Science.gov

Sample records for acoustic field measurements

  1. Relation between near field and far field acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bies, D. A.; Scharton, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of determining the far field directivity of an acoustic source located in a reverberant environment, such as a wind tunnel, are investigated analytically and experimentally. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance is illustrated; and the spatial extent of the hydrodynamic and geometric near fields, the far field, and the reverberant field are described. A previously-prosposed analytical technique for predicting the far field directivity of the acoustic source on the basis of near field data is investigated. Experiments are conducted with small acoustic sources and an analysis is performed to determine the variation with distance from the source of the directionality of the sound field. A novel experiment is conducted in which the sound pressure measured at various distances from an acoustic driver located in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel is crosscorrelated with the driver excitation voltage.

  2. Field Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter in Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.; Na, Jeong K.; Yost, William T.; Kessel, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustics techniques were used to measure fatigue in turbine blades in a power generation plant. The measurements were made in the field using a reference based measurement technique, and a reference sample previously measured in the laboratory. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter showed significant increase with fatigue in the blades, as indicated by service age and areas of increased stress. The technique shows promise for effectively measuring fatigue in field applications and predicting subsequent failures.

  3. Field-Deployable Acoustic Digital Systems for Noise Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Wright, Kenneth D.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Smith, Charlie D.

    2000-01-01

    Langley Research Center (LaRC) has for years been a leader in field acoustic array measurement technique. Two field-deployable digital measurement systems have been developed to support acoustic research programs at LaRC. For several years, LaRC has used the Digital Acoustic Measurement System (DAMS) for measuring the acoustic noise levels from rotorcraft and tiltrotor aircraft. Recently, a second system called Remote Acquisition and Storage System (RASS) was developed and deployed for the first time in the field along with DAMS system for the Community Noise Flight Test using the NASA LaRC-757 aircraft during April, 2000. The test was performed at Airborne Airport in Wilmington, OH to validate predicted noise reduction benefits from alternative operational procedures. The test matrix was composed of various combinations of altitude, cutback power, and aircraft weight. The DAMS digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone site and can be located up to 2000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 10 microphones is recorded on a Jaz disk and is analyzed post-test by microcomputer system. The RASS digitizes and stores acoustic inputs at the microphone site that can be located up to three miles from the base station and can compose a 3 mile by 3 mile array of microphones. 16-bit digitized data from the microphones is stored on removable Jaz disk and is transferred through a high speed array to a very large high speed permanent storage device. Up to 30 microphones can be utilized in the array. System control and monitoring is accomplished via Radio Frequency (RF) link. This paper will present a detailed description of both systems, along with acoustic data analysis from both systems.

  4. A field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, David L.; Wright, Kenneth D., II; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    A field deployable digital acoustic measurement system was developed to support acoustic research programs at the Langley Research Center. The system digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone, which can be located up to 1000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage, and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 12 microphones is recorded on high density 8mm tape and is analyzed post-test by a microcomputer system. Synchronous and nonsynchronous sampling is available with maximum sample rates of 12,500 and 40,000 samples per second respectively. The high density tape storage system is capable of storing 5 gigabytes of data at transfer rates up to 1 megabyte per second. System overall dynamic range exceeds 83 dB.

  5. Field Assessment of Acoustic-Doppler Based Discharge Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The use of equipment based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun a field validation of the instruments currently (2002) available for making discharge measurements from a moving boat in streams of various sizes. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI2 and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made by the use of a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures with the acoustic instruments at each site during data collection. The discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with the discharges measured with Price AA meters and the current USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating. Additional analysis of the data collected indicates that the coefficient of variation of the discharge measurements consistently was less for the RD Instruments, Inc. Rio Grandes than it was for the SonTek/YSI RiverSurveyors. The bottom-tracking referenced measurement had a lower coefficient of variation than the differentially corrected global positioning system referenced measurements. It was observed that the higher frequency RiverSurveyors measured a moving bed more often than the lower frequency Rio Grandes. The detection of a moving bed caused RiverSurveyors to be consistently biased low when referenced to bottom tracking. Differentially corrected global positioning system data may be used to remove the bias observed in the bottom-tracking referenced measurements.

  6. Acoustic temperature measurement in a rocket noise field.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Jarom H; Gee, Kent L; Ellsworth, John E

    2010-05-01

    A 1 μm diameter platinum wire resistance thermometer has been used to measure temperature fluctuations generated during a static GEM-60 rocket motor test. Exact and small-signal relationships between acoustic pressure and acoustic temperature are derived in order to compare the temperature probe output with that of a 3.18 mm diameter condenser microphone. After preliminary plane wave tests yielded good agreement between the transducers within the temperature probe's ∼2 kHz bandwidth, comparison between the temperature probe and microphone data during the motor firing show that the ±∼3 K acoustic temperature fluctuations are a significant contributor to the total temperature variations.

  7. Acoustic temperature measurement in a rocket noise field.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Jarom H; Gee, Kent L; Ellsworth, John E

    2010-05-01

    A 1 μm diameter platinum wire resistance thermometer has been used to measure temperature fluctuations generated during a static GEM-60 rocket motor test. Exact and small-signal relationships between acoustic pressure and acoustic temperature are derived in order to compare the temperature probe output with that of a 3.18 mm diameter condenser microphone. After preliminary plane wave tests yielded good agreement between the transducers within the temperature probe's ∼2 kHz bandwidth, comparison between the temperature probe and microphone data during the motor firing show that the ±∼3 K acoustic temperature fluctuations are a significant contributor to the total temperature variations. PMID:21117711

  8. Nonperturbing measurements of spatially distributed underwater acoustic fields using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

    PubMed

    Harland, Andy R; Petzing, Jon N; Tyrer, John R

    2004-01-01

    Localized changes in the density of water induced by the presence of an acoustic field cause perturbations in the localized refractive index. This relationship has given rise to a number of nonperturbing optical metrology techniques for recording measurement parameters from underwater acoustic fields. A method that has been recently developed involves the use of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) targeted at a fixed, nonvibrating, plate through an underwater acoustic field. Measurements of the rate of change of optical pathlength along a line section enable the identification of the temporal and frequency characteristics of the acoustic wave front. This approach has been extended through the use of a scanning LDV, which facilitates the measurement of a range of spatially distributed parameters. A mathematical model is presented that relates the distribution of pressure amplitude and phase in a planar wave front with the rate of change of optical pathlength measured by the LDV along a specifically orientated laser line section. Measurements of a 1 MHz acoustic tone burst generated by a focused transducer are described and the results presented. Graphical depictions of the acoustic power and phase distribution recorded by the LDV are shown, together with images representing time history during the acoustic wave propagation.

  9. Applications of digital holography in visualized measurement of acoustic and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Li, Enpu; Sun, Weiwei; Di, Jianglei

    2010-03-01

    Digital holography allows recording the hologram using digitally imaging devices such as CCD, and reconstructing the holographic image by numerically simulating the diffraction of the hologram. Its main advantages are by which one can directly obtain the complex amplitude distribution of the object field, so that more impersonally measure the detail information of the object field, such as the distribution of the refractive index changing in crystals induced by light irradiation, deformation of the object surface, particle distribution, as well as acoustic field, flow field and temperature distribution in air. In this paper, we summarize the principle and some of our experimental results on the applications of digital holography in visualized measurement of acoustic standing wave (acoustic levitation field), plasma plume and water flow (Karman vortex street) fields.

  10. Applications of digital holography in visualized measurement of acoustic and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Li, Enpu; Sun, Weiwei; di, Jianglei

    2009-12-01

    Digital holography allows recording the hologram using digitally imaging devices such as CCD, and reconstructing the holographic image by numerically simulating the diffraction of the hologram. Its main advantages are by which one can directly obtain the complex amplitude distribution of the object field, so that more impersonally measure the detail information of the object field, such as the distribution of the refractive index changing in crystals induced by light irradiation, deformation of the object surface, particle distribution, as well as acoustic field, flow field and temperature distribution in air. In this paper, we summarize the principle and some of our experimental results on the applications of digital holography in visualized measurement of acoustic standing wave (acoustic levitation field), plasma plume and water flow (Karman vortex street) fields.

  11. Field evaluation of boat-mounted acoustic Doppler instruments used to measure streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The use of instruments based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun field validation of the instruments used to make discharge measurements from a moving boat. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made using a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures concurrent with the acoustic instruments at each site. Discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with discharges measured with Price AA current meters and the USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating.

  12. Single-shot measurements of the acoustic field of an electrohydraulic lithotripter using a hydrophone array

    PubMed Central

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad A.; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Filoux, Erwan; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Piezopolymer-based hydrophone arrays consisting of 20 elements were fabricated and tested for use in measuring the acoustic field from a shock-wave lithotripter. The arrays were fabricated from piezopolymer films and were mounted in a housing to allow submersion into water. The motivation was to use the array to determine how the shot-to-shot variability of the spark discharge in an electrohydraulic lithotripter affects the resulting focused acoustic field. It was found that the dominant effect of shot-to-shot variability was to laterally shift the location of the focus by up to 5 mm from the nominal acoustic axis of the lithotripter. The effect was more pronounced when the spark discharge was initiated with higher voltages. The lateral beamwidth of individual, instantaneous shock waves were observed to range from 1.5 mm to 24 mm. Due to the spatial variation of the acoustic field, the average of instantaneous beamwidths were observed to be 1 to 2 mm narrower than beamwidths determined from traditional single-point measurements that average the pressure measured at each location before computing beamwidth. PMID:23654419

  13. Measurement of transient acoustic fields using a single-shot pressure-sensitive paint system.

    PubMed

    Disotell, Kevin J; Gregory, James W

    2011-07-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) system capable of measuring high-frequency acoustic fields with non-periodic, acoustic-level pressure changes is described. As an optical measurement technique, PSP provides the experimenter with a global distribution of pressure on a painted surface. To demonstrate frequency response and enhanced sensitivity to pressure changes, a PSP system consisting of a polymer∕ceramic matrix binder with platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) as the oxygen probe was applied to a wall inside an acoustic resonance cavity excited at 1.3 kHz. A data acquisition technique based on the luminescent decay lifetime of the oxygen sensors excited by a single pulse of light afforded the ability to capture instantaneous pressure fields with no phase-averaging. Superimposed wave-like structures were observed with a wavelength corresponding to a 4.7% difference from the theoretical value for a sound wave emanating from the speaker. High sound pressure cases upwards of 145 dB (re 20 μPa) exhibited skewed nodal lines attributed to a nonlinear acoustic field. The lowest sound pressure level of 125.4 dB--corresponding to an amplitude of 52.7 Pa, or approximately 0.05% of standard sea-level atmospheric pressure--showed that the paint could resolve the spatial details of the mode shape at the given resonance condition.

  14. Measurement of transient acoustic fields using a single-shot pressure-sensitive paint system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disotell, Kevin J.; Gregory, James W.

    2011-07-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) system capable of measuring high-frequency acoustic fields with non-periodic, acoustic-level pressure changes is described. As an optical measurement technique, PSP provides the experimenter with a global distribution of pressure on a painted surface. To demonstrate frequency response and enhanced sensitivity to pressure changes, a PSP system consisting of a polymer/ceramic matrix binder with platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) as the oxygen probe was applied to a wall inside an acoustic resonance cavity excited at 1.3 kHz. A data acquisition technique based on the luminescent decay lifetime of the oxygen sensors excited by a single pulse of light afforded the ability to capture instantaneous pressure fields with no phase-averaging. Superimposed wave-like structures were observed with a wavelength corresponding to a 4.7% difference from the theoretical value for a sound wave emanating from the speaker. High sound pressure cases upwards of 145 dB (re 20 μPa) exhibited skewed nodal lines attributed to a nonlinear acoustic field. The lowest sound pressure level of 125.4 dB—corresponding to an amplitude of 52.7 Pa, or approximately 0.05% of standard sea-level atmospheric pressure—showed that the paint could resolve the spatial details of the mode shape at the given resonance condition.

  15. Measurement of transient acoustic fields using a single-shot pressure-sensitive paint system.

    PubMed

    Disotell, Kevin J; Gregory, James W

    2011-07-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) system capable of measuring high-frequency acoustic fields with non-periodic, acoustic-level pressure changes is described. As an optical measurement technique, PSP provides the experimenter with a global distribution of pressure on a painted surface. To demonstrate frequency response and enhanced sensitivity to pressure changes, a PSP system consisting of a polymer∕ceramic matrix binder with platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) as the oxygen probe was applied to a wall inside an acoustic resonance cavity excited at 1.3 kHz. A data acquisition technique based on the luminescent decay lifetime of the oxygen sensors excited by a single pulse of light afforded the ability to capture instantaneous pressure fields with no phase-averaging. Superimposed wave-like structures were observed with a wavelength corresponding to a 4.7% difference from the theoretical value for a sound wave emanating from the speaker. High sound pressure cases upwards of 145 dB (re 20 μPa) exhibited skewed nodal lines attributed to a nonlinear acoustic field. The lowest sound pressure level of 125.4 dB--corresponding to an amplitude of 52.7 Pa, or approximately 0.05% of standard sea-level atmospheric pressure--showed that the paint could resolve the spatial details of the mode shape at the given resonance condition. PMID:21806232

  16. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  17. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  18. Quantitative measurement of ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Hanayama, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of an ultrasound field with various exposure sequences is necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of various ultrasound applications in medicine. The most common method used to measure an ultrasound pressure field, that is, hydrophone scanning, requires a long scanning time and potentially disturbs the field. This may limit the efficiency of developing applications of ultrasound. In this study, an optical phase contrast method enabling fast and noninterfering measurements is proposed. In this method, the modulated phase of light caused by the focused ultrasound pressure field is measured. Then, a computed tomography (CT) algorithm used to quantitatively reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) pressure field is applied. For a high-intensity focused ultrasound field, a new approach that combines the optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography was attempted. First, the optical measurement of focused ultrasound was rapidly performed over the field near a transducer. Second, the nonlinear propagation of the measured ultrasound was simulated. The result of the new approach agreed well with that of the measurement using a hydrophone and was improved from that of the phase contrast method alone with phase unwrapping.

  19. Measurement and modeling of the acoustic field near an underwater vehicle and implications for acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Paul A; D'Spain, Gerald L

    2007-08-01

    The performance of traditional techniques of passive localization in ocean acoustics such as time-of-arrival (phase differences) and amplitude ratios measured by multiple receivers may be degraded when the receivers are placed on an underwater vehicle due to effects of scattering. However, knowledge of the interference pattern caused by scattering provides a potential enhancement to traditional source localization techniques. Results based on a study using data from a multi-element receiving array mounted on the inner shroud of an autonomous underwater vehicle show that scattering causes the localization ambiguities (side lobes) to decrease in overall level and to move closer to the true source location, thereby improving localization performance, for signals in the frequency band 2-8 kHz. These measurements are compared with numerical modeling results from a two-dimensional time domain finite difference scheme for scattering from two fluid-loaded cylindrical shells. Measured and numerically modeled results are presented for multiple source aspect angles and frequencies. Matched field processing techniques quantify the source localization capabilities for both measurements and numerical modeling output.

  20. Acoustic field characterization of the Duolith: measurements and modeling of a clinical shock wave therapy device.

    PubMed

    Perez, Camilo; Chen, Hong; Matula, Thomas J; Karzova, Maria; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2013-08-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) uses acoustic pulses to treat certain musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper the acoustic field of a clinical portable ESWT device (Duolith SD1) was characterized. Field mapping was performed in water for two different standoffs of the electromagnetic head (15 or 30 mm) using a fiber optic probe hydrophone. Peak positive pressures at the focus ranged from 2 to 45 MPa, while peak negative pressures ranged from -2 to -11 MPa. Pulse rise times ranged from 8 to 500 ns; shock formation did not occur for any machine settings. The maximum standard deviation in peak pressure at the focus was 1.2%, indicating that the Duolith SD1 generates stable pulses. The results compare qualitatively, but not quantitatively with manufacturer specifications. Simulations were carried out for the short standoff by matching a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov equation to the measured field at a plane near the source, and then propagating the wave outward. The results of modeling agree well with experimental data. The model was used to analyze the spatial structure of the peak pressures. Predictions from the model suggest that a true shock wave could be obtained in water if the initial pressure output of the device were doubled.

  1. Acoustic field characterization of the Duolith: Measurements and modeling of a clinical shock wave therapy device

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Camilo; Chen, Hong; Matula, Thomas J.; Karzova, Maria; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) uses acoustic pulses to treat certain musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper the acoustic field of a clinical portable ESWT device (Duolith SD1) was characterized. Field mapping was performed in water for two different standoffs of the electromagnetic head (15 or 30 mm) using a fiber optic probe hydrophone. Peak positive pressures at the focus ranged from 2 to 45 MPa, while peak negative pressures ranged from −2 to −11 MPa. Pulse rise times ranged from 8 to 500 ns; shock formation did not occur for any machine settings. The maximum standard deviation in peak pressure at the focus was 1.2%, indicating that the Duolith SD1 generates stable pulses. The results compare qualitatively, but not quantitatively with manufacturer specifications. Simulations were carried out for the short standoff by matching a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov equation to the measured field at a plane near the source, and then propagating the wave outward. The results of modeling agree well with experimental data. The model was used to analyze the spatial structure of the peak pressures. Predictions from the model suggest that a true shock wave could be obtained in water if the initial pressure output of the device were doubled. PMID:23927207

  2. Upcoming new international measurement standards in the field of building acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goydke, Hans

    2002-11-01

    The extensively completed revision of most of the ISO measurement standards in building acoustics mainly initiated by the European Commissions demand for harmonized standards emphasized the insight that the main goal to avoid trade barriers between the countries can only be reached when the standards sufficiently and comprehensively cover the field when they are related to the actual state of the art and when they are sufficiently related to practice. In modern architecture one can observe the rapid change in the use of building materials, for instance regarding the use of glass. Lightweight constructions as well as heavyweight building elements with additional linings are increasingly in common use and unquestionably there are consequences to be considered regarding the ascertainment of sound insulation properties. Besides others, International Standardization is unsatisfactory regarding the assessment of noise in buildings from waste water installations, in the low frequency area and in general regarding the expression of uncertainty of measurements. Intensity measurements in building acoustics, rainfall noise assessment, estimation of sound insulation, impulse response measurement methods, assessment of sound scattering are examples of upcoming standards.

  3. Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Phillips, D. B.; Barnes, A. C.

    2014-04-21

    Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5 μm silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8 MHz standing wave, λ = 220 μm, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2 nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

  4. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  5. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  6. Field evaluation of shallow-water acoustic doppler current profiler discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water staff and USGS Water Science employees began testing the StreamPro, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) for shallow-water discharge measurements. Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro in December of 2003. The StreamPro is designed to make a "moving boat" discharge measurement in streams with depths between 0.15 and 2 m. If the StreamPro works reliably in these conditions, it will allow for use of ADCPs in a greater number of streams than previously possible. Evaluation sites were chosen to test the StreamPro over a range of conditions. Simultaneous discharge measurements with mechanical and other acoustic meters, along with stable rating curves at established USGS streamflow-gaging stations, were used for comparisons. The StreamPro measurements ranged in mean velocity from 0.076 to 1.04 m/s and in discharge from 0.083 m 3/s to 43.4 m 3/s. Tests indicate that discharges measured with the StreamPro compare favorably to the discharges measured with the other meters when the mean channel velocity is greater than 0.25 m/s. When the mean channel velocity is less than 0.25 m/s, the StreamPro discharge measurements for individual transects have greater variability than those StreamPro measurements where the mean channel velocity is greater than 0.25 m/s. Despite this greater variation in individual transects, there is no indication that the StreamPro measured discharges (the mean discharge for all transects) are biased, provided that enough transects are used to determine the mean discharge. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  7. Acoustics, computers and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchard, James J.

    2003-10-01

    The human ear has created a high standard for the requirements of acoustical measurements. The transient nature of most acoustical signals has limited the success of traditional volt meters. Professor Hixson's pioneering work in electroacoustical measurements at ARL and The University of Texas helped set the stage for modern computer-based measurements. The tremendous performance of modern PCs and extensive libraries of signal processing functions in virtual instrumentation application software has revolutionized the way acoustical measurements are made. Today's analog to digital converters have up to 24 bits of resolution with a dynamic range of over 120 dB and a single PC processor can process 112 channels of FFTs at 4 kHz in real time. Wavelet technology further extends the capabilities for analyzing transients. The tools available for measurements in speech, electroacoustics, noise, and vibration represent some of the most advanced measurement tools available. During the last 50 years, Professor Hixson has helped drive this revolution from simple oscilloscope measurements to the modern high performance computer-based measurements.

  8. The measurement of geodesic acoustic mode magnetic field oscillations in J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, T.; Wu, J.; Shen, H. G.; Deng, T. J.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-10-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) magnetic field oscillations have been investigated using three-dimension magnetic probe and Langmuir probe arrays in the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The probe arrays are placed on the two top windows of tokamak, separated toroidally. Inside the LCFS, GAM shows apparent oscillations in floating potential. In contrast, GAM magnetic field oscillations are not significant in raw magnetic fields signals. Using toroidal correlation technique, the GAM magnetic field oscillations are distinguished from ambient magnetic field. The amplitudes of three dimension GAM magnetic field fluctuations, as well as the dependence with local plasma parameters such as safety factor and plasma beta, are coincident with theoretical predictions. And its toroidal symmetry mode structure, i.e. n = 0, is identified. Furthermore, the GAM current sheet, in which GAM oscillates, is firstly verified with magnetic probes arrays in different radial positions, which may help us to understand the radial structure of GAM. Supported by NNSFC (Nos. 10990210, 10990211, 10335060, 10905057 and 11375188), CPSF (No. 20080440104), YIF (No. WK2030040019) and KIPCAS (No. kjcx-yw-n28).

  9. Acoustic velocity measurement by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry: Development of an Extended Kalman Filter and validation in free-field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duff, Alain; Plantier, Guy; Valière, Jean C.; Gazengel, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    A signal processing technique, based on the use of an Extended Kalman Filter, has been developed to measure sound fields by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry in weak flow. This method allows for the parametric estimation of both the acoustic particle and flow velocity for a forced sine-wave excitation where the acoustic frequency is known. The measurements are performed from the in-phase and the quadrature components of the Doppler downshifted signal thanks to an analog quadrature demodulation technique. Then, the estimated performance is illustrated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations obtained from synthesized signals and compared with asymptotic and analytical forms for the Cramer-Rao Bounds. Results allow the validity domain of the method to be defined and show the availability for free-field measurements in a large range. Finally, an application based on real data obtained in free field is presented.

  10. Acoustical measurements of sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit inside an historical opera house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shin-Ichi; Prodi, Nicola; Sakai, Hiroyuki

    2001-05-01

    To clarify the relationship of the sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit, we conducted acoustical measurements in a typical historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale of Ferrara, Italy. Orthogonal factors based on the theory of subjective preference and other related factors were analyzed. First, the sound fields for a singer on the stage in relation to the musicians in the pit were analyzed. And then, the sound fields for performers in the pit in relation to the singers on the stage were considered. Because physical factors vary depending on the location of the sound source, performers can move on the stage or in the pit to find the preferred sound field.

  11. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  12. Characterization of Transducer Performance and Narrowband Transient Ultrasonic Fields in Metals by Rayleigh-Sommerfeld Backpropagation of Compression Acoustic Waves Measured with Double-Pulsed Tv Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Ángel F.; Fernández, José L.; Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; López-Vázquez, J. Carlos

    2014-10-01

    This article presents a method aimed at the characterization of the narrowband transient acoustic field radiated by an ultrasonic plane transducer into a homogeneous, isotropic and optically opaque prismatic solid, and the assessment of the performance of the acoustic source. The method relies on a previous technique based on the full-field optical measurement of an acoustic wavepacket at the surface of a solid and its subsequent numerical backpropagation within the material. The experimental results show that quantitative transversal and axial profiles of the complex amplitude of the beam can be obtained at any plane between the measurement and excitation surfaces. The reconstruction of the acoustic field at the transducer face, carried out on a defective transducer model, shows that the method could also be suitable for the nondestructive testing of the performance of ultrasonic sources. In all cases, the measurements were performed with the transducer working under realistic loading conditions.

  13. Application of acoustic doppler current profilers for measuring three-dimensional flow fields and as a surrogate measurement of bedload transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conaway, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have been in use in the riverine environment for nearly 20 years. Their application primarily has been focused on the measurement of streamflow discharge. ADCPs emit high-frequency sound pulses and receive reflected sound echoes from sediment particles in the water column. The Doppler shift between transmitted and return signals is resolved into a velocity component that is measured in three dimensions by simultaneously transmitting four independent acoustical pulses. To measure the absolute velocity magnitude and direction in the water column, the velocity magnitude and direction of the instrument must also be computed. Typically this is accomplished by ensonifying the streambed with an acoustical pulse that also provides a depth measurement for each of the four acoustic beams. Sediment transport on or near the streambed will bias these measurements and requires external positioning such as a differentially corrected Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Although the influence of hydraulic structures such as spur dikes and bridge piers is typically only measured and described in one or two dimensions, the use of differentially corrected GPS with ADCPs provides a fully three-dimensional measurement of the magnitude and direction of the water column at such structures. The measurement of these flow disturbances in a field setting also captures the natural pulsations of river flow that cannot be easily quantified or modeled by numerical simulations or flumes. Several examples of measured three-dimensional flow conditions at bridge sites throughout Alaska are presented. The bias introduced to the bottom-track measurement is being investigated as a surrogate measurement of bedload transport. By fixing the position of the ADCP for a known period of time the apparent velocity of the streambed at that position can be determined. Initial results and comparison to traditionally measured bedload values are presented. These initial

  14. Quantitative measurement of in-plane acoustic field components using surface-mounted fiber sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Richard O.; Dhawan, Rajat R.; Gunther, Michael F.; Murphy, Kent A.

    1993-01-01

    Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors have been used to obtain calibrated, quantitative measurements of the in-plane displacement components associated with the propagation of ultrasonic elastic stress waves on the surfaces of solids. The frequency response of the sensor is determined by the internal spacing between the two reflecting fiber endface surfaces which form the Fabry-Perot cavity, a distance which is easily controlled during fabrication. With knowledge of the material properties of the solid, the out-of-plane displacement component of the wave may also be determined, giving full field data.

  15. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys. PMID:27176512

  16. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3 σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  17. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  18. An Acoustical Comparison of Sub-Scale and Full-Scale Far-Field Measurements for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Jared; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, members of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Fluid Dynamics Branch and Wyle Labs measured far-field acoustic data during a series of three Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) horizontal static tests conducted in Promontory, Utah. The test motors included the Technical Evaluation Motor 13 (TEM-13), Flight Verification Motor 2 (FVM-2), and the Flight Simulation Motor 15 (FSM-15). Similar far-field data were collected during horizontal static tests of sub-scale solid rocket motors at MSFC. Far-field acoustical measurements were taken at multiple angles within a circular array centered about the nozzle exit plane, each positioned at a radial distance of 80 nozzle-exit-diameters from the nozzle. This type of measurement configuration is useful for calculating rocket noise characteristics such as those outlined in the NASA SP-8072 "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." Acoustical scaling comparisons are made between the test motors, with particular interest in the Overall Sound Power, Acoustic Efficiency, Non-dimensional Relative Sound Power Spectrum, and Directivity. Since most empirical data in the NASA SP-8072 methodology is derived from small rockets, this investigation provides an opportunity to check the data collapse between a sub-scale and full-scale rocket motor.

  19. Methods for reconstructing acoustic quantities based on acoustic pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the acoustic imaging methods developed over the past three decades that enable one to reconstruct all acoustic quantities based on the acoustic pressure measurements taken around a target source at close distances. One such method that has received the most attention is known as near-field acoustical holography (NAH). The original NAH relies on Fourier transforms that are suitable for a surface containing a level of constant coordinate in a source-free region. Other methods are developed to reconstruct the acoustic quantities in three-dimensional space and on an arbitrary three-dimensional source surface. Note that there is a fine difference between Fourier transform based NAH and other methods that is largely overlooked. The former can offer a wave number spectrum, thus enabling visualization of various structural waves of different wavelengths that travel on the surface of a structure; the latter cannot provide such information, which is critical to acquire an in-depth understanding of the interrelationships between structural vibrations and sound radiation. All these methods are discussed in this paper, their advantages and limitations are compared, and the need for further development to analyze the root causes of noise and vibration problems is discussed.

  20. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip. PMID:27661695

  1. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  2. Measuring Acoustic-Radiation Stresses in Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    System measures nonlinearity parameters of materials. Uses static strain generated by acoustic wave propagating in material. Since static strain is effectively "dc" component of waveform distortion, problems associated with phase-cancellation artifacts disappear. Further, sign of nonlinearity parameter obtained by simple inspection of measured signal polarity. These features make this system very amenable to use in field. System expected to become standard for acoustic-radiation-stress measurements for solids and liquids and for characterization of material properties related to strength and residual or applied stresses. Also expected to become standard for transducer calibration.

  3. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  4. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos Piper, Ben

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  5. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  6. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  7. Acoustic radiation stress measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Yost, William T.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic radio frequency tone-bursts are launched into a sample of material tested. The amplitude of the tone-bursts and the slope of the resulting static displacement pulses are measured. These measurements are used to calculate the nonlinearities of the materials.

  8. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  9. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  10. Analytical modeling of the acoustic field during a direct field acoustic test.

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Rouse, Jerry W.; Mesh, Mikhail

    2010-12-01

    The acoustic field generated during a Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT) has been analytically modeled in two space dimensions using a properly phased distribution of propagating plane waves. Both the pure-tone and broadband acoustic field were qualitatively and quantitatively compared to a diffuse acoustic field. The modeling indicates significant non-uniformity of sound pressure level for an empty (no test article) DFAT, specifically a center peak and concentric maxima/minima rings. This spatial variation is due to the equivalent phase among all propagating plane waves at each frequency. The excitation of a simply supported slender beam immersed within the acoustic fields was also analytically modeled. Results indicate that mid-span response is dependent upon location and orientation of the beam relative to the center of the DFAT acoustic field. For a diffuse acoustic field, due to its spatial uniformity, mid-span response sensitivity to location and orientation is nonexistent.

  11. In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1993-04-01

    Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation models to predict en route noise. In-flight data were taken for seven test cases. Near-field acoustic data were taken on the Gulfstream fuselage and on a microphone boom that was mounted on the Gulfstream wing outboard of the propeller. Far-field acoustic data were taken by an acoustically instrumented Learjet that flew in formation with the Gulfstream. These flight tests were flown from El Paso, Texas, and from the NASA Lewis Research Center. A comprehensive listing of the aeroacoustic results from these flight tests which may be used for future analysis are presented.

  12. In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation models to predict en route noise. In-flight data were taken for seven test cases. Near-field acoustic data were taken on the Gulfstream fuselage and on a microphone boom that was mounted on the Gulfstream wing outboard of the propeller. Far-field acoustic data were taken by an acoustically instrumented Learjet that flew in formation with the Gulfstream. These flight tests were flown from El Paso, Texas, and from the NASA Lewis Research Center. A comprehensive listing of the aeroacoustic results from these flight tests which may be used for future analysis are presented.

  13. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  14. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    PubMed

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described. PMID:10829622

  15. Quantitative measurement of acoustic pressure in the focal zone of acoustic lens-line focusing using the Schlieren method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xueping; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Qian, Menglu; Han, Qingbang

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a theory and method for quantitative measurement of the acoustic lens-line focusing ultrasonic (ALLFU) field in its focal spot size and acoustic pressure using the Schlieren imaging technique. Using Fourier transformation, the relationship between the brightness of the Schlieren image and the acoustic pressure was introduced. The ALLFU field was simulated using finite element method and compared with the Schlieren acoustic field image. The measurement of the focal spot size was performed using the Schlieren method. The acoustic pressure in the focal zone of the ALLFU field and the transducer-transmitting voltage response were quantitatively determined by measuring the diffraction light fringe intensity. The results show that the brightness of the Schlieren image is a linear function of the acoustic intensity when the acousto-optic interaction length remains constant and the acoustic field is weak. PMID:27139646

  16. Acoustic levitation methods for density measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of ultrasonic levitators operating in air to perform density measurements has been demonstrated. The remote determination of the density of ordinary liquids as well as low density solid metals can be carried out using levitated samples with size on the order of a few millimeters and at a frequency of 20 kHz. Two basic methods may be used. The first one is derived from a previously known technique developed for acoustic levitation in liquid media, and is based on the static equilibrium position of levitated samples in the earth's gravitational field. The second approach relies on the dynamic interaction between a levitated sample and the acoustic field. The first technique appears more accurate (1 percent uncertainty), but the latter method is directly applicable to a near gravity-free environment such as that found in space.

  17. Optoelectronic hybrid fiber laser sensor for simultaneous acoustic and magnetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaogang; Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Feng, Shengwen; Li, Fang

    2015-09-21

    An optoelectronic hybrid fiber optic acoustic and magnetic sensor (FOAMS) based on fiber laser sensing is proposed, which can measure acoustic and magnetic field simultaneously. A static magnetic field signal can be carried by an AC Lorentz force, and demodulated in frequency domain together with acoustic signals. Some experiments of acoustic pressure sensitivity, magnetic field sensitivity, and simultaneous acoustic and magnetic measurement on a fabricated FOAMS were carried out. The acoustic pressure sensitivity was about -164.7 dB (0 dB re 1 pm/μPa) and the magnetic field sensitivity was 0.6 dB (0 dB re 1 pm/ (T•A)). The experiment of simultaneous acoustic and magnetic measurement shows that the detections of acoustic and magnetic field have little effect on each other in dynamic range and simultaneously measuring acoustic and magnetic field is feasible. PMID:26406643

  18. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Adel A

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  19. Measurement and Numerical Calculation of Force on a Particle in a Strong Acoustic Field Required for Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Towata, Atsuya; Lee, Judy; Iida, Yasuo

    2009-07-01

    Using a standing-wave field generated between a sound source and a reflector, it is possible to trap small objects at nodes of the sound pressure distribution in air. In this study, a sound field generated under a flat or concave reflector was studied by both experimental measurement and numerical calculation. The calculated result agrees well with the experimental data. The maximum force generated between a sound source of 25.0 mm diameter and a concave reflector is 0.8 mN in the experiment. A steel ball of 2.0 mm in diameter was levitated in the sound field in air.

  20. Droplet Vaporization In A Levitating Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.; Ciobanescu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. While the low-gravity test facility is being completed, tests have been conducted in 1-g to characterize the effect of the acoustic field on the vaporization of single and multiple droplets. This is important because in the combustion experiment, the droplets will be formed and

  1. Measurements of thermo-acoustic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Winston

    The problem of combustion instabilities has existed since the early 1940s, when they were observed during the development of solid and liquid rocket engines. While various engineering solutions have served well in these fields, the problem is revisited in modern gas-turbine engines. The purpose of this work is to provide experimental measurements of laboratory devices that exhibit thermo-acoustic coupling, similar to the interaction observed during combustion instabilities, which will aid in the design and development of stable systems. Possibly the simplest device which exhibits these characteristics is a Rijke tube. An electrical, horizontally mounted, 1 m long version of the original Rijke tube is presented, with measurements taken during unstable and stable operation. An accurate stability boundary with uncertainty is determined for a heater position of x/L = ¼, as a function of mass flow rate and heater power. Hysteresis, not previously reported, is observed at flow rates above 3 g/s. A one-dimensional model of the stability boundary with linear acoustics is shown to have qualitative agreement with experimental data. A novel technique has also been devised which can provide insight into the local dynamic response of a flame to an acoustic field. In the experiments, a test chamber is acoustically excited by a pair of low-frequency drivers. The response of the flame is visualized by two techniques; chemiluminescence and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the hydroxyl (OH) radical, both of which are well-known indicators for heat release in flames. The resulting images are phase-resolved and averaged to yield a qualitative picture of the fluctuation of the heat release. The images are correlated with a pressure transducer near the flame, which allows stability to be evaluated using Rayleigh's criterion and a combustion response function. This is the first known measurement of the combustion dynamics of a flame over a range of frequencies. Results

  2. Standing wave pressure fields generated in an acoustic levitation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Andrew; Allen, John S.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Dayton, Paul A.; Kargel, Christian M.; Insana, Michael F.

    2001-05-01

    We are developing an acoustic levitation chamber for measuring adhesion force strengths among biological cells. Our research has four phases. Phase I, presented here, is concerned with the design and construction of a chamber for trapping cell-sized microbubbles with known properties in acoustic standing waves, and examines the theory that describes the standing wave field. A cylindrical chamber has been developed to generate a stable acoustic standing wave field. The pressure field was mapped using a 0.4-mm needle hydrophone, and experiments were performed using 100 micron diameter unencapsulated air bubbles, 9 micron diameter isobutane-filled microbubbles, and 3 micron diameter decafluorobutane (C4F10)-filled microbubbles, confirming that the net radiation force from the standing wave pressure field tends to band the microbubbles at pressure antinodes, in accordance with theory.

  3. Acoustic measurement study 40 by 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An acoustical study conducted during the period from September 1, 1973 to April 30, 1974 measured sound pressure levels and vibration amplitudes inside and outside of the subsonic tunnel and on the tunnel structure. A discussion of the technical aspects of the study, the field measurement and data reduction procedures, and results are presentd, and conclusions resulting from the study which bear upon near field and far field tunnel noise, upon the tunnel as an acoustical enclosure, and upon the sources of noise within the tunnel drive system are given.

  4. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  5. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  6. Acoustic Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles With Bevel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A series of convergent rectangular nozzles of aspect ratios 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were constructed with uniform exit velocity profiles. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. Far-field acoustic measurements were made and analyzed, and the results presented. The impact of aspect ratio on jet noise was similar to that of enhanced mixing devices: reduction in aft, peak frequency noise with an increase in broadside, high frequency noise. Azimuthally, it was found that rectangular jets produced more noise directed away from their wide sides than from their narrow sides. The azimuthal dependence decreased at aft angles where noise decreased. The effect of temperature, keeping acoustic Mach number constant, was minimal. Since most installations would have the observer on the wide size of the nozzle, the increased high frequency noise has a deleterious impact on the observer. Extending one wide side of the rectangular nozzle, evocative of an aft deck in an installed propulsion system, increased the noise of the jet with increasing length. The impact of both aspect ratio and bevel length were relatively well behaved, allowing a simple bilinear model to be constructed relative to a simple round jet.

  7. Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

  8. Reflectance measurement validation using acoustic horns.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Variability in wideband acoustic reflectance (and absorbance) measurements adversely affects the clinical utility of reflectance for diagnosis of middle-ear disorders. A reflectance standard would encourage consistency across different measurement systems and help identify calibration related issues. Theoretical equations exist for the reflectance of finite-length exponential, conical, and parabolic acoustic horns. Reflectance measurements were repeatedly made in each of these three horn shapes and the results were compared to the corresponding theoretical reflectance. A method is described of adjusting acoustic impedance measurements to compensate for spreading of the wave front that propagates from the small diameter sound port of the probe to the larger diameter of the acoustic cavity. Agreement between measured and theoretical reflectance was less than 1 dB at most frequencies in the range from 0.2 to 10 kHz. Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.95 between measured and theoretical time-domain reflectance within the flare region of the horns. The agreement suggests that the distributed reflectance of acoustic horns may be useful for validating reflectance measurements made in human ear canals; however, refinements to reflectance measurement methods may still be needed.

  9. Motion measurement of acoustically levitated object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A system is described for determining motion of an object that is acoustically positioned in a standing wave field in a chamber. Sonic energy in the chamber is sensed, and variation in the amplitude of the sonic energy is detected, which is caused by linear motion, rotational motion, or drop shape oscillation of the object. Apparatus for detecting object motion can include a microphone coupled to the chamber and a low pass filter connected to the output of the microphone, which passes only frequencies below the frequency of sound produced by a transducer that maintains the acoustic standing wave field. Knowledge about object motion can be useful by itself, can be useful to determine surface tension, viscosity, and other information about the object, and can be useful to determine the pressure and other characteristics of the acoustic field.

  10. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  11. Acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A discharge-measurement system that uses a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler has been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey. Discharge measurements using the system require a fraction of the time needed for conventional current-meter discharge measurements and do not require shore-based navigational aids or tag lines for positioning the vessel.

  12. Drag Measurements of Porous Plate Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of direct drag measurements on a variety of porous plate acoustic liners. The existing literature describes numerous studies of drag on porous walls with injection or suction, but relatively few of drag on porous plates with neither injection nor suction. Furthermore, the porosity of the porous plate in existing studies is much lower than typically used in acoustic liners. In the present work, the acoustic liners consisted of a perforated face sheet covering a bulk acoustic absorber material. Factors that were varied in the experiment were hole diameter, hole pattern, face sheet thickness, bulk material type, and size of the gap (if any) between the face sheet and the absorber material.

  13. Acoustic levitator for containerless measurements on low temperature liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, Richard; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Rey, Charles A A

    2009-01-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops at temperatures from -40 to +40 C. The levitator consisted of: (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) a acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of ~ 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated using a frequency generator to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  14. Acoustic levitator for structure measurements on low temperature liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Rey, C A; Neuefeind, J; Benmore, C J

    2009-08-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops of 1-3 mm in diameter at temperatures in the range -40 to +40 degrees C. The levitator comprised (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) an acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1 kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels of up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  15. Acoustic levitator for structure measurements on low temperature liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Rey, C A; Neuefeind, J; Benmore, C J

    2009-08-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops of 1-3 mm in diameter at temperatures in the range -40 to +40 degrees C. The levitator comprised (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) an acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1 kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels of up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids. PMID:19725664

  16. Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

    2009-12-01

    Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

  17. Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa

    2002-04-01

    A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense. PMID:12002842

  18. Reverberant Acoustic Testing and Direct Field Acoustic Testing Acoustic Standing Waves and their Impact on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.

  19. Oscillations of a deformed liquid drop in an acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tao; Apfel, Robert E.

    1995-07-01

    The oscillations of an axially symmetric liquid drop in an acoustic standing wave field in air have been studied using the boundary integral method. The interaction between the drop oscillation and sound field has been included in this analysis. Our computations focus on the frequency shift of small-amplitude oscillations of an acoustically deformed drop typical of a drop levitated in air. In the presence or absence of gravity, the trend and the magnitude of the frequency shift have been given in terms of drop size, drop deformation, and the strength of the sound field. Our calculations are compared with experiments performed on the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) and with ground-based measurements, and are found to be in good agreement within the accuracy of the experimental data.

  20. Some far-field acoustics characteristics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Conner, David A.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Rutledge, C. Kendall; Smith, Rita A.

    1990-01-01

    Far-field acoustics tests have been conducted on an instrumented XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft. The purpose of these acoustic measurements was to create an encompassing, high confidence (90 percent), and accurate (-1.4/ +1/8 dB theoretical confidence interval) far-field acoustics data base to validate ROTONET and other current rotorcraft noise prediction computer codes. This paper describes the flight techniques used, with emphasis on the care taken to obtain high-quality far-field acoustic data. The quality and extensiveness of the data base collected are shown by presentation of ground acoustic contours for level flyovers for the airplane flight mode and for several forward velocities and nacelle tilts for the transition mode and helicopter flight mode. Acoustic pressure time-histories and fully analyzed ensemble averaged far-field data results (spectra) are shown for each of the ground contour cases.

  1. Acoustic field and array response uncertainties in stratified ocean media.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Thomas J; Dhakal, Sagar

    2012-07-01

    The change-of-variables theorem of probability theory is applied to compute acoustic field and array beam power probability density functions (pdfs) in uncertain ocean environments represented by stratified, attenuating ocean waveguide models. Computational studies for one and two-layer waveguides investigate the functional properties of the acoustic field and array beam power pdfs. For the studies, the acoustic parameter uncertainties are represented by parametric pdfs. The field and beam response pdfs are computed directly from the parameter pdfs using the normal-mode representation and the change-of-variables theorem. For two-dimensional acoustic parameter uncertainties of sound speed and attenuation, the field and beam power pdfs exhibit irregular functional behavior and singularities associated with stationary points of the mapping, defined by acoustic propagation, from the parameter space to the field or beam power space. Implications for the assessment of orthogonal polynomial expansion and other methods for computing acoustic field pdfs are discussed.

  2. Techniques in audio and acoustic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    Measurement of acoustic devices and spaces is commonly performed with time-delay spectrometry (TDS) or maximum length sequence (MLS) analysis. Both techniques allow an impulse response to be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that can be traded off against the measurement time. However, TDS suffers from long measurement times because of its linear sweep, while MLS suffers from the corruption of the impulse response by distortion. Recently a logarithmic sweep-based method has been devised which offers high SNR, short measurement times, and the ability to separate the linear impulse response from the impulse responses of distortion products. The applicability of these methods to audio and acoustic measurement will be compared.

  3. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  4. Force Measurements in Vibration and Acoustic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, T. D.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of triaxial, piezoelectric force gages and the associated signal processing is a precursor to several dynamics testing innovations. This new technology is applicable to spacecraft programs that JPL manages. An application of force measurement is force limiting (when testing spacecraft in random vibration tests). Base-drive and acoustic modal testing is a potential application.

  5. Measurement of thin films using very long acoustic wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, G. T.; Nomura, H.; Adachi, H.; Kamakura, T.

    2013-12-01

    A procedure for measuring material thickness by means of necessarily long acoustic wavelengths is examined. The approach utilizes a temporal phase lag caused by the impulse time of wave momentum transferred through a thin layer that is much denser than its surrounding medium. In air, it is predicted that solid or liquid layers below approximately 1/2000 of the acoustic wavelength will exhibit a phase shift with an arctangent functional dependence on thickness and layer density. The effect is verified for thin films on the scale of 10 μm using audible frequency sound (7 kHz). Soap films as thin as 100 nm are then measured using 40 kHz air ultrasound. The method's potential for imaging applications is demonstrated by combining the approach with near-field holography, resulting in reconstructions with sub-wavelength resolution in both the depth and lateral directions. Potential implications at very high and very low acoustic frequencies are discussed.

  6. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong; Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Wu, Junru

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  7. Development of anticavitation hydrophone using a titanium front plate: Effect of the titanium front plate in high-intensity acoustic field with generation of acoustic cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiiba, Michihisa; Okada, Nagaya; Kurosawa, Minoru; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Novel anticavitation hydrophones were fabricated by depositing a hydrothermally synthesized lead zirconate titanate polycrystalline film at the back of a titanium front plate. These anticavitation hydrophones were not damaged by the measurement of the acoustic field formed by a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device. Their sensitivity was improved by approximately 20 dB over that of the conventional anticavitation hydrophone by modifying their basic structure and materials. The durability of the anticavitation hydrophone that we fabricated was compared by exposing it to a high-intensity acoustic field at the focal point of the HIFU field and in the water tank of an ultrasound cleaner. Therefore, the effect of the surface of the titanium front plate on acoustic cavitation was investigated by exposing such a surface to the high-intensity acoustic field. We found that the fabricated anticavitation hydrophone was robust and was not damaged easily, even in the focused acoustic field where acoustic cavitation occurs.

  8. Sound field inside acoustically levitated spherical drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2007-05-01

    The sound field inside an acoustically levitated small spherical water drop (radius of 1mm) is studied under different incident sound pressures (amplitude p0=2735-5643Pa). The transmitted pressure ptr in the drop shows a plane standing wave, which varies mainly in the vertical direction, and distributes almost uniformly in the horizontal direction. The maximum of ptr is always located at the lowermost point of the levitated drop. Whereas the secondary maximum appears at the uppermost point if the incident pressure amplitude p0 is higher than an intermediate value (3044Pa), in which there exists a pressure nodal surface in the drop interior. The value of the maximum ptr lies in a narrow range of 2489-3173Pa, which has a lower limit of 2489Pa when p0=3044Pa. The secondary maximum of ptr is rather small and only remarkable at high incident pressures.

  9. Acoustical concept for measuring particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, D.S.; Kaufman, M.

    1981-02-01

    A new concept is investigated for measuring particle size and distribution for air pollution control applications. This study illustrates that the proposed device--the Acoustic Particulate Monitor (APM)--can measure total mass loading, mean particle diameter, and width of particle size distributions on an in-situ basis. The concept for such an instrument is based upon experimental and theoretical observations that the presence of dust in air causes a reduction in the speed of sound as a function of the transmitted frequency. These percentage reductions in the speed of sound are small and the research results illustrate how the accompanying shift in the acoustical phase is a highly sensitive method for detecting such effects. The magnitudes of the phase shift are related to mass loading. The frequency associated with the maximum phase shift is defined as the acoustic frequency, fA. Experimentally determining fA provides a measure of the mean particle size of the distribution. The detailed shape of the phase shift as a function of frequency is a measure of the spread in the size distribution of the entrained particulate. Experiments were performed using several configurations. Results were verified using direct mass measurements and microphotographs.

  10. Computation of Generalized Modal Loads in an Acoustic Field Defined by a Distribution of Correlated Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepcenko, Valentin

    1989-01-01

    This report is an aid to designers of structures with large area-to-mass ratios that are subject to high acoustic pressures during rocket launches. A means is provided for determining generalized modal loads using AJ-coefficients. AJ-coefficients are a measure of a vibroacoustic coupling between the structure and the acoustic field.

  11. Acoustic vs Interferometric Measurements of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Erives, H.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Jensen, D.; Morris, K.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer of 2015 we acquired acoustic and RF data on severalflashes from thunderstorms over Fort Morgan CO. and Langmuir Laboratoryin the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico. The acoustic arrayswere located at a distance of roughly 150 m from the interferometers.Lightning mapping array and slow antenna data were also obtained. Theacoustic arrays consist of arrays of five audio-range and six infrasoundmicrophones operating at 50 KHz and 1 KHz respectively. The lightninginterferometer at Fort Morgan CO. consists of three flat-plate, 13" diameterantennas at the vertices of an equilateral 50 m per side triangle. Theinterferometer at Langmuir Laboratory consists of three 13" dishes separatedby about 15 m. Both interferometers, operating at 180 Megasamples persecond, use the analysis software and digitizer hardware pioneered byStanley, Stock et al. The high data rate allows for excellent spatialresolution of high speed (and typically high current) processes such asK-changes, return strokes and dart-leaders. In previous studies, we haveshown the usefulness of acoustic recordings to locate thunder sources aswell as infrasound pulses from lightning. This work will present acomparison of Acoustic and Interferometric measurements from lightning,using some interesting flashes, including a positive cloud to ground,that occurred in these campaigns.

  12. An acoustic mode measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joppa, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Turbomachinery noise propagates in aircraft jet engine ducts in a complicated manner. Measurement of this propagation is useful both to identify source mechanisms and to design efficient linings. A practical method of making these measurements has been developed, using linear arrays of equally spaced microphones mounted flush with the duct wall. Circumferential or axial arrays are analyzed by spatial Fourier transform, giving sound level as a function of spinning order or axial wavenumber respectively. Complex demodulation is used to acquire data in a modest bandwidth around a high frequency of interest. A joint NASA/Boeing test of the system used 32 microphones in a JT15D turbofan engine inlet. A 400-Hz bandwidth centered at blade passage frequency and at half blade passage frequency was studied. The theoretically predicted modes were clearly seen at blade passage frequency; broadband noise at half blade passage frequency was biased towards modes corotating with the fan. Interference between similar modes was not a significant problem. A lining design study indicated a 15 percent improvement in lining efficiency was possible when mode data were used, for this particular engine. The technique has proven reliable and useful for source diagnostics and lining design.

  13. Measuring acoustic emissions in an avalanche slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of acoustic emissions are a common technique for monitoring damage and predicting imminent failure of a material. Within natural hazards it has already been used to successfully predict the break-off of a hanging glacier. To explore the applicability of the acoustic emission (AE) technique for avalanche prediction, we installed two acoustic sensors (with 30 kHz and 60 kHz resonance frequency) in an avalanche prone slope at the Mittelgrat in the Parsenn ski area above Davos, Switzerland. The slope is north-east facing, frequently wind loaded, and approximately 35° steep. The AE signals - in particular the event energy and waiting time distributions - were compared with slope stability. The latter was determined by observing avalanche activity. The results of two winter's measurements yielded that the exponent β of the inverse cumulative distribution of event energy showed a significant drop (from a value of 3.5 to roughly 2.5) at very unstable conditions, i.e. on the three days during our measurement periods when spontaneous avalanches released on our study slope.

  14. Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-01-01

    The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

  15. Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2006-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the

  16. Effects of Horizontal Magnetic Fields on Acoustic Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rekha

    2007-02-01

    Local helioseismology techniques seek to probe the subsurface magnetic fields and flows by observing waves that emerge at the solar surface after passing through these inhomogeneities. Active regions on the surface of the Sun are distinguished by their strong magnetic fields, and techniques such as time-distance helioseismology can provide a useful diagnostic for probing these structures. Above the active regions, the fields fan out to create a horizontal magnetic canopy. We investigate the effect of a uniform horizontal magnetic field on the travel time of acoustic waves by considering vertical velocity in a simple plane-parallel adiabatically stratified polytrope. It is shown that such fields can lower the upper turning point of p-modes and hence influence their travel time. It is found that acoustic waves reflected from magnetically active regions have travel times up to a minute less than for waves similarly reflected in quiet regions. It is also found that sound speeds are increased below the active regions. These findings are consistent with time-distance measurements.

  17. Investigation of Acoustic Fields for the Cassini Spacecraft: Reverberant Versus Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Himelblau, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The characterization and understanding of the acoustic field within a launch vehicle's payload fairing (PLF) is critical to the qualification of a spacecraft and ultimately to the success of its mission. Acoustic measurements taken recently for the Cassini mission have allowed unique opportunities to advance the aerospace industry's knowledge in this field. Prior to its launch, the expected liftoff acoustic environment of the spacecraft was investigated in a full-scale acoustic test of a Titan IV PLF and Cassini simulator in a reverberant test chamber. A major goal of this acoustic ground test was to quantify and verify the noise reduction performance of special barrier blankets that were designed especially to reduce the Cassirii acoustic environment. This paper will describe both the ground test and flight measurements, and compare the Cassini acoustic environment measured during launch with that measured earlier in the ground test. Special emphasis will be given to the noise reduction performance of the barrier blankets and to the acoustic coherence measured within the PLF.

  18. Theoretical evaluation of the acoustic field in an ultrasonic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Louw, Tobias M; Subramanian, Anuradha; Viljoen, Hendrik J

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound-assisted bioreactors that provide mechanical conditioning to cells have broad applicability in tissue engineering, but biological experiments with ultrasound are very sensitive to environmental conditions. A mathematical model was developed to complement experimental measurements, as well as to describe ultrasonic fields existing in regions where measurements are impossible, specifically, within microporous tissue engineering scaffolds. The model uniquely combines Biot theory to predict the ultrasonic field in the scaffold with an electromechanical transducer model to couple the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells to the external electrical input. In the specific example examined here, cells immobilized on scaffolds are subjected to different forms of ultrasonic stimulation due to the formation of standing wave fields and vertical high-pressure bands. The model confirms the sensitivity of the supplied acoustic power to the liquid level in sonobioreactors and identifies the input electrical impedance as a method of detecting resonance effects.

  19. Diversity of acoustic streaming in a rectangular acoustofluidic field.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Hu, Junhui

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of acoustic streaming field in a 2D rectangular chamber with a traveling wave and using water as the acoustic medium is numerically investigated by the finite element method. It is found that the working frequency, the vibration excitation source length, and the distance and phase difference between two separated symmetric vibration excitation sources can cause the diversity in the acoustic streaming pattern. It is also found that a small object in the acoustic field results in an additional eddy, and affects the eddy size in the acoustic streaming field. In addition, the computation results show that with an increase of the acoustic medium's temperature, the speed of the main acoustic streaming decreases first and then increases, and the angular velocity of the corner eddies increases monotonously, which can be clearly explained by the change of the acoustic dissipation factor and shearing viscosity of the acoustic medium with temperature. Commercialized FEM software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to implement the computation tasks, which makes our method very easy to use. And the computation method is partially verified by an established analytical solution.

  20. Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B

    2000-10-01

    In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.

  1. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.

  2. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995

  3. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  4. Acoustic input impedance measurements on brass instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Robert W., Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Measurement of the acoustic input impedance of a brass instrument can reveal something about the instrument's intonation, its reasonable playing range, its tone color, and perhaps whether the mouthpiece used for the impedance measurement is appropriate for the instrument. Such measurements are made at sound-presssure levels much lower than those encountered under playing conditions. Thus, impedance measurements may offer the only feasible way to infer something about the playing characteristics of instruments, typically museum specimens, that are too rare or too fragile to be played. In this paper the effects of some of the available choices of sound source and stimulus signal on measurement accuracy will be explored. Driver-transducer nonlinearity, source impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, and any necessary signal processing will be discussed.

  5. Validation of streamflow measurements made with acoustic doppler current profilers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, K.; Mueller, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other international agencies have collaborated to conduct laboratory and field validations of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of streamflow. Laboratory validations made in a large towing basin show that the mean differences between tow cart velocity and ADCP bottom-track and water-track velocities were -0.51 and -1.10%, respectively. Field validations of commercially available ADCPs were conducted by comparing streamflow measurements made with ADCPs to reference streamflow measurements obtained from concurrent mechanical current-meter measurements, stable rating curves, salt-dilution measurements, or acoustic velocity meters. Data from 1,032 transects, comprising 100 discharge measurements, were analyzed from 22 sites in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Results of these analyses show that broadband ADCP streamflow measurements are unbiased when compared to the reference discharges regardless of the water mode used for making the measurement. Measurement duration is more important than the number of transects for reducing the uncertainty of the ADCP streamflow measurement. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  6. Modeling of spray combustion in an acoustic field

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, R.K.; McQuay, M.Q.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Combustion characteristics of an ethanol flame in a Rijke-tube, pulse combustor was theoretically studied to analyze the effects of injection velocity, burner location, droplet size distribution, surrounding gas velocity, and droplet phase difference on Sauter-mean diameter. The effects of these parameters were studied at first (80 Hz), second (160 Hz), and third (240 Hz) acoustic modes with steady (no oscillations) case as reference. The sound pressure level was kept constant at 150 decibels for all theoretical simulations. The simulation frequencies and sound pressure level was selected to match the actual conditions inside the rector. For all simulations, actual droplet size and velocity distributions, as experimentally measured using a phase-Doppler particle analyzer, at the injector exit were used. Significant effects on spray size distributions were found when the burning droplets were placed at the locations corresponding to the maximum acoustic velocity amplitude. Also, for both simulations and experimental results, the Sauter-mean diameters were higher for oscillating conditions compared to steady value because small droplets burn faster under an acoustic field and therefore, Sauter-mean diameter, which is biased towards larger droplets, increases.

  7. Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments. PMID:26683267

  8. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  9. Analyzing panel acoustic contributions toward the sound field inside the passenger compartment of a full-size automobile.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses.

  10. Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

    1982-01-01

    Very little information is available concerning acoustic velocity meter (AVM) operation, performance, and limitations. This report provides a better understanding about the application of AVM instrumentation to streamflow measurment. Operational U.S. Geological Survey systems have proven that AVM equipment is accurate and dependable. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measureable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected, and will measure velocitites as low as 0.1 meter per second which is normally less than the threshold level for mechanical or head-loss meters. In some situations the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Smaller, less-expensive, more conveniently operable microprocessor equipment is now available which should increase use of AVM systems in streamflow applications. (USGS)

  11. Measuring Shell Resonances of Spherical Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, D.; Sparasci, F.; Foltête, E.; Ouisse, M.; Pitre, L.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between the gas and shell is a concern in the experiment used at LNE-CNAM to determine the Boltzmann constant k B by an acoustic method. As the walls of real resonators are not perfectly rigid, some perturbations occur in the frequency range of the acoustic resonances measured within helium gas contained in the cavity. As a contribution for a better understanding of this phenomenon, an experiment to measure the shell modes of the spherical resonators is in use in this laboratory. A work in progress to assess these modes using a hammer blow method together with modal analysis is reported here. The study is carried out with an air-filled, copper-walled, half-liter quasi-spherical resonator in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 20 kHz. Results show that the shell modes expand into multiple resonances of similar modal shape, including the "breathing" mode. The observations reported in other studies of shell perturbations at other frequencies than the breathing frequency are confirmed.

  12. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  13. Automated acoustic intensity measurements and the effect of gear tooth profile on noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, W. J.; Pintz, A.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic intensity measurements were made at NASA Lewis Research Center on a spur gear test apparatus. The measurements were obtained with the Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System developed by Cleveland State University. This system provided dense spatial positioning, and was calibrated against a high quality acoustic intensity system. The measured gear noise compared gearsets having two different tooth profiles. The tests evaluated the sound field of the different gears for two speeds and three loads. The experimental results showed that gear tooth profile had a major effect on measured noise. Load and speed were found to have an effect on noise also.

  14. a Modeling and Measurement Study of Acoustic Horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, John Theodore

    Although acoustic horns have been in use for thousands of years, formal horn design only began approximately 80 years ago with the pioneering effort of A. G. Webster. In this dissertation, the improvements to Webster's original horn model are reviewed and the lack of analytical progress since Webster is noted. In an attempt to augment the traditional methods of analysis, a semi-analytical technique presented by Rayleigh is extended. Although Rayleigh's method is not based on one-dimensional wave propagation, it is found not to offer significant improvement over Webster's model. In order to be free of the limitations associated with analytical techniques, a numerical method based on boundary elements has been developed. It is suitable for solving radiation problems that can be modeled as a source in an infinite bafffe. The exterior boundary element formulation is exchanged for an interior formulation by placing a hemisphere over the baffled source and using an analytical expansion of the field in the exterior half space. The boundary element method is demonstrated by solving the baffled piston problem, and is then used to obtain the acoustic throat impedance and far-field directivity of axisymmetric horns having exponential and tractrix contours. Experiments are performed to measure the throat impedance and the far-field directivity of two axisymmetric horns mounted in a rigid baffle. An exponential horn and a tractrix horn with equal throat radius (2.54 cm), length (55.9 cm), and mouth radius (27.1 cm) are critically examined. A modern implementation of the "reaction on the source" method is compared with a new implementation of the two-microphone method for measuring acoustic impedance. The modified two-microphone method is found to be extremely simple and accurate, but the "reaction on the source" method has the advantage of in situ measurements. The far-field directivity is measured by a new technique that allows the far-field pressure to be calculated from the

  15. Particle Cloud Flames in Acoustic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on a study of flames supported by clouds of particles suspended in air, at pressures about 100 times lower than normal. In the experiment, an acoustic driver (4-in speaker) placed at one end of a closed tube, 0.75-m long and 0.05 m in diameter, disperses a cloud of lycopodium particles during a 0.5-sec powerful acoustic burst. Properties of the particle cloud and the flame were recorded by high-speed motion pictures and optical transmission detectors. Novel flame structures were observed, which owe their features to partial confinement, which encourages flame-acoustic interactions, segregation of particle clouds into laminae, and penetration of the flame's radiative flux density into the unburned particle-cloud regimes. Results of these experiments imply that, for particles in confined spaces, uncontrolled fire and explosion may be a threat even if the Phi(0) values are below some apparent lean limit.

  16. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  17. Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity by Collinear Mixing Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Tang, G.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β is correlated to fatigue damage in metallic materials. Various methods have been developed to measure β. One of the most often used methods is the harmonic generation technique, in which β is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the second order harmonic waves. An inherent weakness of this method is the difficulty in distinguishing material nonlinearity from the nonlinearity of the measurement system. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using collinear mixing waves to measure β. The wave mixing method is based on the interaction between two incident waves in a nonlinear medium. Under certain conditions, such interactions generate a third wave of different frequency. This generated third wave is also called resonant wave, because its amplitude is unbounded if the medium has no attenuation. Such resonant waves are less sensitive to the nonlinearity of the measurement system, and have the potential to identify the source location of the nonlinearity. In this work, we used a longitudinal wave and a shear wave as the incident waves. The resonant shear wave is measured experimentally on samples made of aluminum and steel, respectively. Numerical simulations of the tests were also performed using a finite difference method.

  18. Determination of the viscous acoustic field for liquid drop positioning/forcing in an acoustic levitation chamber in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.

  19. Extreme low frequency acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  20. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-01

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  1. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-28

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  2. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  3. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  4. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  5. Acoustic measurements of F-15 aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-15 aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that no potential sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-15 aircraft structure during operation in the hush house. However, since these acoustic levels were increased over those measuring during run up on a concrete pad, it is recommended that F-15 equipment qualification levels be checked. The data indicated that the noise field within the hush house is diffuse and that the acoustical energy in the hangar area is radiated from the region between the engine exhaust and the hush house muffler front edge toward the forward part of the hangar.

  6. Cosmological implications of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bautista, Julian E.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Bovy, Jo; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Busca, Nicolás G.; Carithers, William; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Delubac, Timothée; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ge, Jian; Le Goff, J.-M.; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A.; Gott, J. Richard; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Howlett, Cullan; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Lee, Khee-Gan; Long, Dan; Lupton, Robert H.; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; McBride, Cameron K.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Myers, Adam D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pâris, Isabelle; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Reid, Beth; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Samushia, Lado; Santos, Ricardo Tanausú Génova; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin; Simmons, Audrey; Skibba, Ramin A.; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Viel, Matteo; Wake, David A.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; BOSS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We derive constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark energy models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and a recent reanalysis of Type Ia supernova (SN) data. In particular, we take advantage of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest (LyaF) in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Treating the BAO scale as an uncalibrated standard ruler, BAO data alone yield a high confidence detection of dark energy; in combination with the CMB angular acoustic scale they further imply a nearly flat universe. Adding the CMB-calibrated physical scale of the sound horizon, the combination of BAO and SN data into an "inverse distance ladder" yields a measurement of H0=67.3 ±1.1 km s-1 Mpc-1 , with 1.7% precision. This measurement assumes standard prerecombination physics but is insensitive to assumptions about dark energy or space curvature, so agreement with CMB-based estimates that assume a flat Λ CDM cosmology is an important corroboration of this minimal cosmological model. For constant dark energy (Λ ), our BAO +SN +CMB combination yields matter density Ωm=0.301 ±0.008 and curvature Ωk=-0.003 ±0.003 . When we allow more general forms of evolving dark energy, the BAO +SN +CMB parameter constraints are always consistent with flat Λ CDM values at ≈1 σ . While the overall χ2 of model fits is satisfactory, the LyaF BAO measurements are in moderate (2 - 2.5 σ ) tension with model predictions. Models with early dark energy that tracks the dominant energy component at high redshift remain consistent with our expansion history constraints, and they yield a higher H0 and lower matter clustering amplitude, improving agreement with some low redshift observations. Expansion history alone yields an upper limit on the summed mass of neutrino species, ∑mν<0.56 eV (95% confidence), improving to ∑mν<0.25 eV if we include the

  7. Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic velocity meter (AVM), also referred to as an ultrasonic flowmeter, has been an operational tool for the measurement of streamflow since 1965. Very little information is available concerning AVM operation, performance, and limitations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate information in such a manner as to provide a better understanding about the application of this instrumentation to streamflow measurement. AVM instrumentation is highly accurate and nonmechanical. Most commercial AVM systems that measure streamflow use the time-of-travel method to determine a velocity between two points. The systems operate on the principle that point-to-point upstream travel-time of sound is longer than the downstream travel-time, and this difference can be monitored and measured accurately by electronics. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measurable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected. AVM systems used in streamflow measurement generally operate with a resolution of ?0.01 meter per second but this is dependent on system frequency, path length, and signal attenuation. In some applications the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Presently used minicomputer systems, although expensive to purchase and maintain, perform well. Increased use of AVM systems probably will be realized as smaller, less expensive, and more conveniently operable microprocessor-based systems become readily available. Available AVM equipment should be capable of flow measurement in a wide variety of situations heretofore untried. New signal-detection techniques and communication linkages can provide additional flexibility to the systems so that operation is possible in more river and estuary situations.

  8. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOEpatents

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  9. Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.

  10. Full-Field Imaging of GHz Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Cottle, David Lynn; Larson III, J. D.

    2003-10-01

    A full-field view laser ultrasonic imaging method has been developed that measures acoustic motion at a surface without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates by using dynamic holography with photorefractive interferometric detection. By extending the approach to ultra high frequencies, an acoustic microscope has been developed that is capable of operation at gigahertz frequency and micron length scales. Both acoustic amplitude and phase are recorded, allowing full calibration and determination of phases to within a single arbitrary constant. Results are presented of measurements at frequencies of 800-900 MHz, illustrating a multitude of normal mode behavior in electrically driven thin film acoustic resonators. Coupled with microwave electrical impedance measurements, this imaging mode provides an exceptionally fast method for evaluation of electric-to-acoustic coupling of these devices and their performance. Images of 256 /spl times/ 240 pixels are recorded at 18 fps rates synchronized to obtain both in-phase and quadrature detection of the acoustic motion. Simple averaging provides sensitivity to the subnanometer level at each pixel calibrated over the image using interferometry. Identification of specific acoustic modes and their relationship to electrical impedance characteristics show the advantages and overall high speed of the technique.

  11. Full-Field Imaging of Acoustic Motion at Nanosecond Time and Micron Length Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Cottle, David Lynn; Larson III, John D.

    2002-10-01

    A full-field view laser ultrasonic imaging method has been developed that measures acoustic motion at a surface without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates by employing dynamic holography using photorefractive interferometric detection. By extending the approach to ultra high frequencies, an acoustic microscope has been developed capable of operation on the nanosecond time and micron length scales. Both acoustic amplitude and phase are recorded allowing full calibration and determination of phases to within a single arbitrary constant. Results are presented of measurements at frequencies at 800-900 MHz illustrating a multitude of normal mode behavior in electrically driven thin film acoustic resonators. Coupled with microwave electrical impedance measurements, this imaging mode provides an exceptionally fast method for evaluation of electric to acoustic coupling and performance of these devices. Images of 256x240 pixels are recorded at 18Hz rates synchronized to obtain both in-phase and quadrature detection of the acoustic motion. Simple averaging provides sensitivity to the subnanometer level calibrated over the image using interferometry. Identification of specific acoustic modes and their relationship to electrical impedance characteristics show the advantages and overall high speed of the technique.

  12. Customization of the acoustic field produced by a piezoelectric array through interelement delays

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Barbone, Paul E.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2008-01-01

    A method for producing a prescribed acoustic pressure field from a piezoelectric array was investigated. The array consisted of 170 elements placed on the inner surface of a 15 cm radius spherical cap. Each element was independently driven by using individual pulsers each capable of generating 1.2 kV. Acoustic field customization was achieved by independently controlling the time when each element was excited. The set of time delays necessary to produce a particular acoustic field was determined by using an optimization scheme. The acoustic field at the focal plane was simulated by using the angular spectrum method, and the optimization searched for the time delays that minimized the least squared difference between the magnitudes of the simulated and desired pressure fields. The acoustic field was shaped in two different ways: the −6 dB focal width was increased to different desired widths and the ring-shaped pressure distributions of various prescribed diameters were produced. For both cases, the set of delays resulting from the respective optimization schemes were confirmed to yield the desired pressure distributions by using simulations and measurements. The simulations, however, predicted peak positive pressures roughly half those obtained from the measurements, which was attributed to the exclusion of nonlinearity in the simulations. PMID:18537369

  13. Calibration of an acoustic system for measuring 2-D temperature distribution around hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental purposes of quantitative acoustic surveys of seafloor hydrothermal vents is to measure their 2-D temperature distributions. Knowing the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances between the underwater transducers in an acoustic tomography system is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the temperature reconstruction. However, commercial transducer sources typically do not supply the needed data. Here we present a novel calibration algorithm to automatically determine the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances. The possible system latency error and the resulting temperature error are derived and analyzed. We have also developed the experimental setup for calibration. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method, an experimental study was performed on acoustic imaging of underwater temperature fields in Lake Qiezishan, located at Longling County, Yunnan Province, China. Using the calibrated data, the reconstructed temperature distributions closely resemble the actual distributions measured with thermocouples, thus confirming the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  14. Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. . Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

  15. Second harmonic acoustic responses induced in matter by quasi continuous radiofrequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-10-01

    We subjected conductive matter and tissue to intermittent continuous-wave radiofrequency fields and investigated whether acoustic responses could be recorded. By placing samples in the near-field of the excitation, we observed frequency-domain acoustic responses from tissues responding to CW radiofrequency excitation. Frequency analysis revealed the generation of 2nd harmonic mechanical waves. This discovery of non-linear responses can lead to alternative measurement concepts of CW radiofrequency deposition in matter and tissues. We offer the theoretical mainframe and discuss sensing applications involving the direct measurement of second harmonic responses representative of CW RF energy deposition in matter.

  16. Observation of cavitation bubbles and acoustic streaming in high intensity ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Yuuki; Sasaki, Kazuma; Minami, Kyohei; Sato, Toshio; Choi, Pak-Kon; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2015-07-01

    We observed the behavior of acoustic cavitation by sonochemical luminescence and ultrasound B-mode imaging with ultrasound diagnostic equipment in a standing-wave ultrasound field and focused ultrasound field. Furthermore, in order to investigate the influence of acoustic streaming on acoustic cavitation bubbles, we performed flow analysis of the sound field using particle image velocimetry. We found that acoustic cavitation bubbles are stirred by circulating acoustic streaming and local vortexes occurring in the water tank of the standing-wave ultrasound exposure system. We considered that the acoustic cavitation bubbles are carried away by acoustic streaming due to the high ultrasound pressure in the focused ultrasound field.

  17. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1992-01-01

    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  18. Applications of acoustics in the measurement of coal slab thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Mills, J. M.; Pierce, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the possibility of employing acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies for measurements of thicknesses of slabs of coal backed by shale is investigated. Fundamental information concerning the acoustical properties of coal, and the relationship between these properties and the structural and compositional parameters used to characterize coal samples was also sought. The testing device, which utilizes two matched transducers, is described.

  19. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-03-21

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  20. Numerical Analysis of the Acoustic Field of Tip-Clearance Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi Moghadam, S. M.; M. Meinke Team; W. Schröder Team

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of the acoustic field generated by a shrouded axial fan are studied by a hybrid fluid-dynamics-acoustics method. In a first step, large-eddy simulations are performed to investigate the dynamics of tip clearance flow for various tip gap sizes and to determine the acoustic sources. The simulations are performed for a single blade out of five blades with periodic boundary conditions in the circumferential direction on a multi-block structured mesh with 1.4 ×108 grid points. The turbulent flow is simulated at a Reynolds number of 9.36 ×105 at undisturbed inflow condition and the results are compared with experimental data. The diameter and strength of the tip vortex increase with the tip gap size, while simultaneously the efficiency of the fan decreases. In a second step, the acoustic field on the near field is determined by solving the acoustic perturbation equations (APE) on a mesh for a single blade consisting of approx. 9.8 ×108 grid points. The overall agreement of the pressure spectrum and its directivity with measurements confirm the correct identification of the sound sources and accurate prediction of the acoustic duct propagation. The results show that the longer the tip gap size the higher the broadband noise level. Senior Scientist, Institute of Aerodynamics, RWTH Aachen University.

  1. Source fields reconstruction with 3D mapping by means of the virtual acoustic volume concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, S.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.; Schaeffer, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the theoretical framework of the virtual acoustic volume concept and two related inverse Patch Transfer Functions (iPTF) identification methods (called u-iPTF and m-iPTF depending on the chosen boundary conditions for the virtual volume). They are based on the application of Green's identity on an arbitrary closed virtual volume defined around the source. The reconstruction of sound source fields combines discrete acoustic measurements performed at accessible positions around the source with the modal behavior of the chosen virtual acoustic volume. The mode shapes of the virtual volume can be computed by a Finite Element solver to handle the geometrical complexity of the source. As a result, it is possible to identify all the acoustic source fields at the real surface of an irregularly shaped structure and irrespective of its acoustic environment. The m-iPTF method is introduced for the first time in this paper. Conversely to the already published u-iPTF method, the m-iPTF method needs only acoustic pressure and avoids particle velocity measurements. This paper is focused on its validation, both with numerical computations and by experiments on a baffled oil pan.

  2. Acoustic velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Edwin F.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic energy is propagated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  3. Acoustic-velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1982-09-30

    Acoustic energy is propatated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  4. Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.

  5. Orthogonal acoustical factors of a sound field in a bamboo forest.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Shibata, S; Ando, Y

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the acoustical quality of a sound field in a bamboo forest, acoustical measurements were conducted to obtain orthogonal acoustical factors of the sound field. These results are compared with previous results for a sound field in an ordinary forest [H. Sakai, S. Sato, and Y. Ando, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 1491-1497 (1998)]. The IACC, which is defined as a maximum value of the normalized interaural cross-correlation function between signals at the ears, was 0.07 (4 kHz) and 0.16 (2 kHz) at positions 20 and 40 m from the source, respectively. These values are much better than those in the previously investigated forest. The measured subsequent reverberation time Tsub was up to 1.5 s in the frequency range above 1 kHz at the position 40 m from the source. For certain music sources with higher frequency components, therefore, sound fields in a bamboo forest have excellent acoustic properties.

  6. Military jet noise source imaging using multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; McKinley, Richard L; James, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The identification of acoustic sources is critical to targeted noise reduction efforts for jets on high-performance tactical aircraft. This paper describes the imaging of acoustic sources from a tactical jet using near-field acoustical holography techniques. The measurement consists of a series of scans over the hologram with a dense microphone array. Partial field decomposition methods are performed to generate coherent holograms. Numerical extrapolation of data beyond the measurement aperture mitigates artifacts near the aperture edges. A multisource equivalent wave model is used that includes the effects of the ground reflection on the measurement. Multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (M-SONAH) is used to reconstruct apparent source distributions between 20 and 1250 Hz at four engine powers. It is shown that M-SONAH produces accurate field reconstructions for both inward and outward propagation in the region spanned by the physical hologram measurement. Reconstructions across the set of engine powers and frequencies suggests that directivity depends mainly on estimated source location; sources farther downstream radiate at a higher angle relative to the inlet axis. At some frequencies and engine powers, reconstructed fields exhibit multiple radiation lobes originating from overlapped source regions, which is a phenomenon relatively recently reported for full-scale jets. PMID:27106340

  7. Sound field simulation and acoustic animation in urban squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Meng, Yan

    2005-04-01

    Urban squares are important components of cities, and the acoustic environment is important for their usability. While models and formulae for predicting the sound field in urban squares are important for their soundscape design and improvement, acoustic animation tools would be of great importance for designers as well as for public participation process, given that below a certain sound level, the soundscape evaluation depends mainly on the type of sounds rather than the loudness. This paper first briefly introduces acoustic simulation models developed for urban squares, as well as empirical formulae derived from a series of simulation. It then presents an acoustic animation tool currently being developed. In urban squares there are multiple dynamic sound sources, so that the computation time becomes a main concern. Nevertheless, the requirements for acoustic animation in urban squares are relatively low compared to auditoria. As a result, it is important to simplify the simulation process and algorithms. Based on a series of subjective tests in a virtual reality environment with various simulation parameters, a fast simulation method with acceptable accuracy has been explored. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  8. Undulator Field Integral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-07

    The LCLS undulator field integrals must be very small so that the beam trajectory slope and offset stay within tolerance. In order to make accurate measurements of the small field integrals, a long coil will be used. This note describes the design of the coil measurement system.

  9. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  10. Acoustic wayfinding: A method to measure the acoustic contrast of different paving materials for blind people.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Simone; Lauria, Antonio; Cellai, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic wayfinding involves using a variety of auditory cues to create a mental map of the surrounding environment. For blind people, these auditory cues become the primary substitute for visual information in order to understand the features of the spatial context and orient themselves. This can include creating sound waves, such as tapping a cane. This paper reports the results of a research about the "acoustic contrast" parameter between paving materials functioning as a cue and the surrounding or adjacent surface functioning as a background. A number of different materials was selected in order to create a test path and a procedure was defined for the verification of the ability of blind people to distinguish different acoustic contrasts. A method is proposed for measuring acoustic contrast generated by the impact of a cane tip on the ground to provide blind people with environmental information on spatial orientation and wayfinding in urban places. PMID:27633240

  11. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  12. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  13. Determination of the Accommodation Coefficient Using Vapor/gas Bubble Dynamics in an Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumerov, Nail A.; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Goumilevski, Alexei G.; Allen, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nonequilibrium liquid/vapor phase transformations can occur in superheated or subcooled liquids in fast processes such as in evaporation in a vacuum. The rate at which such a phase transformation occurs depends on the "condensation" or "accommodation" coefficient, Beta, which is a property of the interface. Existing measurement techniques for Beta are complex and expensive. The development of a relatively inexpensive and reliable technique for measurement of Beta for a wide range of substances and temperatures is of great practical importance. The dynamics of a bubble in an acoustic field strongly depends on the value of Beta. It is known that near the saturation temperature, small vapor bubbles grow under the action of an acoustic field due to "rectified heat transfer." This finding can be used as the basis for an effective measurement technique of Beta. We developed a theory of vapor bubble behavior in an isotropic acoustic wave and in a plane standing acoustic wave. A numerical code was developed which enables simulation of a variety of experimental situations and accurately takes into account slowly evolving temperature. A parametric study showed that the measurement of Beta can be made over a broad range of frequencies and bubble sizes. We found several interesting regimes and conditions which can be efficiently used for measurements of Beta. Measurements of Beta can be performed in both reduced and normal gravity environments.

  14. Taking advantage of acoustic inhomogeneities in photoacoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Anabela; Handschin, Charles; Riedinger, Christophe; Piasecki, Julien; Mensah, Serge; Litman, Amélie; Akhouayri, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic offers promising perspectives in probing and imaging subsurface optically absorbing structures in biological tissues. The optical uence absorbed is partly dissipated into heat accompanied with microdilatations that generate acoustic pressure waves, the intensity which is related to the amount of fluuence absorbed. Hence the photoacoustic signal measured offers access, at least potentially, to a local monitoring of the absorption coefficient, in 3D if tomographic measurements are considered. However, due to both the diffusing and absorbing nature of the surrounding tissues, the major part of the uence is deposited locally at the periphery of the tissue, generating an intense acoustic pressure wave that may hide relevant photoacoustic signals. Experimental strategies have been developed in order to measure exclusively the photoacoustic waves generated by the structure of interest (orthogonal illumination and detection). Temporal or more sophisticated filters (wavelets) can also be applied. However, the measurement of this primary acoustic wave carries a lot of information about the acoustically inhomogeneous nature of the medium. We propose a protocol that includes the processing of this primary intense acoustic wave, leading to the quantification of the surrounding medium sound speed, and, if appropriate to an acoustical parametric image of the heterogeneities. This information is then included as prior knowledge in the photoacoustic reconstruction scheme to improve the localization and quantification.

  15. Vibration of a single microcapsule with a hard plastic shell in an acoustic standing wave field.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Kotera, Hironori; Kitazawa, Natsuko; Yoshida, Kenji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    Observation techniques for measuring the small vibration of a single microcapsule of tens of nanometers in an acoustic standing wave field are discussed. First, simultaneous optical observation of a microbubble vibration by two methods is investigated, using a high-speed video camera, which permits two-dimensional observation of the bubble vibration, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), which can observe small bubble vibration amplitudes at high frequency. Bubbles of tens of micrometers size were trapped at the antinode of an acoustic standing wave generated in an observational cell. Bubble vibration at 27 kHz could be observed and the experimental results for the two methods showed good agreement. The radial vibration of microcapsules with a hard plastic shell was observed using the LDV and the measurement of the capsule vibration with radial oscillation amplitude of tens of nanometers was successful. The acoustic radiation force acting on microcapsules in the acoustic standing wave was measured from the trapped position of the standing wave and the radial oscillation amplitude of the capsules was estimated from the theoretical equation of the acoustic radiation force, giving results in good agreement with the LDV measurements. The radial oscillation amplitude of a capsule was found to be proportional to the amplitude of the driving sound pressure. A larger expansion ratio was observed for capsules closer to the resonance condition under the same driving sound pressure and frequency.

  16. Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2013-11-01

    An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.

  17. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  18. Measurements of Antarctic ice properties for acoustic neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahnhauer, R.; Ice Cube Acoustic Neutrino Detection Group

    2008-11-01

    Detection of the faint flux of neutrinos from interactions of the highest energy charged cosmic particles with microwave background photons with a reasonable number of events would contribute to answering interesting questions of particle physics as well as astro-particle physics and cosmology. This needs however detector volumes 100 times larger than the biggest optical neutrino telescopes presently under construction. The use of at least two technologies with different systematics would help to fight the large background expected to hide the small signal. A hybrid optical-radio-acoustic array suggested around the IceCube observatory at the South Pole seems to be a promising option for such an experiment. This is the reason for an extensive evaluation of the acoustic properties of the ice at the Pole with the help of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup SPATS. SPATS consists of four strings with seven acoustic stations each, deployed in the upper part of IceCube bore-holes down to 400 m to 500 m depth. Each acoustic station has an acoustic transmitter and three acoustic receivers. Data have been taken with since early 2007. During the last Austral summer in addition a movable transmitter was used in several water filled bore-holes aiming in particular for a relative calibration of the setup. Preliminary results are presented on speed of sound versus depth, noise behavior and attenuation length measurements

  19. Laval nozzle as an acoustic analogue of a massive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyubamba, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    We study a gas flow in the Laval nozzle, which is a convergent-divergent tube that has a sonic point in its throat. We show how to obtain the appropriate form of the tube, so that the acoustic perturbations of the gas flow in it satisfy any given wave-like equation. With the help of the proposed method we find the Laval nozzle, which is an acoustic analogue of the massive scalar field in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole. This gives us a possibility to observe in a laboratory the quasinormal ringing of the massive scalar field, which, for special set of the parameters, can have infinitely long-living oscillations in its spectrum.

  20. Membrane hydrophone phase characteristics through nonlinear acoustics measurements.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Philip E; Gandhi, Gaurav; Lewin, Peter A

    2011-11-01

    This work considers the need for both the amplitude and phase to fully characterize polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane hydrophones and presents a comprehensive discussion of the nonlinear acoustic measurements utilized to extract the phase information and the experimental results taken with two widely used PVDF membrane hydrophones up to 100 MHz. A semi-empirical computer model utilized the hyperbolic propagation operator to predict the nonlinear pressure field and provide the complex frequency response of the corresponding source transducer. The PVDF hydrophone phase characteristics, which were obtained directly from the difference between the computer-modeled nonlinear field simulation and the corresponding measured harmonic frequency phase values, agree to within 10% with the phase predictions obtained from receive-transfer-function simulations based on software modeling of the membrane's physical properties. Cable loading effects and membrane hydrophone resonances were distinguished and identified through a series of impedance measurements and receive transfer function simulations on the hydrophones including their hard-wired coaxial cables. The results obtained indicate that the PVDF membrane hydrophone's phase versus frequency plot exhibits oscillations about a monotonically decreasing line. The maxima and minima inflection point slopes occur at the membrane thickness resonances and antiresonances, respectively. A cable resonance was seen at 100 MHz for the hydrophone with a 1-m cable attached, but not seen for the hydrophone with a shorter 0.65-m cable.

  1. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  2. Instrumentation for in-flight acoustic measurements in an engine intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanleeuwen, S. S.; Zandbergen, I.

    1983-09-01

    Acoustic measurements were carried out in the engine intake ducts of the Fokker F28 test aircraft during flight. One of the low bypass ratio engines with a hard walled intake was instrumented to detect the circumferential modes of the sound field. Aerodynamic measurements were carried out to determine the flow conditions in the intake near the wall. In the other engine the impedance of the inlet acoustic liner was measured. An error analysis of the instrumentation is given. It is concluded that the in-flight measurement of acoustic pressure ratios with an accuracy of 4.08% and 2.61 deg., and the measurement of stationary pressure with an accuracy of 0.55% is feasible.

  3. Field tests of acoustic telemetry for a portable coastal observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, M.; Butman, B.; Ware, J.; Frye, D.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term field tests of a low-cost acoustic telemetry system were carried out at two sites in Massachusetts Bay. At each site, an acoustic Doppler current profiler mounted on a bottom tripod was fitted with an acoustic modem to transmit data to a surface buoy; electronics mounted on the buoy relayed these data to shore via radio modem. The mooring at one site (24 m water depth) was custom-designed for the telemetry application, with a custom designed small buoy, a flexible electro-mechanical buoy to mooring joint using a molded chain connection to the buoy, quick-release electro-mechanical couplings, and dual hydrophones suspended 7 m above the bottom. The surface buoy at the second site (33 m water depth) was a U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) channel buoy fitted with telemetry electronics and clamps to hold the hydrophones. The telemetry was tested in several configurations for a period of about four years. The custom-designed buoy and mooring provided nearly error-free data transmission through the acoustic link under a variety of oceanographic conditions for 261 days at the 24 m site. The electro mechanical joint, cables and couplings required minimal servicing and were very reliable, lasting 862 days deployed before needing repairs. The acoustic communication results from the USCG buoy were poor, apparently due to the hard cobble bottom, noise from the all-steel buoy, and failure of the hydrophone assembly. Access to the USCG buoy at sea required ideal weather. ??2006 IEEE.

  4. Direct Field and Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Test Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reverberant and direct acoustic test comparisons were analyzed in this viewgraph presentation. The acoustic test data set includes: 1) CloudSat antenna subjected to PF reverberant chamber acoustic test; 2) CloudSat subjected to a PF direct speaker acoustic test; and 3) DAWN flight spacecraft subjected to PF direct speaker and a workmanship reverberant chamber acoustic test.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on the movements of two bubbles in an acoustic standing wave field.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junjie; He, Yong; Leong, Thomas; Kentish, Sandra E; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Manasseh, Richard; Lee, Judy

    2013-10-17

    When subjected to an ultrasonic standing-wave field, cavitation bubbles smaller than the resonance size migrate to the pressure antinodes. As bubbles approach the antinode, they also move toward each other and either form a cluster or coalesce. In this study, the translational trajectory of two bubbles moving toward each other in an ultrasonic standing wave at 22.4 kHz was observed using an imaging system with a high-speed video camera. This allowed the speed of the approaching bubbles to be measured for much closer distances than those reported in the prior literature. The trajectory of two approaching bubbles was modeled using coupled equations of radial and translational motions, showing similar trends with the experimental results. We also indirectly measured the secondary Bjerknes force by monitoring the acceleration when bubbles are close to each other under different acoustic pressure amplitudes. Bubbles begin to accelerate toward each other as the distance between them gets shorter, and this acceleration increases with increasing acoustic pressure. The current study provides experimental data that validates the theory on the movement of bubbles and forces acting between them in an acoustic field that will be useful in understanding bubble coalescence in an acoustic field.

  6. Influence of acoustic pressure and bubble sizes on the coalescence of two contacting bubbles in an acoustic field.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junjie; He, Yong; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kentish, Sandra E; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Manasseh, Richard; Lee, Judy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the coalescence time between two contacting sub-resonance size bubbles was measured experimentally under an acoustic pressure ranging from 10kPa to 120kPa, driven at a frequency of 22.4kHz. The coalescence time obtained under sonication was much longer compared to that calculated by the film drainage theory for a free bubble surface without surfactants. It was found that under the influence of an acoustic field, the coalescence time could be probabilistic in nature, exhibiting upper and lower limits of coalescence times which are prolonged when both the maximum surface approach velocity and secondary Bjerknes force increases. The size of the two contacting bubbles is also important. For a given acoustic pressure, bubbles having a larger average size and size difference were observed to exhibit longer coalescence times. This could be caused by the phase difference between the volume oscillations of the two bubbles, which in turn affects the minimum film thickness reached between the bubbles and the film drainage time. These results will have important implications for developing film drainage theory to account for the effect of bubble translational and volumetric oscillations, bubble surface fluctuations and microstreaming.

  7. Near-Field Acoustical Characterization of Clustered Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Vu, Bruce T.; Lindsay Halie K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the prediction and characterization of the near-field acoustic levels from closely-spaced clustered rocket engines. The calculations are based on the method proposed by Eldred, wherein the flowfield from the clustered rockets is divided into two zones. Zone 1 contains the isolated nozzles which produce noise independently, and extends up to a distance where the individual flows completely mix to form an equivalent single nozzle flow. Zone 2 is occupied by the single mixed stream starting from the station where the jets merge. The acoustic fields from the two zones are computed separately on the basis of the NASA-SP method of Eldred developed for a single equivalent nozzle. A summation of the spectra for the two zones yields the total effective sound pressure level for the clustered engines. Under certain conditions of nozzle spacing and flow parameters, the combined sound pressure level spectrum for the clustered nozzles displays a double peak. Test cases are presented here to demonstrate the importance of hydrodynamic interactions responsible for the double peak in the sound spectrum in the case of clustered rocket nozzles, and the role of ground reflections in the case of non-interfering jets. A graphics interface (Rocket Acoustic Prediction Tool) has been developed to take into account the effects of clustered nozzles and ground reflections.

  8. Acoustic source localization in mixed field using spherical microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Tong

    2014-12-01

    Spherical microphone arrays have been used for source localization in three-dimensional space recently. In this paper, a two-stage algorithm is developed to localize mixed far-field and near-field acoustic sources in free-field environment. In the first stage, an array signal model is constructed in the spherical harmonics domain. The recurrent relation of spherical harmonics is independent of far-field and near-field mode strengths. Therefore, it is used to develop spherical estimating signal parameter via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT)-like approach to estimate directions of arrival (DOAs) for both far-field and near-field sources. In the second stage, based on the estimated DOAs, simple one-dimensional MUSIC spectrum is exploited to distinguish far-field and near-field sources and estimate the ranges of near-field sources. The proposed algorithm can avoid multidimensional search and parameter pairing. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance for localizing far-field sources, or near-field ones, or mixed field sources.

  9. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-10-15

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  10. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z Y; Lü, P; Geng, D L; Zhai, W; Yan, N; Wei, B

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope. PMID:25362441

  11. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  12. Passive Acoustic Tomography Tested for Measuring Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Kleppe, John

    2004-01-01

    tomography by sound waves. Active acoustic tomography, in which a sound pulse is injected into the flow and the time delays between members of an array of microphones are used to construct the temperature field has been used successfully in the stacks of power plants. However, the flow field inside a jet engine is much too noisy for it to be possible to detect an externally injected sound pulse. Instead we are developing passive acoustic tomography, which uses the sound already present in the flow.

  13. An optoacoustic point source for acoustic scale model measurements.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Javier Gómez; Pulkki, Ville; Karppinen, Pasi; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-04-01

    A massless acoustic source is proposed for scale model work. This source is generated by focusing a pulsed laser beam to rapidly heat the air at the focal point. This produces an expanding small plasma ball which generates a sonic impulse that may be used as an acoustic point source. Repeatability, frequency response, and directivity of the source were measured to show that it can serve as a massless point source. The impulse response of a rectangular space was determined using this type of source. A good match was found between the predicted and the measured impulse responses of the space.

  14. Measurement of acoustic characteristics of Japanese Buddhist temples in relation to sound source location and direction.

    PubMed

    Soeta, Yoshiharu; Shimokura, Ryota; Kim, Yong Hee; Ohsawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Although temples are important buildings in the Buddhist community, the acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. Buddhist monks change the location and direction according to the ceremony, and associated acoustical changes have not yet been examined scientifically. To discuss the desired acoustics of temples, it is necessary to know the acoustic characteristics appropriate for each phase of a ceremony. In this study, acoustic measurements were taken at various source locations and directions in Japanese temples. A directional loudspeaker was used as the source to provide vocal acoustic fields, and impulse responses were measured and analyzed. The speech transmission index was higher and the interaural cross-correlation coefficient was lower for the sound source directed toward the side wall than that directed toward the altar. This suggests that the change in direction improves speech intelligibility, and the asymmetric property of direct sound and complex reflections from the altar and side wall increases the apparent source width. The large and coupled-like structure of the altar of a Buddhist temple may have reinforced the reverberation components and the table in the altar, which is called the "syumidan," may have decreased binaural coherence.

  15. A gearbox fault diagnosis scheme based on near-field acoustic holography and spatial distribution features of sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbo; Jiang, Weikang; Yuan, Guoqing; Yan, Li

    2013-05-01

    Vibration signal analysis is the main technique in machine condition monitoring or fault diagnosis, whereas in some cases vibration-based diagnosis is restrained because of its contact measurement. Acoustic-based diagnosis (ABD) with non-contact measurement has received little attention, although sound field may contain abundant information related to fault pattern. A new scheme of ABD for gearbox based on near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and spatial distribution features of sound field is presented in this paper. It focuses on applying distribution information of sound field to gearbox fault diagnosis. A two-stage industrial helical gearbox is experimentally studied in a semi-anechoic chamber and a lab workshop, respectively. Firstly, multi-class faults (mild pitting, moderate pitting, severe pitting and tooth breakage) are simulated, respectively. Secondly, sound fields and corresponding acoustic images in different gearbox running conditions are obtained by fast Fourier transform (FFT) based NAH. Thirdly, by introducing texture analysis to fault diagnosis, spatial distribution features are extracted from acoustic images for capturing fault patterns underlying the sound field. Finally, the features are fed into multi-class support vector machine for fault pattern identification. The feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme is demonstrated on the good experimental results and the comparison with traditional ABD method. Even with strong noise interference, spatial distribution features of sound field can reliably reveal the fault patterns of gearbox, and thus the satisfactory accuracy can be obtained. The combination of histogram features and gray level gradient co-occurrence matrix features is suggested for good diagnosis accuracy and low time cost.

  16. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  17. Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.

    PubMed

    Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A

    2013-11-01

    Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.

  18. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  19. Bimodal schwa: Evidence from acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane-Tanaka, Noriko; Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya

    2001-05-01

    The question of whether schwa is targeted or targetless has been the subject of much debate (Browman et al., 1992; Browman and Goldstein, 1995; Gick, 1999, 2002). Gick (2002) found that there is a pharyngeal constriction during schwa relative to rest position, and concluded that schwa is not targetless. This experiment further showed a ``bimodal'' pattern in schwa in a nonrhotic speaker, indicating that the subject has distinct schwas in lexical words and function words. The present study examines the existence of the ``bimodal'' pattern in schwas in nonrhotic dialects through an acoustic experiment. It is predicted that there is a significant difference in formant values between lexical schwas and function schwas. Results to date indicate a significant difference in them between schwas in lexical versus function words, both between historical schwas and those derived from final /r/ reduction. Data from several additional nonrhotic subjects will be presented. Implications for intrusive r as well as for the phonological treatment of function words will be discussed. [Work funded by NSERC and SSHRC.

  20. Computation of instantaneous and time-averaged active acoustic intensity field around rotating source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yijun; Xu, Chen; Qi, Datong

    2015-02-01

    A vector aeroacoustics method is developed to analyze the acoustic energy flow path from the rotating source. In this method, the instantaneous and time-averaged active acoustic intensity vectors are evaluated from the time-domain and frequency-domain acoustic pressure and acoustic velocity formulations, respectively. With the above method, the acoustic intensity vectors and the acoustic energy streamlines are visualized to investigate the propagation feature of the noise radiated from the monopole and dipole point sources and the rotor in subsonic rotation. The result reveals that a portion of the acoustic energy spirals many circles before moving towards the far field, and another portion of the acoustic energy firstly flows inward along the radial direction and then propagates along the axial direction. Further, an acoustic black hole exists in the plane of source rotation, from which the acoustic energy cannot escape once the acoustic energy flows into it. Moreover, by visualizing the acoustic intensity field around the rotating sources, the acoustic-absorption performance of the acoustic liner built in the casing and centerbody is discussed.

  1. Acoustic emission descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witos, Franciszek; Malecki, Ignacy

    The authors present selected problems associated with acoustic emission interpreted as a physical phenomenon and as a measurement technique. The authors examine point sources of acoustic emission in isotropic, homogeneous linearly elastic media of different shapes. In the case of an unbounded medium the authors give the analytical form of the stress field and the wave shift field of the acoustic emission. In the case of a medium which is unbounded plate the authors give a form for the equations which is suitable for numerical calculation of the changes over time of selected acoustic emission values. For acoustic emission as a measurement technique, the authors represent the output signal as the resultant of a mechanical input value which describes the source, the transient function of the medium, and the transient function of specific components of the measurement loop. As an effect of this notation, the authors introduce the distinction between an acoustic measurement signal and an acoustic measurement impulse. The authors define the basic parameters of an arbitrary impulse. The authors extensively discuss the signal functions of acoustic emission impulses and acoustic emission signals defined in this article as acoustic emission descriptors (or signal functions of acoustic emission impulses) and advanced acoustic emission descriptors (which are either descriptors associated with acoustic emission applications or the signal functions of acoustic emission signals). The article also contains the results of experimental research on three different problems in which acoustic emission descriptors associated with acoustic emission pulses, acoustic emission applications, and acoustic emission signals are used. These problems are respectively: a problem of the amplitude-load characteristics of acoustic emission pulses in carbon samples subjected to compound uniaxial compression, the use of acoustic emission to predict the durability characteristics of conveyor belts, and

  2. Acoustical Design and Measurement of a Circular Hall, Improving a Spatial Factor at each Seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TAKATSU, A.; HASE, S.; SAKAI, H.; SATO, S.; ANDO, Y.

    2000-04-01

    A round-shaped multi-purpose-event hall with 400 seats (ORBIS Hall: Kobe, Japan) was designed based on the subjective-preference theory of sound fields. To maximize the total scale value of subjective preference at each seat, various is pieces of acoustical equipment were designed. One of the four orthogonal factors of a sound field, the IACC was taken into consideration to ensure the effects of the equipment by acoustical simulation in the design stage. After construction of the hall, acoustical measurements of IACC were conducted by use of two music motifs. The IACC using the music motifs was much improved due to scattered reflectors, which are installed at each sidewall, and near to and in ceilings, than that of the simulation in the design stage.

  3. Measurement of acoustic velocity in the stack of a thermoacoustic refrigerator using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Michard, Marc; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration systems generate cooling power from a high-amplitude acoustic standing wave. There has recently been a growing interest in this technology because of its simple and robust architecture and its use of environmentally safe gases. With the prospect of commercialization, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of thermoacoustic cooling systems and more particularly of some of their components such as the heat exchangers. The characterization of the flow field at the end of the stack plates is a crucial step for the understanding and optimization of heat transfer between the stack and the heat exchangers. In this study, a specific particle image velocimetry measurement is performed inside a thermoacoustic refrigerator. Acoustic velocity is measured using synchronization and phase-averaging. The measurement method is validated inside a void resonator by successfully comparing experimental data with an acoustic plane wave model. Velocity is measured inside the oscillating boundary layers, between the plates of the stack, and compared to a linear model. The flow behind the stack is characterized, and it shows the generation of symmetric pairs of counter-rotating vortices at the end of the stack plates at low acoustic pressure level. As the acoustic pressure level increases, detachment of the vortices and symmetry breaking are observed.

  4. Particle trapping and transport achieved via an adjustable acoustic field above a phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Ke, M.; Qiu, C.; Liu, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We present the design for an acoustic system that can achieve particle trapping and transport using the acoustic force field above a phononic crystal plate. The phononic crystal plate comprised a thin brass plate with periodic slits alternately embedded with two kinds of elastic inclusions. Enhanced acoustic transmission and localized acoustic fields were achieved when the structure was excited by external acoustic waves. Because of the different resonant frequencies of the two elastic inclusions, the acoustic field could be controlled via the working frequency. Particles were transported between adjacent traps under the influence of the adjustable acoustic field. This device provides a new and versatile avenue for particle manipulation that would complement other means of particle manipulation.

  5. A new method to measure the acoustic surface impedance outdoors.

    PubMed

    Carpinello, S; L'Hermite, Ph; Bérengier, M; Licitra, G

    2004-01-01

    In the European countries noise pollution is considered to be one of the most important environmental problems. With respect to traffic noise, different researchers are working on the reduction of noise at the source, on the modelling of the acoustic absorption of the road structure and on the effects of the pavement on the propagation. The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to measure the acoustic impedance of surfaces located outdoors, which allows us to further noise propagation models, in order to evaluate exactly the noise exposure.

  6. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-10-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters.

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force on a Finite-Sized Particle due to an Acoustic Field in a Viscous Compressible Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Parmar, Manoj; Balachandar, S.

    2013-11-01

    Particles when subjected to acoustic waves experience a time-averaged second-order force known as the acoustic radiation force, which is of prime importance in the fields of microfluidics and acoustic levitation. Here, the acoustic radiation force on a rigid spherical particle in a viscous compressible medium due to progressive and standing waves is considered. The relevant length scales include: particle radius (a), acoustic wavelength (λ) and viscous penetration depth (δ). While a / λ and a / δ are arbitrary, δ << λ . A farfield derivation approach has been used in determining the radiated force. Expressing the flow-field as a sum of the incident and scattered fields, an analytical expression for the force is obtained as a summation over infinite series (monopole, dipole and higher sources). These results indicate that the contributions from monopole, dipole and their cross-interaction are sufficient to describe the acoustic radiation force. Subsequently, the monopole and dipole strengths are represented in terms of the particle surface and volume averages of the incoming velocity. This generalization allows one to evaluate the radiation force for an incoming wave of any functional form. However acoustic streaming effects are neglected.

  8. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  9. Laboratory comparisons of acoustic and optical sensors for microbubble measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ming Yang; Todoroff, Douglas; Cartmill, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent comparison between three microbubble size spectrum measurement systems. These systems are the light-scattering bubble counter, the photographic bubble-imaging system, and the acoustic resonator array. Good agreement was formed among these three systems over the bubble size range appropriate for each system.

  10. Measurement of cochlear acoustic pressure in guinea pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, R.; Dancer, A.

    1983-10-01

    Guinea pig cochlear acoustic pressure was measured in the 3 to 200 Hz range. The cochlear microphonic potential was recorded. The experimental results agree with the Peterson and Bogert model. The pressure transducers and the calibrating device are confirmed to be excellent tools for this type of research.

  11. Acoustical Measurements of Selected Intonation Contours of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, John M.

    Recent studies of rising intonation contours in French, in particular the acoustical differences that serve to distinguish Yes/No questions from other rising intonations are reviewed. The preliminary results of a pilot study of rising intonations in French, in which average curves were obtained from spectrographic measurements of fundamental…

  12. Prediction of the Acoustic Field Associated with Instability Wave Source Model for a Compressible Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubev, Vladimir; Mankbadi, Reda R.; Dahl, Milo D.; Kiraly, L. James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides preliminary results of the study of the acoustic radiation from the source model representing spatially-growing instability waves in a round jet at high speeds. The source model is briefly discussed first followed by the analysis of the produced acoustic directivity pattern. Two integral surface techniques are discussed and compared for prediction of the jet acoustic radiation field.

  13. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  14. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  15. Relating acoustics and human outcome measures in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Timothy Yuan-Ting

    Hospital noise has been an area of concern for medical professionals and researchers for the last century. Researchers have attempted to characterize the soundscape of hospital wards and have made some preliminary links between noise and human outcomes. In the past, most of the research has used traditional acoustic metrics. These traditional metrics, such as average sound level, are readily measured using sound level meters and have been the primary results reported in previous studies. However, it has been shown that these traditional metrics may be insufficient in fully characterizing the wards. The two studies presented here use traditional metrics and nontraditional metrics to define the soundscape of hospital wards. The uncovered links, between both sound level metrics and psychoacoustic metrics and patient physiological measurements, are discussed. Correlations and risk ratios demonstrate the presence and the strength of these relationships. These results demonstrate the relationships between hospital acoustics and patient physiological arousal. Additionally, the effects of adding absorption in a hospital ward are presented. Sound level, sound power, reverberation time and other acoustic metrics are directly affected. The speech intelligibility in these wards is evaluated in order to highlight the temporal nature of speech intelligibility. With both studies combined, both traditional and nontraditional acoustic measures are shown to have statistically significant relationships to both patient and staff outcomes.

  16. Broadband acoustic scattering measurements of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, J A; Houston, B H; Saniga, M; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Dey, S; Kraus, L; Carin, L

    2008-02-01

    In order to evaluate the potential for detection and identification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) by exploiting their structural acoustic response, we carried out broadband monostatic scattering measurements over a full 360 degrees on UXO's (two mortar rounds, an artillery shell, and a rocket warhead) and false targets (a cinder block and a large rock). The measurement band, 1-140 kHz, includes a low frequency structural acoustics region in which the wavelengths are comparable to or larger than the target characteristic dimensions. In general, there are aspects that provide relatively high target strength levels ( approximately -10 to -15 dB), and from our experience the targets should be detectable in this structural acoustics band in most acoustic environments. The rigid body scattering was also calculated for one UXO in order to highlight the measured scattering features involving elastic responses. The broadband scattering data should be able to support feature-based separation of UXO versus false targets and identification of various classes of UXO as well.

  17. Accuracy and variability of acoustic measures of voicing onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ching Yu, Jojo Man

    2003-02-01

    Five commonly used methods for determining the onset of voicing of syllable-initial stop consonants were compared. The speech and glottal activity of 16 native speakers of Cantonese with normal voice quality were investigated during the production of consonant vowel (CV) syllables in Cantonese. Syllables consisted of the initial consonants /ph/, /th/, /kh/, /p/, /t/, and /k/ followed by the vowel /a/. All syllables had a high level tone, and were all real words in Cantonese. Measurements of voicing onset were made based on the onset of periodicity in the acoustic waveform, and on spectrographic measures of the onset of a voicing bar (f0), the onset of the first formant (F1), second formant (F2), and third formant (F3). These measurements were then compared against the onset of glottal opening as determined by electroglottography. Both accuracy and variability of each measure were calculated. Results suggest that the presence of aspiration in a syllable decreased the accuracy and increased the variability of spectrogram-based measurements, but did not strongly affect measurements made from the acoustic waveform. Overall, the acoustic waveform provided the most accurate estimate of voicing onset; measurements made from the amplitude waveform were also the least variable of the five measures. These results can be explained as a consequence of differences in spectral tilt of the voicing source in breathy versus modal phonation.

  18. Secondary emission and acoustic-phonon scattering induced by strong magnetic fields in multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapega, V. F.; Belitsky, V. I.; Ruf, T.; Fuchs, H. D.; Cardona, M.; Ploog, K.

    1992-12-01

    A strong increase of low-frequency Raman scattering has been observed in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 14 T. The spectra, consisting of background scattering, folded acoustic phonons, and additional features, show resonant behavior with respect to the laser frequency and the strength of the magnetic field. The broad background, usually related to geminate recombination, has its origin in a continuum of Raman processes with the emission of longitudinal-acoustic phonons where crystal momentum is not conserved. Such processes can become dominant when interface fluctuations allow for resonant scattering in individual quantum wells only. Thus phonons with all possible energies contribute to the background scattering efficiency. The observed folded longitudinal-acoustic phonons are in good agreement with calculated frequencies. Additional features, detected in all samples measured, are attributed to local vibrational modes tied to the gaps at the folded Brillouin-zone center and edge. Other peculiarities observed correspond to modes localized at crossings of the folded longitudinal- and transverse-acoustic branches inside the Brillouin zone. The appearance of these local modes is attributed to fluctuations in the well and barrier thicknesses of the quantum wells.

  19. Field studies in architectural acoustics using Tablet PCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Core requirements for the sciences within the liberal arts curriculum challenge students to become directly involved in scientific study. These requirements seek to develop scientifically literate leaders and members of society. Formal laboratory periods are not usually associated with these courses. Thus, conceptual discovery and quantitative experimentation must take place outside of the classroom. Physics 115: Musical Technology at Davidson College is such a course and contains a section dealing with architectural acoustics. Field studies in the past have been an awkward and cumbersome activity, especially for non-science majors. The emerging technology of Tablet PCs overcomes many of the problems of mobile data acquisition and analysis, and allows the students to determine the locations of the rooms to be studied. The impulse method for determining reverberation time is used and compared with calculations based on room size and absorption media. The use of Tablet PCs and the publicly available freeware Audacity in field studies investigating architectural acoustics will be discussed. [Work supported in part by the Associated Colleges of the South through their Technology Fellowship program.

  20. Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaut, L. R.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin-It\\hato and Fokker-Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general not separable, as a result of nonstationarity. A general solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in integral form, together with explicit closed-form solutions for several asymptotic cases. The findings extend known results on statistics and distributions of quasi-stationary ideal random fields (pure diffusions), which are retrieved as special cases. A summary of selected results in this paper appeared in [1].

  1. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  2. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  3. Use of an acoustic helium analyzer for measuring lung volumes.

    PubMed

    Krumpe, P E; MacDannald, H J; Finley, T N; Schear, H E; Hall, J; Cribbs, D

    1981-01-01

    We have evaluated the use of an acoustic gas analyzer (AGA) for the measurement of total lung capacity (TLC) by single-breath helium dilution. The AGA has a rapid response time (0-90% response = 160 ms for 10% He), is linear for helium concentration of 0.1-10%, is stable over a wide range of ambient temperatures, and is small and portable. We plotted the output of the AGA vs. expired lung volume after a vital capacity breath of 10% He. However, since the AGA is sensitive to changes in speed of sound relative to air, the AGA output signal also reports an artifact due to alveolar gases. We corrected for this artifact by replotting a single-breath expiration after a vital capacity breath of room air. Mean alveolar helium concentration (HeA) was then measured by planimetry, using this alveolar gas curve as the base line. TLC was calculated using the HeA from the corrected AGA output and compared with TLC calculated from HeA simultaneously measured using a mass spectrometer (MS). In 12 normal subjects and 9 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) TLC-AGA and TLC-MS were compared by linear regression analysis; correlation coefficient (r) was 0.973 for normals and 0.968 for COPD patients (P less than 0.001). This single-breath; estimation of TLC using the corrected signal of the AGA vs. Expired volume seems ideally suited for the measurement of subdivisions of lung volume in field studies. PMID:7204187

  4. Application of acoustic tomography to reconstruct the horizontal flow velocity field in a shallow river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kaneko, Arata; Nistor, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    A novel acoustic tomographic measurement system capable of resolving sound travel time in extremely shallow rivers is introduced and the results of an extensive field measurements campaign are presented and further discussed. Acoustic pulses were transmitted over a wide frequency band of 20-35 kHz between eight transducers for about a week in a meandering reach of theBāsen River, Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the field experiment was validating the concept of acoustic tomography in rivers for visualizing current fields. The particular novelty of the experiment resides in its unusual tomographic features: subbasin scale (100 m × 270 m) and shallowness (0.5-3.0 m) of the physical domain, frequency of the transmitted acoustic signals (central frequency of 30 kHz), and the use of small sampling intervals (105 s). Inverse techniques with no a priori statistical information were used to estimate the depth-average current velocity components from differential travel times. Zeroth-order Tikhonov regularization, in conjunction with L-curve method deployed to stabilize the solution and to determine the weighting factor appearing in the inverse analysis. Concurrent direct environmental measurements were provided in the form of ADCP readings close to the right and left bank. Very good agreement found between along-channel velocities larger than 0.2 m/s obtained from the two techniques. Inverted quantities were, however, underestimated, perhaps due to vicinity of the ADCPs to the banks and strong effect of river geometry on the readings. In general, comparing the visualized currents with direct nodal measurements illustrate the plausibility of the tomographically reconstructed flow structures.

  5. Nonlinear electron acoustic waves in presence of shear magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic waves are studied in a quasineutral plasma in the presence of a variable magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary positively charged ion background. Linear analysis of the governing equations manifests dispersion relation of electron magneto sonic wave. Whereas, nonlinear wave dynamics is being investigated by introducing Lagrangian variable method in long wavelength limit. It is shown from finite amplitude analysis that the nonlinear wave characteristics are well depicted by KdV equation. The wave dispersion arising in quasineutral plasma is induced by transverse magnetic field component. The results are discussed in the context of plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.

  6. On measurement of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter using the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeqiri, Bajram; Cook, Ashley; Rétat, Lise; Civale, John; ter Haar, Gail

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic nonlinearity parameter, B/A, is an important parameter which defines the way a propagating finite amplitude acoustic wave progressively distorts when travelling through any medium. One measurement technique used to determine its value is the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) method which has been applied to a range of liquid, tissue and tissue-like media. Importantly, in terms of the achievable measurement uncertainties, it is a relative technique. This paper presents a detailed study of the method, employing a number of novel features. The first of these is the use of a large area membrane hydrophone (30 mm aperture) which is used to record the plane-wave component of the acoustic field. This reduces the influence of diffraction on measurements, enabling studies to be carried out within the transducer near-field, with the interrogating transducer, test cell and detector positioned close to one another, an attribute which assists in controlling errors arising from nonlinear distortion in any intervening water path. The second feature is the development of a model which estimates the influence of finite-amplitude distortion as the acoustic wave travels from the rear surface of the test cell to the detector. It is demonstrated that this can lead to a significant systematic error in B/A measurement whose magnitude and direction depends on the acoustic property contrast between the test material and the water-filled equivalent cell. Good qualitative agreement between the model and experiment is reported. B/A measurements are reported undertaken at (20 ± 0.5) °C for two fluids commonly employed as reference materials within the technical literature: Corn Oil and Ethylene Glycol. Samples of an IEC standardised agar-based tissue-mimicking material were also measured. A systematic assessment of measurement uncertainties is presented giving expanded uncertainties in the range ±7% to ±14%, expressed at a confidence level close to 95

  7. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    PubMed

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads. PMID:20462180

  8. Iodine-starch clathrate complexes in low-field acoustic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeev, G. N.; Boldyrev, V. S.; Ermolaeva, V. I.; Eliseeva, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data on the kinetics of formation and decomposition of iodine-starch clathrate complexes (amyloiodine and amylopectoiodine) in low-frequency (5-45 Hz) acoustic fields are reported. The biological activity of these compounds suggests their use as a model of biocatalysts, in which iodine represents the coenzyme active group and starch homopolysaccharides (amylopectin and amylose) represents the apoenzyme.

  9. Extending acoustic data measured with small-scale supersonic model jets to practical aircraft exhaust jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2010-06-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable geometry nozzles to provide optimum thrust in different operating conditions within the flight envelope. However, the acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full-scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometry of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at The Pennsylvania State University and the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with GE Aviation, is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles. An equally important objective is to develop a scaling methodology for using data obtained from small- and moderate-scale experiments which exhibits the independence of the jet sizes to the measured noise levels. The experimental results presented in this thesis have shown reasonable agreement between small-scale and moderate-scale jet acoustic data, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones. As the scaling methodology is validated, it will be extended to using acoustic data measured with small-scale supersonic model jets to the prediction of the most important components of full-scale engine noise. When comparing the measured acoustic spectra with a microphone array set at different radial locations, the characteristics of the jet noise source distribution may induce subtle inaccuracies, depending on the conditions of jet operation. A close look is taken at the details of the noise generation region in order to better understand the mismatch between spectra measured at various acoustic field radial locations. A processing methodology was developed to correct the effect of the noise source distribution and efficiently compare near-field and far-field spectra with unprecedented accuracy. This technique then demonstrates that the measured noise levels in the physically restricted space of an anechoic chamber can be appropriately

  10. Distributed Acoustic Sensing Technology in a Magmatic Geothermal Field - First Results From a Survey in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsch, Thomas; Jousset, Philippe; Henninges, Jan; Blanck, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Seismic methods are particularly suited for investigating the Earth's subsurface. Compared to surface-measurements , wellbore measurements can be used to acquire more detailed information about rock properties and possible fluid pathways within a geothermal reservoir. For high temperature geothermal wells, however, ambient temperatures are often far above the operating temperature range of conventional geophones. One way to overcome this limitation is the application of fiber optic sensor systems, where only the passive optical fiber is subjected to downhole conditions. Their applicability is thus determined by the operating temperature range of the optical fiber. Choosing appropriate fibers, such sensor systems can be operated at temperatures far above 200°C. Along an optical fiber, the distributed acoustic sensing technology (DAS) can be used to acquire acoustic signals with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Previous experiments have shown that the DAS technology is well suited for active seismic measurements. Within the framework of the EC funded project IMAGE, a fiber optic cable was deployed in a newly drilled geothermal well (RN-34) within the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Additionally, a >15 km fiber optic cable, already available at the surface, was connected to a DAS read-out unit. Acoustic data was acquired continuously for 9 days. Hammer shots were performed at the wellhead as well as along the surface cable in order to locate individual acoustic traces and calibrate the spatial distribution of the acoustic information. During the monitoring period both signals from on- and offshore explosive sources and natural seismic events could be recorded. We compare the fiber optic data to conventional seismic records from a dense seismic network deployed on the Reykjanes in the course of the IMAGE project. Here, first results from the seismic survey will be presented.

  11. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

  12. Experimental measurement of acoustic plasmons in polycrystalline palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrity, Patrick L.

    2013-03-01

    An experimental study of collective oscillations in Pd covering the region of very low energy and momentum transfers is reported. Through Dynamic Electron Scattering spectroscopy, structure factor spectra were measured from 80 K to 298 K on a bulk polycrystalline Pd sample. Here we report the first experimental evidence of damped acoustic plasmons and their evolution to the single-particle excitation continuum. The acoustic plasmons follow a linear dispersion and are experimentally shown to be a separate and distinct resonance mode from acoustic surface plasmons. Calculations of the dielectric function employed a model that incorporates complete mixing of two conduction bands with contributions from both interband and intraband transitions. The model was used in computational studies that focused on specific experimental results to aid the characterization and understanding of the plasmon behavior. We found that the Pd acoustic plasmon energy matched the longitudinal phonon anomaly that has sparked numerous theoretical reports on the possible energetic coupling of these modes. Further experimental evidence of plasmon and phonon dynamical processes are found in the linewidth analysis of the data. The primary decay mechanism of the plasmons is interpreted to be strong phonon-assisted interband transitions. Further spectral features and the plasmon velocity are also reported.

  13. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy; Hobbs, Chris; Plotkin, Ken; Pilkey, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments generated by the future Ares I launch vehicle are assessed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) acoustics team using several prediction tools. This acoustic environment is directly caused by the Ares I First Stage booster, powered by the five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRMV). The RSRMV is a larger-thrust derivative design from the currently used Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Lift-off acoustics is an integral part of the composite launch vibration environment affecting the Ares launch vehicle and must be assessed to help generate hardware qualification levels and ensure structural integrity of the vehicle during launch and lift-off. Available prediction tools that use free field noise source spectrums as a starting point for generation of lift-off acoustic environments are described in the monograph NASA SP-8072: "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." This monograph uses a reference database for free field noise source spectrums which consist of subscale rocket motor firings, oriented in horizontal static configurations. The phrase "subscale" is appropriate, since the thrust levels of rockets in the reference database are orders of magnitude lower than the current design thrust for the Ares launch family. Thus, extrapolation is needed to extend the various reference curves to match Ares-scale acoustic levels. This extrapolation process yields a subsequent amount of uncertainty added upon the acoustic environment predictions. As the Ares launch vehicle design schedule progresses, it is important to take every opportunity to lower prediction uncertainty and subsequently increase prediction accuracy. Never before in NASA s history has plume acoustics been measured for large scale solid rocket motors. Approximately twice a year, the RSRM prime vendor, ATK Launch Systems, static fires an assembled RSRM motor in a horizontal configuration at their test facility

  14. Numerical derivation of forces on particles and agglomerates in a resonant acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2013-10-01

    Particles and agglomerates are investigated in gaseous acoustic flow fields. Acoustic fields exert forces on solid objects, which can influence the shape of the exposed bodies, even to the point of breakage of the structures. Motivated by experimentally observed breakage of agglomerates in an acoustic levitator (f = 20 kHz), a numerical study is presented that derives the acoustic forces on a complex model agglomerate from the pressure and velocity fields of a resonant standing ultrasound wave, calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is distinguished between the drag and lift/lateral forces on the overall agglomerate and on the different primary particles of the model.

  15. Atypical prosody in Asperger syndrome: perceptual and acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Marisa G; Frota, Sónia; Castro, São Luís; Vicente, Selene G

    2014-08-01

    It is known that individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may show no problems with regard to what is said (e.g., lexical content) but tend to have difficulties in how utterances are produced, i.e., they may show prosodic impairments. In the present study, we focus on the use of prosodic features to express grammatical meaning. Specifically, we explored the sentence type difference between statements and questions that is conveyed by intonation, using perceptual and acoustic measurements. Children aged 8 and 9 years with AS (n = 12) were matched according to age and nonverbal intelligence with typically developing peers (n = 17). Although children with AS could produce categorically accurate prosodic patterns, their prosodic contours were perceived as odd by adult listeners, and acoustic measurements showed alterations in duration and pitch. Additionally, children with AS had greater variability in fundamental frequency contours compared to typically developing peers.

  16. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  17. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  18. Orbital motions of bubbles in an acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Minori; Yamashita, Ko; Inamura, Takao

    2012-09-01

    This experimental study aims to clarify the mechanism of orbital motion of two oscillating bubbles in an acoustic field. Trajectory of the orbital motion on the wall of a spherical levitator was observed using a high-speed video camera. Because of a good repeatability in volume oscillation of bubbles, we were also able to observe the radial motion driven at 24 kHz by stroboscopic like imaging technique. The orbital motions of bubbles raging from 0.13 to 0.18 mm were examined with different forcing amplitude and in different viscous oils. As a result, we found that pairs of bubbles revolve along an elliptic orbit around the center of mass of the bubbles. We also found that the two bubbles perform anti-phase radial oscillation. Although this radial oscillation should result in a repulsive secondary Bjerknes force, the bubbles kept a constant separate distance of about 1 mm, which indicates the existence of centripetal primary Bjerknes force.

  19. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed on wavelength by preferred prey size have been used to explain this relationship. Here we propose the hypothesis that smaller bats emit higher frequencies to achieve directional sonar beams, and that variable beam width is critical for bats. Shorter wavelengths relative to the size of the emitter translate into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid species (ranging in size from 4 to 21 g, ref. 5) produced sonar beams of extraordinarily similar shape and volume. Each species had a directivity index of 11 ± 1 dB (a half-amplitude angle of approximately 37°) and an on-axis sound level of 108 ± 4 dB sound pressure level referenced to 20 μPa root mean square at 10 cm. Thus all bats adapted their calls to achieve similar acoustic fields of view. We propose that the necessity for high directionality has been a key constraint on the evolution of echolocation, which explains the relationship between bat size and echolocation call frequency. Our results suggest that echolocation is a dynamic system that allows different species, regardless of their body size, to converge on optimal fields of view in response to habitat and task.

  20. Force on a heated sphere in a horizontal plane acoustic standing wave field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, E. W.; Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The force on a heated sphere in a horizontal plane acoustic standing wave field is the subject of this investigation. The heated sphere produces a thermal gradient in the resonance chamber. The force on the sphere in a direction perpendicular to that of gravity is measured. This force is enhanced in the region near the pressure node, and is weakened in the region near the pressure antinode. Measurements of the force on a heated sphere with sound pressure levels between 148 and 156 dB are presented.

  1. Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue Ivan; Lau, Siu-Kit; Wong, Kainam Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor-all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between-this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters. PMID:27369140

  2. In-situ physical properties measurements using crosswell acoustic data

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Crosswell acoustic surveys enable the in-situ measurements of elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, porosity, and apparent seismic Q of gas-bearing low-permeability formations represented at the Department of Energy Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) site near Rifle, Colorado. These measurements, except for Q, are compared with laboratory measurements on core taken from the same depths at which the crosswell measurements are made. Seismic Q determined in situ is compared to average values for sandstone. Porosity was determined from crosswell data using the empirical relationship between acoustic velocity, porosity, and effective pressure developed by Domenico. Domenico, S.N., ''Rock Lithology and Porosity Determination from Shear and compressional Wave Velocity,'' Geophysics, Vol. 49, No. 9, Aug. 1984, pp. 1188-1195. In-situ porosities are significantly greater than the core-derived values. Sources of the discrepancy may arise from (i) the underestimation of porosity that can result when Boyle's Law measurements are made on low-permeability core and (ii) the application of Dominico's relationship, which is developed for clean sands, to the mixed sandstone and shale lithologies represented at the MWX site. Values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio derived from crosswell measurements are comparable to values obtained from core. Apparent seismic Q measured in situ between wells is lower than Q measured on core and clearly shows the heterogeneity of sandstone deposited in a fluvial environment. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. hush house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 deg to 180 deg from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics. All the data are normalized to standard acoustic reference conditions of 59 F temperature and 70% relative humidity. Refer to Volume I of the AFAMRL-TR-73-110 report for discussion of the scope, limitations, and definitions needed to understand and use the data in this report.

  4. On an acoustic field generated by subsonic jet at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Arndt, R. E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic field generated by subsonic jets at low Reynolds numbers was investigated. This work is motivated by the need to increase the fundamental understanding of the jet noise generation mechanism which is essential to the development of further advanced techniques of noise suppression. The scope of this study consists of two major investigation. One is a study of large scale coherent structure in the jet turbulence, and the other is a study of the Reynolds number dependence of jet noise. With this in mind, extensive flow and acoustic measurements in low Reynolds number turbulent jets (8,930 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 220,000) were undertaken using miniature nozzles of the same configuration but different diameters at various exist Mach numbers (0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.9).

  5. Acoustic ship signature measurements by cross-correlation method.

    PubMed

    Fillinger, Laurent; Sutin, Alexander; Sedunov, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Cross-correlation methods were applied for the estimation of the power spectral density and modulation spectrum of underwater noise generated by moving vessels. The cross-correlation of the signal from two hydrophones allows the separation of vessel acoustic signatures in a busy estuary. Experimental data recorded in the Hudson River are used for demonstration that cross-correlation method measured the same ship noise and ship noise modulation spectra as conventional methods. The cross-correlation method was then applied for the separation of the acoustic signatures of two ships present simultaneously. Presented methods can be useful for ship traffic monitoring and small ship classification, even in noisy harbor environments. PMID:21361436

  6. Nonintrusive Monitoring and Control of Metallurgical Processes by Acoustic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ling; Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Barati, Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of developing a new online monitoring technique based on the characteristic acoustic response of gas bubbles in a liquid has been investigated. The method is intended to monitor the chemistry of the liquid through its relation to the bubble sound frequency. A low-temperature model consisting of water and alcohol mixtures was established, and the frequency of bubbles rising under varying concentrations of methanol was measured. It was shown that the frequency of the sound created by bubble pulsation varies with the percentage of alcohol in water. The frequency drops sharply with the increase in methanol content up to 20 wt pct, after which the decreases is gradual. Surface tension seems to be a critical liquid property affecting the sound frequency through its two-fold effects on the bubble size and the pulsation domain. The dependence between the frequency and the liquid composition suggests the feasibility of developing an acoustic-based technique for process control purposes.

  7. Acoustic plethysmography measures breathing in unrestrained neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Daubenspeck, J Andrew; Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene E

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of breathing volumes in neonatal mice is of growing importance in order to characterize the influence of development and genetic modifications on respiratory control to evaluate hypotheses concerned with human infant deficits that may affect sudden infant death syndrome, for example. Current techniques require undesirable physical constraints or incur possible artifacts specific to very small animals. We have examined the utility of a recently proposed approach using an acoustic resonance procedure that does not require undue physical constraint beyond placement in the acoustic plethysmograph. We show here that this approach can be applied to baby mice 5 days after birth and that it can be accurately calibrated. In addition, this approach should be useful to study unrestrained neonatal mice under conditions where body temperature approaches environmental temperature and barometric plethysmography cannot be used. PMID:17962574

  8. A Review of Large Solid Rocket Motor Free Field Acoustics, Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Kenny, Robert Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    At the ATK facility in Utah, large full scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five segment version of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, which is for use on future launch vehicles. Since 2006, Acoustic measurements have been taken on large solid rocket motors at ATK. Both the four segment RSRM and the five segment RSRMV have been instrumented. Measurements are used to update acoustic prediction models and to correlate against vibration responses of the motor. Presentation focuses on two major sections: Part I) Unique challenges associated with measuring rocket acoustics Part II) Acoustic measurements summary over past five years

  9. Acoustic and manual measurements of methane ebullition in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Lennartz, J. M.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Ewing, S. A.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Controls on the magnitude and frequency of methane (CH4) release through ebullition (bubbling) in water saturated ecosystems such as bogs, fens and lakes are important to both the atmospheric and ecosystems science community. In order to understand the response of these ecosystems to future climate forcing, we need to systematically monitor ebullition from these ecosystems over many seasons and across a multitude of landscape morphologies. We have developed and field tested an inexpensive array of sampling/monitoring instruments to identify the frequency and magnitude of bubbling events which allows us to correlate bubble data with potential drivers such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, wind and temperature. The instrument consists of a nested, inverted funnel design with a hydrophone for detecting bubbles that rise through the peat. The design offers a way to sample the gas collected in the funnels to determine the concentration of CH4. Laboratory calibration of the instrument resulted in an equation that relates frequency of bubbles hitting the hydrophone with bubble volume. Audio data was recorded continuously using a digital audio recorder attached to two ebullition sensors and could be deployed remotely for up to 20 days. Time, fundamental frequency, and estimated bubble size were determined using MATLAB code. Manual bubble flux measurements were also made for comparison to the acoustically sensed ebullition. Instruments were deployed in summers 2011-2013 at a temperate fen (Sallie's Fen, NH, USA) and a subarctic mire (Stordalen, Abisko, Sweden). We also recorded ebullition at two locations in subarctic Alaska (APEX Research Site, Fairbanks, AK and Innoko National Wildlife Refuge) during summer 2011. Ebullition was observed at all sites with highest daily rates in fen versus bog sites. Observed distributions of bubble events correlate with published models of ebullition based on peat density.

  10. Acoustic assisted, field-induced strain in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley W.; Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Chambers, Joshua M.; Bono, David; Hall, Steven R.; Allen, Samuel M.; O'Handley, Robert C.

    2004-06-01

    A technique has been developed that uses acoustic energy to assist a magnetic field in driving twin boundary motion in a NiMnGa single crystal. Acoustic assisted magnetic-field-induced strain has been observed to increase the magnetic-field-induced strain response by up to one order of magnitude. This effect is most pronounced for magnetic field drives near the twin boundary threshold field. Increasing frequency of the acoustic wave input is shown to increase strain up to about 4 kHz after which there is a small decline in FSMA strain for higher frequencies.

  11. Compensation for source nonstationarity in multireference, scan-based near-field acoustical holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Yong-Joe; Bolton, J. Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Multireference, scan-based near-field acoustical holography is a useful measurement tool that can be applied when an insufficient number of microphones is available to make measurements on a complete hologram surface simultaneously. The scan-based procedure can be used to construct a complete hologram by joining together subholograms captured using a relatively small, roving scan array and a fixed reference array. For the procedure to be successful, the source levels must remain stationary for the time taken to record the complete hologram; that is unlikely to be the case in practice, however. Usually, the reference signal levels measured during each scan differ from each other with the result that spatial noise is added to the hologram. A procedure to suppress the effects of source level, and hence reference level, variations is proposed here. The procedure is based on a formulation that explicitly features the acoustical transfer functions between the sources and both the reference and scanning, field microphones. When it is assumed that source level changes do not affect the sources' directivity, a nonstationarity compensation procedure can be derived that is based on measured transfer functions between the reference and field microphones. It has been verified both experimentally and in numerical simulations that the proposed procedure can help suppress spatially distributed noise caused by the type of source level nonstationarity that is characteristic of realistic sources.

  12. Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning

    2016-04-01

    The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m^3;. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.

  13. A Fabry-Perot fiber-optic ultrasonic hydrophone for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul; Hurrell, Andrew; Shaw, Adam; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2009-06-01

    A dual sensing fiber-optic hydrophone that can make simultaneous measurements of acoustic pressure and temperature at the same location has been developed for characterizing ultrasound fields and ultrasound-induced heating. The transduction mechanism is based on the detection of acoustically- and thermally-induced thickness changes in a polymer film Fabry-Perot interferometer deposited at the tip of a single mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a peak noise-equivalent pressure of 15 kPa (at 5 MHz, over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth), an acoustic bandwidth of 50 MHz, and an optically defined element size of 10 microm. As well as measuring acoustic pressure, temperature changes up to 70 degrees C can be measured, with a resolution of 0.34 degrees C. To evaluate the thermal measurement capability of the sensor, measurements were made at the focus of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field in a tissue mimicking phantom. These showed that the sensor is not susceptible to viscous heating, is able to withstand high intensity fields, and can simultaneously acquire acoustic waveforms while monitoring induced temperature rises. These attributes, along with flexibility, small physical size (OD approximately 150 microm), immunity to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), and low sensor cost, suggest that this type of hydrophone may provide a practical alternative to piezoelectric based hydrophones. PMID:19507943

  14. Calibration of ipsilateral stimulus transducer for acoustic reflex measurements.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S; Osterhammel, P A; Rasmussen, A N; Nielsen, L H

    1995-01-01

    Pure-tone Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level (RETSPL) of the ipsilateral stimulus receiver for acoustic reflex measurements on Madsen Electronics type Zodiac 901 impedance audiometer is provided. The results, obtained from 20 normal-hearing subjects, are achieved by comparing hearing threshold levels measured using a TDH 39 telephone (calibrated to ISO 389) with thresholds recorded using the ipsilateral stimulus insert phone. The calibration is referenced to an IEC-711 ear simulator and comprises the following frequencies: 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz.

  15. Investigation on the reproduction performance versus acoustic contrast control in sound field synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Wen, Jheng-Ciang; Hsu, Hoshen; Hua, Yi-Hsin; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2014-10-01

    A sound reconstruction system is proposed for audio reproduction with extended sweet spot and reduced reflections. An equivalent source method (ESM)-based sound field synthesis (SFS) approach, with the aid of dark zone minimization is adopted in the study. Conventional SFS that is based on the free-field assumption suffers from synthesis error due to boundary reflections. To tackle the problem, the proposed system utilizes convex optimization in designing array filters with both reproduction performance and acoustic contrast taken into consideration. Control points are deployed in the dark zone to minimize the reflections from the walls. Two approaches are employed to constrain the pressure and velocity in the dark zone. Pressure matching error (PME) and acoustic contrast (AC) are used as performance measures in simulations and experiments for a rectangular loudspeaker array. Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) is also used to assess the audio reproduction quality. The results show that the pressure-constrained (PC) method yields better acoustic contrast, but poorer reproduction performance than the pressure-velocity constrained (PVC) method. A subjective listening test also indicates that the PVC method is the preferred method in a live room.

  16. Predicting the intelligibility of deaf children's speech from acoustic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Geers, Ann E.; Brenner, Christine M.; Tobey, Emily A.

    2001-05-01

    A weighted combination of speech-acoustic measures may provide an objective assessment of speech intelligibility in deaf children that could be used to evaluate the benefits of sensory aids and rehabilitation programs. This investigation compared the accuracy of two different approaches, multiple linear regression and a simple neural net. These two methods were applied to identical sets of acoustic measures, including both segmental (e.g., voice-onset times of plosives, spectral moments of fricatives, second formant frequencies of vowels) and suprasegmental measures (e.g., sentence duration, number and frequency of intersentence pauses). These independent variables were obtained from digitized recordings of deaf children's imitations of 11 simple sentences. The dependent measure was the percentage of spoken words from the 36 McGarr Sentences understood by groups of naive listeners. The two predictive methods were trained on speech measures obtained from 123 out of 164 8- and 9-year-old deaf children who used cochlear implants. Then, predictions were obtained using speech measures from the remaining 41 children. Preliminary results indicate that multiple linear regression is a better predictor of intelligibility than the neural net, accounting for 79% as opposed to 65% of the variance in the data. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. Direct measurement of transmission loss of aircraft structures using the acoustic intensity approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Crocker, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    A measurement technique is developed in order to obtain the sound transmission loss of an aircraft fuselage which obviates the need for the two-room transmission suite. The sound transmission paths were determined in tests on a light aircraft fuselage using a two-microphone acoustic intensity method for measuring the acoustic intensity transmitted to the interior when the fuselage was exposed to an external random incidence sound-field. The intensity transmitted through different sections of the fuselage can be estimated accurately using this new technique. Results of these tests show that the plexiglass window is the major transmission path in the high frequency range. In addition, the transmission losses through a single and a double layer window were predicted theoretically by using the Statistical Energy Analysis Model. Very good agreement is found between the predictions and the measurements.

  18. Acoustical studies of the steelpan and HANG: Phase-sensitive holography and sound intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew C. H.

    The Caribbean steelpan and an instrument closely related, the HANG, are two of the most, interesting acoustic musical instruments developed in the last century. Although simple in design, the acoustic properties of the steelpan and HANG are surprisingly complicated. Holographic interferometry was used to determine the resonances of a low tenor steelpan and a pentatonic HANG. Placement of a vibrating mirror in the optical path of the reference beam expands the capabilities of the holography system to include phase measurements. Phase maps and phase response curves of several low resonances of notes on a steelpan and HANG are shown. Sound intensity measurements were acquired to explore the relationship between the resonances and the radiated sound field. The instruments were placed in an anechoic chamber, and selected notes were excited electromagnetically with a swept sinusoid signal. A two-microphone probe was used to gather sound intensity measurements. Sound intensity reaps of the first three harmonics are shown for notes on both instruments.

  19. The Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hao, Y.; Prosperetti, A.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of a superficial similarity with gas bubbles, the intimate coupling between dynamical and thermal processes confers to oscillating vapor bubbles some unique characteristics. This paper examines numerically the validity of some asymptotic-theory predictions such as the existence of two resonant radii and a limit size for a given sound amplitude and frequency. It is found that a small vapor bubble in a sound field of sufficient amplitude grows quickly through resonance and continues to grow thereafter at a very slow rate, seemingly indefinitely. Resonance phenomena therefore play a role for a few cycles at most, and reaching a limit size-if one exists at all-is found to require far more than several tens of thousands of cycles. It is also found that some small bubbles may grow or collapse depending on the phase of the sound field. The model accounts in detail for the thermo-fluid-mechanic processes in the vapor. In the second part of the paper, an approximate formulation valid for bubbles small with respect to the thermal penetration length in the vapor is derived and its accuracy examined, The present findings have implications for acoustically enhanced boiling heat transfer and other special applications such as boiling in microgravity.

  20. Measurement of ultrasonic power using an acoustically absorbing well.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Yvonne; Shaw, Adam; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes a quick and cost-effective method for constructing a radiation force balance for measuring ultrasonic output power. It utilises a target manufactured from a high-quality acoustical absorber material. The target geometry is in the form of a cup or well that is water-filled and placed directly on the pan of a top-loading chemical balance, thus overcoming the need for the traditional gantry arrangement found in the majority of commercially available balances. The face of the transducer is placed directly in the water contained within the well. This simplification reduces time spent in setting up a balance for measurement, and targets can be manufactured to any required geometry and used on any suitable top-loading balance to measure output power. Within this study, the performance of the absorbing well method was evaluated over the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHz, for acoustic power levels up to 1 W. Power measurements on three transducers were compared with measurements made on the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) primary standard radiation force balance and good agreement is demonstrated between the two systems. At a power of 50 mW, using a chemical balance of resolution 0.1 mg, typical type A (random) uncertainties were +/- 2.0% when expressed at the 95% confidence level.

  1. Bone assessment via thermal photo-acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph E; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X; Wang, Xueding

    2015-04-15

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photo-acoustic (TPA) measurement, for non-ionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photo-acoustic PA methods that are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e., the temperature-dependent Grueneisen parameter that is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique are less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well-established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 37°C to 44°C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500-2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  4. Single layer planar near-field acoustic holography for compact sources and a parallel reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea, Elias; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-10-01

    We consider the problem of planar near-field acoustic holography (PNAH) and introduce a new reconstruction method that can be used to process single layer pressure measurements performed in the presence of a reflective surface that is parallel to the measurement plane. The method is specially tailored for compact sources, or for problems in which the scattered field due to the source can be neglected. The approach consists in formulating a seismic model (WRW model) in wavenumber-space and employ it for sound source reconstructions. The proposed method is validated with numerical and experimental data, and, although the most accurate results are obtained when an estimate of the surface impedance is known beforehand, we show that it can substantially improve the reconstruction performance with respect to that of free-field PNAH.

  5. Optical measurement of ultrasonic Poynting and velocity vector fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Todd A; Greenleaf, James F

    2002-02-01

    This report describes a method for estimating several wide bandwidth ultrasonic field parameters from optical measurements of the local, acoustically induced, refractive index perturbation in water. These parameters include Poynting and particle velocity vector fields as well as pressure and density fields at any temporal delay under mild (forward-propagating) assumptions on the angular plane-wave spectrum of the ultrasound field. A sampling theorem is derived stating that two complete measurements of the three-dimensional pressure field separated in time by delta t allow release of the forward-propagating assumption for every acoustic wave number k satisfying k not = n pi/(c delta t), where c is the acoustic wave speed in the medium and n an integer greater than zero. The approach provides detailed measurements of very general ultrasound fields. Two optical measurement methods that acquire the Radon transform of the three-dimensional refractive index perturbation are briefly reviewed. It is shown that the Radon transform of the field itself satisfies a two-dimensional wave equation and may be propagated independently forward or backward in time under a source-free model. Conversely, the Radon transform of the ultrasound field measurement at several known time delays provides a means of applying a filter to the data based on known ultrasound propagation models. Each two-dimensional distribution may be propagated to a common time point and the ensemble averaged, thus incorporating the propagation model into the measurement. We support the presented theory with several experiments.

  6. Picosecond acoustics method for measuring the thermodynamical properties of solids and liquids at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Gauthier, M; Ayrinhac, S; Bove, L; Belliard, L; Perrin, B; Morand, M; Le Marchand, G; Bergame, F; Philippe, J

    2015-02-01

    Based on the original combination of picosecond acoustics and diamond anvils cell, recent improvements to accurately measure hypersonic sound velocities of liquids and solids under extreme conditions are described. To illustrate the capability of this technique, results are given on the pressure and temperature dependence of acoustic properties for three prototypical cases: polycrystal (iron), single-crystal (silicon) and liquid (mercury) samples. It is shown that such technique also enables the determination of the density as a function of pressure for liquids, of the complete set of elastic constants for single crystals, and of the melting curve for any kind of material. High pressure ultrafast acoustic spectroscopy technique clearly opens opportunities to measure thermodynamical properties under previously unattainable extreme conditions. Beyond physics, this state-of-the-art experiment would thus be useful in many other fields such as nonlinear acoustics, oceanography, petrology, in of view. A brief description of new developments and future directions of works conclude the article.

  7. Picosecond acoustics method for measuring the thermodynamical properties of solids and liquids at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Gauthier, M; Ayrinhac, S; Bove, L; Belliard, L; Perrin, B; Morand, M; Le Marchand, G; Bergame, F; Philippe, J

    2015-02-01

    Based on the original combination of picosecond acoustics and diamond anvils cell, recent improvements to accurately measure hypersonic sound velocities of liquids and solids under extreme conditions are described. To illustrate the capability of this technique, results are given on the pressure and temperature dependence of acoustic properties for three prototypical cases: polycrystal (iron), single-crystal (silicon) and liquid (mercury) samples. It is shown that such technique also enables the determination of the density as a function of pressure for liquids, of the complete set of elastic constants for single crystals, and of the melting curve for any kind of material. High pressure ultrafast acoustic spectroscopy technique clearly opens opportunities to measure thermodynamical properties under previously unattainable extreme conditions. Beyond physics, this state-of-the-art experiment would thus be useful in many other fields such as nonlinear acoustics, oceanography, petrology, in of view. A brief description of new developments and future directions of works conclude the article. PMID:24852260

  8. Acoustic anomalies in UPt{3} at high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, J. R.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hinks, D. G.; Dasgupta, D.; Sarma, B. K.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2000-11-01

    Ultrasound velocity and attenuation measurements were performed on single crystals of the heavy fermion compound UPt{sub 3} in magnetic fields up to 33 T and at temperatures ranging from 2.4 K to below 0.1 K. With longitudinal sound propagated in the crystallographic basal plane, parallel to the applied field, the familiar elastic softening is observed at the metamagnetic transition field H-20.2 T. More complicated structure emerges at low temperatures, including quantum acoustic oscillations and a second velocity minimum at -21.6 T. A weak frequency dependence (dispersion) is observed in the velocity. The ultrasonic data are analyzed using the Landau-Khalatnikov formalism, from which temperature- and field-dependent relaxation times are deduced.

  9. Photo-acoustic tomography in a rotating measurement setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Moradifam, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Photo-acoustic tomography (PAT) aims to leverage the photo-acoustic coupling between optical absorption of light sources and ultrasound (US) emission to obtain high contrast reconstructions of optical parameters with the high resolution of sonic waves. Quantitative PAT often involves a two-step procedure: first the map of sonic emission is reconstructed from US boundary measurements; and second optical properties of biological tissues are evaluated. We consider here a practical measurement setting in which such a separation does not apply. We assume that the optical source and an array of ultrasonic transducers are mounted on a rotating frame (in two or three dimensions) so that the light source rotates at the same time as the US measurements are acquired. As a consequence, we no longer have the option to reconstruct a map of sonic emission corresponding to a given optical illumination. We propose here a framework where the two steps are combined into one and an absorption map is directly reconstructed from the available US measurements.

  10. Reconstruction of an acoustic pressure field in a resonance tube by particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Kuzuu, K; Hasegawa, S

    2015-11-01

    A technique for estimating an acoustic field in a resonance tube is suggested. The estimation of an acoustic field in a resonance tube is important for the development of the thermoacoustic engine, and can be conducted employing two sensors to measure pressure. While this measurement technique is known as the two-sensor method, care needs to be taken with the location of pressure sensors when conducting pressure measurements. In the present study, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is employed instead of a pressure measurement by a sensor, and two-dimensional velocity vector images are extracted as sequential data from only a one- time recording made by a video camera of PIV. The spatial velocity amplitude is obtained from those images, and a pressure distribution is calculated from velocity amplitudes at two points by extending the equations derived for the two-sensor method. By means of this method, problems relating to the locations and calibrations of multiple pressure sensors are avoided. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy of the present method, the experiments are conducted employing the conventional two-sensor method and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Then, results by the proposed method are compared with those obtained with the two-sensor method and LDV.

  11. Non-Native Production of Thai: Acoustic Measurements and Accentedness Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayland, Ratree

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study of the production of Thai vowels, consonants, and tones by native English speakers using two forms of evaluation: acoustic measurements and auditory evaluation by native Thai-speaking listeners. The study focused on the differences in acoustic parameters between the two groups and the acoustic parameter influencing native…

  12. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House, supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 to 180 from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics.

  13. Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate.

    PubMed

    Camilli, Richard; Di Iorio, Daniela; Bowen, Andrew; Reddy, Christopher M; Techet, Alexandra H; Yoerger, Dana R; Whitcomb, Louis L; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Sylva, Sean P; Fenwick, Judith

    2012-12-11

    On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and acoustic Doppler sonar operating onboard a remotely operated vehicle for noncontact measurement of flow cross-section and velocity from the well's two leak sites. Over 2,500 sonar cross-sections and over 85,000 Doppler velocity measurements were recorded during the acquisition process. These data were then applied to turbulent jet and plume flow models to account for entrained water and calculate a combined hydrocarbon flow rate from the two leak sites at seafloor conditions. Based on the chemical composition of end-member samples collected from within the well, this bulk volumetric rate was then normalized to account for contributions from gases and condensates at initial leak source conditions. Results from this investigation indicate that on May 31, 2010, the well's oil flow rate was approximately 0.10 ± 0.017 m(3) s(-1) at seafloor conditions, or approximately 85 ± 15 kg s(-1) (7.4 ± 1.3 Gg d(-1)), equivalent to approximately 57,000 ± 9,800 barrels of oil per day at surface conditions. End-member chemical composition indicates that this oil release rate was accompanied by approximately an additional 24 ± 4.2 kg s(-1) (2.1 ± 0.37 Gg d(-1)) of natural gas (methane through pentanes), yielding a total hydrocarbon release rate of 110 ± 19 kg s(-1) (9.5 ± 1.6 Gg d(-1)).

  14. Sound field separation technique based on equivalent source method and its application in nearfield acoustic holography.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Chen, Xin-Zhao; Chen, Jian

    2008-03-01

    A technique for separating sound fields using two closely spaced parallel measurement surfaces and based on equivalent source method is proposed. The method can separate wave components crossing two measurement surfaces in opposite directions, which makes nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) applications in a field where there exist sources on the two sides of the hologram surface, in a reverberant field or in a scattered field, possible. The method is flexible in applications, simple in computation, and very easy to implement. The measurement surfaces can be arbitrarily shaped, and they are not restricted to be regular as in the traditional field separation technique. And, because the method performs field separation calculations directly in the spatial domain-not in the wave number domain--it avoids the errors and limitations (the window effects, etc.) associated with the traditional field separation technique based on the spatial Fourier transform method. In the paper, a theoretical description is first given, and the performance of the proposed field separation technique and its application in NAH are then evaluated through experiments.

  15. Design and Instrumentation of a Measurement and Calibration System for an Acoustic Telemetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-03-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by Portland District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used at hydroelectric projects and in the laboratory for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a measurement and calibration system for evaluating the JSATS component, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The system consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated system has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. It provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The measurement and calibration system has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  16. Passive Wake Acoustics Measurements at Denver International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Frank Y.; Wassaf, Hadi; Dougherty, Robert P.; Clark, Kevin; Gulsrud, Andrew; Fenichel, Neil; Bryant, Wayne H.

    2004-01-01

    From August to September 2003, NASA conducted an extensive measurement campaign to characterize the acoustic signal of wake vortices. A large, both spatially as well as in number of elements, phased microphone array was deployed at Denver International Airport for this effort. This paper will briefly describe the program background, the microphone array, as well as the supporting ground-truth and meteorological sensor suite. Sample results to date are then presented and discussed. It is seen that, in the frequency range processed so far, wake noise is generated predominantly from a very confined area around the cores.

  17. Measurement of stiffness of standing trees and felled logs using acoustics: A review.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Bradley, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a review on the use of acoustics to measure stiffness of standing trees, stems, and logs. An outline is given of the properties of wood and how these are related to stiffness and acoustic velocity throughout the tree. Factors are described that influence the speed of sound in wood, including the different types of acoustic waves which propagate in tree stems and lumber. Acoustic tools and techniques that have been used to measure the stiffness of wood are reviewed. The reasons for a systematic difference between direct and acoustic measurements of stiffness for standing trees, and methods for correction, are discussed. Other techniques, which have been used in addition to acoustics to try to improve stiffness measurements, are also briefly described. Also reviewed are studies which have used acoustic tools to investigate factors that influence the stiffness of trees. These factors include different silvicultural practices, geographic and environmental conditions, and genetics. PMID:26936543

  18. Measurement of stiffness of standing trees and felled logs using acoustics: A review.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Bradley, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a review on the use of acoustics to measure stiffness of standing trees, stems, and logs. An outline is given of the properties of wood and how these are related to stiffness and acoustic velocity throughout the tree. Factors are described that influence the speed of sound in wood, including the different types of acoustic waves which propagate in tree stems and lumber. Acoustic tools and techniques that have been used to measure the stiffness of wood are reviewed. The reasons for a systematic difference between direct and acoustic measurements of stiffness for standing trees, and methods for correction, are discussed. Other techniques, which have been used in addition to acoustics to try to improve stiffness measurements, are also briefly described. Also reviewed are studies which have used acoustic tools to investigate factors that influence the stiffness of trees. These factors include different silvicultural practices, geographic and environmental conditions, and genetics.

  19. Measuring discharge with acoustic Doppler current profilers from a moving boat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rehmel, Michael S.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Rainville, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) from a moving boat is now a commonly used method for measuring streamflow. The technology and methods for making ADCP-based discharge measurements are different from the technology and methods used to make traditional discharge measurements with mechanical meters. Although the ADCP is a valuable tool for measuring streamflow, it is only accurate when used with appropriate techniques. This report presents guidance on the use of ADCPs for measuring streamflow; this guidance is based on the experience of U.S. Geological Survey employees and published reports, papers, and memorandums of the U.S. Geological Survey. The guidance is presented in a logical progression, from predeployment planning, to field data collection, and finally to post processing of the collected data. Acoustic Doppler technology and the instruments currently (2013) available also are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the technology. More in-depth, technical explanations of how an ADCP measures streamflow and what to do when measuring in moving-bed conditions are presented in the appendixes. ADCP users need to know the proper procedures for measuring discharge from a moving boat and why those procedures are required, so that when the user encounters unusual field conditions, the procedures can be adapted without sacrificing the accuracy of the streamflow-measurement data.

  20. Tunable Acoustic Attenuation by Dilute Suspensions of Oblate-Spheroidal Ferromagnetic Particles Under an External Magnetic Field: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wuhan; Shan, Jerry; Liu, Liping

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure of suspensions of spheroidal ferromagnetic particles with subwavelength size can be controlled by an external field, making it possible to develop novel broadband acoustic materials with anisotropic and tunable acoustic properties. In this study we experimentally show that dilute suspensions of nickel microflakes exhibit a 20% to 30% change in attenuation coefficient at MHz frequencies upon changing the direction of an external magnetic field, at particle volume fractions of only 0.5%. Further investigations are conducted to study the mechanism behind this anisotropy. The effects of particle aligning and chaining are analyzed with the aid of optical transmission measurements. By making comparison to suspensions of spherical particles, we show that the ellipsoidal shape of the nickel microflakes plays an important role in tunable acoustic properties of these suspensions.

  1. Improving Classroom Acoustics (ICA): A Three-Year FM Sound Field Classroom Amplification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Gail Gegg; Blake-Rahter, Patricia; Heavner, Judy; Allen, Linda; Redmond, Beatrice Myers; Phillips, Janet; Stigers, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    The Improving Classroom Acoustics (ICA) special project was designed to determine if students' listening and learning behaviors improved as a result of an acoustical environment enhanced through the use of FM sound field classroom amplification. The 3-year project involved 2,054 students in 94 general education kindergarten, first-, and…

  2. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  3. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, H.; Ali, S.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Koeteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  4. Acoustic Anisotropy Measurement and Interpretation in Deviated Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Patterson, D.

    2005-05-01

    A current trend in petroleum exploration and production is that more and more deviated/horizontal wells are drilled, especially in deep water reservoirs like Gulf of Mexico. The issue of anisotropy is particularly important for deviated wells penetrating the soft sedimentary rocks of the reservoirs. In sedimentary formations, shales can be highly anisotropic due to mineral alignment, and sands can also be anisotropic due to their sensitivity to formation stresses. Many acoustic anisotropy measurements using cross-dipole tools have been made in deviated wells. However, interpreting the acoustic anisotropy data can be quite complicated, especially in the presence of strong anisotropy. In a deviated well, the well trajectory is neither perpendicular to, nor parallel with, the formation bedding planes. Consequently, the measured anisotropy is not the true formation anisotropy, but an apparent anisotropy at a given well deviation. Besides, several anisotropy parameters (e.g., Thomsen parameters) are needed to characterize the formation anisotropy while the cross-dipole measures only one of them. Nevertheless, the variation of the anisotropy and its associated azimuth relative to the well trajectory contains the information about the anisotropy parameters. By analyzing the anisotropy data in conjunction with the well configuration, we can characterize the relationship among the anisotropy parameters. By combining the data with lithology, we can also distinguish stress-induced anisotropy from other sources of anisotropy. The result is an improved characterization of formation anisotropy and its geological environment.

  5. Patch nearfield acoustic holography combined with sound field separation technique applied to a non-free field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, ChuanXing; Jing, WenQian; Zhang, YongBin; Xu, Liang

    2015-02-01

    The conventional nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) is usually based on the assumption of free-field conditions, and it also requires that the measurement aperture should be larger than the actual source. This paper is to focus on the problem that neither of the above-mentioned requirements can be met, and to examine the feasibility of reconstructing the sound field radiated by partial source, based on double-layer pressure measurements made in a non-free field by using patch NAH combined with sound field separation technique. And also, the sensitivity of the reconstructed result to the measurement error is analyzed in detail. Two experiments involving two speakers in an exterior space and one speaker inside a car cabin are presented. The experimental results demonstrate that the patch NAH based on single-layer pressure measurement cannot obtain a satisfied result due to the influences of disturbing sources and reflections, while the patch NAH based on double-layer pressure measurements can successfully remove these influences and reconstruct the patch sound field effectively.

  6. The effect of artificial rain on backscattered acoustic signal: first measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titchenko, Yuriy; Karaev, Vladimir; Meshkov, Evgeny; Goldblat, Vladimir

    The problem of rain influencing on a characteristics of backscattered ultrasonic and microwave signal by water surface is considered. The rain influence on backscattering process of electromagnetic waves was investigated in laboratory and field experiments, for example [1-3]. Raindrops have a significant impact on backscattering of microwave and influence on wave spectrum measurement accuracy by string wave gauge. This occurs due to presence of raindrops in atmosphere and modification of the water surface. For measurements of water surface characteristics during precipitation we propose to use an acoustic system. This allows us obtaining of the water surface parameters independently on precipitation in atmosphere. The measurements of significant wave height of water surface using underwater acoustical systems are well known [4, 5]. Moreover, the variance of orbital velocity can be measure using these systems. However, these methods cannot be used for measurements of slope variance and the other second statistical moments of water surface that required for analyzing the radar backscatter signal. An original design Doppler underwater acoustic wave gauge allows directly measuring the surface roughness characteristics that affect on electromagnetic waves backscattering of the same wavelength [6]. Acoustic wave gauge is Doppler ultrasonic sonar which is fixed near the bottom on the floating disk. Measurements are carried out at vertically orientation of sonar antennas towards water surface. The first experiments were conducted with the first model of an acoustic wave gauge. The acoustic wave gauge (8 mm wavelength) is equipped with a transceiving antenna with a wide symmetrical antenna pattern. The gauge allows us to measure Doppler spectrum and cross section of backscattered signal. Variance of orbital velocity vertical component can be retrieved from Doppler spectrum with high accuracy. The result of laboratory and field experiments during artificial rain is presented

  7. Accuracy of acoustic velocity metering systems for measurement of low velocity in open channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Curtis, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) accuracy depends on equipment limitations, the accuracy of acoustic-path length and angle determination, and the stability of the mean velocity to acoustic-path velocity relation. Equipment limitations depend on path length and angle, transducer frequency, timing oscillator frequency, and signal-detection scheme. Typically, the velocity error from this source is about +or-1 to +or-10 mms/sec. Error in acoustic-path angle or length will result in a proportional measurement bias. Typically, an angle error of one degree will result in a velocity error of 2%, and a path-length error of one meter in 100 meter will result in an error of 1%. Ray bending (signal refraction) depends on path length and density gradients present in the stream. Any deviation from a straight acoustic path between transducer will change the unique relation between path velocity and mean velocity. These deviations will then introduce error in the mean velocity computation. Typically, for a 200-meter path length, the resultant error is less than one percent, but for a 1,000 meter path length, the error can be greater than 10%. Recent laboratory and field tests have substantiated assumptions of equipment limitations. Tow-tank tests of an AVM system with a 4.69-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of 9.3 mms/sec, and the field tests of an AVM system with a 20.5-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of a 4 mms/sec. (USGS)

  8. The effects of external acoustic pressure fields on a free-running supercavitating projectile.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Peter J K; Rogers, Peter H; Doane, John W

    2010-12-01

    Proliferation of supercavitating torpedoes has motivated research on countermeasures against them as well as on the fluid phenomenon which makes them possible. The goal of this research was to investigate an envisaged countermeasure, an acoustic field capable of slowing or diverting the weapon by disrupting the cavitation envelope. The research focused on the interactions between high pressure amplitude sound waves and a supercavity produced by a small free-flying projectile. The flight dynamics and cavity geometry measurements were compared to control experiments and theoretical considerations were made for evaluating the effects. Corrugations on the cavity/water interface caused by the pressure signal have been observed and characterized. Results also show that the accuracy of a supercavitating projectile can be adversely affected by the sound signal. This research concludes with results that indicate that it is acoustic cavitation in the medium surrounding the supercavity, caused by the high pressure amplitude sound, that is responsible for the reduced accuracy. A hypothesis has been presented addressing the means by which the acoustic cavitation could cause this effect. PMID:21218872

  9. Transverse Acoustic Measurements of Superuid Helium-3 at Fixed and Variable Path Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Charles Alward

    This thesis describes experiments using transverse zero sound in pure superfluid 3He to probe excitations with energies below the superfluid gap. One main focus is on a collective mode of the order parameter, the imaginary squashing mode. The splitting of this mode in a magnetic field causes acoustic birefringence, which rotates the polarization axis of the transverse sound wave. We have made precise measurements of this rotation in magnetic fields up to 0.11 T and observed the onset of nonlinear field dependence. Our measurements of the linear field dependence disagree with theoretical predictions, which led us to discover that the theory only applies when the sound frequency is close to the mode frequency, a condition not satisfied in our experiments. We extrapolated our data to the region of validity of the theory, and measured attractive sub-dominant f-wave pairing interactions. The other main focus is the construction of an experimental apparatus to enable in situ variation of the acoustic cavity spacing at low temperatures. Recent measurements have indicated a coupling between the transverse sound attenuation and surface Andreev bound states, which are predicted to be Majorana states in the specular scattering limit. A variable path length sample cell would enable measurements of the absolute attenuation of transverse sound, as well as allow for the separation of bulk effects from surface effects. It would also enable experiments looking for transverse zero sound in the normal state of 3He, which is predicted to have a high attenuation length requiring a micron-scale acoustic cavity. We have designed and implemented a diaphragm-based variable path length cell, and discuss our current progress and future prospects.

  10. Digital PIV Measurements of Acoustic Particle Displacements in a Normal Incidence Impedance Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.; Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic particle displacements and velocities inside a normal incidence impedance tube have been successfully measured for a variety of pure tone sound fields using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The DPIV system utilized two 600-mj Nd:YAG lasers to generate a double-pulsed light sheet synchronized with the sound field and used to illuminate a portion of the oscillatory flow inside the tube. A high resolution (1320 x 1035 pixel), 8-bit camera was used to capture double-exposed images of 2.7-micron hollow silicon dioxide tracer particles inside the tube. Classical spatial autocorrelation analysis techniques were used to ascertain the acoustic particle displacements and associated velocities for various sound field intensities and frequencies. The results show that particle displacements spanning a range of 1-60 microns can be measured for incident sound pressure levels of 100-130 dB and for frequencies spanning 500-1000 Hz. The ability to resolve 1 micron particle displacements at sound pressure levels in the 100 dB range allows the use of DPIV systems for measurement of sound fields at much lower sound pressure levels than had been previously possible. Representative impedance tube data as well as an uncertainty analysis for the measurements are presented.

  11. Tissue Composition Determination via Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everbach, Erich Carr

    In this thesis, methods are described by which the concentrations of water, protein, and fat present in a biological tissue can be inferred from measurements made of its bulk acoustic properties, including the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, B/A. We review the physical significance of this parameter and its use as a descriptor in the mixture methodologies of Apfel and Sehgal et al., and explore the theoretical implications of both methodologies and their underlying relations. One important result is that Apfel's methodology applies strictly only to mixtures whose components are finely mixed on the scale of an acoustic wavelength, while Sehgal's methodology applies strictly only to mixtures whose components are arranged in layers or regions of thickness (in the direction of propagation) larger than an acoustic wavelength. Another result is the prediction of a mechanism for enhanced nonlinearity based upon the application of Apfel's perfect-mixture relation for B/A to gas-liquid mixtures. Also in this thesis we describe a new in vitro technique for precise determination of B/A, and use this technique to measure a wide range of protein solutions, lipid oils, and their mixtures, as well as biological tissues. On the basis of these data, we compare and evaluate the mixture methodologies and suggest ways in which these models may be improved and extended. We show that when Apfel's and Sehgal's methodologies are applied to fine and coarse mixtures, respectively, they predict the actual component volume fractions to an accuracy of within 5%. For two-component mixtures, the perfect-mixture relations involving density, sound speed and B/A were obeyed to within about 2%, 3%, and 5%, respectively. For protein solutions, no dependence of B/A with protein molecular weight was observed. Also, no significant dependence of B/A or the inferred component volume fractions was observed for changes in tissue structure including denaturization of proteins, clotting of blood plasma

  12. Design and instrumentation of a measurement and calibration system for an acoustic telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M Brad

    2010-01-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and Calibration System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  13. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.

    1994-11-15

    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  14. Field performance of an acoustic scour-depth monitoring system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Sheppard, D. Max

    1994-01-01

    The Herbert C. Bonner Bridge over Oregon Inlet serves as the only land link between Bodie and Hatteras Islands, part of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Periodic soundings over the past 30 years have documented channel migration, local scour, and deposition at several pilings that support the bridge. In September 1992, a data-collection system was installed to permit the off-site monitoring of scour at 16 bridge pilings. The system records channel-bed elevations at 15-minute intervals and transmits the data to a satellite receiver. A cellular phone connection also permits downloading and reviewing of the data as they are being collected. A digitally recording, acoustic fathometer is the main component of the system. In November 1993, current velocity, water-surface elevation, wave characteristics, and water temperature measuring instruments were also deployed at the site. Several performance problems relating to the equipment and to the harsh marine environment have not been resolved, but the system has collected and transmitted reliable scour-depth and water-level data.

  15. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Chen, Xin-Zhao

    2009-09-01

    The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recently been demonstrated. This paper examines whether there might be a similar advantage in using the particle velocity as the input of NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM). Error sensitivity considerations indicate that ESM-based NAH is less sensitive to measurement errors when it is based on particle velocity input data than when it is based on measurements of sound pressure data, and this is confirmed by a simulation study and by experimental results. A method that combines pressure- and particle velocity-based reconstructions in order to distinguish between contributions to the sound field generated by sources on the two sides of the hologram plane is also examined.

  16. Axial acoustic radiation force on a sphere in Gaussian field

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Rongrong; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Based on the finite series method, the acoustical radiation force resulting from a Gaussian beam incident on a spherical object is investigated analytically. When the position of the particles deviating from the center of the beam, the Gaussian beam is expanded as a spherical function at the center of the particles and the expanded coefficients of the Gaussian beam is calculated. The analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force on spherical particles deviating from the Gaussian beam center is deduced. The acoustic radiation force affected by the acoustic frequency and the offset distance from the Gaussian beam center is investigated. Results have been presented for Gaussian beams with different wavelengths and it has been shown that the interaction of a Gaussian beam with a sphere can result in attractive axial force under specific operational conditions. Results indicate the capability of manipulating and separating spherical spheres based on their mechanical and acoustical properties, the results provided here may provide a theoretical basis for development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  17. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  18. Direct voltage measurements using bulk acoustic wave sensing in LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nishant Bhupendra

    Accurate (< 1%) direct measurement of high voltage pulse amplitudes above 10 kilovolts becomes challenging due to voltage breakdown limitations in materials, parasitic impedance effects that can distort the pulse shape, and pickup of extraneous signals resulting from electromagnetic interference effects. A piezoelectric crystal-based bulk acoustic wave sensor using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) that has applications to metrology, research, and power metering was developed to overcome these measurement issues with the factors of scalability, ease of use, and compactness in mind. A Y+36° cut LiNbO3crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current (DC) voltages ranging from 128--1100 V were applied transversely to the crystal. An acoustic wave was used to interrogate the crystal before, during, and after voltage application. Both single and multiple pass measurements were performed and compared to linear piezoelectric theory. A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut LiNbO3 was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on acoustic propagation. The study was extended to applying alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. The measured DC data was compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model that was based on a three port circuit with voltage-induced strain effects inputted as a model parameter. An uncertainty budget was carried out for both crystal cuts and compared. Environmental effects such as pressure and temperature were also measured to determine their influence on the sensor under ambient conditions. Published literature regarding material constants, such as elastic constants and piezoelectric constants, for LiNbO3 do not account for the influence of an electric field. In light of this, measurements of the acoustic velocities and material constants under the presence of a DC electric field were performed up to 896 V. This information was used to develop an uncertainty analysis for the determination of stress-charge form

  19. Field observation of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation characteristics of an estuarine salt wedge.

    PubMed

    Reeder, D Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge, the stratification of which is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance, river discharge volumetric flow rate, and river mouth morphology. Competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed in this stratified environment control the degree of acoustic refraction occurring along an acoustic path. A field experiment was carried out in the Columbia River Estuary to test the hypothesis: the estuarine salt wedge is acoustically observable in terms of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation. Linear frequency-modulated acoustic signals in the 500-2000 Hz band were transmitted during the advance and retreat of the salt wedge during May 27-29, 2013. Results demonstrate that the salt wedge front is the dominant physical mechanism controlling acoustic propagation in this environment: received signal energy is relatively stable before and after the passage of the salt wedge front when the acoustic path consists of a single medium (either entirely fresh water or entirely salt water), and suffers a 10-15 dB loss and increased variability during salt wedge front passage. Physical parameters and acoustic propagation modeling corroborate and inform the acoustic observations. PMID:26827001

  20. Reversible swarming and separation of self-propelled chemically powered nanomotors under acoustic fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tailin; Soto, Fernando; Gao, Wei; Dong, Renfeng; Garcia-Gradilla, Victor; Magaña, Ernesto; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-18

    The collective behavior of biological systems has inspired efforts toward the controlled assembly of synthetic nanomotors. Here we demonstrate the use of acoustic fields to induce reversible assembly of catalytic nanomotors, controlled swarm movement, and separation of different nanomotors. The swarming mechanism relies on the interaction between individual nanomotors and the acoustic field, which triggers rapid migration and assembly around the nearest pressure node. Such on-demand assembly of catalytic nanomotors is extremely fast and reversible. Controlled movement of the resulting swarm is illustrated by changing the frequency of the acoustic field. Efficient separation of different types of nanomotors, which assemble in distinct swarming regions, is illustrated. The ability of acoustic fields to regulate the collective behavior of catalytic nanomotors holds considerable promise for a wide range of practical applications. PMID:25634724

  1. Acoustical sensory profiles: The bridge between measurements and preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard H.

    2002-11-01

    Our judgments about all kinds of sounds depend on the sound itself and also on our experience, situational context, and expectation. The response is multimodal in that vibration, colors, temperature, and other environmental factors have an influence on our reactions. In the limited area of product sounds there has been an effort to relate consumer judgments to measurements through the use of descriptive words to create an ''Acoustical Sensory Profile'' or ASP, particularly for products that have sound as a primary feature. Examples include musical instruments, audio products, and concert halls. More recently, other products for which sound is an ancillary feature have been evaluated using ASPs. This presentation discusses this background and projects the use of ASPs, and their relationship to physical measurements and consumer judgments in particular.

  2. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  3. Applications of acoustic measurements in shale stability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James Alexander

    Shales make up over 75% of the formations encountered during oil and gas drilling operations. Shale related problems cost the industry in excess of $500 million per year. Hole washouts, wall sloughing and hole collapse can cause the drill pipe to become stuck, resulting in costly delays or the complete loss of the hole. Invasion by water from the drilling fluids resulting from chemical potential gradients is believed to be the major cause of shale instability. Increases in water content decrease shale strength. Acoustic measurements are routinely used to estimate the values of various mechanical properties of rocks. Advances in technology have made it possible to make acoustic measurements during drilling operations. Data from pulse-echo transducers is used to estimate the borehole diameter, and data from transmitter receiver pairs is used to determine the velocity of sound through the formations. This study was undertaken to develop methods to use such transducers to monitor changes in the mechanical properties of shales during drilling operations. If the onset of instability can be identified, changes in the drilling fluid chemistry or casing program can be made to avert costly wellbore failures. Experiments were conducted to study the changes in shale properties with water content. Outcrop samples as well as subsurface shales from oil wells were used. Measurements were made at surface and simulated downhole stress conditions. Significant changes in the mechanical properties were found to occur with small changes in the water content. Problems with the preservation and handling procedures that have been routinely used over the years were identified. One of the major problems has been the incomplete removal of entrapped air from conventionally prepared samples. Methods to identify the presence of air in laboratory samples have been developed as well as improved preparation procedures to minimize air entrapment. Transient phenomena occurring within the samples

  4. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  5. Lift-Off Acoustics Prediction of Clustered Rocket Engines in the Near Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Plotkin, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation presents a method of predicting acoustics during lift-off of the clustered rocket engines in the near field. Included is a definition of the near field, and the use of deflectors and shielding. There is discussion about the use of PAD, a software system designed to calculate the acoustic levels from the lift of of clustered rocket enginee, including updates to extend the calculation to directivity, water suppression, and clustered nozzles.

  6. Acoustic Field Calculation of Ultrasonic Linear Phased Array Transducers with Curve Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunguang; Wang, Lijiu; Xiao, Dingguo; Zhou, Shiyuan

    2011-06-01

    The focus law and acoustic field computation method about circular arc linear phased array have been discussed in the paper. Acoustic field of transducers is given by the use of the coordinate transformation and an approximation with rectangle element instead of circular arc element, and was validated using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld Integral and nonparallel multiple Gaussian beam model respectively. The results of two methods match well.

  7. Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-12-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force. PMID:20040404

  8. Estimating suspended solids concentrations from backscatter intensity measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The estimation of mass concentration of suspended solids is one of the properties needed to understand the characteristics of sediment transport in bays and estuaries. However, useful measurements or estimates of this property are often problematic when employing the usual methods of determination from collected water samples or optical sensors. Analysis of water samples tends to undersample the highly variable character of suspended solids, and optical sensors often become useless from biological fouling in highly productive regions. Acoustic sensors, such as acoustic Doppler current profilers that are now routinely used to measure water velocity, have been shown to hold promise as a means of quantitatively estimating suspended solids from acoustic backscatter intensity, a parameter used in velocity measurement. To further evaluate application of this technique using commercially available instruments, profiles of suspended solids concentrations are estimated from acoustic backscatter intensity recorded by 1200- and 2400-kHz broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers located at two sites in San Francisco Bay, California. ADCP backscatter intensity is calibrated using optical backscatterance data from an instrument located at a depth close to the ADCP transducers. In addition to losses from spherical spreading and water absorption, calculations of acoustic transmission losses account for attenuation from suspended sediment and correction for nonspherical spreading in the near field of the acoustic transducer. Acoustic estimates of suspended solids consisting of cohesive and noncohesive sediments are found to agree within about 8-10% (of the total range of concentration) to those values estimated by a second optical backscatterance sensor located at a depth further from the ADCP transducers. The success of this approach using commercially available Doppler profilers provides promise that this technique might be appropriate and useful under certain conditions in

  9. Acoustic measurement method of the volume flux of a seafloor hydrothermal plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Measuring fluxes (volume, chemical, heat, etc.) of the deep sea hydrothermal vents has been a crucial but challenging task faced by the scientific community since the discovery of the vent systems. However, the great depths and complexities of the hydrothermal vents make traditional sampling methods laborious and almost daunting missions. Furthermore, the samples, in most cases both sparse in space and sporadic in time, are hardly enough to provide a result with moderate uncertainty. In September 2010, our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar System (COVIS, http://vizlab.rutgers.edu/AcoustImag/covis.html) was connected to the Neptune Canada underwater ocean observatory network (http://www.neptunecanada.ca) at the Main Endeavour vent field on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During the experiment, the COVIS system produced 3D images of the buoyant plume discharged from the vent complex Grotto by measuring the back-scattering intensity of the acoustic signal. Building on the methodology developed in our previous work, the vertical flow velocity of the plume is estimated from the Doppler shift of the acoustic signal using geometric correction to compensate for the ambient horizontal currents. A Gaussian distribution curve is fitted to the horizontal back-scattering intensity profile to determine the back-scattering intensity at the boundary of the plume. Such a boundary value is used as the threshold in a window function for separating the plume from background signal. Finally, the volume flux is obtained by integrating the resulting 2D vertical velocity profile over the horizontal cross-section of the plume. In this presentation, we discuss preliminary results from the COVIS experiment. In addition, several alternative approaches are applied to determination of the accuracy of the estimated plume vertical velocity in the absence of direct measurements. First, the results from our previous experiment (conducted in 2000 at the same vent complex using a

  10. Application of acoustic doppler velocimeters for streamflow measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) principally has used Price AA and Price pygmy mechanical current meters for measurement of discharge. New technologies have resulted in the introduction of alternatives to the Price meters. One alternative, the FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter, was designed by SonTek/YSI to make streamflow measurements in wadeable conditions. The device measures a point velocity and can be used with standard midsection method algorithms to compute streamflow. The USGS collected 55 quality-assurance measurements with the FlowTracker at 43 different USGS streamflow-gaging stations across the United States, with mean depths from 0.05to0.67m, mean velocities from 13 to 60 cm/s, and discharges from 0.02 to 12.4m3/s. These measurements were compared with Price mechanical current meter measurements. Analysis of the comparisons shows that the FlowTracker discharges were not statistically different from the Price meter discharges at a 95% confidence level. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  11. The magnetic component of geodesic acoustic modes in tokamak plasmas with a radial equilibrium electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deng

    2016-10-01

    The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes with a magnetic perturbation in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field was derived. The dispersion relation was analyzed for very low field strength. The mode frequency decreases with increasing field strength, which is different from the electrostatic geodesic acoustic mode. There exists an m = 1 magnetic component that is very low when the radial electric field is absent. The ratio between the m = 1 and m = 2 magnetic components increases with strength of the radial electric field for low Mach numbers.

  12. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale coaxial helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, M.; Peterson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic data were obtained during a full-scale test of the XH-59A Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The XH-59A is a research helicopter with two coaxial rotors and hingeless blades. Performance, vibration, noise at various forward speeds, rotor lift coefficients, and rotor shaft angles of attack were investigated. In general, the noise level is shown to increase with rotor lift coefficient except under certain operating conditions where it is increased by significant impulsive blade/vortex interactions. The impulsivity appears to depend upon how the lift is distributed between the two rotors. The noise levels measured are shown to be slightly higher than on a modern conventional rotor tested in the same facility.

  14. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  15. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium from picosecond acoustic velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Ayrinhac, S; Gauthier, M; Le Marchand, G; Morand, M; Bergame, F; Decremps, F

    2015-07-15

    Due to discrepancies in the literature data the thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium are still in debate. Accurate measurements of adiabatic sound velocities as a function of pressure and temperature have been obtained by the combination of laser picosecond acoustics and surface imaging on sample loaded in diamond anvil cell. From these results the thermodynamic parameters of gallium have been extracted by a numerical procedure up to 10 GPa and 570 K. It is demonstrated that a Murnaghan equation of state accounts well for the whole data set since the isothermal bulk modulus BT has been shown to vary linearly with pressure in the whole temperature range. No evidence for a previously reported liquid-liquid transition has been found in the whole pressure and temperature range explored.

  17. Picosecond Acoustic Measurement of Anisotropic Properties of Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Perton, M.; Rossignol, C.; Chigarev, N.; Audoin, B.

    2007-03-21

    Properties of thin metallic films have been studied extensively by means of laser-picosecond ultrasonics. Generation of longitudinal and shear waves via thermoelastic mechanism and large source has been only demonstrated for waves vectors along the normal to the interface. However, such measurements cannot provide complete information about elastic properties of films. As it has been already shown for nanosecond ultrasonics, the knowledge of group or phase velocities in several directions for sources with small lateral size allows determining the stiffness tensor coefficients of a sample. The experimental set-up was prepared to obtain the thinnest size for the source to achieve acoustic diffraction. The identification of the stiffness tensor components, based on the inversion of the bulk waves phase velocities, is applied to signals simulated and experimentally recorded for a material with hexagonal properties. First estimation of stiffness tensor coefficients for thin metallic film 2.1 {mu}m has been performed.

  18. MEASURING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS ON 21 cm INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Xiaochun

    2012-06-20

    After reionization, emission in the 21 cm hyperfine transition provides a direct probe of neutral hydrogen distributed in galaxies. Different from galaxy redshift surveys, observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in the cumulative 21 cm emission may offer an attractive method for constraining dark energy properties at moderate redshifts. Keys to this program are techniques to extract the faint cosmological signal from various contaminants, such as detector noise and continuum foregrounds. In this paper, we investigate the possible systematic and statistical errors in the acoustic scale estimates using ground-based radio interferometers. Based on the simulated 21 cm interferometric measurements, we analyze the performance of a Fourier-space, light-of-sight algorithm in subtracting foregrounds, and further study the observing strategy as a function of instrumental configurations. Measurement uncertainties are presented from a suite of simulations with a variety of parameters, in order to have an estimate of what behaviors will be accessible in the future generation of hydrogen surveys. We find that 10 separate interferometers, each of which contains {approx}300 dishes, observing an independent patch of the sky and producing an instantaneous field of view (FOV) of {approx}100 deg{sup 2}, can be used to make a significant detection of acoustic features over a period of a few years. Compared to optical surveys, the broad bandwidth, wide FOV, and multi-beam observation are all unprecedented capabilities of low-frequency radio experiments.

  19. Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter for Biological Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Wesley Nelson

    In vitro measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are presented for several biological media. With these measurements it is possible to predict the distortion of a finite amplitude wave in biological tissues of current diagnostic and research interest. The measurement method is based on the finite amplitude distortion of a sine wave that is emmitted by a piston source. The growth of the second harmonic component of this wave is measured by a piston receiver which is coaxial with and has the same size as the source. The experimental measurements and theory are compared in order to determine the nonlinearity parameter. The density, sound speed, and attenuation for the medium are determined in order to make this comparison. The theory developed for this study accounts for the influence of both diffraction and attenuation on the experimental measurements. The effects of dispersion, tissue inhomogeneity and gas bubbles within the excised tissues are studied. To test the measurement method, experimental results are compared with established values for the nonlinearity parameter of distilled water, ethylene glycol and glycerol. The agreement between these values suggests that the measurement uncertainty is (+OR-) 5% for liquids and (+OR-) 10% for solid tissues. Measurements are presented for dog blood and bovine serum albumen as a function of concentration. The nonlinearity parameters for liver, kidney and spleen are reported for both human and canine tissues. The values for the fresh tissues displayed little variation (6.8 to 7.8). Measurements for fixed, normal and cirrhotic tissues indicated that the nonlinearity parameter does not depend strongly on pathology. However, the values for fixed tissues were somewhat higher than those of the fresh tissues.

  20. An improved method for the calculation of Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zu-Bin; Maury, Cédric

    2016-02-01

    Sensing and controlling Acoustic Radiation Modes (ARMs) in the near-field of vibrating structures is of great interest for broadband noise reduction or enhancement, as ARMs are velocity distributions defined over a vibrating surface, that independently and optimally contribute to the acoustic power in the acoustic field. But present methods only provide far-field ARMs (FFARMs) that are inadequate for the acoustic near-field problem. The Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes (NFARMs) are firstly studied with an improved numerical method, the Pressure-Velocity method, which rely on the eigen decomposition of the acoustic transfers between the vibrating source and a conformal observation surface, including sound pressure and velocity transfer matrices. The active and reactive parts of the sound power are separated and lead to the active and reactive ARMs. NFARMs are studied for a 2D baffled beam and for a 3D baffled plate, and so as differences between the NFARMS and the classical FFARMs. Comparisons of the NFARMs are analyzed when varying frequency and observation distance to the source. It is found that the efficiencies and shapes of the optimal active ARMs are independent on the distance while that of the reactive ones are distinctly related on.

  1. The acoustic field of singing humpback whales in the vertical plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pack, Adam A.; Lammers, Marc O.; Herman, Louis; Andrews, Kimberly; Deakos, Mark

    2003-04-01

    A vertical array of five hydrophones was used to measure the acoustic field of singing humpback whales. Once a singer was located, two swimmers with snorkel gear were deployed to determine the orientation of the whale and to position the boat so that the array could be deployed in front of the whale at a minimum standoff distance of 10 m. The spacing of the hydrophones was 7 m with the deepest hydrophone deployed at depth of 35 m. An 8-channel TASCAM recorder having a bandwidth of 24 kHz was used to record the hydrophone signals. The location of the singer was determined by computing the time of arrival differences between the hydrophone signals. The maximum source level varied between individual units in a song, with values between 180 and 190 dB. The acoustic field determined by considering the relative intensity of higher frequency harmonics in the signals indicate that the sounds are projected in the horizontal direction with the singer's head canted downward 45 to 60°. High-frequency harmonics extended beyond 24 kHz, suggesting that humpback whales may have an upper frequency limit of hearing as high as 24 kHz.

  2. Direct-field acoustic testing of a flight system : logistics, challenges, and results.

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Gurule, David Joseph; Babuska, Vit; Skousen, Troy J.

    2010-10-01

    Before a spacecraft can be considered for launch, it must first survive environmental testing that simulates the launch environment. Typically, these simulations include vibration testing performed using an electro-dynamic shaker. For some spacecraft however, acoustic excitation may provide a more severe loading environment than base shaker excitation. Because this was the case for a Sandia Flight System, it was necessary to perform an acoustic test prior to launch in order to verify survival due to an acoustic environment. Typically, acoustic tests are performed in acoustic chambers, but because of scheduling, transportation, and cleanliness concerns, this was not possible. Instead, the test was performed as a direct field acoustic test (DFAT). This type of test consists of surrounding a test article with a wall of speakers and controlling the acoustic input using control microphones placed around the test item, with a closed-loop control system. Obtaining the desired acoustic input environment - proto-flight random noise input with an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 146.7 dB-with this technique presented a challenge due to several factors. An acoustic profile with this high OASPL had not knowingly been obtained using the DFAT technique prior to this test. In addition, the test was performed in a high-bay, where floor space and existing equipment constrained the speaker circle diameter. And finally, the Flight System had to be tested without contamination of the unit, which required a contamination bag enclosure of the test unit. This paper describes in detail the logistics, challenges, and results encountered while performing a high-OASPL, direct-field acoustic test on a contamination-sensitive Flight System in a high-bay environment.

  3. Development of an Acoustic Sensor for On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement in Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Ariessohn; Hans Hornung

    2006-01-15

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2-Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1989 the U.S. Department of Energy has supported development of advanced coal gasification technology. The Wabash River and TECO IGCC demonstration projects supported by the DOE have demonstrated the ability of these plants to achieve high levels of energy efficiency and extremely low emissions of hazardous pollutants. However, a continuing challenge for this technology is the tradeoff between high carbon conversion which requires operation with high internal gas temperatures, and limited refractory life which is exacerbated by those high operating temperatures. Attempts to control internal gas temperature so as to operate these gasifiers at the optimum temperature have been hampered by the lack of a reliable technology for measuring internal gas temperatures. Thermocouples have serious survival problems and provide useful temperature information for only a few days or weeks after startup before burning out. For this reason, the Department of Energy has funded several research projects to develop more robust and reliable temperature measurement approaches for use in coal gasifiers. Enertechnix has developed a line of acoustic gas temperature sensors for use in coal-fired electric utility boilers, kraft recovery boilers, cement kilns and petrochemical process heaters. Acoustic pyrometry provides several significant advantages for gas temperature measurement in hostile process environments. First, it is non-intrusive so survival of the measurement components is not a

  4. Applications of whole field interferometry in mechanics and acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, Nils-Erik

    1999-07-01

    A description is given of fringe formation in holographic interferometry, in electronic speckle pattern interferometry, in electro-optic or TV holography and for a newly developed system for pulsed TV-holography. A numerical example, which simulates the equations describing the different techniques, is included. A strain measuring system using defocused digital speckle photography is described. Experiments showing mode shapes of musical instruments, transient bending wave propagation in beams and plates as well as sound pressure fields in air are included.

  5. Ultrasound field measurement using a binary lens

    PubMed Central

    Clement, G.T.; Nomura, H.; Kamakura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Field characterization methods using a scattering target in the absence of a point-like receiver have been well described in which scattering is recorded by a relatively large receiver located outside the field of measurement. Unfortunately, such methods are prone to artifacts due to averaging across the receiver surface. To avoid this problem while simultaneously increasing the gain of a received signal, the present study introduces a binary plate lens designed to focus spherically-spreading waves onto a planar region having a nearly-uniform phase proportional to that of the target location. The lens is similar to a zone plate, but modified to produce a biconvex-like behavior, such that it focuses both planar and spherically spreading waves. A measurement device suitable for characterizing narrowband ultrasound signals in air is designed around this lens by coupling it to a target and planar receiver. A prototype device is constructed and used to characterize the field of a highly-focused 400 kHz air transducer along 2 radial lines. Comparison of the measurements with numeric predictions formed from nonlinear acoustic simulation showed good relative pressure correlation, with mean differences of 10% and 12% over center 3dB FWHM drop and 12% and 17% over 6dB. PMID:25643084

  6. Direct measurement of coherent subterahertz acoustic phonons mean free path in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, R.; Huynh, A.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Lemaître, A.

    2016-05-01

    The phonon mean free path is generally inferred from the measurement of thermal conductivity and we are still lacking precise information on this quantity. Recent advances in the field of high-frequency phonons transduction using semiconductor superlattices give the opportunity to fill this gap. We present experimental results on the attenuation of longitudinal acoustic phonons in GaAs in the frequency and temperature ranges 0.2-1 THz and 10-80 K respectively. Surprisingly, we observe a plateau in the frequency dependence of the attenuation above 0.7 THz, that we ascribe to a breakdown of Herring processes.

  7. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  8. Acoustic measurements of F-16 aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-16 aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that no sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-16 aircraft aft fuselage structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an F-16 aircraft water cooled hush house at Hill AFB, but were increased over that measured during ground run up. It was recommended that the acoustic loads measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for aircraft which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment.

  9. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  10. NATO TG-53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.

  11. Adaptive algorithm for active control of high-amplitude acoustic field in resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenka, M.; Bednařík, M.; Koníček, P.

    2008-06-01

    This work is concerned with suppression of nonlinear effects in piston-driven acoustic resonators by means of two-frequency driving technique. An iterative adaptive algorithm is proposed to calculate parameters of the driving signal in order that amplitude of the second harmonics of the acoustic pressure is minimized. Functionality of the algorithm is verified firstly by means of numerical model and secondly, it is used in real computer-controlled experiment. The numerical and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be successfully used for generation of high-amplitude shock-free acoustic field in resonators.

  12. Determination of near and far field acoustics for advanced propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Jaeger, S. M.; Kim, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    A method has been studied for predicting the acoustic field of the SR-3 transonic propfan using flow data generated by two versions of the NASPROP-E computer code. Since the flow fields calculated by the solvers include the shock-wave system of the propeller, the nonlinear quadrupole noise source term is included along with the monopole and dipole noise sources in the calculation of the acoustic near field. Acoustic time histories in the near field are determined by transforming the azimuthal coordinate in the rotating, blade-fixed coordinate system to the time coordinate in a nonrotating coordinate system. Fourier analysis of the pressure time histories is used to obtain the frequency spectra of the near-field noise.

  13. Thermo acoustic study of carbon nanotubes in near and far field: Theory, simulation, and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, S. S.; Moosavi, A.; Huynh, C.; Saleki, O.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube webs exhibit interesting properties when used as thermo-acoustic projectors. This work studies thermo-acoustic effect of these sound sources both in near and far field regions. Based on two alternative forms of the energy equation, we have developed a straightforward formula for calculation of pressure field, which is consistent with experimental data in far field. Also we have solved full 3-D governing equations using numerical methods. Our three-dimensional simulation and experimental data show pressure waves are highly affected by dimensions of sound sources in near field due to interference effects. However, generation of sound waves in far field is independent of projectors area surface. Energy analysis for free standing Thermo-Acoustic (TA) sound sources show that aerogel TA sound sources like CNT based projectors could act more efficiently compared to the other sources in delivering more than 75% of alternative input energy to the medium gas up to a frequency of 1 MHz.

  14. Investigating the motion of particles in an ultrasonic acoustic wave field using PIV/PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobes, David S.; Setayeshgar, Alireza; Lipsett, Michael G.; Koch, Charles R.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of a multi-wavelength acoustic standing wave field on the motion of micron-sized particles is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry/particle tracking velocimetry (PIV/PTV) to examine existing theories describing the radiation force on particles. An ultrasonic acoustic wave is introduced into a column chamber containing a mixture of distilled water and a disperse population of spherical particles. In this system the acoustic field is aligned with gravity to form horizontal bands of particles, which are also influenced by buoyancy and drag forces. Accounting for these forces with the acoustic radiation pressure, the motion of an individual particle is modeled. There is a good agreement between the pattern of the particles motion in experimental results and the predicted single particle motion; however, due to the concentration of particles in the experiment, a difference is observed in the maximum value of the velocity of the particles in the experiment and in the single particle model.

  15. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements of river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The standard deviations of the ADCP measurements ranged from approximately 1 to 6 percent and were generally higher than the measurement errors predicted by error-propagation analysis of ADCP instrument performance. These error-prediction methods assume that the largest component of ADCP discharge measurement error is instrument related. The larger standard deviations indicate that substantial portions of measurement error may be attributable to sources unrelated to ADCP electronics or signal processing and are functions of the field environment.

  16. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  17. Acoustic measurements of the X-wing rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, M.

    1983-01-01

    Noise measurements of a stoppable X-wing rotor system model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel, are summarized. Performance, control system stability, and noise of the model were investigated at various forward speeds, tip speeds, collective blade angles, jet blowing velocities, and model attack angles. The model was tested in the rotating wing helicopter configuration, in the fixed wing configuration, and in wing configurations between the two. Noise data obtained in the helicopter configuration at the two highest tip speeds (Mach 0.44 and 0.47) and at wind tunnel speeds below 140 knots are reported. Test configuration and performance information are included. General acoustic measurements (dB, dBA, and PNdB) at six microphone locations are presented for all conditions under which the background noise was below the model noise. More specific measurements (1/3-octave and blade passage frequency harmonic levels) are presented for selected conditions. Graphs of dBA and 1/3-octave spectra, which show the noise trends as functions of operating condition, are included. The noise depends mainly on the jet blowing velocity. The noise levels were highest at moderate jet blowing velocities, less at the highest velocity, and lowest with no blowing at all.

  18. Polymer coating of glass microballoons levitated in a focused acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.; Lee, M. C.; Feng, I.-A.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) glass microballoons (GMBs) levitated in a focusing radiator acoustic device can be coated with liquid materials by deploying the liquid into the levitation field with a stepped-horn atomizer. The GMB can be forced to the center of the coating liquid with a strong acoustically generated centering force. Water solutions of organic polymers, UV-curable liquid organic monomers, and paraffin waxes have been used to prepare solid coatings on the surface of GMBs using this technique.

  19. Polymer coating of glass microballoons levitated in a focused acoustic field

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.; Lee, M.C.; Feng, I.A.; Elleman, D.D.; Wang, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) glass microballoons (GMBs) levitated in a focusing radiator acoustic device can be coated with liquid materials by deploying the liquid into the levitation field with a stepped-horn atomizer. The GMB can be forced to the center of the coating liquid with a strong acoustically generated centering force. Water solutions of organic polymers, uv-curable liquid organic monomers, and paraffin waxes have been used to prepare solid coatings on the surface of GMBs using this technique.

  20. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  1. The application of acoustic emission technique to fatigue crack measurement. [in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission technique to measure fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy specimens was investigated. There are several variables, such as the metallurgical and the physical treatment of the specimen, that can affect the level of acoustic activity of a fatigue specimen. It is therefore recommended that the acoustic emission technique be supplemented by other nondestructive evaluation methods to obtain quantitative data on crack growth.

  2. Measurement of transmission loss characteristics using acoustic intensity techniques at the KU-FRL Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    The transmission loss characteristics of panels using the acoustic intensity technique is presented. The theoretical formulation, installation of hardware, modifications to the test facility, and development of computer programs and test procedures are described. A listing of all the programs is also provided. The initial test results indicate that the acoustic intensity technique is easily adapted to measure transmission loss characteristics of panels. Use of this method will give average transmission loss values. The fixtures developed to position the microphones along the grid points are very useful in plotting the intensity maps of vibrating panels.

  3. Near-Field Imaging with Sound: An Acoustic STM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2012-10-01

    The invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) 30 years ago opened up a visual window to the nano-world and sparked off a bunch of new methods for investigating and controlling matter and its transformations at the atomic and molecular level. However, an adequate theoretical understanding of the method is demanding; STM images can be considered quantum theory condensed into a pictorial representation. A hands-on model is presented for demonstrating the imaging principles in introductory teaching. It uses sound waves and computer visualization to create mappings of acoustic resonators. The macroscopic simile is made possible by quantum-classical analogies between matter and sound waves. Grounding STM in acoustic experience may help to make the underlying quantum concepts such as tunneling less abstract to students.

  4. Resonant Acoustic Measurement of Vapor Phase Transport Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhmann, R. J.; Garrett, S. L.; Matson, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    A major impediment to accurate non steady-state diffusion measurements is the ability to accurately measure and track a rapidly changing gas concentration without disturbing the system. Non-destructive methods that do not interfere with system dynamics have been developed in the past. These methods, however, have tended to be cumbersome or inaccurate at low concentrations. A new experimental approach has been developed to measure gaseous diffusion in free air and through porous materials. The method combines the traditional non steady-state laboratory methodology with resonant acoustic gas analysis. A phase-locked-loop (PLL) resonance frequency tracker is combined with a thermally insulated copper resonator. A piston sealed with a metal bellows excites the fundamental standing wave resonance of the resonator. The PLL maintains a constant phase difference (typically 90§) between the accelerometer mounted on the piston and a microphone near the piston to track the resonance frequency in real time. A capillary or glass bead filled core is fitted into an o-ring sealed opening at the end of the resonator opposite the bellows. The rate at which the tracer gas is replaced by air within the resonator is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of the gas in free air through the capillary (DA) or by the effective diffusion coefficient of the gas through the core (De). The mean molecular weight of the gas mixture in the resonator is directly determined six times each minute from the ratio of the absolute temperature to the square of the fundamental acoustic resonance frequency. Average system stability (temperature divided by frequency squared) is better than 350 ppm. DA values for a 0.3-inch diameter capillary were in excellent agreement with published values. De values for porous media samples (0.5 mm glass beads) of four different lengths (1 through 4 inches) using three different tracer gases (He, CH4, Kr) will be reported. Comments will be offered regarding tracer gas

  5. Evaluation of the Acoustic Measurement Capability of the NASA Langley V/STOL Wind Tunnel Open Test Section with Acoustically Absorbent Ceiling and Floor Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The single source location used for helicopter model studies was utilized in a study to determine the distances and directions upstream of the model accurate at which measurements of the direct acoustic field could be obtained. The method used was to measure the decrease of sound pressure levels with distance from a noise source and thereby determine the Hall radius as a function of frequency and direction. Test arrangements and procedures are described. Graphs show the normalized sound pressure level versus distance curves for the glass fiber floor treatment and for the foam floor treatment.

  6. Near and Far Field Acoustic Pressure Skewness in a Heated Supersonic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Mora, Pablo; Kastner, Jeff; Heeb, Nick; Kailasanath, Kailas; Liu, Junhui; University of Cincinnati Collaboration; Naval Research Laboratory Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The dominant component of turbulent mixing noise in high speed jets is the Mach wave radiation generated by large turbulent structures in the shear layer The Over-All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) in the far field peaks in a direction near the Mach wave angle. ``Crackle'' is another important component of high speed jet noise. Crackle cannot be recognized in the spectrum of the acoustic pressure signal, but it appears in the temporal waveform of the pressure as sharply rising peaks. Skewness levels of the pressure and dP/dt have been used as a measure of crackle in high specific thrust engines and rockets. In this paper, we focus on recognizing a technique that identifies the impact of different test conditions on the near-field and far-field statistics of the pressure and dP/dt signals of a supersonic jet with a design Mach number of Md=1.5 produced by a C-D conical nozzle. Cold and hot jets, T0=300K and 600K, are tested at over, design, and under-expanded conditions, with NPRs=2.5, 3.671, 4.5, respectively. Second, Third and Forth order statistics are examined in the near and far fields. Rms, skewness and kurtosis intensity levels and propagation are better identified in the dP/dt than in the pressure signal. Statistics of the dP/dt demonstrate to be a better measure for crackle. Project funded by ONR grant.

  7. Tethered acoustic doppler current profiler platforms for measuring streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, Michael S.; Stewart, James A.; Morlock, Scott E.

    2003-01-01

    A tethered-platform design with a trimaran hull and 900-megahertz radio modems is now commercially available. Continued field use has resulted in U.S. Geological Survey procedures for making tethered-platform discharge measurements, including methods for tethered-boat deployment, moving-bed tests, and measurement of edge distances.

  8. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. PMID:26377510

  10. Prediction of the acoustic and bubble fields in insonified freeze-drying vials.

    PubMed

    Louisnard, O; Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Montes-Quiroz, W; Peczalski, R; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F

    2015-09-01

    The acoustic field and the location of cavitation bubble are computed in vials used for freeze-drying, insonified from the bottom by a vibrating plate. The calculations rely on a nonlinear model of sound propagation in a cavitating liquid [Louisnard, Ultrason. Sonochem., 19, (2012) 56-65]. Both the vibration amplitude and the liquid level in the vial are parametrically varied. For low liquid levels, a threshold amplitude is required to form a cavitation zone at the bottom of the vial. For increasing vibration amplitudes, the bubble field slightly thickens but remains at the vial bottom, and the acoustic field saturates, which cannot be captured by linear acoustics. On the other hand, increasing the liquid level may promote the formation of a secondary bubble structure near the glass wall, a few centimeters below the free liquid surface. These predictions suggest that rather complex acoustic fields and bubble structures can arise even in such small volumes. As the acoustic and bubble fields govern ice nucleation during the freezing step, the final crystal's size distribution in the frozen product may crucially depend on the liquid level in the vial. PMID:25800984

  11. Near-field acoustic microbead trapping as remote anchor for single particle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Cheon, Dong Young; Shin, Hyunjune; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Jungwoo

    2015-05-01

    We recently proposed an analytical model of a two-dimensional acoustic trapping of polystyrene beads in the ray acoustics regime, where a bead diameter is larger than the wavelength used. As its experimental validation, this paper demonstrates the transverse (or lateral) trapping of individual polystyrene beads in the near field of focused ultrasound. A 100 μm bead is immobilized on the central beam axis by a focused sound beam from a 30 MHz single element lithium niobate transducer, after being laterally displaced through hundreds of micrometers. Maximum displacement, a longest lateral distance at which a trapped bead can be directed towards the central axis, is thus measured over a discrete frequency range from 24 MHz to 36 MHz. The displacement data are found to be between 323.7 μm and 470.2 μm, depending on the transducer's driving frequency and input voltage amplitude. The experimental results are compared with their corresponding model values, and their relative errors lie between 0.9% and 3.9%. The results suggest that this remote maneuvering technique may be employed to manipulate individual cells through solid microbeads, provoking certain cellular reactions to localized mechanical disturbance without direct contact.

  12. Near-field acoustic microbead trapping as remote anchor for single particle manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Cheon, Dong Young; Shin, Hyunjune; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Jungwoo

    2015-05-04

    We recently proposed an analytical model of a two-dimensional acoustic trapping of polystyrene beads in the ray acoustics regime, where a bead diameter is larger than the wavelength used. As its experimental validation, this paper demonstrates the transverse (or lateral) trapping of individual polystyrene beads in the near field of focused ultrasound. A 100 μm bead is immobilized on the central beam axis by a focused sound beam from a 30 MHz single element lithium niobate transducer, after being laterally displaced through hundreds of micrometers. Maximum displacement, a longest lateral distance at which a trapped bead can be directed towards the central axis, is thus measured over a discrete frequency range from 24 MHz to 36 MHz. The displacement data are found to be between 323.7 μm and 470.2 μm, depending on the transducer's driving frequency and input voltage amplitude. The experimental results are compared with their corresponding model values, and their relative errors lie between 0.9% and 3.9%. The results suggest that this remote maneuvering technique may be employed to manipulate individual cells through solid microbeads, provoking certain cellular reactions to localized mechanical disturbance without direct contact.

  13. Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

  14. Optimization of Acoustic Pressure Measurements for Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    As noise constraints become increasingly stringent, there is continued emphasis on the development of improved acoustic liner concepts to reduce the amount of fan noise radiated to communities surrounding airports. As a result, multiple analytical prediction tools and experimental rigs have been developed by industry and academia to support liner evaluation. NASA Langley has also placed considerable effort in this area over the last three decades. More recently, a finite element code (Q3D) based on a quasi-3D implementation of the convected Helmholtz equation has been combined with measured data acquired in the Langley Grazing Incidence Tube (GIT) to reduce liner impedance in the presence of grazing flow. A new Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has also been developed to allow evaluation of liners in the presence of grazing flow and controlled, higher-order modes, with straight and curved waveguides. Upgraded versions of each of these two test rigs are expected to begin operation by early 2008. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) will replace the GIT, and additional capabilities will be incorporated into the CDTR. The current investigation uses the Q3D finite element code to evaluate some of the key capabilities of these two test rigs. First, the Q3D code is used to evaluate the microphone distribution designed for the GFIT. Liners ranging in length from 51 to 610 mm are investigated to determine whether acceptable impedance eduction can be achieved with microphones placed on the wall opposite the liner. This analysis indicates the best results are achieved for liner lengths of at least 203 mm. Next, the effects of moving this GFIT microphone array to the wall adjacent to the liner are evaluated, and acceptable results are achieved if the microphones are placed off the centerline. Finally, the code is used to investigate potential microphone placements in the CDTR rigid wall adjacent to the wall containing an acoustic liner, to determine if sufficient fidelity can be

  15. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  16. On the horizontal wobbling of an object levitated by near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2007-11-01

    A circular planar object can be levitated with several hundreds of microns by ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). However, when both the sound source and the levitated object are circularly shaped and the center of the levitated object does not coincide with the source center, instability problem often occurs. When this happens, it becomes difficult to pick up or transport the object for the next process. In this study, when the center of the levitated object was offset from the source center, the moving direction of the levitated object was predicted by using the time averaged potential around the levitated object. The wobbling frequency of the levitated object was calculated by analyzing the nonlinear wobbling motion of the object. It was shown that the predicted wobbling frequencies agreed with measured ones well. Finally, a safe zone was suggested to avoid the unstable movement of an object. PMID:17590402

  17. Indirect calibration of a large microphone array for in-duct acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Q.; Pereira, A.; Finez, A.; Souchotte, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of in situ calibration of a pin hole-mounted microphone array for in-duct acoustic measurements. One approach is to individually measure the frequency response of each microphone, by submitting the probe to be calibrated and a reference microphone to the same pressure field. Although simple, this task may be very time consuming for large microphone arrays and eventually suffer from lack of access to microphones once they are installed on the test bench. An alternative global calibration procedure is thus proposed in this paper. The approach is based on the fact that the acoustic pressure can be expanded onto an analytically known spatial basis. A projection operator is defined allowing the projection of measurements onto the duct modal basis. The main assumption of the method is that the residual resulting from the difference between actual and projected measurements is mainly dominated by calibration errors. An iterative procedure to estimate the calibration factors of each microphone is proposed and validated through an experimental set-up. In addition, it is shown that the proposed scheme allows an optimization of physical parameters such as the sound speed and parameters associated to the test bench itself, such as the duct radius or the termination reflection coefficient.

  18. Application of cylindrical near-field acoustical holography to the visualization of aeroacoustic sources.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moohyung; Bolton, J Stuart; Mongeau, Luc

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for visualizing the sound radiation from aeroacoustic sources in order to identify their source strength distribution, radiation patterns, and to quantify the performance of noise control solutions. Here, cylindrical Near-field Acoustical Holography was used for that purpose. In a practical holographic measurement of sources comprising either partially correlated or uncorrelated subsources, it is necessary to use a number of reference microphones so that the sound field on the hologram surface can be decomposed into mutually incoherent partial fields before holographic projection. In this article, procedures are described for determining the number of reference microphones required when visualizing partially correlated aeroacoustic sources; performing source nonstationarity compensation; and applying regularization. The procedures have been demonstrated by application to a ducted fan. Holographic tests were performed to visualize the sound radiation from that source in its original form. The system was then altered to investigate the effect of two modifications on the fan's sound radiation pattern: first, leaks were created in the fan and duct assembly, and second, sound absorbing material was used to line the downstream duct section. Results in all three cases are shown at the blade passing frequency and for a broadband noise component. In the absence of leakage, both components were found to exhibit a dipole-like radiation pattern. Leakage was found to have a strong influence on the directivity of the blade passing tone. The increase of the flow resistance caused by adding the acoustical lining resulted in a nearly symmetric reduction of sound radiation. PMID:12942967

  19. Application of cylindrical near-field acoustical holography to the visualization of aeroacoustic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moohyung; Bolton, J. Stuart; Mongeau, Luc

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for visualizing the sound radiation from aeroacoustic sources in order to identify their source strength distribution, radiation patterns, and to quantify the performance of noise control solutions. Here, cylindrical Near-field Acoustical Holography was used for that purpose. In a practical holographic measurement of sources comprising either partially correlated or uncorrelated subsources, it is necessary to use a number of reference microphones so that the sound field on the hologram surface can be decomposed into mutually incoherent partial fields before holographic projection. In this article, procedures are described for determining the number of reference microphones required when visualizing partially correlated aeroacoustic sources; performing source nonstationarity compensation; and applying regularization. The procedures have been demonstrated by application to a ducted fan. Holographic tests were performed to visualize the sound radiation from that source in its original form. The system was then altered to investigate the effect of two modifications on the fan's sound radiation pattern: first, leaks were created in the fan and duct assembly, and second, sound absorbing material was used to line the downstream duct section. Results in all three cases are shown at the blade passing frequency and for a broadband noise component. In the absence of leakage, both components were found to exhibit a dipole-like radiation pattern. Leakage was found to have a strong influence on the directivity of the blade passing tone. The increase of the flow resistance caused by adding the acoustical lining resulted in a nearly symmetric reduction of sound radiation.

  20. Acoustic holography as a metrological tool for characterizing medical ultrasound sources and fields.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Tsysar, Sergey A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Kreider, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic holography is a powerful technique for characterizing ultrasound sources and the fields they radiate, with the ability to quantify source vibrations and reduce the number of required measurements. These capabilities are increasingly appealing for meeting measurement standards in medical ultrasound; however, associated uncertainties have not been investigated systematically. Here errors associated with holographic representations of a linear, continuous-wave ultrasound field are studied. To facilitate the analysis, error metrics are defined explicitly, and a detailed description of a holography formulation based on the Rayleigh integral is provided. Errors are evaluated both for simulations of a typical therapeutic ultrasound source and for physical experiments with three different ultrasound sources. Simulated experiments explore sampling errors introduced by the use of a finite number of measurements, geometric uncertainties in the actual positions of acquired measurements, and uncertainties in the properties of the propagation medium. Results demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of keeping errors less than about 1%. Typical errors in physical experiments were somewhat larger, on the order of a few percent; comparison with simulations provides specific guidelines for improving the experimental implementation to reduce these errors. Overall, results suggest that holography can be implemented successfully as a metrological tool with small, quantifiable errors. PMID:26428789

  1. Acoustic holography as a metrological tool for characterizing medical ultrasound sources and fields

    PubMed Central

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Kreider, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic holography is a powerful technique for characterizing ultrasound sources and the fields they radiate, with the ability to quantify source vibrations and reduce the number of required measurements. These capabilities are increasingly appealing for meeting measurement standards in medical ultrasound; however, associated uncertainties have not been investigated systematically. Here errors associated with holographic representations of a linear, continuous-wave ultrasound field are studied. To facilitate the analysis, error metrics are defined explicitly, and a detailed description of a holography formulation based on the Rayleigh integral is provided. Errors are evaluated both for simulations of a typical therapeutic ultrasound source and for physical experiments with three different ultrasound sources. Simulated experiments explore sampling errors introduced by the use of a finite number of measurements, geometric uncertainties in the actual positions of acquired measurements, and uncertainties in the properties of the propagation medium. Results demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of keeping errors less than about 1%. Typical errors in physical experiments were somewhat larger, on the order of a few percent; comparison with simulations provides specific guidelines for improving the experimental implementation to reduce these errors. Overall, results suggest that holography can be implemented successfully as a metrological tool with small, quantifiable errors. PMID:26428789

  2. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  3. Thermally induced secondary atomization of droplet in an acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saptarshi; Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermal effects that lead to instability and break up in acoustically levitated vaporizing fuel droplets. For selective liquids, atomization occurs at the droplet equator under external heating. Short wavelength [Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)] instability for diesel and bio-diesel droplets triggers this secondary atomization. Vapor pressure, latent heat, and specific heat govern the vaporization rate and temperature history, which affect the surface tension gradient and gas phase density, ultimately dictating the onset of KH instability. We develop a criterion based on Weber number to define a condition for the inception of secondary atomization.

  4. Long range acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Snellen, Mirjam

    2013-10-01

    A seamount 8 km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single hydrophones deployed as a 2 km triangle. Measurements of acoustic intensity for the path to the southern triplet are on the order of 6 dB lower than those received on the northern triplet. Temporal cross-correlation beamforming estimation is performed and the estimated arrival angles for the two arrays, 265° and 267° were consistent with the predicted geodesic arrival of 264.6° and 267.8°, respectively. Cross-correlation between single phones on the northern and southern arrays reveals a peak at 266°, with a cross-correlation of 0.1. Nx2D parabolic equation modeling predicts complete blockage due to seamount interaction along the geodesic path. Overprediction of the seamount blockage indicates that the 2D approximation is incorrect, and three-dimensional propagation must be used to explain the observations. This is demonstrated by the computation of the Adiabatic Mode Parabolic Equation Transmission Loss, which predicts a 5-10 dB lower reception at the southern site.

  5. Acoustic signature of violins based on bridge transfer mobility measurements.

    PubMed

    Elie, Benjamin; Gautier, François; David, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to solve two problems related to musical acoustics. The first one consists in defining a signature of an instrument, namely, summarizing its vibroacoustical behavior. The second one deals with the existing relationship between the musical sound and the vibroacoustic properties of the instrument body. The violin is the application of this paper. A proposed solution for the first problem consists in an estimation of the bridge transfer mobility and the mean-value of the lateral bridge transfer mobility. The second problem is studied via the comparison between the amplitudes of harmonics, extracted from a glissando audio signal, and the lateral bridge transfer mobility: Both curves exhibit similar features. This is the main result of the paper. This is evidenced by studying the effect of a violin mute on both the lateral bridge transfer mobility and the produced sound. Finally, this is evidenced by successfully identifying which violin is played in an audio recording, using the computation of the Pearson distance between the distribution of the amplitude of harmonics and a database of measured mobilities. PMID:25190411

  6. Long range acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Snellen, Mirjam

    2013-10-01

    A seamount 8 km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single hydrophones deployed as a 2 km triangle. Measurements of acoustic intensity for the path to the southern triplet are on the order of 6 dB lower than those received on the northern triplet. Temporal cross-correlation beamforming estimation is performed and the estimated arrival angles for the two arrays, 265° and 267° were consistent with the predicted geodesic arrival of 264.6° and 267.8°, respectively. Cross-correlation between single phones on the northern and southern arrays reveals a peak at 266°, with a cross-correlation of 0.1. Nx2D parabolic equation modeling predicts complete blockage due to seamount interaction along the geodesic path. Overprediction of the seamount blockage indicates that the 2D approximation is incorrect, and three-dimensional propagation must be used to explain the observations. This is demonstrated by the computation of the Adiabatic Mode Parabolic Equation Transmission Loss, which predicts a 5-10 dB lower reception at the southern site. PMID:24116524

  7. Effects of Various Architectural Parameters on Six Room Acoustical Measures in Auditoria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Wei-Hwa

    The effects of architectural parameters on six room acoustical measures were investigated by means of correlation analyses, factor analyses and multiple regression analyses based on data taken in twenty halls. Architectural parameters were used to estimate acoustical measures taken at individual locations within each room as well as the averages and standard deviations of all measured values in the rooms. The six acoustical measures were Early Decay Time (EDT10), Clarity Index (C80), Overall Level (G), Bass Ratio based on Early Decay Time (BR(EDT)), Treble Ratio based on Early Decay Time (TR(EDT)), and Early Inter-aural Cross Correlation (IACC80). A comprehensive method of quantifying various architectural characteristics of rooms was developed to define a large number of architectural parameters that were hypothesized to effect the acoustical measurements made in the rooms. This study quantitatively confirmed many of the principles used in the design of concert halls and auditoria. Three groups of room architectural parameters such as the parameters associated with the depth of diffusing surfaces were significantly correlated with the hall standard deviations of most of the acoustical measures. Significant differences of statistical relations among architectural parameters and receiver specific acoustical measures were found between a group of music halls and a group of lecture halls. For example, architectural parameters such as the relative distance from the receiver to the overhead ceiling increased the percentage of the variance of acoustical measures that was explained by Barron's revised theory from approximately 70% to 80% only when data were taken in the group of music halls. This study revealed the major architectural parameters which have strong relations with individual acoustical measures forming the basis for a more quantitative method for advancing the theoretical design of concert halls and other auditoria. The results of this study provide

  8. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  9. Spatiotemporal Imaging of the Acoustic Field Emitted by a Single Copper Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W.; Thomas, Olivier; Pennec, Yan; Cassinelli, Marco; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Perrin, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    The monochromatic and geometrically anisotropic acoustic field generated by 400 nm and 120 nm diameter copper nanowires simply dropped on a 10 $\\mu$m silicon membrane is investigated in transmission using three-dimensional time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe experiments. Two pump-probe time-resolved experiments are carried out at the same time on both side of the silicon substrate. In reflection, the first radial breathing mode of the nanowire is excited and detected. In transmission, the longitudinal and shear waves are observed. The longitudinal signal is followed by a monochromatic component associated with the relaxation of the nanowire's first radial breathing mode. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations are performed and accurately reproduce the diffracted field. A shape anisotropy resulting from the large aspect ratio of the nanowire is detected in the acoustic field. The orientation of the underlying nanowires is thus acoustically deduced.

  10. Active control of acoustic pressure fields using smart material technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview describing the use of piezoceramic patches in reducing noise in a structural acoustics setting is presented. The passive and active contributions due to patches which are bonded to an Euler-Bernoulli beam or thin shell are briefly discussed and the results are incorporated into a 2-D structural acoustics model. In this model, an exterior noise source causes structural vibrations which in turn lead to interior noise as a result of nonlinear fluid/structure coupling mechanism. Interior sound pressure levels are reduced via patches bonded to the flexible boundary (a beam in this case) which generate pure bending moments when an out-of-phase voltage is applied. Well-posedness results for the infinite dimensional system are discussed and a Galerkin scheme for approximating the system dynamics is outlined. Control is implemented by using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control theory to calculate gains for the linearized system and then feeding these gains back into the nonlinear system of interest. The effectiveness of this strategy for this problem is illustrated in an example.

  11. Flow Field and Acoustic Predictions for Three-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Shaun Patrick; Henderson, Brenda S.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze a three-stream nozzle parametric design space. The study varied bypass-to-core area ratio, tertiary-to-core area ratio and jet operating conditions. The flowfield solutions from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code Overflow 2.2e were used to pre-screen experimental models for a future test in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Flowfield solutions were considered in conjunction with the jet-noise-prediction code JeNo to screen the design concepts. A two-stream versus three-stream computation based on equal mass flow rates showed a reduction in peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the three-stream jet relative to that for the two-stream jet which resulted in reduced acoustic emission. Additional three-stream solutions were analyzed for salient flowfield features expected to impact farfield noise. As tertiary power settings were increased there was a corresponding near nozzle increase in shear rate that resulted in an increase in high frequency noise and a reduction in peak TKE. As tertiary-to-core area ratio was increased the tertiary potential core elongated and the peak TKE was reduced. The most noticeable change occurred as secondary-to-core area ratio was increased thickening the secondary potential core, elongating the primary potential core and reducing peak TKE. As forward flight Mach number was increased the jet plume region decreased and reduced peak TKE.

  12. Direct analysis of dispersive wave fields from near-field pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Hörchens, Lars

    2011-10-01

    Flexural waves play a significant role for the radiation of sound from plates. The analysis of flexural wave fields enables the detection of sources and transmission paths in plate-like structures. The measurement of these wave fields can be carried out indirectly by means of near-field acoustic holography, which determines the vibrational wave field from pressure information measured in a plane close to the plate under investigation. The reconstruction of the plate vibration is usually obtained by inverting the forward radiation problem, i.e., by inversion of an integral operator. In this article, it is shown that a pressure measurement taken in the extreme near-field of a vibrating plate can directly be used for the approximate analysis of the dispersive flexural wave field. The inversion step of near-field acoustic holography is not necessarily required if such an approximate solution is sufficient. The proposed method enables fast and simple analysis of dispersion characteristics. Application of dispersion compensation to the measured field allows for visualizations of propagating wavefronts, such that sources and scatterers in the plate can be detected. The capabilities of the described approach are demonstrated on several measurements. PMID:21973358

  13. Galaxy bias and its effects on the Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Kushal T.; Seo, Hee -Jong; Eckel, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip; Xu, Xiaoying

    2011-05-31

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the clustering of matter in the universe serves as a robust standard ruler and hence can be used to map the expansion history of the universe. We use high force resolution simulations to analyze the effects of galaxy bias on the measurements of the BAO signal. We apply a variety of Halo Occupation Distributions (HODs) and produce biased mass tracers to mimic different galaxy populations. We investigate whether galaxy bias changes the non-linear shifts on the acoustic scale relative to the underlying dark matter distribution presented by Seo et al. (2009). For the less biased HOD models (b < 3), we do not detect any shift in the acoustic scale relative to the no-bias case, typically 0.10% ± 0.10%. However, the most biased HOD models (b > 3) show a shift at moderate significance (0.79% ± 0.31% for the most extreme case). We test the one-step reconstruction technique introduced by Eisenstein et al. (2007) in the case of realistic galaxy bias and shot noise. The reconstruction scheme increases the correlation between the initial and final (z = 1) density fields achieving an equivalent level of correlation at nearly twice the wavenumber after reconstruction. Reconstruction reduces the shifts and errors on the shifts. We find that after reconstruction the shifts from the galaxy cases and the dark matter case are consistent with each other and with no shift. The 1σ systematic errors on the distance measurements inferred from our BAO measurements with various HODs after reconstruction are about 0.07%-0.15%.

  14. Relative measurement of acoustic nonlinear parameters and comparison of sensitivity to thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hogeon; Ren, Gang; Kim, Jongbeom; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2015-03-01

    The acoustic nonlinearity measurement of ultrasonic waves are being extensively researched as a promising nondestructive evaluation element. In the condition of constant propagation distance and wave number, many researchers have measured the second-order relative acoustic nonlinear parameter, β', that can be simply defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the second harmonic frequency component to the amplitude squared of the fundamental frequency component and compared them in order to identify the acoustic nonlinearity variation according to material degradation. In this study, we extended this concept to the third-order relative acoustic nonlinear parameter, γ', by defining it as the ratio of the amplitude of the third harmonic frequency component to the amplitude cubed of the fundamental frequency component. To investigate its effectiveness as a nondestructive evaluation element for the material property degradation, both the second-order acoustic relative nonlinear parameter and the third-order relative acoustic nonlinear parameter were measured for the aluminum specimens processed by heat treatment for the different times and then contrasted each other. From the experimental results, the third-order acoustic relative nonlinear parameter was more sensitive than the second-order relative acoustic nonlinear parameter that has been widely used although the amplitude of the third harmonic frequency component was lower than the amplitude of the second harmonic frequency component.

  15. High-Frequency Pulsed-Electro-Acoustic (PEA) Measurements for Mapping Charge Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Kristina; Pearson, Lee; Dennison, J. R.; Doyle, Timothy; Hartley, Kent

    2012-10-01

    High-frequency pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements are a non-destructive method used to investigate internal charge distributions in dielectric materials. This presentation discusses the theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments and shows results of PEA measurements. PEA experiments involve a thin dielectric positioned between two conducting electrodes. A voltage signal on the two electrodes generates an electric field across the dielectric, which stimulates embedded charge and creates a pressure wave that propagates within the capacitor. A coupled acoustic sensor then measures the ensuing pressure pulse response. Spatial distributions of the charge profile are obtained from the resultant pressure waveform. Gaussian filters and other signal processing methods are used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in this waveform. Estimates of the charge distribution inside the dielectric are extracted from this analysis. Our ultimate objective is to develop high resolution PEA methods to investigate in vacuo charge deposition in thin film polymeric, ceramic, or glass dielectric materials using medium to high energy (approximately 103 to 107 eV) electron beams.

  16. Analysis of Measured and Predicted Acoustics from an XV-15 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    Flight acoustic and vehicle state data from an XV-15 acoustic flight test are examined. Flight predictions using TRAC are performed for a level flight (repeated) and four descent conditions (including a BVI). The assumptions and procedures used for TRAC flight predictions as well as the variability in flight measurements, which are used for input and comparison to predictions, are investigated in detail. Differences were found in the measured vehicle airspeed, altitude, glideslope, and vehicle orientation (yaw, pitch and roll angle) between each of the repeat runs. These differences violate some of the prediction assumptions and significantly impacted the resulting acoustic predictions. Multiple acoustic pulses, with a variable time between the pulses, were found in the measured acoustic time histories for the repeat runs. These differences could be attributed in part to the variability in vehicle orientation. Acoustic predictions that used the measured vehicle orientation for the repeat runs captured this multiple pulse variability. Thickness noise was found to be dominant on approach for all the cases, except the BVI condition. After the aircraft passed overhead, broadband noise and low frequency loading noise were dominant. The predicted LowSPL time histories compared well with measurement on approach to the array for the non-BVI conditions and poorly for the BVI condition. Accurate prediction of the lift share between the rotor and fuselage must be known in order to improve predictions. At a minimum, measurements of the rotor thrust and tip-path-plane angle are critical to further develop accurate flight acoustic prediction capabilities.

  17. Geodesic acoustic modes in tokamak plasmas with a radial equilibrium electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Deng

    2015-09-15

    The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field is derived and analyzed. Multiple branches of eigenmodes have been found, similar to the result given by the fluid model with a poloidal mass flow. Frequencies and damping rates of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the strength of radial electric field, while the frequency and the damping rate of the lower frequency branch slightly decrease. Possible connection to the experimental observation is discussed.

  18. Analysis of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Data for Acoustic Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic velocity measurements were taken using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a Normal Incidence Tube configuration at various frequency, phase, and amplitude levels. This report presents the results of the PIV analysis and data reduction portions of the test and details the processing that was done. Estimates of lower measurement sensitivity levels were determined based on PIV image quality, correlation, and noise level parameters used in the test. Comparison of measurements with linear acoustic theory are presented. The onset of nonlinear, harmonic frequency acoustic levels were also studied for various decibel and frequency levels ranging from 90 to 132 dB and 500 to 3000 Hz, respectively.

  19. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  20. Beyond 40 MHz frontier: the future technologies for calibration and sensing of acoustic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, P. A.; Umchid, S.; Sutin, A.; Sarvazyan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Several techniques that are suitable for calibration of ultrasound hydrophones in the frequency range beyond 20 MHz are briefly reviewed. Attention is largely focused on substitution techniques because in contrast to the primary methods they are not as laborious and can be carried out relatively quickly. The techniques discussed include two acoustic procedures using swept frequency systems, an approach based on nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in water medium, an acousto-optic technique that employs fiber optic sensors and a novel technique that is based on Time Reversed Acoustic (TRA) approach. It is shown that these techniques are capable of extending the frequency range in which the hydrophones can be calibrated up to 100 MHz. The importance of spatial averaging correction and its impact on the acoustic output measurements is also pointed out.

  1. Field installation of an acoustic slug-detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Dhulesia, H.; Bernicot, M.; Romanet, T.

    1997-02-01

    A pipeline operating in the slug flow regime creates high fluctuations in gas and liquid flow rates at the outlet. The detection of slugs and the estimation of their length and velocity are necessary to minimize the upsets in the operation of downstream process facilities. A new method based on the acoustic principle has been developed by Total and Syminex with two variants--passive and active. The passive method gives the slug length and velocity, whereas the active method also gives the fluid density. The prototype of this system has been installed permanently on a 20-in. multiphase pipeline in Argentina. As this system detects the slugs and determines their characteristics approximately 2 minutes before they arrive at the first-stage separator, the operators take appropriate action in the case of arrival of an excessively long slug and, thus, avoid possible shutdowns. At a later stage, an automatic adjustment of the process control valves will be realized.

  2. Sources and Radiation Patterns of Volcano-Acoustic Signals Investigated with Field-Scale Chemical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Lees, J. M.; Taddeucci, J.; Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the processes that give rise to complex acoustic signals during volcanic blasts by monitoring buried chemical explosions with infrasound and audio range microphones, strong motion sensors, and high speed imagery. Acoustic waveforms vary with scaled depth of burial (SDOB, units in meters per cube root of joules), ranging from high amplitude, impulsive, gas expansion dominated signals at low SDOB to low amplitude, longer duration, ground motion dominated signals at high SDOB. Typically, the sudden upward acceleration of the substrate above the blast produces the first acoustic arrival, followed by a second pulse due to the eruption of pressurized gas at the surface. Occasionally, a third overpressure occurs when displaced material decelerates upon impact with the ground. The transition between ground motion dominated and gas release dominated acoustics ranges between 0.0038-0.0018 SDOB, respectively. For example, one explosion registering an SDOB=0.0031 produced two overpressure pulses of approximately equal amplitude, one due to ground motion, the other to gas release. Recorded volcano infrasound has also identified distinct ground motion and gas release components during explosions at Sakurajima, Santiaguito, and Karymsky volcanoes. Our results indicate that infrasound records may provide a proxy for the depth and energy of these explosions. Furthermore, while magma fragmentation models indicate the possibility of several explosions during a single vulcanian eruption (Alidibirov, Bull Volc., 1994), our results suggest that a single explosion can also produce complex acoustic signals. Thus acoustic records alone cannot be used to distinguish between single explosions and multiple closely-spaced blasts at volcanoes. Results from a series of lateral blasts during the 2014 field experiment further indicates whether vent geometry can produce directional acoustic radiation patterns like those observed at Tungarahua volcano (Kim et al., GJI, 2012). Beside

  3. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  4. Application of nonlinearly demodulated acoustic signals for the measurement of the acoustical coefficient of reflection for air saturated porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeid, Mohamed; Castagnède, Bernard; Moussatov, Alexei; Tournat, Vincent; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2004-10-01

    The present Note describes work related to the measurement of the coefficient of reflection in automotive felt materials, by using a mixed ultrasonic/audio range technique. Powerful 162 kHz ultrasonic waves are amplitude modulated in the audio range. By applying appropriate procedures borrowed from underwater nonlinear ultrasonic methods (the so-called parametric antennae), one produces low frequency (i.e. in the 5-30 kHz range) acoustical waves which are generated in the pulse echo mode by short bursts. The coefficient of reflection of various felt materials are measured, and the results are compared to the standard 'fluid-equivalent' model which describes the propagation of acoustic waves in poroelastic air-saturated materials. To cite this article: M. Saeid et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  5. Schlieren imaging of the standing wave field in an ultrasonic acoustic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Pablo Luis; Boullosa, Ricardo R.; Echeverria, Carlos; Porta, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model of a single axis acoustic levitator consisting of two cylinders immersed in air and directed along the same axis. The first cylinder has a flat termination and functions as a sound emitter, and the second cylinder, which is simply a refector, has the side facing the first cylinder cut out by a spherical surface. By making the first cylinder vibrate at ultrasonic frequencies a standing wave is produced in the air between the cylinders which makes it possible, by means of the acoustic radiation pressure, to levitate one or several small objects of different shapes, such as spheres or disks. We use schlieren imaging to observe the acoustic field resulting from the levitation of one or several objects, and compare these results to previous numerical approximations of the field obtained using a finite element method. The authors acknowledge financial support from DGAPA-UNAM through project PAPIIT IN109214.

  6. Field support, data analysis and associated research for the acoustic grenade sounding program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, T. G.; Bullard, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature and horizontal winds in the 30 to 90 km altitude range of the upper atmosphere, were determined by acoustic grenade soundings conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia and Kourou, French Guiana. Field support provided at these locations included deployment of the large area microphone system, supervision, maintenance and operation of sound ranging stations; and coordination of activities. Data analysis efforts included the analysis of field data to determine upper atmospheric meteorological parameters. Profiles for upper atmospheric temperature, wind and density are provided in plots and tables for each of the acoustic grenade soundings conducted during the contract period. Research efforts were directed toward a systematic comparison of temperature data from acoustic grenade with other meteorological sensor probes in the upper atmosphere.

  7. A Study of Acoustic Reflections in Full-Scale Rotor Low Frequency Noise Measurements Acquired in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha L.; Sim, Ben W.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Goulding, Pat, II

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining full-scale rotor low frequency noise measurements in wind tunnels are addressed via residual sound reflections due to non-ideal anechoic wall treatments. Examples illustrated with the Boeing-SMART rotor test in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel facility demonstrated that these reflections introduced distortions in the measured acoustic time histories that are not representative of free-field rotor noise radiation. A simplified reflection analysis, based on the method of images, is used to examine the sound measurement quality in such "less-than-anechoic" environment. Predictions of reflection-adjusted acoustic time histories are qualitatively shown to account for some of the spurious fluctuations observed in wind tunnel noise measurements

  8. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations from the clustering of voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependence of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale-dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  9. Imaging and detection of mines from acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Alan J.; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Li, Wen; McKnight, Stephen W.

    1999-08-01

    A laboratory-scale acoustic experiment is described where a buried target, a hockey puck cut in half, is shallowly buried in a sand box. To avoid the need for source and receiver coupling to the host sand, an acoustic wave is generated in the subsurface by a pulsed laser suspended above the air-sand interface. Similarly, an airborne microphone is suspended above this interface and moved in unison with the laser. After some pre-processing of the data, reflections for the target, although weak, could clearly be identified. While the existence and location of the target can be determined by inspection of the data, its unique shape can not. Since target discrimination is important in mine detection, a 3D imaging algorithm was applied to the acquired acoustic data. This algorithm yielded a reconstructed image where the shape of the target was resolved.

  10. A mapping relationship based near-field acoustic holography with spherical fundamental solutions for Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haijun; Jiang, Weikang; Zhang, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    In the procedure of the near-field acoustic holography (NAH) based on the fundamental solutions for Helmholtz equation (FS), the number of FS and the measurement setup to obtain their coefficients are two crucial issues to the successful reconstruction. The current work is motivated to develop a framework for the NAH which supplies a guideline to the determination of the number of FS as well as an optimized measurement setup. A mapping relationship between modes on surfaces of boundary and hologram is analytically derived by adopting the modes as FS in spherical coordinates. Thus, reconstruction is converted to obtain the coefficients of participant modes on holograms. In addition, an integral identity is firstly to be derived for the modes on convex surfaces, which is useful in determining the inefficient or evanescent modes for acoustic radiation in free space. To determine the number of FS adopted in the mapping relationship based NAH (MRS-based NAH), two approaches are proposed to supply reasonable estimations with criteria of point-wise pressure and energy, respectively. A technique to approximate a specific degree of mode on patches by a set of locally orthogonal patterns is explored for three widely used holograms, such as planar, cylindrical and spherical holograms, which results in an automatic determinations of the number and position of experimental setup for a given tolerance. Numerical examples are set up to validate the theory and techniques in the MRS-based NAH. Reconstructions of a cubic model demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for regular models even with corners and shapers. Worse results for the elongated cylinder with two spherical caps reveal the deficiency of the MRS-based NAH for irregular models which is largely due to the adopted modes are FS in spherical coordinates. The NAH framework pursued in the current work provides a new insight to the reconstruction procedure based on the FS in spherical coordinates.

  11. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling of Broadband Signals - Analysis of Potential Disturbances during CTBT On-Site Inspection Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Altmann, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    For the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) the precise localisation of possible underground nuclear explosion sites is important. During an on-site inspection (OSI) sensitive seismic measurements of aftershocks can be performed, which, however, can be disturbed by other signals. To improve the quality and effectiveness of these measurements it is essential to understand those disturbances so that they can be reduced or prevented. In our work we focus on disturbing signals caused by airborne sources: When the sound of aircraft (as often used by the inspectors themselves) hits the ground, it propagates through pores in the soil. Its energy is transferred to the ground and soil vibrations are created which can mask weak aftershock signals. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is still incomplete. However, it is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. We present our recent advances in this field. We performed several measurements to record sound pressure and soil velocity produced by various sources, e.g. broadband excitation by jet aircraft passing overhead and signals artificially produced by a speaker. For our experimental set-up microphones were placed close to the ground and geophones were buried in different depths in the soil. Several sensors were shielded from the directly incident acoustic signals by a box coated with acoustic damping material. While sound pressure under the box was strongly reduced, the soil velocity measured under the box was just slightly smaller than outside of it. Thus these soil vibrations were mostly created outside the box and travelled through the soil to the sensors. This information is used to estimate characteristic propagation lengths of the acoustically induced signals in the soil. In the seismic data we observed interference patterns which are likely caused by the

  12. Dynamics of a spherical particle in an acoustic field: A multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Jin-Han Vanneste, Jacques

    2014-10-15

    A rigid spherical particle in an acoustic wave field oscillates at the wave period but has also a mean motion on a longer time scale. The dynamics of this mean motion is crucial for numerous applications of acoustic microfluidics, including particle manipulation and flow visualisation. It is controlled by four physical effects: acoustic (radiation) pressure, streaming, inertia, and viscous drag. In this paper, we carry out a systematic multiscale analysis of the problem in order to assess the relative importance of these effects depending on the parameters of the system that include wave amplitude, wavelength, sound speed, sphere radius, and viscosity. We identify two distinguished regimes characterised by a balance among three of the four effects, and we derive the equations that govern the mean particle motion in each regime. This recovers and organises classical results by King [“On the acoustic radiation pressure on spheres,” Proc. R. Soc. A 147, 212–240 (1934)], Gor'kov [“On the forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in an ideal fluid,” Sov. Phys. 6, 773–775 (1962)], and Doinikov [“Acoustic radiation pressure on a rigid sphere in a viscous fluid,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 447, 447–466 (1994)], clarifies the range of validity of these results, and reveals a new nonlinear dynamical regime. In this regime, the mean motion of the particle remains intimately coupled to that of the surrounding fluid, and while viscosity affects the fluid motion, it plays no part in the acoustic pressure. Simplified equations, valid when only two physical effects control the particle motion, are also derived. They are used to obtain sufficient conditions for the particle to behave as a passive tracer of the Lagrangian-mean fluid motion.

  13. An in-flight data system for chordwise turbulence measurements during acoustic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Massie, Jeffery J.

    1987-01-01

    An in-flight data system for chordwise turbulence measurements has been developed by NASA to investigate laminar flow stability in the presence of acoustic disturbances. Flight tests were performed with an OV-1B turboprop with a JT-15D engine in order to establish the feasibility of utilizing natural laminar flow (NLF) nacelles to reduce drag and to determine the extent of NLF over a range of controlled acoustic frequencies. The data system consisted of PCM and FM data acquisition subsystems, dual wide-band magnetic flight recorders, and acoustic generating and measuring subsystems.

  14. a Study of the Acoustical Termination on Practical Gas Pulsation Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LAI, P. C.-C.

    2000-06-01

    It has been well recognized in the past that an anechoic termination, which can effectively eliminate the reflective acoustic wave, is required for measurement of exhaust gas pulsation from engines or machinery. In academic environment, the acoustic termination on the exhaust line can be well controlled by appropriate treatment. However, it is not unusual in practical industrial applications that the anechoic termination is not available. Therefore, a theoretical investigation was performed in order to understand the impact on the gas pulsation measurement without an anechoic termination. A simplified model of an exhaust line with different acoustic terminations was analyzed by both analytical and experimental approaches. Both one-microphone and two-microphone measurement methods, which are commonly used, were evaluated. The results clearly demonstrate that without an anechoic termination, the variations of the measurements will be substantial due to the reflective acoustic wave, as has been argued for years in the industry.

  15. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Measuring the acoustic absorption coefficient in biological tissue specimens using ultrasonic phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Zelenova, Z. V.; Brysev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens—porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues—by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses.

  17. Shaping acoustic fields as a toolset for microfluidic manipulations in diagnostic technologies.

    PubMed

    Reboud, Julien; Bourquin, Yannyk; Wilson, Rab; Pall, Gurman S; Jiwaji, Meesbah; Pitt, Andrew R; Graham, Anne; Waters, Andrew P; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2012-09-18

    Ultrasonics offers the possibility of developing sophisticated fluid manipulation tools in lab-on-a-chip technologies. Here we demonstrate the ability to shape ultrasonic fields by using phononic lattices, patterned on a disposable chip, to carry out the complex sequence of fluidic manipulations required to detect the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in blood. To illustrate the different tools that are available to us, we used acoustic fields to produce the required rotational vortices that mechanically lyse both the red blood cells and the parasitic cells present in a drop of blood. This procedure was followed by the amplification of parasitic genomic sequences using different acoustic fields and frequencies to heat the sample and perform a real-time PCR amplification. The system does not require the use of lytic reagents nor enrichment steps, making it suitable for further integration into lab-on-a-chip point-of-care devices. This acoustic sample preparation and PCR enables us to detect ca. 30 parasites in a microliter-sized blood sample, which is the same order of magnitude in sensitivity as lab-based PCR tests. Unlike other lab-on-a-chip methods, where the sample moves through channels, here we use our ability to shape the acoustic fields in a frequency-dependent manner to provide different analytical functions. The methods also provide a clear route toward the integration of PCR to detect pathogens in a single handheld system. PMID:22949692

  18. Shaping acoustic fields as a toolset for microfluidic manipulations in diagnostic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Reboud, Julien; Bourquin, Yannyk; Wilson, Rab; Pall, Gurman S.; Jiwaji, Meesbah; Pitt, Andrew R.; Graham, Anne; Waters, Andrew P.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonics offers the possibility of developing sophisticated fluid manipulation tools in lab-on-a-chip technologies. Here we demonstrate the ability to shape ultrasonic fields by using phononic lattices, patterned on a disposable chip, to carry out the complex sequence of fluidic manipulations required to detect the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in blood. To illustrate the different tools that are available to us, we used acoustic fields to produce the required rotational vortices that mechanically lyse both the red blood cells and the parasitic cells present in a drop of blood. This procedure was followed by the amplification of parasitic genomic sequences using different acoustic fields and frequencies to heat the sample and perform a real-time PCR amplification. The system does not require the use of lytic reagents nor enrichment steps, making it suitable for further integration into lab-on-a-chip point-of-care devices. This acoustic sample preparation and PCR enables us to detect ca. 30 parasites in a microliter-sized blood sample, which is the same order of magnitude in sensitivity as lab-based PCR tests. Unlike other lab-on-a-chip methods, where the sample moves through channels, here we use our ability to shape the acoustic fields in a frequency-dependent manner to provide different analytical functions. The methods also provide a clear route toward the integration of PCR to detect pathogens in a single handheld system. PMID:22949692

  19. Adaptive plasticity in wild field cricket's acoustic signaling.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Susan M; Harrison, Sarah J; Thomson, Ian R; Fitzsimmons, Lauren P

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience.

  20. Acoustic measurements of soil-pipeflow and internal erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can lead to embankment failures, landslides, and gully erosion. Therefore, non-intrusive methods are needed to detect and monitor soil pipeflow and the resulting internal erosion. This paper presents a laboratory study using both active and passive acoustic techniques ...

  1. Acoustic measurements of soil pipeflow and internal erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can lead to embankment failures, landslides, and gully erosion therefore non-intrusive methods are needed to detect and monitor soil pipeflow and the resulting internal erosion. This paper presents a laboratory study using both active and passive acoustic techniques to...

  2. Middle Ear Resonance and Acoustic Immittance Measures in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Wendy D.; Rose, Katie J.

    1993-01-01

    This study established a normal middle ear resonance estimated from sweep frequency tympanometry, established normal equivalent ear canal volume, static acoustic admittance, and tympanometric peak pressure at 226 hertz in 90 children with normal hearing and 68 children with deafness, ages 6-15. No significant intergroup or age differences were…

  3. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  4. Bioacoustic Field Research: A Primer to Acoustic Analyses and Playback Experiments With Primates

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, JULIA; NOSER, RAHEL; HAMMERSCHMIDT, KURT

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic analyses of primate vocalizations as well as playback experiments are staple methods in primatology. Acoustic analyses have been used to investigate the influence of factors such as individuality, context, sex, age, and size on variation in calls. More recent studies have expanded our knowledge on the effects of phylogenetic relatedness and the structure of primate vocal repertoires in general. Complementary playback experiments allow direct testing of hypotheses regarding the attribution of meaning to calls, the cognitive mechanisms underpinning responses, and/or the adaptive value of primate behavior. After briefly touching on the historical background of this field of research, we first provide an introduction to recording primate vocalizations and discuss different approaches to describe primate calls in terms of their temporal and spectral properties. Second, we present a tutorial regarding the preparation, execution, and interpretation of field playback experiments, including a review of studies that have used such approaches to investigate the responses to acoustic variation in calls including the integration of contextual and acoustic information, recognition of kin and social relationships, and social knowledge. Based on the review of the literature and our own experience, we make a number of recommendations regarding the most common problems and pitfalls. The power of acoustic analyses typically hinges on the quality of the recordings and the number of individuals represented in the sample. Playback experiments require profound knowledge of the natural behavior of the animals for solid interpretation; experiments should be conducted sparingly, to avoid habituation of the subjects to the occurrence of the calls; experimenter-blind designs chosen whenever possible; and researchers should brace themselves for long periods of waiting times until the appropriate moments to do the experiment arise. If all these aspects are considered, acoustic analyses

  5. Field fluctuations measured by interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glauber, R. J.; Orozco, L. A.; Vogel, K.; Schleich, W. P.; Walther, H.

    2010-09-01

    We derive the complete photon count statistics of an interferometer based on two beam splitters. As a special case we consider a joint intensity-electric field measurement. Our approach is based on the transformation properties of state vectors as well as field operators at a beam splitter. The work presented here was stimulated by discussions during the Lake Garda Conference 2001. The recent experimental interest in six-port interferometry has moved us to return to the problem. We feel, moreover, that the topic is appropriate for the Festschrift in honour of Stig Stenholm since he can truly be considered a pioneer in the field of quantum networks. We hope that our discussion may pique his interest.

  6. Simple discrimination method between False Acoustic Emission and Acoustic Emission revealed by piezoelectric sensors, in Gran Sasso mountain measurements (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodati, Paolo; Piazza, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    Recently it was shown, studying data acquired with in-situ measurements on the Gran Sasso mountain (Italy), for about ten years, by means of a high sensitivity transducer coupled to the free-end section of a stainless steel rod fixed by cement in a rock-drill hole 10 m high, about 2500 m above sea level, that Acoustic Emission (AE) can be affected by more than 90% False Acoustic Emission (FAE) of an electromagnetic origin. A very simple method to solve the problem of the discrimination between AE events due to elastic waves, from FAE signals, due to electromagnetic noise, both coming from the same ``reception-point,'' is presented. The reliability of the obtained separation is confirmed also by the reported amplitude and time distribution of AE events, typical of fracture dynamics and those of FAE events, similar to those of noise.

  7. Development of Field Measurement Systems for Flight Vehicle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, James C.; Wright, Kenneth D.; Preisser, John S.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Field measurement of noise radiated from flight vehicles is an important element of aircraft noise research programs. At NASA Langley, a dedicated effort that spans over two decades was devoted to the development of acoustic measurement systems to support the NASA noise research programs. The new challenge for vehicle operational noise reduction through varying glide slope and flight path require noise measurement to be made over a very large area under the vehicle flight path. Such a challenge can be met through the digital remote system currently under final development at NASA Langley.

  8. Acoustic measurement of sediment dynamics in the coastal zones using wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakaran, A., II; Paramasivam, A.; Seshachalam, S.; A, C.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzing of the impact of constructive or low energy waves and deconstructive or high energy waves in the ocean are very much significant since they deform the geometry of seashore. The deformation may lead to productive result and also to the end of deteriorate damage. Constructive waves results deposition of sediment which widens the beach where as deconstructive waves results erosion which narrows the beach. Validation of historic sediment transportation and prediction of the direction of movement of seashore is essential to prevent unrecoverable damages by incorporating precautionary measurements to identify the factors that influence sediment transportation if feasible. The objective of this study is to propose a more reliable and energy efficient Information and communication system to model the Coastal Sediment Dynamics. Various factors influencing the sediment drift at a particular region is identified. Consequence of source depth and frequency dependencies of spread pattern in the presence of sediments is modeled. Property of source depth and frequency on sensitivity to values of model parameters are determined. Fundamental physical reasons for these sediment interaction effects are given. Shallow to deep water and internal and external wave model of ocean is obtained intended to get acoustic data assimilation (ADA). Signal processing algorithms are used over the observed data to form a full field acoustic propagation model and construct sound speed profile (SSP). The inversions of data due to uncertainties at various depths are compared. The impact of sediment drift over acoustic data is identified. An energy efficient multipath routing scheme Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is deployed for the well-organized communication of data. The WSN is designed considering increased life time, decreased power consumption, free of threats and attacks. The practical data obtained from the efficient system to model the ocean sediment dynamics are evaluated with remote

  9. Scaling of plane-wave functions in statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography.

    PubMed

    Hald, Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Statistically Optimized Near-field Acoustic Holography (SONAH) is a Patch Holography method, meaning that it can be applied in cases where the measurement area covers only part of the source surface. The method performs projections directly in the spatial domain, avoiding the use of spatial discrete Fourier transforms and the associated errors. First, an inverse problem is solved using regularization. For each calculation point a multiplication must then be performed with two transfer vectors--one to get the sound pressure and the other to get the particle velocity. Considering SONAH based on sound pressure measurements, existing derivations consider only pressure reconstruction when setting up the inverse problem, so the evanescent wave amplification associated with the calculation of particle velocity is not taken into account in the regularized solution of the inverse problem. The present paper introduces a scaling of the applied plane wave functions that takes the amplification into account, and it is shown that the previously published virtual source-plane retraction has almost the same effect. The effectiveness of the different solutions is verified through a set of simulated measurements. PMID:25373969

  10. Acoustic streaming field structure. Part II. Examples that include boundary-driven flow.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper three simple acoustic streaming problems are presented and solved. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the use of a previously published streaming model by Bradley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100(3), 1399-1408 (1996)] and illustrate, with concrete examples, some of the features of streaming flows that were predicted by the general model. In particular, the problems are intended to demonstrate cases in which the streaming field boundary condition at the face of the radiator has a nontrivial lateral dc velocity component. Such a boundary condition drives a steady solenoidal flow just like a laterally translating boundary drives Couette flow.

  11. Dynamics of single inclusions in channels with constrictions in the acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. Yu.; Gubaidullin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The process of mobilization of viscous droplets, trapped in the channel with a sinusoidal constriction under the influence of an external acoustic field have been studied. The dependence of the amplitude of acoustic impact from the frequency has been found. The problem of the free longitudinal oscillations of a droplet in the absence of viscous friction forces in the channels with the constrictions was considered. The influence of surface tension, droplet volume and shape of constrictions on the natural frequency of the longitudinal oscillations of a droplet pinned at the constriction of the capillary were studied.

  12. Violin f-hole contribution to far-field radiation via patch near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George; Williams, Earl G; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2007-06-01

    The violin radiates either from dual ports (f-holes) or via surface motion of the corpus (top+ribs+back), with no clear delineation between these sources. Combining "patch" near-field acoustical holography over just the f-hole region of a violin with far-field radiativity measurements over a sphere, it was possible to separate f-hole from surface motion contributions to the total radiation of the corpus below 2.6 kHz. A0, the Helmholtz-like lowest cavity resonance, radiated essentially entirely through the f-holes as expected while A1, the first longitudinal cavity mode with a node at the f-holes, had no significant f-hole radiation. The observed A1 radiation comes from an indirect radiation mechanism, induced corpus motion approximately mirroring the cavity pressure profile seen for violinlike bowed string instruments across a wide range of sizes. The first estimates of the fraction of radiation from the f-holes F(f) indicate that some low frequency corpus modes thought to radiate only via surface motion (notably the first corpus bending modes) had significant radiation through the f-holes, in agreement with net volume changes estimated from experimental modal analysis. F(f) generally trended lower with increasing frequency, following corpus mobility decreases. The f-hole directivity (top/back radiativity ratio) was generally higher than whole-violin directivity. PMID:17552736

  13. Violin f-hole contribution to far-field radiation via patch near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George; Williams, Earl G; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2007-06-01

    The violin radiates either from dual ports (f-holes) or via surface motion of the corpus (top+ribs+back), with no clear delineation between these sources. Combining "patch" near-field acoustical holography over just the f-hole region of a violin with far-field radiativity measurements over a sphere, it was possible to separate f-hole from surface motion contributions to the total radiation of the corpus below 2.6 kHz. A0, the Helmholtz-like lowest cavity resonance, radiated essentially entirely through the f-holes as expected while A1, the first longitudinal cavity mode with a node at the f-holes, had no significant f-hole radiation. The observed A1 radiation comes from an indirect radiation mechanism, induced corpus motion approximately mirroring the cavity pressure profile seen for violinlike bowed string instruments across a wide range of sizes. The first estimates of the fraction of radiation from the f-holes F(f) indicate that some low frequency corpus modes thought to radiate only via surface motion (notably the first corpus bending modes) had significant radiation through the f-holes, in agreement with net volume changes estimated from experimental modal analysis. F(f) generally trended lower with increasing frequency, following corpus mobility decreases. The f-hole directivity (top/back radiativity ratio) was generally higher than whole-violin directivity.

  14. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be; Glorieux, Christ E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-15

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz.

  15. Adaptive Plasticity in Wild Field Cricket’s Acoustic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Susan M.; Harrison, Sarah J.; Thomson, Ian R.; Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience. PMID:23935965

  16. Characterization of the Acoustic Field in Marine Environments with Anthropogenic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shane

    Most animals inhabit the aquatic environment are acoustical-oriented, due to the physical characteristics of water that favors sound transmission. Many aquatic animals depend on underwater sound to navigate, communicate, find prey, and avoid predators. The degradation of underwater acoustic environment due to human activities is expected to affected these animals' well-being and survival at the population level. This dissertation presents three original studies on the characteristics and behavior of underwater sound fields in three unique marine environments with anthropogenic noises. The first study examines the soundscape of the Chinese white dolphin habitat in Taiwan. Acoustic recordings were made at two coastal shallow water locations, Yunlin and Waisanding, in 2012. Results show that croaker choruses are dominant sound sources in the 1.2--2.4 kHz frequency band for both locations at night, and noises from container ships in the 150--300 Hz frequency band define the relative higher broadband sound levels at Yunlin. Results also illustrate interrelationships among different biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic elements that shape the fine-scale soundscape in a coastal environment. The second study investigates the inter-pulse sound field during an open-water seismic survey in coastal shallow waters of the Arctic. The research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected from one bottom-mounted hydrophone deployed in the Beaufort Sea in summer 2012. Two quantitative methods were developed to examine the inter-pulse sound field characteristics and its dependence on source distances. Results show that inter-pulse sound field could raise the ambient noise floor by as much as 9 dB, depending on ambient condition and source distance. The third study examines the inter-ping sound field of simulated mid-frequency active sonar in deep waters off southern California in 2013 and 2014. The study used drifting acoustic recorder buoys to collect acoustic data during sonar

  17. Scattered acoustic field above a grating of non-parallel rectangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanfir, A.; Faiz, A.; Ducourneau, J.; Chatillon, J.; Lami, S. Skali

    2016-01-01

    Geometric or acoustical irregularities induces acoustic scattering. In this paper, a generalization of the model proposed by Khanfir et al. [8] (Journal of Sound and Vibration 332 (4) (2013)) to determine the scattered acoustic field above gratings of parallel rectangular cavities is developed, addressing the case of gratings of non-parallel rectangular cavities. The results provided by the model were compared both to numerical results, obtained with the finite element method, and to experimental ones. The observed agreement between the analytical predictions and the numerical and experimental results supports the validity of the proposed model. The coupling between the different cavities was investigated, in order to attain an explanation for its dependence on frequency and on the spacing between cavities.

  18. Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Ratcliffe, John M; Beedholm, Kristian; Christensen, Christian B; Johnson, Mark; Koblitz, Jens C; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats, maintain the ability to change beamwidth within this phase. Based on video, MRI, and acoustic-tag recordings, we propose this flexibility is modulated by the melon and implemented to accommodate dynamic spatial relationships with prey and acoustic complexity of surroundings. Despite independent evolution and different means of sound generation and transmission, whales and bats adaptively change their FOV, suggesting that beamwidth flexibility has been an important driver in the evolution of echolocation for prey tracking.

  19. Measurement and modelling of the reflection coefficient of an Acoustic Black Hole termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, V.; Gautier, F.; Pelat, A.; Poittevin, J.

    2015-08-01

    The flexural waves propagating in a beam can be efficiently absorbed if one extremity is tapered with a power law profile and covered by a thin layer of additional damping material. Such a termination induces the so-called "Acoustic Black Hole effect" (ABH): if the thickness decreases locally, flexural waves slow down and the amplitude of the displacement field increases, leading to efficient energy dissipation if an absorbing layer is placed where the thickness is minimum. This paper presents a specific study of the reflection coefficient of ABH beam terminations. A Kundt-like measurement method of the reflection coefficient of a beam termination is proposed. The method is validated using theoretical results in the case of a beam free end. Results for several ABH extremities show a clear decrease of the modulus of the reflection coefficient R. The phase of R due to the decreasing thickness profile is also investigated and is interpreted by defining a correction length for the tapered termination. These experimental results are compared with several models: geometrical acoustics based model, beam waveguide model and plate model.

  20. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free. PMID:27273365

  1. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free.

  2. Dynamics of kinetic geodesic-acoustic modes and the radial electric field in tokamak neoclassical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Belli, E.; Bodi, K.; Candy, J.; Chang, C. S.; Cohen, R. H.; Colella, P.; Dimits, A. M.; Dorr, M. R.; Gao, Z.; Hittinger, J. A.; Ko, S.; Krasheninnikov, S.; McKee, G. R.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; Suh, J.; Umansky, M. V.

    2009-06-01

    We present edge gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully non-linear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A non-linear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson equation. We demonstrate the following. (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and consistent with the experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q95 in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q-dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and parallel flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

  3. Near-field acoustic holography using sparse regularization and compressive sampling principles.

    PubMed

    Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent; Peillot, Antoine; Ollivier, François; Bertin, Nancy; Gribonval, Rémi

    2012-09-01

    Regularization of the inverse problem is a complex issue when using near-field acoustic holography (NAH) techniques to identify the vibrating sources. This paper shows that, for convex homogeneous plates with arbitrary boundary conditions, alternative regularization schemes can be developed based on the sparsity of the normal velocity of the plate in a well-designed basis, i.e., the possibility to approximate it as a weighted sum of few elementary basis functions. In particular, these techniques can handle discontinuities of the velocity field at the boundaries, which can be problematic with standard techniques. This comes at the cost of a higher computational complexity to solve the associated optimization problem, though it remains easily tractable with out-of-the-box software. Furthermore, this sparsity framework allows us to take advantage of the concept of compressive sampling; under some conditions on the sampling process (here, the design of a random array, which can be numerically and experimentally validated), it is possible to reconstruct the sparse signals with significantly less measurements (i.e., microphones) than classically required. After introducing the different concepts, this paper presents numerical and experimental results of NAH with two plate geometries, and compares the advantages and limitations of these sparsity-based techniques over standard Tikhonov regularization. PMID:22978881

  4. Antifade sonar employs acoustic field diversity to recover signals from multipath fading

    SciTech Connect

    Lubman, D.

    1996-04-01

    Co-located pressure and particle motion (PM) hydrophones together with four-channel diversity combiners may be used to recover signals from multipath fading. Multipath fading is important in both shallow and deep water propagation and can be an important source of signal loss. The acoustic field diversity concept arises from the notion of conservation of signal energy and the observation that in rooms at least, the total acoustic energy density is the sum of potential energy (scalar field-sound pressure) and kinetic energy (vector field-sound PM) portions. One pressure hydrophone determines acoustic potential energy density at a point. In principle, three PM sensors (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) directed along orthogonal axes describe the kinetic energy density at a point. For a single plane wave, the time-averaged potential and kinetic field energies are identical everywhere. In multipath interference, however, potential and kinetic field energies at a point are partitioned unequally, depending mainly on relative signal phases. Thus, when pressure signals are in deep fade, abundant kinetic field signal energy may be available at that location. Performance benefits require a degree of uncorrelated fading between channels. The expectation of nearly uncorrelated fading is motivated from room theory. Performance benefits for sonar limited by independent Rayleigh fading are suggested by analogy to antifade radio. Average SNR can be improved by several decibels, holding time on target is multiplied manifold, and the bit error rate for data communication is reduced substantially. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Ni, Qingwen; Collier, Hughbert A.

    2000-09-22

    This report contains eight sections. Some individual subsections contain lists of references as well as figures and conclusions when appropriate. The first section includes the introduction and summary of the first-year project efforts. The next section describes the results of the project tasks: (1) implementation of theoretical relations between effect dispersion and the stochastic medium, (2) imaging analyses using core and well log data, (3) construction of dispersion and attenuation models at the core and borehole scales in poroelastic media, (4) petrophysics and a catalog of core and well log data from Siberia Ridge field, (5) acoustic/geotechnical measurements and CT imaging of core samples from Florida carbonates, and (6) development of an algorithm to predict pore size distribution from NMR core data. The last section includes a summary of accomplishments, technology transfer activities and follow-on work for Phase II.

  6. Experimental Acoustic Velocity Measurements in a Tidally Affected Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storm, J.B.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) constructed a continuous steamgaging station on the tidally affected Escatawpa River at Interstate 10 near Orange Grove, Mississippi, in August 2001. The gage collects water quantity parameters of stage and stream velocity, and water quality parameters of water temperature, specific conductance, and salinity. Data are transmitted to the local USGS office via the GOES satellite and are presented on a near real-time web page. Due to tidal effects, the stream has multiple flow regimes which include downstream, bi-directional, and reverse flows. Advances in acoustic technology have made it possible to gage streams of this nature where conventional methods have been unsuccessful. An experimental mount was designed in an attempt to recognize, describe, and quantify these flow regimes by using acoustic Doppler equipment.

  7. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  8. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  9. Mach stem formation in outdoor measurements of acoustic shocks.

    PubMed

    Leete, Kevin M; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Truscott, Tadd T

    2015-12-01

    Mach stem formation during outdoor acoustic shock propagation is investigated using spherical oxyacetylene balloons exploded above pavement. The location of the transition point from regular to irregular reflection and the path of the triple point are experimentally resolved using microphone arrays and a high-speed camera. The transition point falls between recent analytical work for weak irregular reflections and an empirical relationship derived from large explosions. PMID:26723361

  10. Numerical inverse method predicting acoustic spinning modes radiated by a ducted fan from free-field test data.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Serge

    2008-07-01

    Spinning modes generated by a ducted turbofan at a given frequency determine the acoustic free-field directivity. An inverse method starting from measured directivity patterns is interesting in providing information on the noise sources without requiring tedious spinning-mode experimental analyses. According to a previous article, equations are based on analytical modal splitting inside a cylindrical duct and on a Rayleigh or a Kirchhoff integral on the duct exit cross section to get far-field directivity. Equations are equal in number to free-field measurement locations and the unknowns are the propagating mode amplitudes (there are generally more unknowns than equations). A MATLAB procedure has been implemented by using either the pseudoinverse function or the backslash operator. A constraint comes from the fact that squared modal amplitudes must be positive which involves an iterative least squares fitting. Numerical simulations are discussed along with several examples based on tests performed by Rolls-Royce in the framework of a European project. It is assessed that computation is very fast and it well fits the measured directivities, but the solution depends on the method and is not unique. This means that the initial set of modes should be chosen according to any known physical property of the acoustic sources. PMID:18646973

  11. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (<70 dB) small-scale animal imager. Results serve as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  12. Comparison of Different Measurement Technologies for the In-Flight Assessment of Radiated Acoustic Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Williams, Earl G.; Valdivia, Nicolas; Herdic, Peter C.; Sklanka, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests was planned and conducted in the Interior Noise Test Facility at Boeing Field, on the NASA Aries 757 flight research aircraft, and in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. These tests were designed to answer several questions concerning the use of array methods in flight. One focus of the tests was determining whether and to what extent array methods could be used to identify the effects of an acoustical treatment applied to a limited portion of an aircraft fuselage. Another focus of the tests was to verify that the arrays could be used to localize and quantify a known source purposely placed in front of the arrays. Thus the issues related to backside sources and flanking paths present in the complicated sound field were addressed during these tests. These issues were addressed through the use of reference transducers, both accelerometers mounted to the fuselage and microphones in the cabin, that were used to correlate the pressure holograms. measured by the microphone arrays using either SVD methods or partial coherence methods. This correlation analysis accepts only energy that is coherent with the sources sensed by the reference transducers, allowing a noise control engineer to only identify and study those vibratory sources of interest. The remainder of this paper will present a detailed description of the test setups that were used in this test sequence and typical results of the NAH/IBEM analysis used to reconstruct the sound fields. Also, a comparison of data obtained in the laboratory environments and during flights of the 757 aircraft will be made.

  13. Measurement of liquid surface acoustic wave amplitudes using HeNe laser homodyne techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, G. D.; Hsu, Y. L.; Lee, M. S.; Bourgeois, B. S.; Hsieh, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Recent results in the measurement of small amplitude acoustic waves on the water surface are presented. The research was performed using laser homodyne techniques in a small laboratory water tank. The homodyne system consists of optical, acoustic, and data acquisition subsystems. The optical subsystem includes an HeNe laser and polarizing components. THe acoustic subsystem consists of standard low power transducers and a power amplifier. The data acquisition subsystem includes a spectrum analyzer and a personal computer. Measurements were made in the acoustic frequency range of 15 - 23 kHz and sound pressure levels of 120-180 dB re 1 micropascal. It is estimated that the homodyne technique can detect surface amplitude deformations on the order of 90 A.

  14. Measuring the Kuroshio Current with ocean acoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naokazu; Huang, Chen-Fen; Kaneko, Arata; Liu, Cho-Teng; Howe, Bruce M; Wang, Yu-Huai; Yang, Yih; Lin, Ju; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Gohda, Noriaki

    2013-10-01

    Ocean current profiling using ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was conducted in the Kuroshio Current southeast of Taiwan from August 20 to September 15, 2009. Sound pulses were transmitted reciprocally between two acoustic stations placed near the underwater sound channel axis and separated by 48 km. Based on the result of ray simulation, the received signals are divided into multiple ray groups because it is difficult to resolve the ray arrivals for individual rays. The average differential travel times from these ray groups are used to reconstruct the vertical profiles of currents. The currents are estimated with respect to the deepest water layer via two methods: An explicit solution and an inversion with regularization. The strong currents were confined to the upper 200 m and rapidly weakened toward 500 m in depth. Both methods give similar results and are consistent with shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler results in the upper 150 m. The observed temporal variation demonstrates a similar trend to the prediction from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. PMID:24116522

  15. Comparison between psycho-acoustics and physio-acoustic measurement to determine optimum reverberation time of pentatonic angklung music concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsono, Anugrah S.; Merthayasa, I. G. N.; Suprijanto

    2015-09-01

    This research tried to compare psycho-acoustics and Physio-acoustic measurement to find the optimum reverberation time of soundfield from angklung music. Psycho-acoustic measurement was conducted using a paired comparison method and Physio-acoustic measurement was conducted with EEG Measurement on T3, T4, FP1, and FP2 measurement points. EEG measurement was conducted with 5 persons. Pentatonic angklung music was used as a stimulus with reverberation time variation. The variation was between 0.8 s - 1.6 s with 0.2 s step. EEG signal was analysed using a Power Spectral Density method on Alpha Wave, High Alpha Wave, and Theta Wave. Psycho-acoustic measurement on 50 persons showed that reverberation time preference of pentatonic angklung music was 1.2 second. The result was similar to Theta Wave measurement on FP2 measurement point. High Alpha wave on T4 measurement gave different results, but had similar patterns with psycho-acoustic measurement

  16. Assessing the integrity of structural adhesive bonds by the measurement of acoustic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagasivamani, V.; Smith, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing the influence of externally applied shear stresses on the acoustic properties in the bondline region. The changes in the acoustic properties with a change in the temperature of the test samples are measured. The results of these tests are employed to evaluate the quality of the adhesive bonds. The dependence of time-of-flight on the temperature of plain steel and of steel adhesively bonded to rubber is illustrated in graphic form.

  17. The use of waveguide acoustic probes for void fraction measurement in the evaporator of BN-350-Type reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, V.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I.

    1995-09-01

    The present paper deals with some results of the experimental studies which have been carried out to investigate the steam generation dynamics in the Field tubes of sodium-water evaporators used in the BN-350 reactors. The void fraction measurements have been taken with the aid of waveguide acoustic transducers manufactured in accordance with a specially designed technology (waveguide acoustic transducers-WAT technology). Presented in this paper also the transducer design and calibration methods, as well as the diagram showing transducers arrengment in the evaporator. The transducers under test featured a waveguide of about 4 m in length and a 200-mm long sensitive element (probe). Besides, this paper specifies the void fraction data obtained through measurements in diverse points of the evaporator. The studies revealed that the period of observed fluctuations in the void fraction amounted to few seconds and was largely dependent on the level of water in the evaporator.

  18. Acoustic structures in the near-field from clustered rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canchero, Andres; Tinney, Charles E.; Murray, Nathan E.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2014-11-01

    The plume and acoustic field produced by a cluster of two and four rocket nozzles is visualized by way of retroreflective shadowgraphy. Steady state and transient operations (startup/shutdown) were conducted in the fully-anechoic chamber and open jet facility of The University of Texas at Austin. The laboratory scale rocket nozzles comprise thrust-optimized parabolic contours, which during start-up, experience free shock separated flow, restricted shock separated flow and an end-effects regime prior to flowing full. Shadowgraphy images with synchronized surveys of the acoustic loads produced in close vicinity to the rocket clusters and wall static pressure profiles are first compared with several RANS simulations during steady operations. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of various regions in the shadowgraphy images is then performed to elucidate the prominent features residing in the supersonic annular flow region, the acoustic near field and the interaction zone that resides between the nozzle plumes. POD modes are used to detect propagation paths of the acoustic waves and shock cell structures in the supersonic shear layer. Spectral peak frequencies on the propagation paths are associated with the shock cell length, which are responsible for generating broadband shock noise. Aerospace Engineering & Engineering Mechanics.

  19. Acoustic Measurements of a Large Civil Transport Main Landing Gear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravetta, Patricio A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Wisda, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Microphone phased array acoustic measurements of a 26 percent-scale, Boeing 777-200 main landing gear model with and without noise reduction fairings installed were obtained in the anechoic configuration of the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 with the latter speed used as the nominal test condition. The fully and partially dressed gear with the truck angle set at 13 degrees toe-up landing configuration were the two most extensively tested configurations, serving as the baselines for comparison purposes. Acoustic measurements were also acquired for the same two baseline configurations with the truck angle set at 0 degrees. In addition, a previously tested noise reducing, toboggan-shaped fairing was re-evaluated extensively to address some of the lingering questions regarding the extent of acoustic benefit achievable with this device. The integrated spectra generated from the acoustic source maps reconfirm, in general terms, the previously reported noise reduction performance of the toboggan fairing as installed on an isolated gear. With the recent improvements to the Virginia Tech tunnel acoustic quality and microphone array capabilities, the present measurements provide an additional, higher quality database to the acoustic information available for this gear model.

  20. Source signature and acoustic field of seismic physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q.; Jackson, C.; Tang, G.; Burbach, G.

    2004-12-01

    As an important tool of seismic research and exploration, seismic physical modeling simulates the real world data acquisition by scaling the model, acquisition parameters, and some features of the source generated by a transducer. Unlike the numerical simulation where a point source is easily satisfied, the transducer can't be made small enough for approximating the point source in physical modeling, therefore yield different source signature than the sources applied in the field data acquisition. To better understand the physical modeling data, characterizing the wave field generated by ultrasonic transducers is desirable and helpful. In this study, we explode several aspects of source characterization; including their radiation pattern, directivity, sensitivity and frequency response. We also try to figure out how to improve the acquired data quality, such as minimize ambient noise, use encoded chirp to prevent ringing, apply deterministic deconvolution to enhance data resolution and t-P filtering to remove linear events. We found that the transducer and their wave field, the modeling system performance, as well as material properties of the model and their coupling conditions all play roles in the physical modeling data acquisition.

  1. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  2. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    2001-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in two hydrocarbon reservoirs. This was accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using MR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurements were compared with petrographic analysis results to determine the relative roles of petrographic elements such as porosity type, mineralogy, texture, and distribution of clay and cement in creating permeability heterogeneity.

  3. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Ph.D., Jorge O.

    2002-06-10

    The objective of the project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This will be accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging were linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of cores and theoretical modeling.

  4. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises: Testing the Reliability of Acoustic Tag Recordings.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Lee A; Siebert, Ursula; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several sound and movement recording tags have been developed to sample the acoustic field experienced by cetaceans and their reactions to it. However, little is known about how tag placement and an animal's orientation in the sound field affect the reliability of on-animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that flow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has been found for frequencies of 2-20 kHz. PMID:26611092

  5. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises: Testing the Reliability of Acoustic Tag Recordings.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Lee A; Siebert, Ursula; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several sound and movement recording tags have been developed to sample the acoustic field experienced by cetaceans and their reactions to it. However, little is known about how tag placement and an animal's orientation in the sound field affect the reliability of on-animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that flow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has been found for frequencies of 2-20 kHz.

  6. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  7. Acoustic streaming in lithotripsy fields: preliminary observation using a particle image velocimetry method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Joo; Doh, Doeg Hee; Hwang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Chu Hyun; Paeng, Dong Guk; Rim, Gun Hee; Coleman, A J

    2006-02-01

    This study considers the acoustic streaming in water produced by a lithotripsy pulse. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) method was employed to visualize the acoustic streaming produced by an electromagnetic shock wave generator using video images of the light scattering particles suspended in water. Visualized streaming features including several local peaks and vortexes around or at the beam focus were easily seen with naked eyes over all settings of the lithotripter from 10 to 18 kV. Magnitudes of the peak streaming velocity measured vary in the range of 10-40 mm s(-1) with charging voltage settings. Since the streaming velocity was estimated on the basis of a series of the video images of particles averaged over 1/60s, the time resolution limited by the video frame rate which is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than driving acoustic activities, measured velocities are expected to be underestimated and were shown a similar order of magnitude lower than those calculated from a simple theoretical consideration. Despite such an underestimation, it was shown that, as predicted by theory, the magnitude of the streaming velocity measured by the present PIV method was proportional to acoustic intensity. In particular it has almost a linear correlation with peak negative pressures (r=0.98683, p=0.0018). PMID:16376400

  8. Investigation of the acoustic field in a standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator using time-resolved particule image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Benon, Ph.; Poignand, G.; Jondeau, E.

    2012-09-01

    In thermoacoustic devices, the full understanding of the heat transfer between the stack and the heat exchangers is a key issue to improve the global efficiency of these devices. The goal of this paper is to investigate the vortex structures, which appear at the stack plates extremities and may impact the heat transfer. Here, the aerodynamic field between a stack and a heat exchanger is characterised with a time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR- PIV) set-up. Measurements are performed in a standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator operating at a frequency of 200 Hz. The employed TR-PIV set-up offers the possibility to acquire 3000 instantaneous velocity fields at a frequency of 3125 Hz (15 instantaneous velocity fields per acoustic period). Measurements show that vortex shedding can occur at high pressure level, when a nonlinear acoustic regime preveals, leading to an additional heating generated by viscous dissipation in the gap between the stack and the heat exchangers and a loss of efficiency.

  9. A method for approximating acoustic-field-amplitude uncertainty caused by environmental uncertainties.

    PubMed

    James, Kevin R; Dowling, David R

    2008-09-01

    In underwater acoustics, the accuracy of computational field predictions is commonly limited by uncertainty in environmental parameters. An approximate technique for determining the probability density function (PDF) of computed field amplitude, A, from known environmental uncertainties is presented here. The technique can be applied to several, N, uncertain parameters simultaneously, requires N+1 field calculations, and can be used with any acoustic field model. The technique implicitly assumes independent input parameters and is based on finding the optimum spatial shift between field calculations completed at two different values of each uncertain parameter. This shift information is used to convert uncertain-environmental-parameter distributions into PDF(A). The technique's accuracy is good when the shifted fields match well. Its accuracy is evaluated in range-independent underwater sound channels via an L(1) error-norm defined between approximate and numerically converged results for PDF(A). In 50-m- and 100-m-deep sound channels with 0.5% uncertainty in depth (N=1) at frequencies between 100 and 800 Hz, and for ranges from 1 to 8 km, 95% of the approximate field-amplitude distributions generated L(1) values less than 0.52 using only two field calculations. Obtaining comparable accuracy from traditional methods requires of order 10 field calculations and up to 10(N) when N>1.

  10. Imaging electrical impedance from acoustic measurements by means of magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI).

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Xu, Yuan; He, Bin

    2007-02-01

    We have conducted computer simulation and experimental studies on magnetoacoustic-tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) for electrical impedance imaging. In MAT-MI, the object to be imaged is placed in a static magnetic field, while pulsed magnetic stimulation is applied in order to induce eddy current in the object. In the static magnetic field, the Lorentz force acts upon the eddy current and causes acoustic vibrations in the object. The propagated acoustic wave is then measured around the object to reconstruct the electrical impedance distribution. In the present simulation study, a two-layer spherical model is used. Parameters of the model such as sample size, conductivity values, strength of the static and pulsed magnetic field, are set to simulate features of biological tissue samples and feasible experimental constraints. In the forward simulation, the electrical potential and current density are solved using Poisson's equation, and the acoustic pressure is calculated as the forward solution. The electrical impedance distribution is then reconstructed from the simulated pressure distribution surrounding the sample. The present computer simulation results suggest that MAT-MI can reconstruct conductivity images of biological tissue with high spatial resolution and high contrast. The feasibility of MAT-MI in providing high spatial resolution images containing impedance-related information has also been demonstrated in a phantom experiment.

  11. Validation of streamflow measurements made with M9 and RiverRay acoustic Doppler current profilers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boldt, Justin A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water (OSW) previously validated the use of Teledyne RD Instruments (TRDI) Rio Grande (in 2007), StreamPro (in 2006), and Broadband (in 1996) acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for streamflow (discharge) measurements made by the USGS. Two new ADCPs, the SonTek M9 and the TRDI RiverRay, were first used in the USGS Water Mission Area programs in 2009. Since 2009, the OSW and USGS Water Science Centers (WSCs) have been conducting field measurements as part of their stream-gaging program using these ADCPs. The purpose of this paper is to document the results of USGS OSW analyses for validation of M9 and RiverRay ADCP streamflow measurements. The OSW required each participating WSC to make comparison measurements over the range of operating conditions in which the instruments were used until sufficient measurements were available. The performance of these ADCPs was evaluated for validation and to identify any present and potential problems. Statistical analyses of streamflow measurements indicate that measurements made with the SonTek M9 ADCP using firmware 2.00–3.00 or the TRDI RiverRay ADCP using firmware 44.12–44.15 are unbiased, and therefore, can continue to be used to make streamflow measurements in the USGS stream-gaging program. However, for the M9 ADCP, there are some important issues to be considered in making future measurements. Possible future work may include additional validation of streamflow measurements made with these instruments from other locations in the United States and measurement validation using updated firmware and software.

  12. Analyzing excitation forces acting on a plate based on measured acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Zhou, Pan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on "seeing" through an elastic structure to uncover the root cause of sound and vibration by using nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) and normal modes expansion. This approach is of generality because vibro-acoustic responses on the surface of a vibrating structure can always be reconstructed, exactly or approximately. With these vibro-acoustic responses, excitation forces acting on the structure can always be determined, analytically or numerically, given any set of boundary conditions. As an example, the explicit formulations for reconstructing time-harmonic excitation forces, including point, line and surface forces, and their arbitrary combinations acting on a rectangular thin plate in vacuum mounted on an infinite baffle are presented. The reason for choosing this example is that the analytic solutions to vibro-acoustic responses are available, and in-depth analyses of results are possible. Results demonstrate that this approach allows one to identify excitation forces based on measured acoustic pressures and reveal their characteristics such as locations, types and amplitudes, as if one could "see" excitation forces acting behind the plate based on acoustic pressure measured on the opposite side. This approach is extendable to general elastic structures, except that in such circumstance numerical results must be sought. PMID:27475174

  13. Acoustic Techniques for Measuring Surface Sealing and Crusting of Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, C. J.; Leary, D.; Dicarlo, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The microtopography of soils is an important surface characteristic that effects water ponding, infiltration, and consequently soil erosion. During a rainstorm event the surface microtopography and soil matrix evolve, thereby altering the erosion and runoff dynamics. The impact of raindrops cause the breakdown of soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can then be deposited into the smaller depressions. The redistribution of soil particles on the surface during rainfall produce a thin surface layer often referred to as surface sealing or crusting. For the purpose of this presentation, surface sealing will be used to describe a reduction in the ability of fluid to flow across the surface. Surface crusting will be associated with the formation of a thin layer of higher stiffness or larger mechanical strength. The sensitivity of acoustics to the effects of sealing and crusting was examined by measuring the acoustic-to seismic (A/S) transfer function and acoustic reflectivity on two different soils in a dry, wetted and rained-on state. The A/S transfer function measurement involves the use of a suspended loud speaker to impinge acoustic energy from the air onto the sample and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to measure the induced surface particle velocity. Therefore, the A/S transfer function is a measure of the seismic energy that has been transferred into the soil from the airborne wave. The acoustic surface reflectivity is a measurement of the amount of acoustic energy reflected from the surface and requires the use of a microphone suspended above the surface. Results suggests that the seismic energy transferred (A/S transfer function) is sensitive to crust formation but is not as sensitive to sealing. The amount of reflected acoustic energy appears to be more sensitive to sealing than crusting.

  14. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  15. Wideband acoustic immittance measurements of the middle ear: introduction and some historical antecedents.

    PubMed

    Lilly, David J; Margolis, Robert H

    2013-07-01

    This supplement focuses on some of the most recent acoustic measurements within the occluded, human external auditory meatus (EAM). The goal of this introduction is to provide an overview of basic and clinical EAM measurements that evolved in the 20th century and some relations between these measurements and wideband acoustic absorbance. The authors review some of the major efforts that have been used to evaluate the condition of the human, adult middle ear transmission system, the middle ear cavity, and the function of the Eustachian tube. They have grouped most of this work under the rubric of “acoustic immittance.” A historical perspective helps one appreciate that the measurement of wideband acoustic absorbance is not a totally new procedure. Rather, it is the latest enhancement to aural acoustic-immittance measurements. An enhancement that can expand one's ability to characterize middle ear function and effects of ear disease on that function. It also allows clinicians evaluate middle ear function for frequencies whose wavelength is shorter than the length of the EAM.

  16. Underwater Acoustic Matched Field Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huichen; Xu, Jia; Long, Teng; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an effective method for underwater target imaging and localizing, but its performance is not guaranteed due to the nonuniqueness and instability problems caused by the underdetermined essence of MFP. By exploiting the sparsity of the targets in an imaging area, this paper proposes a compressive sensing MFP (CS-MFP) model from wave propagation theory by using randomly deployed sensors. In addition, the model’s recovery performance is investigated by exploring the lower bounds of the coherence parameter of the CS dictionary. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the robustness of CS-MFP with respect to the displacement of the sensors. Subsequently, a coherence-excluding coherence optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (CCOOMP) algorithm is proposed to overcome the high coherent dictionary problem in special cases. Finally, some numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CS-MFP method. PMID:26457708

  17. Underwater Acoustic Matched Field Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huichen; Xu, Jia; Long, Teng; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an effective method for underwater target imaging and localizing, but its performance is not guaranteed due to the nonuniqueness and instability problems caused by the underdetermined essence of MFP. By exploiting the sparsity of the targets in an imaging area, this paper proposes a compressive sensing MFP (CS-MFP) model from wave propagation theory by using randomly deployed sensors. In addition, the model's recovery performance is investigated by exploring the lower bounds of the coherence parameter of the CS dictionary. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the robustness of CS-MFP with respect to the displacement of the sensors. Subsequently, a coherence-excluding coherence optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (CCOOMP) algorithm is proposed to overcome the high coherent dictionary problem in special cases. Finally, some numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CS-MFP method. PMID:26457708

  18. Optical measurement of acoustic pressure amplitudes-at the sensitivity limits of Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Anne; Fischer, André; Kings, Nancy; Bake, Friedrich; Roehle, Ingo

    2012-07-01

    Rayleigh scattering is a measurement technique applicable for the determination of density distributions in various technical or natural flows. The current sensitivity limits of the Rayleigh scattering technique were investigated experimentally. It is shown that it is possible to measure density oscillations caused by acoustic pressure oscillations noninvasively and directly. Acoustical standing waves in a rectangular duct were investigated using Rayleigh scattering and compared to microphone measurements. The comparison showed a sensitivity of the Rayleigh scattering technique of 75 Pa (7·10(-4) kg/m(3)) and a precision of 14 Pa (1·10(-4) kg/m(3)). Therefore, it was also shown that Rayleigh scattering is applicable for acoustic measurements. PMID:22743495

  19. Measurement of far field combustion noise from a turbofan engine using coherence functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.; Reshotko, M.; Montegani, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Coherence measurements between fluctuating pressure in the combustor of a YF-102 turbofan engine and far-field acoustic pressure were made. The results indicated that a coherent relationship between the combustor pressure and far-field existed only at frequencies below 250 Hz, with the peak occurring near 125 Hz. The coherence functions and the far-field spectra were used to compute the combustor-associated far-field noise in terms of spectra, directivity, and acoustic power, over a range of engine operating conditions. The acoustic results so measured were compared with results obtained by conventional methods, as well as with various semiempirical predictions schemes. Examination of the directivity patterns indicated a peak in the combustion noise near 120 deg (relative to the inlet axis).

  20. A finite element propagation model for extracting normal incidence impedance in nonprogressive acoustic wave fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Tanner, Sharon E.; Parrott, Tony L.

    1995-01-01

    A propagation model method for extracting the normal incidence impedance of an acoustic material installed as a finite length segment in a wall of a duct carrying a nonprogressive wave field is presented. The method recasts the determination of the unknown impedance as the minimization of the normalized wall pressure error function. A finite element propagation model is combined with a coarse/fine grid impedance plane search technique to extract the impedance of the material. Results are presented for three different materials for which the impedance is known. For each material, the input data required for the prediction scheme was computed from modal theory and then contaminated by random error. The finite element method reproduces the known impedance of each material almost exactly for random errors typical of those found in many measurement environments. Thus, the method developed here provides a means for determining the impedance of materials in a nonprogressirve wave environment such as that usually encountered in a commercial aircraft engine and most laboratory settings.

  1. [Characteristics of the acoustic field of interfering reflections and the echolocation hearing of the dolphin].

    PubMed

    Riabov, V A

    2008-01-01

    A model of the acoustic field of interfering reflections from steel cylinders was developed. Analysis of the model showed the availability of great potential resources for a decrease of the influence of unwanted echoes and hence for increasing the signal-to-clatter ratio. The conformity of the available models of the echolocation hearing of the dolphin to the acoustic field of the clatter was considered. The participation of mandidle mental foramens in conducting the echo to the cochlea was considered. In this case the hearing aperture is determined by the dimensions of mental foramens, while the hearing base is determined by the distance between the mental foramens of the left and right mandible halves. There are good reasons to believe that the optimal dimensions of the aperture and the base of echolocation hearing of Odontoceti essentially increase the effectiveness of defense of their sonar from reverberation.

  2. Field theory for zero sound and ion acoustic wave in astrophysical matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2016-02-01

    We set up a field theory model to describe the longitudinal low-energy modes in high density matter present in white dwarf stars. At the relevant scales, ions—the nuclei of oxygen, carbon, and helium—are treated as heavy pointlike spin-0 charged particles in an effective field theory approach, while the electron dynamics is described by the Dirac Lagrangian at the one-loop level. We show that there always exists a longitudinal gapless mode in the system irrespective of whether the ions are in a plasma, crystal, or quantum liquid state. For certain values of the parameters, the gapless mode can be interpreted as a zero sound mode and, for other values, as an ion acoustic wave; we show that the zero sound and ion acoustic wave are complementary to each other. We discuss possible physical consequences of these modes for properties of white dwarfs.

  3. Aerodynamic sound generation due to vortex-aerofoil interaction. Part 2: Analysis of the acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasarathy, R.; Karamcheti, K.

    1972-01-01

    The Lighthill method was the basic procedure used to analyze the sound field associated with a vortex of modified strength interacting with an airfoil. A free vortex interacting with an airfoil in uniform motion was modeled in order to determine the sound field due to all the acoustic sources, not only on the airfoil surfaces (dipoles), but also the ones distributed on the perturbed flow field (quadrupoles) due to the vortex-airfoil interaction. Because inviscid flow is assumed in the study of the interaction, the quadrupoles considered in the perturbed flow field are entirely due to an unsteady flow field. The effects of airfoil thickness on the second radiation are examined by using a symmetric Joukowski airfoil for the vortex-airfoil interaction. Sound radiation in a plane, far field simplification, and computation of the sound field are discussed.

  4. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: Design/operation/preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. L.; Marston, T. M.; Lee, K.; Lopes, J. L.; Lim, R.

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  5. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  6. Frequency spectrum of the noise emitted by two interacting cavitation bubbles in strong acoustic fields.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Fengbing; Chen, Haosheng; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong

    2012-03-01

    The dynamics and acoustic emission of two interacting cavitation bubbles exposed to strong acoustic fields with a frequency of 515 KHz are investigated numerically in this paper. After comparing the dynamics of a single bubble excited by the given pressure waves, bubbles with ambient radii of 2 and 5 μm were chosen to be studied to discuss the influence of the mutual bubble-bubble interaction on the dynamic behaviors and acoustic emission of the bubbles. The results show that, aside from the external driving pressure waves, the interaction between the bubbles imposes an extra nonlinear effect on the oscillations of the bubbles and that the dynamics of the smaller bubble could be suppressed gradually with the enhancement of this mutual interaction by decreasing the distance between the bubbles. Moreover, the improvement in the oscillation nonlinearity of the bubbles due to the change in the ambient circumstance could readily be observed from the frequency spectra of the bubbles' acoustic emission, which interprets the change by exhibiting an appropriate development of the subharmonics, the ultraharmonics, and the broadband component.

  7. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurements biased by sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Wagner, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is attributed to the movement of sediment on or near the streambed, and is an issue widely acknowledged by the scientific community. The integration of a differentially corrected global positioning system (DGPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic bias associated with a moving bed. DGPS, however, cannot provide consistently accurate positions because of multipath errors and satellite signal reception problems on waterways with dense tree canopy along the banks, in deep valleys or canyons, and near bridges. An alternative method of correcting for the moving-bed bias, based on the closure error resulting from a two-way crossing of the river, is presented. The uncertainty in the mean moving-bed velocity measured by the loop method is shown to be approximately 0.6cm/s. For the 13 field measurements presented, the loop method resulted in corrected discharges that were within 5% of discharges measured utilizing DGPS to compensate for moving-bed conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  9. Possible variations of E-layer electromagnetic fields by acoustic waves above earthquake preparation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, C.-V.; Mayer, B.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    2012-04-01

    The many-fluid magnetohydrodynamic theory is applied to describe the modification of the electromagnetic field of the ionospheric E-layer by acoustic-type waves. These waves originate from lower altitudes and may be caused by earthquake preparation processes. In comparison to former works, the different stratification of the positively and negatively charged ionospheric particles and of the neutral constituents is taken into account. There also the influence of the mean electric field on the different hight scales of the plasma parameters is discussed. Besides, the hight scales of the electric and magnetic wave fields are modeled. It is shown that at E-layer altitudes the acoustic waves may be converted into Alfvén waves. The dependence of these waves on the height scales of the plasma parameters of the particles and on the momentum transport between the charged and neutral particles is analysed. First estimates of the temperature variations within the E-layer because of the assumed acoustic-type waves of seismic origin are made.

  10. Steering acoustically propelled nanowire motors toward cells in a biologically compatible environment using magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Suzanne; Wang, Wei; Mair, Lamar O; Fraleigh, Robert D; Li, Sixing; Castro, Luz Angelica; Hoyos, Mauricio; Huang, Tony Jun; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2013-12-31

    The recent discovery of fuel-free propulsion of nanomotors using acoustic energy has provided a new avenue for using nanomotors in biocompatible media. Crucial to the application of nanomotors in biosensing and biomedical applications is the ability to remotely control and steer them toward targets of interest, such as specific cells and tissues. We demonstrate in vitro magnetic steering of acoustically powered nanorod motors in a biologically compatible environment. Steering was accomplished by incorporating (40 ± 5) nm thick nickel stripes into the electrochemically grown nanowires. An external magnetic field of 40-45 mT was used to orient the motors, which were acoustically propelled along their long axes. In the absence of a magnetic field, (300 ± 30) nm diameter, (4.3 ± 0.2) μm long nanowires with (40 ± 5) nm thick magnetic stripes exhibit the same self-acoustophoretic behavior, including pattern formation into concentric nanowire circles, aligned spinning chains, and autonomous axial motion, as their non-magnetic counterparts. In a magnetic field, these wires and their paths are oriented as evidenced by their relatively linear trajectories. Coordinated motion of multiple motors and targeting of individual motors toward HeLa cells with micrometer-level precision was demonstrated.

  11. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  12. Experimental Validation of FE/BEM Dynamic Strain Model Under Diffuse Acoustic Field Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoi, W. Ben; Gardner, Bryce; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Structural finite element (FE) models naturally output displacement or acceleration response data. However, they can also be used to compute stress, internal forces, and strain response. When coupled with a boundary element model (BEM) of the fluid surrounding the structure, a fully coupled analysis can be performed. Modeling a diffuse acoustic field in the BEM fluid provides an excitation like that found when the structure is placed in a reverberation chamber. Fully coupling the structural FE model to the acoustic BEM model provides a means to predict not only the acceleration response of the panel to diffuse field loading, but also the ability to predict the dynamic stress and strain response. This type of model has been available with current predictive tools, but experimental validation of the prediction of dynamic stress or strain is difficult to find. An aluminum panel was instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages and hung in a reverberation room and subjected to a diffuse acoustic field. This paper presents the comparison of the experimental and predicted results.

  13. A novel ultrasonic clutch using near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Tsi

    2004-10-01

    This paper investigates design, fabrication and drive of an ultrasonic clutch with two transducers. For the two transducers, one serving as a driving element of the clutch is connected to a driving shaft via a coupling, and the other serving as a slave element of the clutch is connected to a slave shaft via another coupling. The principle of ultrasonic levitation is first expressed. Then, a series-resonant inverter is used to generate AC voltages at input terminals of each transducer, and a speed measuring system with optic sensors is used to find the relationship between rotational speed of the slave shaft and applied voltage of each transducer. Moreover, contact surfaces of the two transducers are coupled by the frictional force when both the two transducers are not energized, and separated using the ultrasonic levitation when at least one of the two transducers is energized at high voltages at resonance. PMID:15358528

  14. Acoustic Power Absorption and its Relation to Vector Magnetic Field of a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosain, S.; Mathew, S. K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of acoustic power over sunspots shows an enhanced absorption near the umbra - penumbra boundary. Previous studies revealed that the region of enhanced absorption coincides with the region of strongest transverse potential field. The aim of this paper is to i) utilize the high-resolution vector magnetograms derived using Hinode SOT/SP observations and study the relationship between the vector magnetic field and power absorption and ii) study the variation of power absorption in sunspot penumbrae due to the presence of spine-like radial structures. It is found that i) both potential and observed transverse fields peak at a similar radial distance from the center of the sunspot, and ii) the magnitude of the transverse field, derived from Hinode observations, is much larger than the potential transverse field derived from SOHO/MDI longitudinal-field observations. In the penumbra, the radial structures called spines (intra-spines) have stronger (weaker) field strength and are more vertical (horizontal). The absorption of acoustic power in the spine and intra-spine shows different behavior, with the absorption being larger in the spine as compared to the intra-spine.

  15. Broadband electrostatic acoustic transducer for ultrasonic measurements in liquids.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, J H; Heyman, J S; Yost, W T; Torbett, M A; Breazeale, M A

    1979-01-01

    A broadband capacitive electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) has been developed for use in a liquid environment at megahertz frequencies. The ESAT basically consists of a thin conductive membrane stretched over a metallic housing. The membrane functions as the ground plate of a parallel plate capacitor, the other plate being a dc biased electrode recessed approximately 10 mum from the electrically grounded membrane. An ultrasonic wave incident on the membrane varies the membrane-electrode gap spacing and generates an electrical signal proportional to the wave amplitude. The entire assembly is sealed for immersion in a liquid environment. Calibration of the ESAT with incident ultrasonic waves of constant displacement amplitude from 1 to 15 MHz reveals a decrease in signal response with increasing frequency independent of membrane tension. The use of the ESAT as a broadband ultrasonic transducer in liquids with a predictable frequency response is promising.

  16. Measuring the speed of light with baryon acoustic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Vincenzo; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2015-03-13

    In this Letter, we describe a new method to use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to derive a constraint on the possible variation of the speed of light. The method relies on the fact that there is a simple relation between the angular diameter distance (D(A)) maximum and the Hubble function (H) evaluated at the same maximum-condition redshift, which includes speed of light c. We note the close analogy of the BAO probe with a laboratory experiment: here we have D(A) which plays the role of a standard (cosmological) ruler, and H^{-1}, with the dimension of time, as a (cosmological) clock. We evaluate if current or future missions such as Euclid can be sensitive enough to detect any variation of c.

  17. Acoustic measurement of boiling instabilities in a solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A. G.

    1980-11-01

    An acoustic technique was developed and used to search for boiling instabilities in the prototype receiver for the Barstow 10 MW Solar Thermal Pilot Plant. Instabilities, consisting of movements of the transition zone between regions of nucleate and film boiling, were observed. The periods of these fluctuations ranged between three and fifteen seconds with no indications of preferred frequencies. The peak to peak amplitudes of the fluctuations averaged 0.4 meters under steady state conditions at absorbed power levels between 2.0 and 3.2 MW. Transient fluctuations with amplitudes up to 2.0 meters were also seen. These transients usually lasted between 30 and 300 seconds. It was not possible to pinpoint the causes of these transients.

  18. Measurement of Aqueous Foam Rheology by Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, Glynn R.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique is demonstrated for acoustically levitating aqueous foam drops and exciting their spheroidal modes. This allows fundamental studies of foam-drop dynamics that provide an alternative means of estimating the viscoelastic properties of the foam. One unique advantage of the technique is the lack of interactions between the foam and container surfaces, which must be accounted for in other techniques. Results are presented in which a foam drop with gas volume fraction phi = 0.77 is levitated at 30 kHz and excited into its first quadrupole resonance at 63 +/- 3 Hz. By modeling the drop as an elastic sphere, the shear modulus of the foam was estimated at 75 +/- 3 Pa.

  19. Measuring the speed of light with baryon acoustic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Vincenzo; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2015-03-13

    In this Letter, we describe a new method to use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to derive a constraint on the possible variation of the speed of light. The method relies on the fact that there is a simple relation between the angular diameter distance (D(A)) maximum and the Hubble function (H) evaluated at the same maximum-condition redshift, which includes speed of light c. We note the close analogy of the BAO probe with a laboratory experiment: here we have D(A) which plays the role of a standard (cosmological) ruler, and H^{-1}, with the dimension of time, as a (cosmological) clock. We evaluate if current or future missions such as Euclid can be sensitive enough to detect any variation of c. PMID:25815922

  20. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  1. Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test-Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method: Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12-octave…

  2. Acoustic measurement of suspensions of clay and silt particles using single frequency attenuation and backscatter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of ultrasonic acoustic technology to measure the concentration of fine suspended sediments has the potential to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of sediment measurements while reducing the need for personnel to be present at gauging stations during storm events. The conv...

  3. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  4. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  5. Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement.

  6. Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement. PMID:25659300

  7. Acoustic measurements of the thermodynamic temperature between the triple point of mercury and 380 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, G.; Gavioso, R. M.; Spagnolo, R.; Marcarino, P.; Merlone, A.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the differences between the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature and the temperature of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 on nine isotherms between the triple point of mercury and 380 K, by means of a primary acoustic thermometer. For the present measurements the standard uncertainty of (T - T90) ranges from 0.9 mK at 234 K to 1.7 mK at 380 K. The experimental method is based on the measurement of the acoustic resonance frequencies of an argon-filled spherical cavity and the microwave resonance frequencies of the same cavity when evacuated. The present results agree within the remarkably small combined uncertainties with both NIST acoustic thermometry ([1] Moldover M R et al 1999 J. Res. Natl Inst. Stand. Technol. 104 11-46 [2] Strouse G F et al 2002 Progress in primary acoustic thermometry at NIST: 273 K to 505 K 8th Temperature Symp. (Chicago, 21-24 October 2002)) and UCL acoustic thermometry ([3] Ewing M B and Trusler J P M 2000 J. Chem. Thermodyn. 32 1229-55) in the overlapping temperature range.

  8. Measurements and empirical model of the acoustic properties of reticulated vitreous carbon.

    PubMed

    Muehleisena, Ralph T; Beamer, C Walter; Tinianov, Brandon D

    2005-02-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a highly porous, rigid, open cell carbon foam structure with a high melting point, good chemical inertness, and low bulk thermal conductivity. For the proper design of acoustic devices such as acoustic absorbers and thermoacoustic stacks and regenerators utilizing RVC, the acoustic properties of RVC must be known. From knowledge of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number most other acoustic properties can be computed. In this investigation, the four-microphone transfer matrix measurement method is used to measure the complex characteristic impedance and wave number for 60 to 300 pore-per-inch RVC foams with flow resistivities from 1759 to 10,782 Pa s m(-2) in the frequency range of 330 Hz-2 kHz. The data are found to be poorly predicted by the fibrous material empirical model developed by Delany and Bazley, the open cell plastic foam empirical model developed by Qunli, or the Johnson-Allard microstructural model. A new empirical power law model is developed and is shown to provide good predictions of the acoustic properties over the frequency range of measurement. Uncertainty estimates for the constants of the model are also computed.

  9. Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Yossi; Falk, Ben; Moss, Cynthia F; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2011-09-01

    Active-sensing systems abound in nature, but little is known about systematic strategies that are used by these systems to scan the environment. Here, we addressed this question by studying echolocating bats, animals that have the ability to point their biosonar beam to a confined region of space. We trained Egyptian fruit bats to land on a target, under conditions of varying levels of environmental complexity, and measured their echolocation and flight behavior. The bats modulated the intensity of their biosonar emissions, and the spatial region they sampled, in a task-dependant manner. We report here that Egyptian fruit bats selectively change the emission intensity and the angle between the beam axes of sequentially emitted clicks, according to the distance to the target, and depending on the level of environmental complexity. In so doing, they effectively adjusted the spatial sector sampled by a pair of clicks-the "field-of-view." We suggest that the exact point within the beam that is directed towards an object (e.g., the beam's peak, maximal slope, etc.) is influenced by three competing task demands: detection, localization, and angular scanning-where the third factor is modulated by field-of-view. Our results suggest that lingual echolocation (based on tongue clicks) is in fact much more sophisticated than previously believed. They also reveal a new parameter under active control in animal sonar-the angle between consecutive beams. Our findings suggest that acoustic scanning of space by mammals is highly flexible and modulated much more selectively than previously recognized.

  10. Laboratory investigation of a passive acoustic method for measurement of underwater gas seep ebullition.

    PubMed

    Greene, Chad A; Wilson, Preston S

    2012-01-01

    Passive acoustic techniques are of interest as a low-power means of quantifying underwater point-source gas ebullition. Toward the development of systems for logging natural seep activity, laboratory experiments were performed that exploited the bubble's Minnaert natural frequency for the measurement of gas flow from a model seep. Results show agreement among acoustic, optical, and gas trap ebullition measurements over the range of emission rates from 0 to 10 bubbles per second. A mathematical model is proposed to account for the real gas behavior of bubbles which cannot be approximated as ideal, such as methane at marine depths exceeding 30 m.

  11. Laboratory investigation of a passive acoustic method for measurement of underwater gas seep ebullition.

    PubMed

    Greene, Chad A; Wilson, Preston S

    2012-01-01

    Passive acoustic techniques are of interest as a low-power means of quantifying underwater point-source gas ebullition. Toward the development of systems for logging natural seep activity, laboratory experiments were performed that exploited the bubble's Minnaert natural frequency for the measurement of gas flow from a model seep. Results show agreement among acoustic, optical, and gas trap ebullition measurements over the range of emission rates from 0 to 10 bubbles per second. A mathematical model is proposed to account for the real gas behavior of bubbles which cannot be approximated as ideal, such as methane at marine depths exceeding 30 m. PMID:22280731

  12. Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A method for measuring the acoustic velocity in a thin sheet of a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) material was investigated. This method uses two identical acoustic-emission (AE) sensors, one to transmit and one to receive. The delay time as a function of distance between sensors determines a bulk velocity. A lightweight fixture (balsa wood in the current implementation) provides a consistent method of positioning the sensors, thus providing multiple measurements of the time delay between sensors at different known distances. A linear fit to separation, x, versus delay time, t, will yield an estimate of the velocity from the slope of the line.

  13. Toward a reference ultrasonic cavitation vessel: Part 2--investigating the spatial variation and acoustic pressure threshold of inertial cavitation in a 25 kHz ultrasound field.

    PubMed

    Hodnett, Mark; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2008-08-01

    As part of an ongoing project to establish a reference facility for acoustic cavitation at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), carefully controlled studies on a 25 kHz, 1.8 kW cylindrical vessel are described. Using a patented high-frequency acoustic emission detection method and a sonar hydrophone, results are presented of the spatial variation of inertial acoustic cavitation with increasing peak-negative pressure. Results show that at low operating levels, inertial acoustic cavitation is restricted to, and is strongly localized on, the vessel axis. At intermediate power settings, inertial acoustic cavitation also occurs close to the vessel walls, and at higher settings, a complex spatial variation is seen that is not apparent in measurements of the 25 kHz driving field alone. At selected vessel locations, a systematic investigation of the inertial cavitation threshold is described. This was carried out by making simultaneous measurements of the peak-negative pressures leading to inertial cavitation and the resultant MHz-frequency emissions, and indicates an inertial cavitation threshold of 101 kPa +/- 14% (estimated expanded uncertainty). However, an intermediate threshold at 84 kPa +/- 14% (estimated expanded uncertainty) is also seen. The results are discussed alongside theoretical predictions and recent experimental findings.

  14. Two Years of Industrial Experience in the Use of a Small, Direct Field Acoustic Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggini, Nicola; Di Pietro, Vincenzo; Poulain, Nicolas; Herzog, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Within Thales Alenia Space - Italy small satellite Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) plant, the need to develop a suitable facility for spacecraft acoustic noise test has arisen, with additional constraints posed by the necessity of a low impact on the existing building layout, low cost of procurement and operations, while maintaining a high reliability of the system for a theoretical maximum throughput of one test per week over an extended period of time, e.g. six months. The needs have been answered by developing a small (~40 m3 test volume), direct field (DF A T) acoustic test chamber, christened “Alpha Cabin”, where noise generation is achieved by means of commercial audio drivers equipped with custom enclosures. The paper starts with a brief presentation of the main characteristics of the system, but then concentrates on the lessons learnt and return of experience from the tests conducted in more than two years of continuous use. Starting from test article structural responses and their comparison with reverberant chambers, properties of the acoustic field and their implications on the former are analyzed.

  15. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    PubMed

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].

  16. Angular Spectrum Method for the Focused Acoustic Field of a Linear Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgroune, D.; de Belleval, J. F.; Djelouah, H.

    Applications involving non-destructive testing or acoustical imaging are more and more sophisticated. In this context, a model based on the angular spectrum approach is tackled in view to calculate the focused impulse field radiated by a linear transducer through a plane fluid-solid interface. It is well known that electronic focusing, based on a cylindrical delay law, like for the classical cases (lenses, curved transducer), leads to an inaccurate focusing in the solid due to geometric aberrations errors affecting refraction. Generally, there is a significant difference between the acoustic focal distance and the geometrical focal due to refraction. In our work, an optimized delay law, based on the Fermat's principle is established, particularly at an oblique incidence where the geometrical considerations, relatively simple in normal incidence, become quickly laborious. Numerical simulations of impulse field are judiciously carried out. Subsequently, the input parameters are optimally selected in order to achieve good computation accuracy and a high focusing. The overall results, involving compression and shear waves, have highlighted the focusing improvement in the solid when compared to the currently available approaches. Indeed, the acoustic focal distance is very close to geometrical focal distance and then, allows better control of the refracted angular beam profile (refraction angle, focusing depth and focal size).

  17. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    PubMed

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)]. PMID:26723332

  18. Development of an Acoustic Sensor On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement in Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Ariessohn

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. Following the completion of the initial 3 year project, several continuations

  19. Action of an electromagnetic pulse on a plasma with a high level of ion-acoustic turbulence. Field diffusion and subdiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, K. N.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-09-15

    Specific features of the interaction of a relatively weak electromagnetic pulse with a nonisothermal current-carrying plasma in which the electron drift velocity is much higher than the ion-acoustic velocity, but lower than the electron thermal velocity, are studied. If the state of the plasma with ion-acoustic turbulence does not change during the pulse action, the field penetrates into the plasma in the ordinary diffusion regime, but the diffusion coefficient in this case is inversely proportional to the anomalous conductivity. If, during the pulse action, the particle temperatures and the current-driving field change due to turbulent heating, the field penetrates into the plasma in the subdiffusion regime. It is shown how the presence of subdiffusion can be detected by measuring the reflected field.

  20. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  1. Guidelines for Acoustical Measurements Inside Historical Opera Houses: Procedures and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POMPOLI, ROBERTO; PRODI, NICOLA

    2000-04-01

    The acoustics of Italian historical theatres is to be regarded as a cultural heritage, which is to be preserved and studied. These actions are imperative for handing down the heritage to future generations and to avoid its loss. In this paper, the technical means for scientific quantification of the acoustical heritage are presented in the form of operative guidelines for acoustical measurements inside historical theatres. The document includes the advice of international experts and is being employed during an extended measurement campaign inside renaissance and baroque historical theatres. A relevant part of the paper deals with the experimental validation of the recommendations given in the guidelines, achieved by a dedicated test session inside the Municipal Theatre of Ferrara.

  2. Inverse estimation of the acoustic impedance of a porous woven hose from measured transmission coefficients.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Nakayama, Yoshio; Takao, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A porous tube, comprised of a resin-coated woven fabric has recently been used as an effective component for use in intake systems of internal combustion engines to reduce the intake noise. For the prediction of the acoustic performance of an engine intake system with a porous woven hose, the acoustic wall impedance of the hose must be known. However, the accurate measurement of the wall impedance of a porous woven hose is not easy because of its peculiar acoustical and structural characteristics. A new measurement technique is proposed herein, that is valid over the low to mid frequency ranges. The acoustics impedance is inversely estimated from an overdetermined set of measured pressure transmission coefficients for specimens of different lengths and the reflection coefficient of end termination. The method involves only one measurement setup, and, as a result, it is very simple. A variation of the proposed method, an inverse estimation method using one of the four-pole parameters is also proposed. An error sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of measurement error on the accuracy of the final result. The measured TL for samples with arbitrary lengths and arbitrary porous frequency are in reasonably good agreement with values predicted from curve-fitted impedance data. PMID:12558253

  3. Inverse estimation of the acoustic impedance of a porous woven hose from measured transmission coefficients.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Nakayama, Yoshio; Takao, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A porous tube, comprised of a resin-coated woven fabric has recently been used as an effective component for use in intake systems of internal combustion engines to reduce the intake noise. For the prediction of the acoustic performance of an engine intake system with a porous woven hose, the acoustic wall impedance of the hose must be known. However, the accurate measurement of the wall impedance of a porous woven hose is not easy because of its peculiar acoustical and structural characteristics. A new measurement technique is proposed herein, that is valid over the low to mid frequency ranges. The acoustics impedance is inversely estimated from an overdetermined set of measured pressure transmission coefficients for specimens of different lengths and the reflection coefficient of end termination. The method involves only one measurement setup, and, as a result, it is very simple. A variation of the proposed method, an inverse estimation method using one of the four-pole parameters is also proposed. An error sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of measurement error on the accuracy of the final result. The measured TL for samples with arbitrary lengths and arbitrary porous frequency are in reasonably good agreement with values predicted from curve-fitted impedance data.

  4. Dynamics of a Coagulating Polydisperse Gas Suspension in the Nonlinear Wave Field of an Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukmakov, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    A model of a multivelocity multitemperature polydisperse gas suspension has been constructed with account taken of coagulation. Calculations of the dynamics of an aerosol of a polydisperse composition in an acoustic resonator have been done and the derived regularities have been described. A system of Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible heat-conducting gas was used to describe the motion of a carrier medium. The dynamics of dispersed fractions is described by a system of equations including continuity, momentum, and internal-energy equations. The equations of motion of the carrier medium and dispersed fractions have been written with account of the interphase exchange of momentum and energy. The Lagrangian model has been used to describe the process of coagulation. The change in the dispersity of the gas suspension in the nonlinear field of an acoustic resonator has been analyzed.

  5. Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Haru; Haxel, Joseph H; Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R; Embley, Robert W

    2011-03-01

    An underwater glider with an acoustic data logger flew toward a recently discovered erupting submarine volcano in the northern Lau basin. With the volcano providing a wide-band sound source, recordings from the two-day survey produced a two-dimensional sound level map spanning 1 km (depth) × 40 km(distance). The observed sound field shows depth- and range-dependence, with the first-order spatial pattern being consistent with the predictions of a range-dependent propagation model. The results allow constraining the acoustic source level of the volcanic activity and suggest that the glider provides an effective platform for monitoring natural and anthropogenic ocean sounds. PMID:21428474

  6. Acoustic measurements of the sound-speed profile in the bubbly wake formed by a small motor boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagle, Svein; Burch, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In situ measurements of the bubble field within wakes generated by a small motorboat show that the bubble field, shortly after the initial turbulent generation period, consists mainly of bubbles with radii between 20 and 200 μm. The subsequent dispersion of the wake field can be described using a model that includes bubble buoyancy and dissolution only, and the air volume fraction within the wakes decay exponentially with an e-folding time of between 40 and 60 s. Simultaneous measurements of sound propagating through the bubbly wake exhibit spectral banding due to waveguide propagation. Inversions using the inverse-square theory developed by Buckingham [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 335, 513-555 (1991)] show that this acoustic inversion technique provide a viable means of estimating the low-frequency sound-speed profile in an upward refractive bubble layer when dispersion can be neglected. .

  7. Pekeris waveguide comparisons of methods for predicting acoustic field amplitude uncertainty caused by a spatially uniform environmental uncertainty (L).

    PubMed

    James, Kevin R; Dowling, David R

    2011-02-01

    Acoustic field calculations in underwater environments are often uncertain because the environmental parameters required for such calculations are uncertain. This letter compares the accuracy of direct simulations, the field shifting approximation, and polynomial chaos expansions for predicting acoustic amplitude uncertainty in 100-m-deep Pekeris waveguides having spatially uniform uncertain water-column sound speed. When this sound speed is Gaussian-distributed with a standard deviation of 1 m/s, direct simulations and polynomial chaos expansions, based on 21 field calculations, are more accurate than the field shifting approximation, based on two field calculations. This ranking reverses as the sound-speed standard deviation increases to 20 m/s.

  8. Impulse source versus dodecahedral loudspeaker for measuring parameters derived from the impulse response in room acoustics.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Ricardo; Arana, Miguel; Machín, Jorge; Arregui, Abel

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of dodecahedral and impulse sources when measuring acoustic parameters in enclosures according to ISO 3382-1 [Acoustics-Measurement of room acoustic parameters. Part 1: Performance spaces (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009)]. In general, methods using speakers as a sound source are limited by their frequency response and directivity. On the other hand, getting impulse responses from impulse sources typically involves a lack of repeatability, and it is usually necessary to average several measurements for each position. Through experiments in different auditoriums that recreate typical situations in which the measurement standard is applied, it is found that using impulse sources leads to greater variation in the results, especially at low frequencies. However, this prevents subsequent dispersions due to variables that this technique does not require, such as the orientation of the emitting source. These dispersions may be relevant at high frequencies exceeding the established tolerance criteria for certain parameters. Finally, a new descriptor for dodecahedral sources reflecting the influence their lack of omnidirectionality produces on measuring acoustic parameters is proposed.

  9. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  10. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation.

  11. Inferences of Particle Size and Composition From Video-like Images Based on Acoustic Data: Grotto Plume, Main Endeavor Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.; Santilli, K.; Dastur, J.; Silver, D.

    2004-12-01

    Optical and acoustic scattering from particles in a seafloor hydrothermal plume can be related if the particle properties and scattering mechanisms are known. We assume Rayleigh backscattering of sound and Mie forward scattering of light. We then use the particle concentrations implicit in the observed acoustic backscatter intensity to recreate the optical image a camera would see given a particular lighting level. The motivation for this study is to discover what information on particle size and composition in the buoyant plume can be inferred from a comparison of the calculated optical images (based on acoustic data) with actual video images from the acoustic acquisition cruise and the IMAX film "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea" (Stephen Low Productions, Inc.). Because the geologists, biologists and oceanographers involved in the study of seafloor hydrothermal plumes all "see" plumes in different ways, an additional motivation is to create more realistic plume images from the acoustic data. By using visualization techniques, with realistic lighting models, we can convert the plume image from mechanical waves (sound) to electromagnetic waves (light). The resulting image depends on assumptions about the particle size distribution and composition. Conversion of the volume scattering coefficients from Rayleigh to Mie scattering is accomplished by an extinction scale factor that depends on the wavelengths of light and sound and on the average particle size. We also make an adjustment to the scattered light based on the particles reflectivity (albedo) and color. We present a series of images of acoustic data for Grotto Plume, Main Endeavour Field (within the Endeavour ISS Site) using both realistic lighting models and traditional visualization techniques to investigate the dependence of the images on assumptions about particle composition and size. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the visibility of the buoyant plume increases as the intensity of supplied light increases

  12. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic Measurements in a Highly Back-Pressured Scramjet Isolator Model: A Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    Under the Propulsion Discipline of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Hypersonics Project, a test apparatus, for testing a scramjet isolator model, is being constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center. The test apparatus will incorporate a 1-inch by 2-inch by 15-inch-long scramjet isolator model supplied with 2.1 lbm/sec of unheated dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The planned research will incorporate progressively more challenging measurement techniques to characterize the flow field within the isolator, concluding with the application of the Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic (LITA) measurement technique. The primary goal of this research is to use the data acquired to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models employed to characterize the complex flow field of a scramjet isolator. This paper describes the test apparatus being constructed, pre-test CFD simulations, and the LITA measurement technique.

  13. Acoustic measurements of F-4E aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-4E aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-4E aircraft aft fuselage structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an F-4E aircraft water cooled hush house at Hill AFB in the lower frequencies, but were increased over that measured during ground run up on some areas of the aircraft. It was recommended that the acoustic loads measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for aircraft which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment. Recommendations were also made to increase the fatigue life of the aft fuselage.

  14. Acoustic measurements of F100-PW-100 engine operating in hush house NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly AFB Texas during operation of the F100-PW-100 engine to ensure that engine structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that no sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F100-PW-100 engine structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an existing F100-PW-100 engine wet-cooled noise suppressor, but were increased over that measured during operation on an open test stand. It was recommended that the acoustic load increases measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for engines which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment.

  15. The use of acoustic fields as a filtration and dewatering aid

    PubMed

    Smythe; Wakeman

    2000-03-01

    An experimental rig has been developed to study the effects of electric and acoustic field combinations on the filtration rate of titanium dioxide suspensions. Ultrasound energy is applied tangentially to the filter medium. Electric field strengths, suspension characteristics and process parameters can all be varied independently. Results from an experimental programme demonstrate that the use of ultrasound across the cake surface can decrease the specific cake flow resistance and increase the filtration rates of low-concentration rutile suspensions (0.1% v/v). Changes in the conductivity induced by ultrasonic irradiation affect the suspension such that the application of an electrical field is enhanced, giving an equivalent electric field strength higher than that applied.

  16. Inertial-acoustic oscillations of black hole accretion discs with large-scale poloidal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cong; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-01

    We study the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the non-axisymmetric inertial-acoustic modes (also called p modes) trapped in the innermost regions of accretion discs around black holes (BHs). These global modes could provide an explanation for the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in BH X-ray binaries. There may be observational evidence for the presence of such large-scale magnetic fields in the discs since episodic jets are observed in the same spectral state when HFQPOs are detected. We find that a large-scale poloidal magnetic field can enhance the corotational instability and increase the growth rate of the purely hydrodynamic overstable p modes. In addition, we show that the frequencies of these overstable p modes could be further reduced by such magnetic fields, making them agree better with observations.

  17. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz. PMID:26026514

  18. A Multidimensional Investigation of Children's /r/ Productions: Perceptual, Ultrasound, and Acoustic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Harriet B.; McAllister Byun, Tara; Davidson, Lisa; Grigos, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored relationships among perceptual, ultrasound, and acoustic measurements of children's correct and misarticulated /r/ sounds. Longitudinal data documenting changes across these parameters were collected from 2 children who acquired /r/ over a period of intervention and were compared with data from children with…

  19. Relation of perceived breathiness to laryngeal kinematics and acoustic measures based on computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine 1) how specific vocal fold structural and vibratory features relate to breathy voice quality and 2) the relation of perceived breathiness to four acoustic correlates of breathiness. Method A computational, kinematic model of the vocal fold medial surfaces was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: vocal process separation, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and epilaryngeal constriction. Twelve naïve listeners rated breathiness of 364 samples relative to a reference. The degree of breathiness was then compared to 1) the underlying kinematic profile and 2) four acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP), harmonics-to-noise ratio, and two measures of spectral slope. Results Vocal process separation alone accounted for 61.4% of the variance in perceptual rating. Adding nodal point ratio and bulging to the equation increased the explained variance to 88.7%. The acoustic measure CPP accounted for 86.7% of the variance in perceived breathiness, and explained variance increased to 92.6% with the addition of one spectral slope measure. Conclusions Breathiness ratings were best explained kinematically by the degree of vocal process separation and acoustically by CPP. PMID:23785184

  20. Molecular recognition in gas sensing: Results from acoustic wave and in-situ FTIR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-06-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements were combined with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopy to understand the interactions of surface-confined sensing films with gas-phase analytes. This was accomplished by collecting Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectra (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their specifically coated surfaces with key analytes.