scale (wavelength > 10 m) magnetic anomalies, we developed two different models. The first concerns the drilled-through Outokumpu-assemblage in the direct vicinity (< 50 m) of the borehole. Here, we could identify a tilted layer and related the dip and dip-azimuth with the direction of fracture zones, obtained from televiewer data. The second model concerns the geological structure of the surrounding (< 1 km) of the drill site. By joint interpretation with seismic profiles we were able to link the seismic reflectivity with magnetic properties. This yields an estimate of the mineralogy for rock units away from the borehole path, which were not cored. The orientation information provided by the GBM was also used to compute the borehole path with an accuracy better than 5 m at a logging depth of 1440 m.

  9. Influence of Bedding Angle on Borehole Stability: A Laboratory Investigation of Transverse Isotropic Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, T.; Rybacki, E.; Backers, T.; Dresen, G.

    2015-07-01

    The stability of wells drilled into bedded formations, e.g., shales, depends on the orientation between the bedding and the borehole axis. If the borehole is drilled sub-parallel to bedding, the risk of borehole instabilities increases significantly. In this study, we examined the formation of stress-induced borehole breakouts in Posidonia shale by performing a series of thick-walled hollow cylinder experiments with varying orientations of the bedding plane with respect to the borehole axis. The thick-walled hollow cylinders (40 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length containing an 8 mm diameter borehole) were loaded isostatically until formation of breakouts. The onset of borehole breakout development was determined by means of acoustic emission activity, strain measurements, ultrasonic velocities and amplitudes. The critical pressure for breakout initiation decreased from 151 MPa by approximately 65 % as the bedding plane inclination changed from normal to parallel to the borehole axis. The finely bedded structure in the shale resulted in an anisotropy in elasticity and strength from which the variation in strength dominated the integrity of the thick-walled hollow cylinders.

  10. Experimental studies of electrokinetic conversions in fluid-saturated borehole models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Haartsen, M.W.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that there are electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by seismic waves with two kinds of conversion mechanisms in a fluid-saturated, porous medium. Within a homogeneous formation, the seismic wave generates a seismoelectric field that exists only in the area disturbed by the seismic wave and whose apparent velocity is that of the seismic wave. At an interface between differing formation properties, the generated seismoelectric wave is a propagating EM wave that can be detected everywhere, An electrode, used as a receiver on the ground surface, can detect the propagating EM wave generated at an interface, but cannot detect the seismoelectric field generated in a homogeneous formation. When the electrode is in a borehole and close to a porous formation, it can detect both the EM waves and the seismoelectric field. In this paper, electrokinetic measurements are performed with borehole models made of natural rocks or artificial materials. Experimental results show that the Stoneley wave and other acoustic modes, excited by a monopole source in the borehole models, generate seismoelectric fields in fluid-saturated formations. The electric components of the seismoelectric fields can be detected by an electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall. The amplitude and frequency of the seismoelectric fields are related not only to the seismic wave, but also to formation properties such as permeability, conductivity, etc. Comparison between the waveforms of the seismoelectric signals and acoustic logging waves suggests that seismoelectric well logging may explore the different properties of the formation. Electroseismic measurements are also performed with these borehole models. The electric pulse through the electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall induces Stoneley waves in fluid-saturated models that can be received by a monopole transducer in the same borehole. These measurement methods (seismoelectric logging or

  11. Elastic wave scattering to characterize heterogeneities in the borehole environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Hei, Chuang; Su, Yuan-Da

    2016-04-01

    Scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in the rock formation surrounding a wellbore can significantly change the acoustic waveform from a logging measurement which in turn can be used to characterize the formation heterogeneities. This study simulates the elastic heterogeneity scattering in monopole and dipole acoustic logging and analyse the resulting effects on the waveforms. The results show that significant coda waves are generated in both monopole and dipole waveforms and the dipole coda is dominated by S-to-S scattering, which can be effectively utilized to diagnose the heterogeneity in the rock formation. The coda wave modelling and analysis were used to characterize dipole acoustic data logged before and after fracturing a reservoir interval, with significant coda wave in the after-fracturing data indicating fracturing-induced heterogeneous property change in the rock volume surrounding the borehole.

  12. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  13. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  14. Method for determining formation permeability by comparing measured tube waves with formation and borehole parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, B.E.

    1989-01-10

    A method is described for determining the permeability of an earth formation traversed by a borehole, using a tool adapted for movement in the borehole, comprising: transmitting acoustic energy from a first location on the tool; measuring the acoustic wave forms of the transmitted energy at varying distances from the first location; filtering each of the wave forms to obtain a tube wave component; determining a measured slowness parameter of the tube wave component; generating a value of the computed slowness parameter for the borehole under the conditions of an elastic nonpermeable medium; determining the difference between the measured slowness parameter and the computed value; determining the permeability of the formation in response to the difference between the measured slowness parameter and the computed value.

  15. Method and apparatus for detecting and evaluating borehole wall fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Danbury, K.H.; Brie, A.; Plumb, R.A.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for forming a display log of an acoustic investigation of an earth formation penetrated by a borehole with a tool which generates sonic pulses and produces different receiver waveforms respectively representative of sonic waves passed through a common interval alongside the tool. It comprises: measuring from the different waveforms values of a parameter that is representative of a characteristic of the earths formation; assigning predetermined lateral display log position for the parameter values measured from waveforms attributable to a common interval; and recording the parameter values on the display log.

  16. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  17. Downhole Imaging With Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokkema, J. T.; van den Berg, P. M.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; Luthi, S. M.

    We describe a directional borehole radar system. The antennas are positioned in a bi-static set-up. In order to obtain a focused radiation pattern, the transmitting and receiving dipoles are shielded with a curved reflector. The radiation pattern of this scattered wavefield is computed by solving the integral equation for the unknown elec- tric surface current at the conducting surface. Based on these numerical simulations, a prototype was built. The effective radiation pattern is in good agreement with the computed pattern. We also present a three-dimensional imaging method for this bore- hole radar. The computed radiation pattern is used in such a way that deconvolution for the angular radiation pattern can be applied. Data from preliminary laboratory and field tests under controlled conditions are promising. The applications of this method include the detection of unexploded ordinance from boreholes, the detection of objects and layers in tunnels, and the determination of the diameter of concrete columns in the Jetgrout Diameter System. With appropriate modifications, this system may be appli- cable in the oil- and gas industry for the detection of layers and fractures in borehole. It covers a gap between conventional logging measurements in boreholes, and seismic surface surveys.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  4. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  5. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  6. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  7. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  8. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  9. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  10. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  11. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    pressure-tightness and the functionality of the hydraulic system components of the borehole device. To monitor the prototype four cameras and several moisture sensors were installed along the source and receiver units close to the extendable coupling stamps where an infiltration of fluid is most probably. The tests lasted about 48 hours each. It was possible to extend and to retract the coupling stamps of the prototype up to a depth of 2100 m. No infiltration of borehole fluids in the SPWD-tool was observed. In preparation of the acoustic calibration measurements in the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg seismic sources and receivers as well as the recording electronic devices were installed in the SPWD-wireline prototype at the GFZ. Afterwards, the SPWD-borehole device was transported to the GFZ-Underground-Lab and preliminary test measurements to characterize the radiation pattern characteristics have been carried out in the newly drilled vertical borehole in December 2013. Previous measurements with a laboratory borehole prototype have demonstrated a dependency of the radiated seismic energy from the predefined amplification direction, the wave type and the signal frequencies. SPWD is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry

  12. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  13. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  14. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  15. Geophysical-well-log data for study of water flow in fractures near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    Four closely spaced boreholes were drilled through approximately 20 meters of till into schist bedrock near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire. The site was selected for borehole geophysical research because it is included in a detailed groundwater study where the effects of flow in fractures on flow in overlying drift deposits is being studied. Three of the boreholes are approximately 100 meters in depth, and the fourth is approximately 230 meters in depth. All four boreholes were logged with caliper, acoustic, gamma, single-point-resistivity, and acoustic televiewer logs. Fracture sets dipping approximately 45 degrees to the east were detected in all four boreholes. Two sets of deeper fractures were detected near the bottom of the deepest borehole. Acoustic waveform logs were obtained in all boreholes using three different source frequencies, 34, 15, and 5 kilohertz, for future comparison with surface to borehole seismic data. (USGS)

  16. Coupled aquifer-borehole simulation.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A model coupling fluid hydraulics in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used to create a one-dimensional steady-state model of vertical flow in an open borehole combined with radially symmetric flow in an aquifer and with inflow to the well through the wellbore screen. Both laminar and turbulent wellbore conditions are treated. The influence of inflow through the wellbore screen on vertical flow in the wellbore is included, using a relation developed by Siwoń (1987). The influence of inflow reduces the predicted vertical variation in head up to 15% compared to a calculation of head losses due to fluid acceleration and the conventional Colebrook-White formulation of friction losses in a circular pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear conservation of momentum equations are iteratively linearized to calculate the conductance terms for vertical flow in the wellbore. The resulting simulations agree favorably with previously published results when the model is adjusted to meet the assumptions of the previous coupled models. PMID:19682095

  17. Simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in axis-symmetric open and cased boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidler, R.; Holliger, K.; Carcione, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Geophysical constraints with regard to permeability are particularly valuable because they tend to bridge the gap in terms of spatial coverage and resolution that exists for corresponding conventional hydrological techniques, such as laboratory measurements and pumping tests. A prominent geophysical technique for estimating the permeability along boreholes is based on the inversion of Stoneley waves. This technique is by now well established for the hydrocarbon exploration purposes, where the corresponding measurements are carried out in open boreholes and in consolidated sediments. Conversely, the sensitivity and potential of Stoneley-wave-based permeability estimates for shallow hydrological applications is still largely unknown. As opposed to their counterparts in hydrocarbon exploration, shallow boreholes tend to be located in unconsolidated alluvial sediments and hence tend to be cased with perforated or non-perforated plastic tubes. The corresponding effects on Stoneley wave attenuation and its sensitivity to in situ permeability of the formation behind the casing are largely unknown and can only be assessed through realistic modeling. To this end, we present a pseudo-spectral numerical modeling code in cylindrical coordinates that allows for the accurate simulation of complex seismic wave propagation phenomena in realistic surficial borehole environments. We employ Fourier operators along the borehole axis and Chebyshev operators in the radial direction. The Chebyshev operators allows for the use of individual computational sub-domains for the fluid-filled, acoustic borehole, the poro-elastic casing, and the poro-elastic formation surrounding the borehole. These computational sub-domains are connected through a domain decomposition method, which is needed to correctly account for the governing boundary conditions and also allows for substantially enhancing the computational efficiency of our simulations.

  18. Monitoring borehole flow dynamics using heated fiber optic DTS in a fractured rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Chalari, Athena; Parker, Beth; Munn, Jonathan; Mondanos, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Temperature profiles in fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation or in the borehole. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a tool that allows for continuous borehole temperature profiling in space and time. Recent technology advancements in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolutions of DTS systems now allow temperature profiling methods to offer improved insight into fractured rock hydrogeologic processes. An innovation in shallow borehole temperature logging utilizes high resolution DTS temperature profiling in sealed and heated boreholes to identify fractures with natural gradient groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. This technique can also be applied to open well conditions to monitor borehole flow distributions caused by hydraulic perturbations such as pumping or injection. A field trial was conducted in Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the capabilities of heated DTS for flow monitoring in both open and sealed wells. Intelligent distributed acoustic sensing (iDAS) measurements for vertical seismic profiling were carried out simultaneously with the DTS measurements to assist with characterization of the fractured aquifer system. DTS heat pulse tests were conducted in a single well under sealed conditions for natural gradient flow measurements and open conditions to monitor flow distributions during injection and pumping. The results of these tests indicate that borehole flow distributions can be monitored using DTS and that active heating allows for further information about the hydrogeologic system to be determined than from the passive measurements alone. Depth-continuous transmissivity data from the borehole correlate well with the DTS testing results. DTS based flow monitoring systems may be useful for monitoring transient production and injection processes for a variety of applications including groundwater remediation

  19. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  1. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  2. Cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic induction for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.; Lee, K.H.

    1991-08-01

    Audio-frequency cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetics (EM) are interesting alternatives to existing techniques for petroleum reservoir characterization and monitoring. With these methods signals may be propagated several hundreds of meters through typical sand/shale reservoirs and data may be collected at high accuracy with a high sensitivity to the subsurface resistivity distribution. Field systems for cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole EM measurements have been designed and built by Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories for reservoir evaluation and monitoring. The cross-borehole system utilizes vertical axis induction coil antennas for transmission and detection of sinusoidal signals. Data are collected in profiles with the source coil moving continuously while its signal is detected by a stationary receiver coil located in a separate well. Subsequent profiles are collected using a different receiver depth and the same transmitter span until a suite of profiles is obtained that cover the desired interval in the borehole. The surface-to-borehole system uses a large diameter surface loop transmitter and a vertical axis borehole receiver. Due to its high signal strength this system operates using a sweep frequency transmitter waveform so that data may be simultaneously collected over several decades of frequency. Surface-to-borehole profiles are equally repeatable and although this data is less sensitive than cross-borehole EM, it can be fit to a resistivity section consistent with the borehole log. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  4. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  5. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  6. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  7. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  8. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  9. PBO Borehole Strain and Siesmic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Hasting, M.; Dittman, T.; Johnson, W.; Meertens, C.

    2007-05-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. A brief history of US BSM program is presented. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results: imaging two slow slip events in the PNW along with excellent tele-siesmic imaging. Exciting work has been done in the PBO community relating modeled strain from the GPS network to observed strain from the BSM network. PBO also plans the installation of three volcanic arrays at Mt St Helens, Yellowstone and Long Valley. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and

  10. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating conical broadcast signals

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A method of interrogating a formation includes generating a conical acoustic signal, at a first frequency--a second conical acoustic signal at a second frequency each in the between approximately 500 Hz and 500 kHz such that the signals intersect in a desired intersection volume outside the borehole. The method further includes receiving, a difference signal returning to the borehole resulting from a non-linear mixing of the signals in a mixing zone within the intersection volume.

  11. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  12. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  13. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  14. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: The development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: The CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hostab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link. After a

  15. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Beltrami, H.

    2011-12-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions.

  16. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.

    2012-04-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions. (http://palma.fis.ucm.es/~volker/)

  17. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  18. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  19. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs.

  20. Topological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  1. Topological acoustics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-20

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers. PMID:25839273

  2. Leaky modes and the first arrivals in cased boreholes with poorly bonded conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiuMei; Wang, XiuMing; Zhang, HaiLan

    2016-02-01

    The generation mechanism of the first arrivals in the cased boreholes for the poorly bonded conditions is investigated. Based on the analyses of the Riemann surface structure of the characteristic function, the dispersion features, excitation spectra and contributions of modes excited in the cased boreholes with different cementing types are studied. The phase velocity dispersion studies of leaky modes show that high-order modes form "plateau" regions with one approximate velocity denoted by v separated by their cutoff frequencies, in which the phase velocity changes little with a considerable frequency range, while the group velocity keeps a relatively constant high value. Usually, the operation frequency range of a specific cementing evaluation acoustic logging tool is covered by such a "plateau" region. Mode excitation and contribution analyses show that the first arrivals in the cased boreholes for the poorly bonded conditions are the contributions from leaky modes, where the traveling velocity of the first arrivals processed by slowness time coherence (STC) method is equal to the approximated velocity v. Analyses on generation of leaky modes in the cased boreholes supplement the understanding of the generation mechanism of the first arrivals.

  3. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... 177. Battista RA. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2009;42:635-654. ...

  4. Means and method for protecting apparatus situated in a borehole from closure of the borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, J.P.

    1983-08-16

    Apparatus, situated in a borehole traversing an earth formation, is protected from closure of the borehole by being encased in an inflatable device. Surface equipment inflates and maintains the inflatable device at a sufficient pressure so as to prevent the earth formation from closing in an contacting the apparatus.

  5. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shihong

    Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the

  6. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  7. Seismoelectric Wave Measurements in Borehole Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hu, H.; Guan, W.

    2014-12-01

    An experimental system was built in the laboratory based on the electrokinetic theory, which contains a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer ( 1 MS/s, 22 bits ). The electrokinetic measurements are carried out with seismoelectric well logging technique in borehole models at high frequency (90 kHz), and the localized electrokinetic fields that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are clearly observed with monopole source in two sandstone models that are saturated by tap water. The magnitudes of these seismoelectric waves are in the range of 1-100 microvolt, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. The experimental results also show that the seismoelectric well logging signals are related to the permeability of borehole formations. Their amplitudes become larger in the high permeability model, which can be used to measure the permeability of rock formation although no such relationship has ever been provided in existing theories. We also made seismoelectric measurements in a lucite borehole model, but no observable seismoelectric signals were recorded by the electrode. This is not out of our expectation because the lucite formation is not porous and no electrokinetic conversion occurs in such material. However, the electric signal recorded in the Lucite borehole represents the background noise of our measurement system, which is less than 0.5 microvolt. This study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and also presents the range of seismoelectric signals in borehole saturated by tap water that is much closer to the condition of actual formation.

  8. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  9. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  10. Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    2000-01-01

    An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.

  11. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

  12. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  13. Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Difebbo, Thomas J.

    2007-02-28

    The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The location of the WTP is illustrated in Figure 1-1. The borehole was designated as “C4997”, and was drilled to obtain seismic and lithologic data for the Pretreatment Facility and High-Level Waste Vitrification Plant in the WTP. Borehole C4997 was drilled and logged to a total depth of 1428 ft below ground surface (bgs) on October 8, 2006, and was located approximately 150 ft from a recently cored borehole, designated as “C4998”. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) determined the locations for C4997, C4998, and other boreholes at the WTP in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Review Panel, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The total depth of Borehole C4997 was also determined by PNNL.

  14. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  15. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  16. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  17. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  18. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  19. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  20. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...

  1. Underwater Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

    It is well underwater established that sound waves, compared to electromagnetic waves, propagate long distances in the ocean. Hence, in the ocean as opposed to air or a vacuum, one uses sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) instead navigation and ranging (SONAR) of radar, acoustic communication instead of radio, and acoustic imaging and tomography instead of microwave or optical imaging or X-ray tomography. Underwater acoustics is the science of sound in water (most commonly in the ocean) and encompasses not only the study of sound propagation, but also the masking of sound signals by interfering phenomenon and signal processing for extracting these signals from interference. This chapter we will present the basics physics of ocean acoustics and then discuss applications.

  2. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  3. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  4. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  5. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  6. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  7. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  13. Between-hole acoustic surveying and monitoring of a granitic rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to present preliminary results of an acoustic monitoring study performed as part of a comprehensive rock mechanic and geophysics research program (Ref.20) associated with large-scale heater tests in an abandoned iron-ore mine in central Sweden. The investigation was performed in a fractured granitic rock mass at a sub-surface depth of 340 m, in a drift adjacent to the original iron-ore mine workings. Acoustic monitoring took place between four empty, dry, vertical boreholes of 10 m depth spaced in the vicinity of a vertical heater borehole in the floor of a drift.

  14. Simple, affordable and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hotstab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link

  15. Simple, affordable, and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2015-05-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost-effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. Here we report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerat) seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit), is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. In these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A stands for autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference); the CORK-B (B stands for bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and utilises a hot-stab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hot-stab connection from beneath in which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect porewater in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner

  16. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  17. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  18. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  19. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  20. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  1. High-precision multicomponent borehole deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-12-01

    An instrument capable of deep borehole measurement of vector plane strain to 0.3 nstrain and tilt to 1.0 nrad has been developed for deployment in crustal deformation and earthquake prediction studies. The instrument has been deployed in California where shear strains dominate the deformation. The 125-mm-diam package is grouted in 175-mm boreholes at depths of approximately 200 m. The wall thickness and the grout thickness are chosen to match instrument strength to expected rock parameters. The instrument is capable of flat response from dc to 10 Hz on any single channel. The electronics package is stable to three parts in 108 over the temperature range 10 to 45° C. Reliable shear strain data is available immediately on installation when simple volume strain meters show only bond curing effects or thermal recovery signals.

  2. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  3. Method and apparatus for determining the magnitude of components of measurements made from inside a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Wiggins, R.

    1989-02-28

    A method is described for determining values of the slowness of an earth formation as a function of depth from time measurements, comprising the steps of: detecting first motions in the waveforms related to a desired depth range to produce time measurements representative of the total travel time of an acoustic wave from the transmitter to a sonic receiver: defining for each time measurement a plurality of factors that make up the time measurement and include the travel time of the acoustic wave, through the borehole at the transmitter through successive preselectively sized depth intervals of the earth formation located between the transmitter, and the sonic receiver, and through the borehole at the sonic receiver; and defining coefficients for representative of the relative contributions of the different factors that make up each time measurement so as to define a first matrix of coefficients, one dimension of which is a function of the intervals extending along the depth range and another dimension of which is a function of the measurements as made along the depth range.

  4. Borehole fracture detection using magnetic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detecting fractures in a formation penetrated by a borehole wherein the fracture is first filled with a magnetic material and the formation then logged with an instrument that responds to the earth's magnetic field. The fracture can be filled with a magnetic material by including it in the drilling mud when the well is drilled and changing the mud system before logging. The logging tool can comprise a simple compass or a magnetometer.

  5. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  6. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.; Descz-Pan, M.

    1995-12-31

    We have assessed the feasibility of borehole to surface electromagnetic measurements for fluid injection monitoring. To do this we performed a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) experiment at the University of California Richmond Field Station where a saline water injection zone was created at a subsurface depth of 30 meters. The methodology used is quite similar to the conventional seismic (VSP) procedure for surface to borehole measurements. In our case however, the transmitter was located in a PVC cased borehole while the receivers were deployed on the surface. With a carefully designed system operating at 9.6 kHz we were able to make measurements accurate to 1 % in amplitude and 1 degree in phase. The data profiles at surface were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. Measurements were made at 5 m intervals. Although the VEMP process is quite vulnerable to near surface conductivity anomalies we readily detected the flat tabular target zone which was about 3 m thick and covered an area of about 120 M{sup 2}.

  7. A system for acoustical and optical analysis of encapsulated microbubbles at ultrahigh hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Zhushma, Aleksandr; Lebedeva, Natalia; Sen, Pabitra; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S; Dayton, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    Acoustics are commonly used for borehole (i.e., oil well) imaging applications, under conditions where temperature and pressure reach extremes beyond that of conventional medical ultrasonics. Recently, there has been an interest in the application of encapsulated microbubbles as borehole contrast agents for acoustic assessment of fluid composition and flow. Although such microbubbles are widely studied under physiological conditions for medical imaging applications, to date there is a paucity of information on the behavior of encapsulated gas-filled microbubbles at high pressures. One major limitation is that there is a lack of experimental systems to assess both optical and acoustic data of micrometer-sized particles data at these extremes. In this paper, we present the design and application of a high-pressure cell designed for acoustical and optical studies of microbubbles at hydrostatic pressures up to 27.5 MPa (271 atm). PMID:23742587

  8. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  9. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  10. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  11. Borehole Paleoclimatology: In search of a minimum depth criterion for terrestrial borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    One important uncertainty in borehole paleoclimatology that has been overlooked is the degree to which ground surface temperature (GST) reconstructions depend on the maximum depth of the profile. Because the vast majority of measured borehole temperature profiles are acquired from boreholes of opportunity, the maximum measurement depth in data used for paleoclimatic studies varies considerably (beginning at depths as shallow as 100-150 m and extending to depths of more than 1 km). The depth of the borehole is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. Here we illustrate how the minimum depth of a temperature-depth profile impacts the estimation of the climatic transient and the resultant GST reconstruction. In particular, we attempt to quantitatively illustrate the effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of borehole temperature logs of different depths. Our results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. We show that borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths provide the most robust GST reconstructions and are preferable for inferring past climatic variations at the ground surface. Furthermore, we find that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths

  12. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  14. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  15. Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

  16. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  17. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  18. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  20. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  1. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  2. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic

  3. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  4. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  5. Optical Seismometers: Borehole and Vault Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, J. D.; Berger, J.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed an interferometric seismometer which uses optics instead of electronics to infer ground motion. The sensor, assembled exclusively from glass and metal materials, could be deployed into deep boreholes where temperatures often exceed 150 °C. Our first prototype consists of a leaf-spring suspension and an optical-fiber-linked interferometer, which monitors vertical displacement of the seismic mass. Several years of testing and improvements have increased its performance at both low (e.g., tidal) and high (tens of Hz) frequencies. The prototype sensor performs as well as or better than most observatory grade seismometers and has an overall observed dynamic range of 109 or 30 bits of resolution (based on its observed noise floor and its maximum mass velocity). We have also built a simple horizontal component prototype which consists of a mass suspended from a vertical pendulum whose flexure is fabricated from a single block of material. Just as our vertical seismometer can serve as a gravity meter, the horizontal prototype can serve as a tiltmeter (both of their responses are flat to DC). Tests are currently being conducted with the new sensor in our Piñon Flat Seismic Test Facility (California). One advantage of our optical displacement transducer is its dynamic range, which relaxes the requirement that the horizontal component sensor be level, simplifying borehole installations. We have already achieved a dynamic range of ±5° and we expect that a range of ±10° is possible with some effort.

  6. Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapaah-Siakwan, S.; Gyau-Boakye, P.

    2000-08-01

    In Ghana, 68% of the population live in rural communities, which are scattered and remote. Groundwater is the most feasible source of potable water supply for most of these dispersed and remote settlements. To meet the present and future challenges of population expansion vis-à-vis the observed declining rainfall in most parts of Africa including Ghana, it is necessary to assess, efficiently manage, and utilize the groundwater resources. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe the hydrogeologic framework and analyze borehole yields as part of the groundwater-resources assessment of Ghana. The hydrogeologic units are broadly categorized as: (1) the Basement Complex (crystalline rocks), which underlies about 54% of the country; (2) the Voltaian System, which underlies about 45%; and (3) the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sedimentary strata (Coastal Provinces), which underlie the remaining 1% of the country. The Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces have higher groundwater potential than the Voltaian System. This is particularly significant, because the Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces underlie the most densely populated areas of the country and can hence be tapped for human use. The average borehole yields of the Basement Complex, the Coastal Provinces and the Voltaian System range from 2.7-12.7, 3.9-15.6, and 6.2-8.5 m3/h, respectively.

  7. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  8. Acoustic Tooth Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.

  9. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  10. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

  12. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  13. Dependence of Body Wave Velocity on Borehole Stress Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiayong; Man, Yuanpeng; Qi, Hui

    In order to develop ultrasonic method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses, we investigate the influence of stress concentration on the body-wave velocities around a borehole. First, the acoustoelasticity theory of finite-deformation solids yields a direct and explicit quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity, which reveals that the orientations of the maximum and minimum wave-velocity shifts at the borehole surface coincide with the directions of the minimum and maximum far-field principal stresses, respectively. Second, pulse-echo measurement of wave-velocity variations at the borehole surface in the sandstone sample under the biaxial compressional loadings is performed to validate the quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity. The consistence of the experimental results with the theoretical prediction means that the ultrasonic method based on acoustoelasticity theory could be a promising noncontact and non-destructive method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses.

  14. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  15. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  16. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  17. Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined.

  18. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  19. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1983-05-10

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  20. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1981-06-09

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  1. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  2. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  3. Multiple fracturing experiments: propellant and borehole considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1982-01-01

    The technology for multiple fracturing of a wellbore, using progressively burning propellants, is being developed to enhance natural gas recovery. Multiple fracturing appears especially attractive for stimulating naturally fractured reservoirs such as Devonian shales where it is expected to effectively intersect existing fractures and connect them to a wellbore. Previous experiments and modeling efforts defined pressure risetimes required for multiple fracturing as a function of borehole diameter, but identified only a weak dependence on peak pressure attained. Typically, from four to eight equally spaced major fractures occur as a function of pressure risetime and in situ stress orientation. The present experiments address propellant and rock response considerations required to achieve the desired pressure risetimes for reliable multiple fracturing.

  4. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis associated with a borehole supply.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Allaby, M; Crook, S; Casemore, D; Healing, T D; Soltanpoor, N; Hill, S; Hooper, W

    1995-06-23

    From 1 April to 31 May 1993, 64 cases of cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed within one district health authority. Forty were classified as primary cases, 35 of whom were clustered in an area supplied by a discrete public water supply that supplied the majority of homes in a large town. Most of the water in this supply is abstracted from boreholes and some is filtered before distribution. Households that received mains water from this supply were 15 times more likely to be affected than households nearby that received water from other sources. A case control study demonstrated a dose response relationship between consumption of water obtained from the town supply and risk of illness. Very low concentrations of cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in the water supply on four occasions several weeks after the outbreak. Environmental investigation failed to reveal a likely mechanism for contamination of the water supply. PMID:7613587

  5. Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

  6. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  7. Fast and slow flexural waves in a deviated borehole in homogeneous and layered anisotropic formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2010-04-01

    Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[

  8. Preliminary results of a seismic borehole test using downhole shaped charges at the DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.; Michelsen, F.

    1994-02-01

    Geophysical site characterization studies can be important steps in the process of designing and monitoring remediation at hazardous waste storage facilities. Use of seismic techniques for subsurface characterization at the DOE Hanford Site has been limited. One reason is the lack of borehole velocity control, and low-velocity sediments are highly attenuative. Consequently, standard techniques to provide velocity control are not adequate. Both Vertical Seismic Profiling and reversed VSP surveys are currently being investigated to provide velocity control and for subsurface imaging capabilities. Recently a jet perforating gun was used to perforate a doubled-cased borehole in the 200 West Area. Acoustic emissions were recorded from numerous depths to obtain velocity control for a previous surface survey conducted in the same area. Both P- and S-wave data were recorded simultaneously from multiple horizons using the DAS-1 seismograph and 3-component geophones. The data were analyzed for a variety of uses besides velocity control. Signal attenuation was studied as a function of source depth and offset distance to evaluate formation absorption while vertical resolution was determined from the frequency spectrum. Preliminary results indicate that adequate P-wave velocity control can be obtained even though the near-surface sediments are very attenuative. However, we conclude that the perforating gun produces little SH energy. Preliminary velocities indicate that reflection coefficients should be great enough to use surface techniques. Results from the frequency study suggest that a swept source for both surface and borehole surveys may be necessary to obtain required resolutions. Finally, signal attenuation as a function of formation facies suggest that seismic techniques may be useful in mapping perched water zones and for long term vadose zone monitoring.

  9. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  10. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  11. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-02-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 ybp. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  12. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  13. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  14. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  15. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  16. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  17. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  19. Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Fracture identification based on remote detection acoustic reflection logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gong; Li, Ning; Guo, Hong-Wei; Wu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Fracture identification is important for the evaluation of carbonate reservoirs. However, conventional logging equipment has small depth of investigation and cannot detect rock fractures more than three meters away from the borehole. Remote acoustic logging uses phase-controlled array-transmitting and long sound probes that increase the depth of investigation. The interpretation of logging data with respect to fractures is typically guided by practical experience rather than theory and is often ambiguous. We use remote acoustic reflection logging data and high-order finite-difference approximations in the forward modeling and prestack reverse-time migration to image fractures. First, we perform forward modeling of the fracture responses as a function of the fracture-borehole wall distance, aperture, and dip angle. Second, we extract the energy intensity within the imaging area to determine whether the fracture can be identified as the formation velocity is varied. Finally, we evaluate the effect of the fracture-borehole distance, fracture aperture, and dip angle on fracture identification.

  1. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  2. Status and recent results of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karg, Timo; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been deployed to study the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection in Antarctic ice around the South Pole. An array of four strings equipped with acoustic receivers and transmitters, permanently installed in the upper 500 m of boreholes drilled for the IceCube neutrino observatory, and a retrievable transmitter that can be used in the water filled holes before the installation of the IceCube optical strings are used to measure the ice acoustic properties. These include the sound speed and its depth dependence, the attenuation length, the noise level, and the rate and nature of transient background sources in the relevant frequency range from 10 to 100 kHz. SPATS is operating successfully since January 2007 and has been able to either measure or constrain all parameters. We present the latest results of SPATS and discuss their implications for future acoustic neutrino detection activities in Antarctica.

  3. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence; Beach, Kirk; Carter, Stephen; Chandler, Wayne; Curra, Francesco; Kaczkowski, Peter; Keilman, George; Khokhlova, Vera; Martin, Roy; Mourad, Pierre; Vaezy, Shahram

    2000-07-01

    In cases of severe injury, physicians speak of a "golden hour"—a brief grace period in which quickly applied, proper therapy can save the life of the patient. Much of this mortality results from exsanguination, i.e., bleeding to death—often from internal hemorrhage. The inability of a paramedic to treat breaches in the vascular system deep within the body or to stem the loss of blood from internal organs is a major reason for the high level of mortality associated with blunt trauma. We have undertaken an extensive research program to treat the problem of internal bleeding. Our approach is as follows: (a) We use scanning ultrasound to identify internal bleeding and hemorrhage, (b) we use ultrasound imaging to locate specific breaches in the vascular system, both from damaged vessels and gross damage to the capillary bed, and (c) we use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat the damaged region and to induce hemostasis. We present a general review of this research with some emphasis on the role of nonlinear acoustics.

  4. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  5. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  6. SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

  7. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  8. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  9. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  10. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  11. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  13. Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320°C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

  14. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  15. Deformation Monitoring by Borehole Geodetic Strainmeter in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Ergintav, Semih; Dogru, Asli; Yilmaz, Onur; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirik, Liz

    2015-04-01

    This project is aimed to study three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation through North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) in Marmara Region, Turkey. Within this project, two borehole observatories consisting of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, tiltmeters, and pore pressure sensors have been deployed in Istanbul. These installations have been supported by Istanbul Development Agency (ISTKA) (financially) and UNAVCO (technically). Istanbul, located near the most active parts of the North Anatolian Fault, has been monitored by different observing techniques such as seismic networks and continuous/survey-mode GPS networks for decades. Borehole strainmeters are very sensitive to deformation in the range of less than a month and can capture signals with superior precision at local spatial scales. In this project, it will be possible to determine the movements precisely which can not be monitored with available measurement systems in the middle and the eastern part of Marmara Sea through NAFS. Our long term objective is to build a borehole monitoring system in the region. By integrating various data obtained from borehole observatories, we expect to get a better understanding of dynamics in the western NAF. In this presentation, we introduce data and ongoing analysis obtained with strainmeters.

  16. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  17. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  18. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with sound visualization, acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-re verberation methods, both essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?

  19. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with "sound visualization," acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-reverberation methods, both essentialfor visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, "Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?"

  20. CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI: Overview and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Young, S. R.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Malin, P.; Shalev, E.; Hidayat, D.; Elsworth, D.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Miller, V.; Sparks, R.; Neuberg, J.; Bass, V.; Dunkley, P.; Edmonds, M.; Herd, R.; Jolly, A.; Norton, G.; Thompson, G.

    2003-12-01

    Project CALIPSO (Caribbean Andesite Lava Island-volcano Precision Seismo-geodetic Observatory) was developed in order to investigate the magmatic system at the exceedingly active Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat. The collaborative project involves a number of institutions acting in partnership with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), and is funded by NSF with a contribution to drilling costs provided by UK NERC. SHV remains active and dynamic after 7 years and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. Many aspects of andesite magmatic system dynamics remain poorly understood despite significant monitoring and research efforts, and CALIPSO is expected to improve our understanding of SHV and andesite systems generally. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC, Nov 02 to Mar 03. CALIPSO uses an integrated array of four strategically located 200-m boreholes, plus a few shallower holes and surface installations. The borehole instrument package is designed to have long life (decades) at moderately high temperatures. Each site includes a single-component,very broad band, Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a three-component seismometer (about 1 Hz to 1 kHz), a Pinnacle Technologies tiltmeter, and a surface CGPS station with choke ring antenna. At one site a new CIW hot-hole strainmeter design, involving hydraulic sensors and no downhole electronics, has been used for the first time anywhere. Data will be streamed from the remote borehole sites using FreeWave telemetry coupled with Quanterra A/D converters. The borehole observatory is being fully integrated into the surface monitoring networks of the MVO and other PSU/U Ark monitor systems, enhancing the existing CGPS and surface broadband seismic-acoustic networks. These instruments are intended to probe changes in the andesitic volcanic system and underlying mafic sources with unprecedented sensitivity. Cyclic activity at a variety of timescales has been a feature of SHV volcanism, involving seismicity

  1. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, is a rare benign tumor of the ... Acoustic Neuroma? An acoustic neuroma, known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that ...

  2. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  3. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  4. An evaluation of borehole flowmeters used to measure horizontal ground-water flow in limestones of Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John T.; Mandell, Wayne A.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Bayless, E. Randall; Hanson, Randall T.; Kearl, Peter M.; Kerfoot, William B.; Newhouse, Mark W.; Pedler, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Three borehole flowmeters and hydrophysical logging were used to measure ground-water flow in carbonate bedrock at sites in southeastern Indiana and on the westcentral border of Kentucky and Tennessee. The three flowmeters make point measurements of the direction and magnitude of horizontal flow, and hydrophysical logging measures the magnitude of horizontal flowover an interval. The directional flowmeters evaluated include a horizontal heat-pulse flowmeter, an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, and a colloidal borescope flowmeter. Each method was used to measure flow in selected zones where previous geophysical logging had indicated water-producing beds, bedding planes, or other permeable features that made conditions favorable for horizontal-flow measurements. Background geophysical logging indicated that ground-water production from the Indiana test wells was characterized by inflow from a single, 20-foot-thick limestone bed. The Kentucky/Tennessee test wells produced water from one or more bedding planes where geophysical logs indicated the bedding planes had been enlarged by dissolution. Two of the three test wells at the latter site contained measurable vertical flow between two or more bedding planes under ambient hydraulic head conditions. Field measurements and data analyses for each flow-measurement technique were completed by a developer of the technology or by a contractor with extensive experience in the application of that specific technology. Comparison of the horizontal-flow measurements indicated that the three point-measurement techniques rarely measured the same velocities and flow directions at the same measurement stations. Repeat measurements at selected depth stations also failed to consistently reproduce either flow direction, flow magnitude, or both. At a few test stations, two of the techniques provided similar flow magnitude or direction but usually not both. Some of this variability may be attributed to naturally occurring changes in

  5. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  6. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  7. Acoustic and Elastodynamic Redatuming for VSP Salt Dome Flank Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, R.; Willis, M.; Toksoz, N.

    2007-12-01

    We apply an extension of the concept of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) for imaging salt dome flanks using Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) data. We demonstrate its performance and capabilities on both synthetic acoustic and elastic seismic data from a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) model. This target-oriented strategy eliminates the need for the traditional complex process of velocity estimation, model building, and iterative depth migration to remove the effects of the salt canopy and surrounding overburden. In this study, we use data from surface shots recorded in a well from a walkaway VSP survey. The method, called redatuming, creates a geometry as if the source and receiver pairs had been located in the borehole at the positions of the receivers. This process generates effective downhole shot gathers without any knowledge of the overburden velocity structure. The resulting shot gathers are less complex since the VSP ray paths from the surface source are shortened and moved to be as if they started in the borehole, then reflected off the salt flank region and captured in the borehole. After redatuming, we apply multiple passes of prestack migration from the reference datum of the borehole. In our example, the first pass migration, using only simple vertical velocity gradient model, reveals the outline of the salt edge. A second pass of reverse-time prestack depth migration using the full, two-way wave equation, is performed with an updated velocity model that now consists of the velocity gradient and the salt dome. The second pass migration brings out the dipping sediments abutting the salt flank because these reflectors were illuminated by energy that bounced off the salt flank forming prismatic reflections.

  8. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  9. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  11. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  12. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  14. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  15. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  16. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  17. Acoustic attenuation logging using centroid frequency shift and amplitude ratio methods: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.

    1994-12-31

    The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.

  18. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  19. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  20. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  1. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  2. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  3. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and

  5. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  6. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  7. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  8. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  10. Acoustic Translation of an Acoustically Levitated Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus uses only one acoustic mode to move sample from one region of chamber to another. Sample heated and cooled quickly by translation between hot and cold regions of levitation chamber. Levitated sample is raised into furnace region by raising plunger. Frequency of sound produced by transducers adjusted by feedback system to maintain (102) resonant mode, which levitates sample midway between transducers and plunger regardless of plunger position.

  11. Mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    2001-05-09

    This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements on the mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rock. Artificial rock samples were fabricated by cementing sand and glass beads with sodium silicate binder. During uniaxial compression tests, the rock samples showed stress-strain behavior which was more similar to that of soils than competent rocks, exhibiting large permanent deformations with frictional slip. The mechanical behavior of the samples approached that of competent rocks as the amount of binder was increased. For very weak samples, acoustic waves propagating in these rocks showed very low velocities of less than 1000 m/sec for compressional waves. A borehole made within this weakly cemented rock exhibited a unique mode of failure that is called ''anti-KI mode fracture'' in this paper. The effect of cementation, grain type, and boundary conditions on this mode of failure was also examined experimentally.

  12. Acoustic logging on ultralow density cement bonded quality evaluation in cased hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Shang, X.; Chen, T.; Tao, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cementing operation after drilling boreholes ensures oil and gas to be extracted effectively and avoids oil spill events such as BP Mexico oil leakage events. However, the loss of cement in deep formation due to its high density happens and raises issues. In order to overcome this problem, ultralow density cement or gas-based cements are used more and more commonly in recent years. Current acoustic evaluation tools, used to determine the cement bond quality, are designed for conventional high density cement. Therefore, they are not capable to image the ultralow density cement, whose acoustic properties are similar to borehole drilling mud. In this paper, a new acoustic technique is developed to image the ultralow density cement behind case. Finite difference method and analytical methods are used to simulate the wave-field of cased borehole which ultralow density cement bonded on. Based on the simulations, the optimal parameters of the evaluation tool design are proposed including spacing (from source to the nearest receiver and between the two neighboring receiver), frequency of source.

  13. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  14. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  15. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  16. Study of temporal variations of seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation in boreholes exposed to natural deformation processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nilolay; Beloglasova, Nadegda; Bagenova, Evgenija; Vdovin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    The investigation of the correlation between the deformation processes, seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of the geo-environment is a timely problem due to many reasons. It is related to the discovery of the modulation effect of the high-frequency noise by the long-period deformation processes [1]. The possibility appeared to distinguish similar periods in the variations of the amplitude level of the seismic acoustic emission (SAE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) based on the known periodicities of the deformation processes. The investigation of the deformation processes is a complicated problem because the majority of currently applied methods give us information about deformations in the surface layer. In the conditions of the hierarchical block structure of the Earth's crust; such observations do not sufficiently reveal the distribution of deformations related to the accumulation and relaxation of stresses in the internal points of the medium. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of the SAE and EMR in the boreholes carries significant information about the deformation processes in the Earth's crust directly reflecting the actual stresses and the structure of the investigated rock massive [2]. Geodynamical active zones along boreholes are characterized by anomalous (maximum) SAE and EMR values, moreover they change in time [3]. Simultaneous operational measurements of seismic acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation were carried out in wells Kamchatskiy geodynamic testing ground and the Urals region. An analysis of amplitude-frequency spectra obtained by synchronous uninterrupted SAE and EMR measurements in boreholes allowed identifying latent periodicity of SAE and EMR signals and evaluating its connection with well-known deformation processes. As a result of realized investigations it was shown that simultaneous measurements of SAE and EMR in boreholes contain information on manifestation of deformation processes in fields

  17. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  18. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  19. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  1. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  2. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  3. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  5. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  6. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  7. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  8. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.; Everhart, A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scaled-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness-time semblance signal processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  9. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.K.; Everhart, A.H.

    1983-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scale-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness/timesemblance signal-processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  11. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  13. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  14. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  15. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  16. Acoustic dispersive prism.

    PubMed

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  17. Acoustic dispersive prism

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  18. Acoustic dispersive prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  19. Zero-Offset VSP in the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled borehole COSC-1. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this an approx. 2.5 km deep borehole, with nearly 100% core recovery, was drilled in the Scandinavian Caledonides, close to the town of Åre in western Jämtland/Sweden. The seismic survey consisted of a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment with receivers at the surface and in the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source (VIBSIST 3000) was used and activated over a period of 20 seconds as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. For each source point, 25 seconds of data were recorded. The wavefield was recorded in the borehole by 15 three-component receivers using a Sercel Slimwave geophone chain with an inter-tool spacing of 10 meters. The ZVSP was designed to result in a geophone spacing of 2 meters over the whole borehole length. The source was about 30 meters away from the borehole and thus, provides a poor geometry to rotate 3C-data in greater depths. For this reason, a check shot position was defined in about 1.9 km distance to the borehole. With this offset shots, it is possible to rotate the components of the 3C receivers and to concentrate the S-wave energy on one component and thus, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave events. This offset source point was activated periodically for certain depth positions of the geophone chain. The stacked ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Frequencies up to 150 Hz were recorded. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 meters depth. After rotating the components

  20. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  1. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  3. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  4. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  5. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  6. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  7. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  8. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  9. The challenge of acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, P.

    1981-01-01

    The various applications of acoustics, including sonar, ultrasonic examination of unborn foetuses and architectural applications, are briefly reviewed. Problems in traffic and industrial noise, auditorium design and explosive noise are considered in more detail. The educational aspects of acoustical science and technology are briefly considered.

  10. Laboratory investigation of borehole breakouts and Multi-step failure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Xiao-Ping; Mao, Ji-Zheng; Cui, Zhan-Tao

    1993-05-01

    Based on our experiment of borehole breakouts with a group of sandstone samples described in this paper, a multi-step failure model of borehole breakouts are proposed to quantitatively explain the relationship between the section shape of borehole breakouts and the state of crustal stress. In this model the borehole spalling is not only related to the state of stress at a single point but also the state of stress on its neighboring area. The comparison between the experimental results of borehole breakouts and the calculation results shows a good agreement.

  11. Highly directional acoustic receivers.

    PubMed

    Cray, Benjamin A; Evora, Victor M; Nuttall, Albert H

    2003-03-01

    The theoretical directivity of a single combined acoustic receiver, a device that can measure many quantities of an acoustic field at a collocated point, is presented here. The formulation is developed using a Taylor series expansion of acoustic pressure about the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system. For example, the quantities measured by a second-order combined receiver, denoted a dyadic sensor, are acoustic pressure, the three orthogonal components of acoustic particle velocity, and the nine spatial gradients of the velocity vector. The power series expansion, which can be of any order, is cast into an expression that defines the directivity of a single receiving element. It is shown that a single highly directional dyadic sensor can have a directivity index of up to 9.5 dB. However, there is a price to pay with highly directive sensors; these sensors can be significantly more sensitive to nonacoustic noise sources. PMID:12656387

  12. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  13. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  14. Acoustic integrated extinction

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time-dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency. PMID:27547100

  15. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  16. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  17. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  18. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  19. Ocean seismo-acoustics. Low-frequency underwater acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Akal, T.; berkson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on seismo-acoustic propagation in seawater and sea beds that includes theoretical developments, modelling and experiments, and fluctuations. Boundary scatteiring, seismo-acoustic waves and seismo-acoustic noise are discussed. Technology and new approaches in seismo-acoustic measurements are presented.

  20. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  1. Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

  2. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  3. Deriving historical total solar irradiance from lunar borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of deriving historical TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) from lunar borehole temperatures. As the Moon lacks Earth's dynamic features, lunar borehole temperatures are primarily driven by solar forcing. Using Apollo observed lunar regolith properties, we computed present-day lunar regolith temperature profiles for lunar tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions for two scenarios of solar forcing reconstructed by Lean (2000) and Wang et al. (2005). Results show that these scenarios can be distinguished by small but potentially detectable differences in temperature, on the order of 0.01 K and larger depending on latitude, within ~10 m depth of the Moon's surface. Our results provide a physical basis and guidelines for reconstructing historical TSI from data obtainable in future lunar exploration.

  4. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  5. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom; Barrash, Warren; Reboulet, Edward C; Johnson, Timothy C; Leven, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. PMID:19341370

  6. New UK in-situ stress orientation for northern England and controls on borehole wall deformation identified using borehole imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Fellgett, Mark W.; Waters, Colin N.

    2016-04-01

    The nascent development of a UK shale gas industry has highlighted the inadequacies of previous in-situ stress mapping which is fundamental to the efficacy and safety of potential fracturing operations. The limited number of stress inversions from earthquake focal plane mechanisms and overcoring measurements of in-situ stress in prospective areas increases the need for an up-to-date stress map. Borehole breakout results from 36 wells with newly interpreted borehole imaging data are presented. Across northern England these demonstrate a consistent maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) orientation of 150.9° and circular standard deviation of 13.1°. These form a new and quality assured evidence base for both industry and its regulators. Widespread use of high-resolution borehole imaging tools has facilitated investigation of micro-scale relationships between stress and lithology, facilitating identification of breakouts as short as 25 cm. This is significantly shorter than those identified by older dual-caliper logging (typically 1-10+ m). Higher wall coverage (90%+ using the highest resolution tools) and decreasing pixel size (down to 4mm vertically by 2° of circumference) also facilitates identification of otherwise undetectable sub-centimetre width Drilling Induced Tensile Fractures (DIFs). Examination of borehole imaging from wells in North Yorkshire within the Carboniferous Pennine Coal Measures Group has showed that even though the stress field is uniform, complex micro-stress relationships exist. Different stress field indicators (SFI) are significantly affected by geology with differing failure responses from adjacent lithologies, highlighted by borehole imaging on sub-metre scales. Core-log-borehole imaging integration over intervals where both breakouts and DIFs have been identified allows accurate depth matching and thus allows a synthesis of failure for differing lithology and micro-structures under common in-situ conditions. Understanding these

  7. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  8. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  9. Enhancement of Network Performance through Integration of Borehole Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, Edith; Plenkers, Katrin; Clinton, John; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the detection and characterisation of weak seismic events across northern Switzerland/southern Germany, the Swiss Digital Seismic Network has installed 10 new seismic stations during 2012 and 2013. The newly densified network was funded within a 10-year project by NAGRA and is expected to monitor seismicity with a magnitude of completeness Mc (ML) below 1.3 and provide high quality locations for all these events. The goal of this project is the monitoring of areas surrounding potential nuclear waste repositories, in order to gain a thorough understanding of the seismotectonic processes and consequent evaluation of the seimsic hazard in the region. Northern Switzerland lies in a molasse basin and is densely populated. Therefore it is a major challenge in this region to find stations with noise characteristics low enough to meet the monitoring requirements. The new stations include three borehole sites equipped with 1 Hz Lennartz LE3D-BH velocity sensors (depths between 120 and 160 m), which are at critical locations for the new network but at areas where the ambient noise at the surface is too high for convential surface stations. At each borehole, a strong motion seismometer is also installed at the surface. Through placing the seismometers at depth, the ambient noise level is significantly lowered - which means detection of smaller local and larger regional events is enhanced. We present here a comparison of the performance of each of the three borehole stations, reflecting on the improvement in noise compared to surface installations at these sites, as well as with other conventional surface stations within the network. We also demonstrate the benefits in the operation network performance, in terms of earthquakes detected and located, which arise from installing borehole stations with lower background noise.

  10. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  11. Non-contact infrared temperature measurements in dry permafrost boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Ralf; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Kaul, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    While planning the COAST Expedition to the Siberian Laptev Sea in 2005, the question of how to make a short equilibrium temperature measurement in a dry borehole arose. As a result, an infrared borehole tool was developed and used in three dry boreholes (up to 60.2 m deep) in the coastal transition zone from terrestrial to sub-sea permafrost near Mamontovy Klyk in the western Laptev Sea. A depth versus temperature profile was acquired with equilibration times of 50 × 10-3 s at each depth interval. Comparison with a common resistor string revealed an offset due to limitations of accuracy of the infrared technique and the influence of the probe's massive steel housing. Therefore it was necessary to calibrate the infrared sensor with a high precision temperature logger in each borehole. The results of the temperature measurements show a highly dynamic transition zone with temperature gradients up to -0.092°C/m and heat flow of -218 mW/m. A period of submergence of only 600 years the drilled sub-sea permafrost is approaching the overlying seawater temperature at -1.61°C with a temperature gradient of 0.021°C/m and heat flow of 49 mW/m. Further offshore, 11 km from the coastline, a temperature gradient of 0.006°C/m and heat flow of 14 mW/m occur. Thus the sub-sea permafrost in the Mamontovy Klyk region has reached a critical temperature for the presence of interstitial ice. The aim of this article is to give a brief feasibility study of infrared downhole temperature measurements and to present experiences and results of its successful application.

  12. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  13. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  14. Some Problems of modern acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character of acoustics is considered and its scientific, technological, economical and social implications, as well as the role of acoustics in creating new machines and equipment and improving the quality of products are outlined. Research beyond audible frequencies, as well as to extremely high acoustic intensities, which requires the development of a nonlinear acoustics is elaborated.

  15. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  16. A fast inversion method for interpreting borehole electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, K. H.; Wilt, M.

    2003-05-01

    A fast and stable inversion scheme has been developed using the localized nonlinear (LN) approximation to analyze electromagnetic fields obtained in a borehole. The medium is assumed to be cylindrically symmetric about the borehole, and to maintain the symmetry a vertical magnetic dipole is used as a source. The efficiency and robustness of an inversion scheme is very much dependent on the proper use of Lagrange multiplier, which is often provided manually to achieve a desired convergence. We utilize an automatic Lagrange multiplier selection scheme, which enhances the utility of the inversion scheme in handling field data. In this selection scheme, the integral equation (IE) method is quite attractive in speed because Green's functions, the most time consuming part in IE methods, are repeatedly re-usable throughout the selection procedure. The inversion scheme using the LN approximation has been tested to show its stability and efficiency using synthetic and field data. The inverted result from the field data is successfully compared with induction logging data measured in the same borehole.

  17. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Norbert Péter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  18. Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

  19. Acoustic rotation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Croonquist, A. P.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for acoustically controlled rotation of a levitated object, which avoids deformation of a levitated liquid object. Acoustic waves of the same wavelength are directed along perpendicular directions across the object, and with the relative phases of the acoustic waves repeatedly switched so that one wave alternately leads and lags the other by 90 deg. The amount of torque for rotating the object, and the direction of rotation, are controlled by controlling the proportion of time one wave leads the other and selecting which wave leads the other most of the time.

  20. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  1. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  2. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  3. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  4. Analysis of the acoustic response in water and sand of different fiber optic sensing cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Joachim; Facchini, Massimo; Lowell, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a highly promising technology to efficiently monitor assets for energy production and transportation, both off- and on-shore, such as boreholes, pipelines and risers. The aim of the hereby-presented measurements is to evaluate the sensitivity of the different optical fiber cables to acoustic signals in sand and water, independently from the DAS read-out unit type and manufacturer. Acoustic sensing cables specifically designed by BRUGG Cables are characterized and compared to standard telecommunication cables. The spectral response of each cable was quantified using an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The response was also measured with calibrated microphones in order to convert the measurements into absolute physical units (Pascal). The measurement campaign is part of an investigation program for a reliable DAS system, which comprises the sensing cable (including installation procedure), the interrogator unit and suitable software.

  5. Third Party Borehole Seismic Experiments During the Ocean Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.; Hoskins, H.; Bolmer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Third party borehole seismic experiments on the Ocean Drilling Program began with an oblique seismic experiment on Leg 102 at Site 418 in the Western Atlantic. Upper ocean crust here is characterized by a normal seismic layer 2 vertical velocity gradient, lateral velocity variations, azimuthal anisotropy, and azimuth dependent scattering. A normal incidence VSP was run on Leg 118 in the gabbro sequence at Hole 735B on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The vertical seismic velocity inferred from arrival times is similar to that observed horizontally by refraction in ocean layer 3, but attenuation is anomalously high, which prompted the hypothesis that the gabbro cored may not actually represent the bulk of Layer 3 material. The VSP data acquired at Hole 504B in the eastern equatorial Pacific on Legs 111 and 148 helped to constrain the P and S velocity structure at the site and showed that upper layer 3 at this site, at a depth of over 2 km into the crust, consisted of the lower portion of the sheeted dikes rather than gabbro. Both offset and normal incidence VSPs were run on Leg 164 to study the seismic velocity structure of gas hydrates on the Blake Ridge. A new innovation on ODP was the deployment of broadband seismometers in boreholes. Whereas the conventional VSPs and offset VSPs mentioned above operate in the frequency range from 1 to 100Hz, broadband seismometers are used in earthquake seismology and operate in the range from 0.001 to 10Hz. The first broadband seismometer test was carried out from the drill ship on Leg 128 in the Japan Sea. Subsequently 4 permanent broadband borehole seismic observatories were installed in the Western Pacific and Japan Trench on Legs 186, 191 and 195. The ODP era also saw the development of systems for re-entering boreholes from conventional research vessels after the drill ship left the site. Borehole seismic experiments and installations that used this wireline re-entry technology were carried out in DSDP Holes 534 (Blake

  6. Acoustic Neuroma Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Platinum Sponsors More from this sponsor... Platinum Sponsor Gold Sponsor University of Colorado Acoustic Neuroma Program Rocky Mountain Gamma Knife Center Gold Sponsor NYU Langone Medical Center Departments of Neurosurgery ...

  7. Acoustic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  8. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  9. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  10. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  11. Acoustic communication by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Many ant species communicate acoustically by stridulating, i.e., running a scraper over a washboard-like set of ridges. Ants appear to be insensitive to airborne sound. Consequently, myrmecologists have concluded that the stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. This has tended to diminish the importance of acoustic communication, and it is currently believed that ant communication is based almost exclusively on pheromones, with acoustic communication assigned an almost nonexistent role. However, it can be shown that acoustic communication between ants is effective only if the medium is air and not the substrate. How, then, is it possible for ants to appear deaf to airborne sound and yet communicate through the air? An explanation is provided in a paper [R. Hickling and R. L. Brown, ``Analysis of acoustic communication by ants,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1920-1929 (2000)]. Ants are small relative to the wavelengths they generate. Hence, they create a near field, which is characterized by a major increase in sound velocity (particle velocity of sound) in the vicinity of the source. Hair sensilla on the ants' antennae respond to sound velocity. Thus, ants are able to detect near-field sound from other ants and to exclude extraneous airborne sound.

  12. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (<2000 Hz) acoustic methods for medical diagnosis. Several candidate methods of pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (p<0.0001). The ratio of acoustic energy between low (<220 Hz) and mid (550-770 Hz) frequency bands was significantly different in the control (healthy) and pneumothorax states (p<0.0001). The second approach measured breath sounds in the absence of an external acoustic input. Pneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (p<0.01 for each). Finally, chest percussion was implemented. Pneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  13. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  14. Limitations of the acoustic approximation for seismic crosshole tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelli, Stefano; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2010-05-01

    Modelling and inversion of seismic crosshole data is a challenging task in terms of computational resources. Even with the significant increase in power of modern supercomputers, full three-dimensional elastic modelling of high-frequency waveforms generated from hundreds of source positions in several boreholes is still an intractable task. However, it has been recognised that full waveform inversion offers substantially more information compared with traditional travel time tomography. A common strategy to reduce the computational burden for tomographic inversion is to approximate the true elastic wave propagation by acoustic modelling. This approximation assumes that the solid rock units can be treated like fluids (with no shear wave propagation) and is generally considered to be satisfactory so long as only the earliest portions of the recorded seismograms are considered. The main assumption is that most of the energy in the early parts of the recorded seismograms is carried by the faster compressional (P-) waves. Although a limited number of studies exist on the effects of this approximation for surface/marine synthetic reflection seismic data, and show it to be generally acceptable for models with low to moderate impedance contrasts, to our knowledge no comparable studies have been published on the effects for cross-borehole transmission data. An obvious question is whether transmission tomography should be less affected by elastic effects than surface reflection data when only short time windows are applied to primarily capture the first arriving wavetrains. To answer this question we have performed 2D and 3D investigations on the validity of the acoustic approximation for an elastic medium and using crosshole source-receiver configurations. In order to generate consistent acoustic and elastic data sets, we ran the synthetic tests using the same finite-differences time-domain elastic modelling code for both types of simulations. The acoustic approximation was

  15. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  16. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  17. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  18. Near-Term Developments in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1989-03-21

    The DOE Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling geothermal wells. Current projects include: R & D in lost circulation control, high temperature instrumentation, underground imaging with a borehole radar insulated drill pipe development for high temperature formations, and new technology for data transmission through drill pipe that can potentially greatly improve data rates for measurement while drilling systems. In addition to this work, projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization are managed. During 1988, GDO projects include developments in five areas: high temperature acoustic televiewer, pneumatic turbine, urethane foam for lost circulation control, geothermal drill pipe protectors, an improved rotary head seals.

  19. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  20. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  1. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  2. An integrated profile of natural fractures in gas-bearing shale complex (Pomerania, Poland): based on structural profiling of oriented core and borehole logging data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Stadtmuller, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir; Lis-Śledziona, Anita

    2016-04-01

    Natural fractures in gas-bearing shales has significant impact on reservoir stimulation and increase of exploitation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress are crucial for propagation of technological hydraulic fractures. Having access to continuous borehole core profile and modern geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin (Poland) we were able to compare the consistency of structural interpretation of several data sets. Although, final aim of our research is to optimize the method of fracture network reconstruction on a reservoir scale, at a recent stage we were focused on quantitative characterization of tectonic structures in a direct vicinity of boreholes. The data we have, cover several hundred meters long profiles of boreholes from the Ordovician and Silurian shale complexes. Combining different sets of data we broaden the scale of observation from borehole core (5 cm radius), through XRMI scan of a borehole wall (10 cm radius), up to penetration of a signal of an acoustic dipole logging (several tens of cm range). At the borehole core we examined the natural tectonic structures and mechanically significant features, like: mineral veins, fractured veins, bare fractures, slickensides, fault zones, stylolites, bedding plane and mechanically contrasting layers. We have also noticed drilling-induced features like centerline fractures and core disking, controlled by a recent tectonic stress. We have measured the orientation of fractures, their size, aperture and spacing and also describe the character of veins and tried to determine the stress regime responsible for fault slippage and fracture propagation. Wide range of analyzed features allowed us to discriminate fracture sets and reconstruct tectonic evolution of the complex. The most typical for analyzed shale complexes are steep and vertical strata-bound fractures that create an orthogonal joint

  3. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  4. In-situ borehole seismic monitoring of injected CO2 at the FrioSite

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy funded Frio Brine Pilot provided an opportunity to test borehole seismic monitoring techniques in a saline formation in southeast Texas. A relatively small amount of CO{sub 2} was injected (about 1600 tons) into a thin injection interval (about 6 m thick at 1500 m depth). Designed tests included time-lapse vertical seismic profile (VSP) and crosswell surveys which investigated the detectability of CO{sub 2} with surface-to-borehole and borehole-to-borehole measurement.

  5. Flow modeling and permeability estimation using borehole flow logs in heterogeneous fractured formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of flow in the vicinity of a borehole is used to analyze flowmeter data obtained with high-resolution flowmeters. The model is designed to (1) precisely compute flow in a borehole, (2) approximate the effects of flow in surrounding aquifers on the measured borehole flow, (3) allow for an arbitrary number (N) of entry/exit points connected to M < N far-field aquifers, and (4) be consistent with the practical limitations of flowmeter measurements such as limits of resolution, typical measurement error, and finite measurement periods. The model is used in three modes: (1) a quasi-steady pumping mode where there is no ambient flow, (2) a steady flow mode where ambient differences in far-field water levels drive flow between fracture zones in the borehole, and (3) a cross-borehole test mode where pumping in an adjacent borehole drives flow in the observation borehole. The model gives estimates of transmissivity for any number of fractures in steady or quasi-steady flow experiments that agree with straddle-packer test data. Field examples show how these cross-borehole-type curves can be used to estimate the storage coefficient of fractures and bedding planes and to determine whether fractures intersecting a borehole at different locations are hydraulically connected in the surrounding rock mass.

  6. A numerical investigation of head waves and leaky modes in fluid- filled boreholes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Cheng, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Although synthetic borehole seismograms can be computed for a wide range of borehole conditions, the physical nature of shear and compressional head waves in fluid-filled boreholes is poorly understood. Presents a series of numerical experiments designed to explain the physical mechanisms controlling head-wave propagation in boreholes. These calculations demonstrate the existence of compressional normal modes equivalent to shear normal modes, or pseudo-Rayleigh waves, with sequential cutoff frequencies spaced between the cutoff frequencies for the shear normal modes.-from Authors

  7. Borehole Breakouts in Berea Sandstone Reveal a New Fracture Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.

    - Vertical drilling experiments in high-porosity (22% and 25%) Berea sandstone subjected to critical true triaxial far-field stresses, in which σH (maximum horizontal stress) >σv (vertical stress) >σh (least horizontal stress), revealed a new and non-dilatant failure mechanism that results in thin and very long tabular borehole breakouts that have the appearance of fractures, and which counterintuitively develop orthogonally to σH. These breakouts are fundamentally different from those induced in crystalline rocks, as well as limestones and medium-porosity Berea sandstone. Breakouts in these rocks are typically dog-eared in shape, a result of dilatant multi-cracking tangential to the hole and subparallel to the maximum far-field horizontal stress σH, followed by progressive buckling and shearing of detached rock flakes created by the cracks. In the high-porosity sandstone a narrow layer of grains compacted normal to σH is observed just ahead of the breakout tip. This layer is nearly identical to ``compaction bands'' observed in the field. It is suggested that when a critical tangential stress concentration is reached along the σh spring line at the borehole wall, grain bonding breaks down and a compaction band is formed normal to σH. Debonded loose grains are expelled into the borehole, assisted by the circulating drilling fluid. As the breakout tip advances, the stress concentration ahead of it persists or may even increase, extending the compaction band, which in turn leads to breakout lengthening.

  8. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20°C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to

  9. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  10. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  11. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  12. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  14. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  15. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  16. Free Oscillations of the Earth Observed by Closed Borehole Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagidani, T.; Kano, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have made observations of pore pressure under undrained condition by an airtight borehole penetrating an artesian, or a confined aquifer in the Atotsu tunnel excavated in the Kamioka Mine, central Japan. We confirmed that the relation between pore pressure change and stress change is a zero-order system for a wide range of frequency and that stress change, strictly speaking strain change, induced within the rock mass shared by the skeletal framework of rock and pore fluid. Examining the pore pressure measured using closed borehole wells, we detected free oscillations of the Earth excited by earthquakes such as the 26 December 2004 Mw = 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (epicentral distance Δ= 51.1°) and other M7 to 8 events. We made a Fourier analysis of the pore pressure record produced by the earthquakes. We examined (1) whether the closed borehole has sufficient sensitivity to identify free oscillations, and (2) how the closed borehole responds to spheroidal modes and troidal modes. The poroelastic theory predicts that pore pressure should respond only to spheroidal modes since pore pressure change is proportional to volumetric strain change. No pore pressure response is expected from shear strain that is produced by troidal modes. However, it is controversial whether pore pressure responds to shear strain, since phases corresponding S- and Love waves have been usually detected on hydroseismograms. We calculated the spectrum of the 24 hours time windows (86400 points) with shifting the time window by 1 hour from 24 hours before the origin time of the event to 24 hours after that. The spectrum peaks correspond to entire fundamental spheroidal modes were clearly observed. The Q of each mode is calculated by fitting the decay of the amplitude of each peak. The peaks whose eigenfrequencies are less than 1 mHz (0S0, 0S2, 0S3, 0S4, and 0S5) clearly appear 5 hours after the event. On the other hand, no spectrum peak corresponding troidal modes was observed

  17. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O.

    1992-01-14

    This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic waves received by the accelerometer sensors form the seismic source; heating elements secured to, but electrically insulated from, the framework; power means for supplying power to the heating elements; and meltable substance encapsulating the seismic detector.

  18. Analysis of evaporation in nuclear waste boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1993-12-31

    We present an analysis of evaporation in a nuclear waste borehole in unsaturated tuff. In unsaturated tuff, water in contact with a waste container will evaporate due to the difference in vapor pressure between water in a flat film and water held in rock pores with curved interfaces. Decay heat will also enhance evaporation. It is important to study evaporation in a potential geologic repository of nuclear waste in unsaturated rock because the corrosion of waste containers is increased with liquid water. For radionuclides other than gaseous ones, their release from waste solids requires liquid water.

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  20. Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G.; Meyyappan, A.

    1988-07-01

    The technology for "seeing" with sound has an important and interesting history. Some of nature's creatures have been using sound waves for many millenia to image otherwise unobservable objects. The human species, lacking this natural ability, have overcome this deficiency by developing several different ultrasonic imaging techniques. acoustic microscopy is one such technique, which produces high resolution images of detailed structure of small objects in a non-destructive fashion. Two types of acoustic microscopes have evolved for industrial exploitation. They are the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). In this paper, we review the principles of SLAM and describe how we use elements of SLAM to realize the scanning tomographic acoustic microscope (STAM). We describe the data acquisition process and the image reconstruction procedure. We also describe techniques to obtain projection data from different angles of wave incidence enabling us to reconstruct different planes of a complex specimen tomo-graphically. Our experimental results show that STAM is capable of producing high-quality high-resolution subsurface images.

  1. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  2. Acoustic energy shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A suspended mass is shaped by melting all or a selected portion of the mass and applying acoustic energy in varying amounts to different portions of the mass. In one technique for forming an optical waveguide slug, a mass of oval section is suspended and only a portion along the middle of the cross-section is heated to a largely fluid consistency. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite edges of the oval mass to press the unheated opposite edge portions together so as to form bulges at the middle of the mass. In another technique for forming a ribbon of silicon for constructing solar cells, a cylindrical thread of silicon is drawn from a molten mass of silicon, and acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the molten thread to flatten it into a ribbon.

  3. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.

  5. Latticed pentamode acoustic cloak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    We report in this work a practical design of pentamode acoustic cloak with microstructure. The proposed cloak is assembled by pentamode lattice made of a single-phase solid material. The function of rerouting acoustic wave round an obstacle has been demonstrated numerically. It is also revealed that shear related resonance due to weak shear resistance in practical pentamode lattices punctures broadband feature predicted based on ideal pentamode cloak. As a consequence, the latticed pentamode cloak can only conceal the obstacle in segmented frequency ranges. We have also shown that the shear resonance can be largely reduced by introducing material damping, and an improved broadband performance can be achieved. These works pave the way for experimental demonstration of pentamode acoustic cloak. PMID:26503821

  6. Seamount acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  7. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  8. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Parra, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  9. Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, John Francis

    One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

  10. Borehole measurement of NMR characteristics of earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, R.L.; Griffin, D.D.; Fukuhara, M.; Sezginer, A.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes an apparatus for investigating a characteristic of earth formation traversed by a borehole, comprising a body adapted for longitudinal movement in the borehole. It comprises: first means for producing a static and substantially homogeneous magnetic field in a volume of the formation directed to one side of the body; second means for radiating the volume of formation with oscillating magnetic fields and for detecting signals representative of nuclear magnetic precession of a population of particles in the formation, the second means including: antenna means; circuit means for driving the antenna means to produce oscillating magnetic fields at a frequency in the neighborhood of the NMR precession frequency of the population of particles in the volume of the formation; and Q-switching means for rapidly switching the Q value of the antenna means form a very high value to a low value, the Q-switching means comprising a field effect transistor, and optical-electronic means for switching the transistor on and off.

  11. Development of a borehole directional antenna at VHF

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Scott, L.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a directional VHF (30 MH/sub z/ to 300 MH/sub z/) antenna to physically fit into a small borehole is investigated. The study was carried out in a test chamber containing a 15 cm diameter borehole surrounded by sand which can be moistened with water or brine to adjust the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. Electric field measurements were made for an eccentrically positioned monopole, a corner reflector and a two-element array for a number of possible configurations. Using an eccentric monopole, the best beamwidth obtained was 78/sup 0/ and the front-to-back ratio was 3.5 db. The front-to-back ratio was increased to 8.5 db when two element arrays were arranged in such a way as to provide the optimum radiation pattern. However, the best results were achieved using a corner reflector: 60/sup 0/ beamwidth and 13 db front-to-back ratio. It is concluded that a directional VHF antenna can be designed for downhole application.

  12. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  13. Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

    1994-05-01

    Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

  14. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  15. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  17. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  18. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  19. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  20. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  1. Acoustic and electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Douglas Samuel

    Theoretical models of EM and acoustic wave propagation are presented in an introductory text intended for intermediate-level science and engineering students. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical representation of acoustic and EM fields, the special theory of relativity, radiation, resonators, waveguide theory, refraction, surface waves, scattering by smooth objects, diffraction by edges, and transient waves. The mathematical tools required for the analysis (Bessel, Legendre, Mathieu, parabolic-cylinder, and spheroidal functions; tensor calculus; and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals) are covered in appendices.

  2. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  3. Electromechanical acoustic liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Cattafesta, III, Louis N. (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikazu (Inventor); Horowitz, Stephen Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-resonator-based system responsive to acoustic waves includes at least two resonators, each including a bottom plate, side walls secured to the bottom plate, and a top plate disposed on top of the side walls. The top plate includes an orifice so that a portion of an incident acoustical wave compresses gas in the resonators. The bottom plate or the side walls include at least one compliant portion. A reciprocal electromechanical transducer coupled to the compliant portion of each of the resonators forms a first and second transducer/compliant composite. An electrical network is disposed between the reciprocal electromechanical transducer of the first and second resonator.

  4. Acoustic loading in straight pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on linear one-dimensional acoustics, a geometrically perfect elastic waveguide would respond to an oscillatory internal pressure only in the presence of path deflectors (elbows and branches). In practice, a significant elasto-acoustic interaction results even in straight conduits as a result of manufacturing tolerances. A theoretical model of the linear acoustic loading in straight pipes is developed that considers the acoustic wave distortion due to perimeter, axial, and wall thickness nonuniformities.

  5. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher; Chu, S. Reynold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles to ensure compliance with acoustic requirements and thus provide a safe and habitable acoustic environment for the crews, and to validate developed models via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements.

  6. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  7. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  8. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  9. Acoustical Environment of School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzroy, Dariel; Reid, John L.

    A field study was made of the acoustical environment of schools designed for increased flexibility to meet the spatial requirements of new teaching methods. The object of the study was to define all the criteria for the acoustical design of this type of classroom including the determination of--(1) minimum acoustical separation required for…

  10. ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITZROY, DARIEL; REID, JOHN L.

    A FIELD STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOLS DESIGNED FOR INCREASED FLEXIBILITY TO MEET THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS OF NEW TEACHING METHODS. THE OBJECT OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEFINE ALL THE CRITERIA FOR THE ACOUSTICAL DESIGN OF THIS TYPE OF CLASSROOM INCLUDING THE DETERMINATION OF--(1) MINIMUM ACOUSTICAL SEPARATION REQUIRED FOR…

  11. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  12. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more » Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM

  13. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned

  14. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  15. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun; Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  16. Tectonic Stress at IODP Site C0002, Nankai, Indicated by Borehole Resistivity Images of Two Boreholes Drilled under Different Annulus Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Song, I.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    We constrain tectonic stresses at IODP Site C0002 in Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan, using two boreholes drilled under different annular borehole pressures (APRS). The two vertical boreholes (C0002A and C0002F drilled in 2007 and 2012, respectively) are located at the southern margin of Kumano forearc, respectively drilled to depths of 1402 and 2006 mbsf. The two holes were drilled in different drilling modes: riserless drilling for C0002A and riser drilling for C0002F. Both holes were image-logged soon after drill bit penetration using the logging-while-drilling resistivity-at-the-bit tool, from which we detected borehole wall stress indicators (borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DITFs)). We assume that there should be little difference in tectonic stress between the two drill sites (70 m apart) and between the two time frames (5 years apart). The resistivity images show that the patterns of borehole wall failures are dramatically contrast between the two boreholes, i.e., clear and continuous breakouts and no DITFs in C0002A, whereas intermittent breakouts and DITFs in C0002F, which is due to the difference in APRS between the two holes. Such different APRS and associated distinct borehole wall failure patterns enable us to constrain possible tectonic stress states that can produce observed borehole wall failures for given APRS conditions. Our analysis shows that while the stress states in the forearc sediments are predominantly in favor of normal faulting, those in the deeper accretionary prism are favorable for either strike-slip or reverse faulting although the differential stresses (between least and major horizontal principal stresses) are not significantly large. Throughout the drill depths, the borehole wall failures indicate that the maximum horizontal principal stress direction is NE-SW (perpendicular to subduction direction). However, a series of borehole wall failure zones at 1930-1980 mbsf, if they are breakouts, may

  17. Strengthening borehole configuration from the retaining roadway for greenhouse gas reduction: a case study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  18. Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic methods -- System design and field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, L.C.; Wilt, M.J.; Tseng, H.W.

    1995-05-01

    Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) methods are an attractive alternative to Surface-based EM methods for a variety of environmental and engineering applications. They have improved sensitivity to the subsurface resistivity distribution because of the closer proximity to the area of interest offered by the borehole for the source or the receiver. For the borehole-to-surface measurements the source is in the borehole and the receivers are on the surface. On the other hand, for the surface-to-borehole methods, the source is on the surface and the receiver is in a borehole. The surface-to-borehole method has an added advantage since measurements are often more accurate due to the lower noise environment for the receiver. For these methods, the source can be a grounded electric dipole or a vertical magnetic dipole source. An added benefit of these techniques is field measurements are made using a variety of arrays where the system is tailored to the application and where one can take advantage of some new imaging methods. In this short paper the authors describe the application of the borehole-to-surface method, discuss benefits and shortcomings, and give two field examples where they have been used for underground imaging. The examples were the monitoring of a salt water flooding of an oil well and the characterization of a fuel oil spill.

  19. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  20. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  1. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  2. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  3. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  4. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  5. 30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250... Approval Program § 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes? (a) For fixed or bottom-founded platforms and tension leg platforms, your maximum distance from any foundation pile to a soil boring...

  6. 30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250... Platforms and Structures Platform Approval Program § 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes? (a... foundation pile to a soil boring must not exceed 500 feet. (b) For deepwater floating platforms which...

  7. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  8. Strengthening Borehole Configuration from the Retaining Roadway for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  9. Microfiber interferometric acoustic transducers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxin; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-04-01

    Acoustic and ultrasonic transducers are key components in biomedical information technology, which has been applied in medical diagnosis, photoacoustic endoscopy and photoacoustic imaging. In this paper, an acoustic transducer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fabricated in a microscaled optical fiber is demonstrated. The transducer is fabricated by forming two wavelength-matched Bragg gratings into the microfiber by means of side illumination with a 193nm excimer laser. When placing the transducer in water, the applied acoustic signal periodically changes the refractive index (RI) of the surrounding liquid and modulates the transmission of the FPI based on the evanescent-field interaction between the liquid and the transmitting light. As a result, the acoustic signal can be constructed with a tunable laser whose output wavelength is located at the slope of the inteferometric fringes. The transducer presents a sensitivity of 10 times higher than the counterparts fabricated in conventional singlemode fibers and has great potential to achieve higher resolution for photoacoustic imaging due to its reduced diameter. PMID:24718189

  10. Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

  11. Acoustics in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Miriam J.

    This paper explores the issues associated with poor acoustics within schools. Additionally, it suggests remedies for existing buildings and those under renovation, as well as concerns for new construction. The paper discusses the effects of unwanted noise on students in terms of physiological, motivational, and cognitive influences. Issues are…

  12. Teaching acoustics online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    We teach an introductory course in musical acoustics using a Blackboard. Students in this course can access audio and video materials as well as printed materials on our course website. All homework is submitted online, as are tests and examinations. The students also have the opportunity to use synchronous and asynchronous chat rooms to discuss the course with each other or with the instructors.

  13. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  14. COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...

  15. Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

    2006-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

  16. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  17. Application of advanced geophysical logging methods in the characterization of a fractured-sedimentary bedrock aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Singha, Kamini; Haeni, F. Peter

    2002-01-01

    An integrated suite of advanced geophysical logging methods was used to characterize the geology and hydrology of three boreholes completed in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in Ventura County, California. The geophysical methods included caliper, gamma, electromagnetic induction, borehole deviation, optical and acoustic televiewer, borehole radar, fluid resistivity, temperature, and electromagnetic flowmeter. The geophysical logging 1) provided insights useful for the overall geohydrologic characterization of the bedrock and 2) enhanced the value of information collected by other methods from the boreholes including core-sample analysis, multiple-level monitoring, and packer testing. The logged boreholes, which have open intervals of 100 to 200 feet, penetrate a sequence of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with bedding striking 220 to 250 degrees and dipping 15 to 40 degrees to the northwest. Fractures intersected by the boreholes include fractures parallel to bedding and fractures with variable strike that dip moderately to steeply. Two to three flow zones were detected in each borehole. The flow zones consist of bedding-parallel or steeply dipping fractures or a combination of bedding-parallel fractures and moderately to steeply dipping fractures. About 75 to more than 90 percent of the measured flow under pumped conditions was produced by only one of the flow zones in each borehole.

  18. Pulsed-wave perturbation in a borehole during the pneumohydraulic method of coal extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zorin, A.N.; Didenko, A.T.; Kolesnikov, V.G.; Pirich, Y.T.

    1985-05-01

    One recent trend in coal extraction includes methods based on the artificial creation of a blowout-hazard situation, and the use of the phenomenon of blowout for the extraction of coal through boreholes in the form of coal pulp or friable material. The blowout-hazard situation and blowout are produced by the injection into the borehole of liquid and gas under high pressure, with subsequent sharp pressure drop, leading to the generation of demolition waves and the removal of the coal through the borehole. To apply these methods it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the conditions and parameters of the pulsed action on the seam through the borehole, leading to demolition of the coal. The authors study here the conditions of propagation of the pulse generated by the pressure drop, along the gas-liquid column, in the borehole.

  19. Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

  20. Accurate directional borehole drilling: A case study at Navajo Dam, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kravits, S.J.; Sainato, A.; Finfinger, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The project was conducted at Navajo Dam in northern New Mexico at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation. The trajectory of the demonstration borehole was designed to intercept a 5-ft-radius target at the final or ''punchout'' distance of 885 ft. The elevation of the borehole at this distance was within the target; the borehole punchout coordinates were 8.81 ft southwest of the target. As a result of the demonstrated accuracy, the Bureau of Reclamation has contracted the accurate drilling of boreholes as long as 600 ft from the inside of a short tunnel, to control water seepage in the right abutment. This resulted in a substantial cost savings compared to the original plan of constructing a longer tunnel and drilling 150-ft boreholes.

  1. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  2. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  3. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  4. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, the sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.

  5. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, themore » sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.« less

  6. Preliminary results from hot-water drilling and borehole instrumentation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, S. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Box, J.; Todd, J.; Bougamont, M. H.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) pressurised hot water was used to drill four 603-616 m-long boreholes to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet at a site located 30 km from the calving front of fast-flowing, marine-terminating Store Glacier (70° N, ~1000 m elevation). Despite the boreholes freezing within hours, 4 wired sensor strings were successfully deployed in three of the boreholes. These included a thermistor string to obtain the englacial temperature profile installed in the same borehole as a string of tilt sensors to measure borehole deformation, and two sets of water pressure, electrical conductivity and turbidity sensors installed just above the bed in separate, adjacent boreholes. The boreholes made a strong hydrological connection to the bed during drilling, draining rapidly to ~80 m below the ice surface. The connection of subsequent boreholes was observed as a perturbation in water pressure and temperature recorded in neighbouring boreholes, indicating an effective hydrological sub- or en-glacial connection between them. The sensors, which were all connected to loggers at the surface by cables, operated for between ~30 and 80+ days before indications suggest that the cables stretched and then snapped - with the lowermost sensors failing first. The records obtained from these sensors reveal (i) high and increasing water pressure varying diurnally close to overburden albeit of a small magnitude (~ 0.3 m H2O), (ii) a minimum extrapolated englacial temperature of -21°C with above-freezing temperatures at the bed, and (iv) high rates of internal deformation and strain increasing towards the bed as evinced by increasing tilt with depth. These borehole observations are complemented by GPS measurements of ice motion, meteorological data, and seismic and radar surveys.

  7. Borehole-plugging-materials development program report 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A.; Buck, A.D.

    1982-03-01

    This report gives data for up to 4 yr of durability studies of grout mixtures developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Samples from field plugging oprations for the Bell Canyon Test and ERDA-10 drill hole are included in the durability studies. Specimens of all mixtures had phase compositions and microstructures that were considered normal for these mixtures at these ages. All of the specimens of the various grout mixtures (including fresh and salt water) have maintained acceptable physical properties as measured by compressive strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and permeability to water. Porosity and expansion data under differing exposure conditions have been collected for continuing study evaluation. The work was performed and is continuing at the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi.

  8. Borehole-to-tunnel seismic measurements for monitoring radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi; Marelli, Stefano; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Green, Alan A.

    2010-05-01

    Countries worldwide are seeking solutions for the permanent removal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from the environment. A critical aspect of the disposal process is the need to be confident that the deposited waste is safely isolated from the biosphere. Seismic monitoring represents a potentially powerful option for non-intrusive monitoring. We conducted a series of seismic experiments in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory, where a 1-m-diameter microtunnel simulates a HLRW repository downsized by a factor of ~2.5. The host rock at the laboratory is Opalinus clay. We had access to two water-filled boreholes, each approximately 25 m long (diameter 85 mm), with one inclined upwards and the other downwards. Both were oriented perpendicular to the microtunnel axis. Seismic signals were generated in the down-dipping borehole with a high frequency P-wave sparker source every 25 cm and received every 25 cm in the upward-dipping borehole on a multi-channel hydrophone chain. Additionally, the seismic waves were recorded on eight (100 Hz natural frequency) vertical-component geophones, mounted and distributed around the circumference of the microtunnel wall within the plane of the boreholes. The experiment was repeated with different material filling the microtunnel and under different physical conditions. So far, six experiments have been performed when the microtunnel was: a. air-filled with a dry excavation damage zone (EDZ), b. dry sand-filled with a dry EDZ, c. 50 % water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (experiments were conducted immediately after half water-saturation), d. water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (immediately after full water-saturation), e. water-saturated sand-filled with water-saturated EDZ (water was in the microtunnel for about 9.5 months), and f. water-saturated sand-filled and pressurized to 6 bars with water-saturated EDZ. The results of our seismic experiments yield several

  9. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, Beth

    2015-04-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  10. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem

  11. Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar

  12. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  13. OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar from the KTB borehole, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnik, Benny; Jain, Mayank; Herman, Frédéric; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew S.; Valla, Pierre G.; Preusser, Frank; King, Georgina E.; Chen, Reuven; Lowick, Sally E.; Kook, Myungho; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2015-08-01

    The reconstruction of thermal histories of rocks (thermochronometry) is a fundamental tool both in Earth science and in geological exploration. However, few methods are currently capable of resolving the low-temperature thermal evolution of the upper ∼2 km of the Earth's crust. Here we introduce a new thermochronometer based on the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspar, and validate the extrapolation of its response to artificial radiation and heat in the laboratory to natural environmental conditions. Specifically, we present a new detailed Na-feldspar IRSL thermochronology from a well-documented thermally-stable crustal environment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). There, the natural luminescence of Na-feldspar extracted from twelve borehole samples (0.1-2.3 km depth, corresponding to 10-70 °C) can be either (i) predicted within uncertainties from the current geothermal gradient, or (ii) inverted into a geothermal palaeogradient of 29 ± 2 °C km-1, integrating natural thermal conditions over the last ∼65 ka. The demonstrated ability to invert a depth-luminescence dataset into a meaningful geothermal palaeogradient opens new venues for reconstructing recent ambient temperatures of the shallow crust (<0.3 Ma, 40-70 °C range), or for studying equally recent and rapid transient cooling in active orogens (<0.3 Ma, >200 °C Ma-1 range). Although Na-feldspar IRSL is prone to field saturation in colder or slower environments, the method's primary relevance appears to be for borehole and tunnel studies, where it may offer remarkably recent (<0.3 Ma) information on the thermal structure and history of hydrothermal fields, nuclear waste repositories and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  15. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  16. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  17. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  18. Radiosurgery of acoustic neurinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, J.C.; Lunsford, L.D.; Coffey, R.J.; Linskey, M.E.; Bissonette, D.J.; Maitz, A.H.; Kondziolka, D. )

    1991-01-15

    Eighty-five patients with acoustic neurinomas underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with the gamma unit at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA) during its first 30 months of operation. Neuroimaging studies performed in 40 patients with more than 1 year follow-up showed that tumors were smaller in 22 (55%), unchanged in 17 (43%), and larger in one (2%). The 2-year actuarial rates for preservation of useful hearing and any hearing were 46% and 62%, respectively. Previously undetected neuropathies of the trigeminal (n = 12) and facial nerves (n = 14) occurred 1 week to 1 year after radiosurgery (median, 7 and 6 months, respectively), and improved at median intervals of 13 and 8 months, respectively, after onset. Hearing loss was significantly associated with increasing average tumor diameter (P = 0.04). No deterioration of any cranial nerve function has yet developed in seven patients with average tumor diameters less than 10 mm. Radiosurgery is an important treatment alternative for selected acoustic neurinoma patients.

  19. Acoustic methodology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  20. Acoustic tractor beam.

    PubMed

    Démoré, Christine E M; Dahl, Patrick M; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system. PMID:24836252