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Sample records for acoustic frequency range

  1. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  2. Filamentation instability of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Rastbood, E.; Niknam, A. R.

    2014-12-15

    The filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range have been studied using the Lorentz transformation formulas. Based on the kinetic theory, the possibility of filamentation instability and its growth rate as well as the ion acoustic instability have been investigated. The results of the research show that the possibility and growth rate of these instabilities are significantly dependent on the electron nonextensive parameter and drift velocity. Besides, the increase of electrons nonextensive parameter and drift velocity lead to the increase of the growth rates of both instabilities. In addition, the wavelength region in which the filamentation instability occurs is more stretched in the presence of higher values of drift velocity and nonextensive parameter. Finally, the results of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities have been compared and the conditions for filamentation instability to be dominant mode of instability have been presented.

  3. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 2; Advanced Treatment Impedance Models for High Frequency Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop improved models for the acoustic impedance of treatment panels at high frequencies, for application to subscale treatment designs. Effects that cause significant deviation of the impedance from simple geometric scaling are examined in detail, an improved high-frequency impedance model is developed, and the improved model is correlated with high-frequency impedance measurements. Only single-degree-of-freedom honeycomb sandwich resonator panels with either perforated sheet or "linear" wiremesh faceplates are considered. The objective is to understand those effects that cause the simple single-degree-of- freedom resonator panels to deviate at the higher-scaled frequency from the impedance that would be obtained at the corresponding full-scale frequency. This will allow the subscale panel to be designed to achieve a specified impedance spectrum over at least a limited range of frequencies. An advanced impedance prediction model has been developed that accounts for some of the known effects at high frequency that have previously been ignored as a small source of error for full-scale frequency ranges.

  4. Time-frequency analysis of acoustic signals in the audio-frequency range generated during Hadfield's steel friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, S. A.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Smolin, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2010-07-01

    Time-frequency analysis of sound waves detected by a microphone during the friction of Hadfield’s steel has been performed using wavelet transform and window Fourier transform methods. This approach reveals a relationship between the appearance of quasi-periodic intensity outbursts in the acoustic response signals and the processes responsible for the formation of wear products. It is shown that the time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission in a tribosystem can be applied, along with traditional approaches, to studying features in the wear and friction process.

  5. Experimental Study of High-Range-Resolution Medical Acoustic Imaging for Multiple Target Detection by Frequency Domain Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru

    2009-07-01

    We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.

  6. Wide-range frequency selectivity in an acoustic sensor fabricated using a microbeam array with non-uniform thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Zusho, Kazuki; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a microbeam array (MBA) with various thicknesses and investigated the suitability it for an acoustic sensor with wide-range frequency selectivity. For this, an MBA composed of 64 beams, with thicknesses varying from 2.99-142 µm, was fabricated by using single gray-scale lithography and a thick negative photoresist. The vibration of the beams in air was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer; the resonant frequencies of the beams were measured to be from 11.5 to 290 kHz. Lastly, the frequency range of the MBA with non-uniform thickness was 10.9 times that of the MBA with uniform thickness.

  7. Empirical dependence of acoustic transmission scintillation statistics on bandwidth, frequency, and range in New Jersey continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mark; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    The scintillation statistics of broadband acoustic transmissions are determined as a function of signal bandwidth B, center frequency f(c), and range with experimental data in the New Jersey continental shelf. The received signal intensity is shown to follow the Gamma distribution implying that the central limit theorem has led to a fully saturated field from independent multimodal propagation contributions. The Gamma distribution depends on the mean intensity and the number of independent statistical fluctuations or coherent cells micro of the received signal. The latter is calculated for the matched filter, the Parseval sum, and the bandpassed center frequency, all of which are standard ocean acoustic receivers. The number of fluctuations mu of the received signal is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the time-bandwidth product TB of the transmitted signal, and to increase monotonically with relative bandwidth Bfc. A computationally efficient numerical approach is developed to predict the mean intensity and the corresponding broadband transmission loss of a fluctuating, range-dependent ocean waveguide by range and depth averaging the output of a time-harmonic stochastic propagation model. This model enables efficient and accurate estimation of transmission loss over wide areas, which has become essential in wide-area sonar imaging applications.

  8. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p < .001) relationships emerged between mean speech frequency and the ability to sing the pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest

  9. Low-frequency sound speed and attenuation in sandy seabottom from long-range broadband acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lin; Zhou, Ji-Xun; Rogers, Peter H

    2010-08-01

    A joint China-U.S. underwater acoustics experiment was conducted in the Yellow Sea with a very flat bottom and a strong and sharp thermocline. Broadband explosive sources were deployed both above and below the thermocline along two radial lines up to 57.2 km and a quarter circle with a radius of 34 km. Two inversion schemes are used to obtain the seabottom sound speed. One is based on extracting normal mode depth functions from the cross-spectral density matrix. The other is based on the best match between the calculated and measured modal arrival times for different frequencies. The inverted seabottom sound speed is used as a constraint condition to extract the seabottom sound attenuation by three methods. The first method involves measuring the attenuation coefficients of normal modes. In the second method, the seabottom sound attenuation is estimated by minimizing the difference between the theoretical and measured modal amplitude ratios. The third method is based on finding the best match between the measured and modeled transmission losses (TLs). The resultant seabottom attenuation, averaged over three independent methods, can be expressed as alpha=(0.33+/-0.02)f(1.86+/-0.04)(dB/m kHz) over a frequency range of 80-1000 Hz.

  10. Frequency steerable acoustic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, Matteo

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an active research area devoted to the assessment of the structural integrity of critical components of aerospace, civil and mechanical systems. Guided wave methods have been proposed for SHM of plate-like structures using permanently attached piezoelectric transducers, which generate and sense waves to evaluate the presence of damage. Effective interrogation of structural health is often facilitated by sensors and actuators with the ability to perform electronic, i.e. phased array, scanning. The objective of this research is to design an innovative directional piezoelectric transducer to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. The proposed Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducers (FSATs) are characterized by a spatial arrangement of active material which leads to directional characteristics varying with frequency. Thus FSATs can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the FSATs is obtained through a theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. The FSAT configurations analyzed in this work are a quadrilateral array and a geometry which corresponds to a spiral in the wavenumber domain. The quadrilateral array is experimentally validated, confirming the concept of frequency-dependent directionality. Its limited directivity is improved by the Wavenumber Spiral FSAT (WS-FSAT), which, instead, is characterized by a continuous frequency dependent directionality. Preliminary validations of the WS-FSAT, using a laser doppler vibrometer, are followed by the implementation of the WS-FSAT as a properly shaped piezo transducer. The prototype is first used for localization of acoustic broadband sources. Signal processing

  11. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  12. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  13. Navy Applications of High-Frequency Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Henry

    2004-11-01

    Although the emphasis in underwater acoustics for the last few decades has been in low-frequency acoustics, motivated by long range detection of submarines, there has been a continuing use of high-frequency acoustics in traditional specialized applications such as bottom mapping, mine hunting, torpedo homing and under ice navigation. The attractive characteristics of high-frequency sonar, high spatial resolution, wide bandwidth, small size and relatively low cost must be balanced against the severe range limitation imposed by attenuation that increases approximately as frequency-squared. Many commercial applications of acoustics are ideally served by high-frequency active systems. The small size and low cost, coupled with the revolution in small powerful signal processing hardware has led to the consideration of more sophisticated systems. Driven by commercial applications, there are currently available several commercial-off-the-shelf products including acoustic modems for underwater communication, multi-beam fathometers, side scan sonars for bottom mapping, and even synthetic aperture side scan sonar. Much of the work in high frequency sonar today continues to be focused on specialized applications in which the application is emphasized over the underlying acoustics. Today's vision for the Navy of the future involves Autonomous Undersea Vehicles (AUVs) and off-board ASW sensors. High-frequency acoustics will play a central role in the fulfillment of this vision as a means of communication and as a sensor. The acoustic communication problems for moving AUVs and deep sensors are discussed. Explicit relationships are derived between the communication theoretic description of channel parameters in terms of time and Doppler spreads and ocean acoustic parameters, group velocities, phase velocities and horizontal wavenumbers. Finally the application of synthetic aperture sonar to the mine hunting problems is described.

  14. Acoustic resonance frequency locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-09-09

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell, the acoustic source having a source frequency; repeatedly and continuously sweeping the source frequency across the resonance frequency at a sweep rate; and employing an odd-harmonic of the source frequency sweep rate to maintain the source frequency sweep centered on the resonance frequency.

  15. Acoustic detection and ranging using solvable chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Stahl, Mark T.; Chase Harrison, R.; Blakely, Jonathan N.

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic experiments demonstrate a novel approach to ranging and detection that exploits the properties of a solvable chaotic oscillator. This nonlinear oscillator includes an ordinary differential equation and a discrete switching condition. The chaotic waveform generated by this hybrid system is used as the transmitted waveform. The oscillator admits an exact analytic solution that can be written as the linear convolution of binary symbols and a single basis function. This linear representation enables coherent reception using a simple analog matched filter and without need for digital sampling or signal processing. An audio frequency implementation of the transmitter and receiver is described. Successful acoustic ranging measurements in the presence of noise and interference from a second chaotic emitter are presented to demonstrate the viability of the approach.

  16. Acoustic detection and ranging using solvable chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Stahl, Mark T; Harrison, R Chase; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic experiments demonstrate a novel approach to ranging and detection that exploits the properties of a solvable chaotic oscillator. This nonlinear oscillator includes an ordinary differential equation and a discrete switching condition. The chaotic waveform generated by this hybrid system is used as the transmitted waveform. The oscillator admits an exact analytic solution that can be written as the linear convolution of binary symbols and a single basis function. This linear representation enables coherent reception using a simple analog matched filter and without need for digital sampling or signal processing. An audio frequency implementation of the transmitter and receiver is described. Successful acoustic ranging measurements in the presence of noise and interference from a second chaotic emitter are presented to demonstrate the viability of the approach. PMID:23822484

  17. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing.

  18. Joint Acoustic and Modulation Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Les; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2003-12-01

    There is a considerable evidence that our perception of sound uses important features which is related to underlying signal modulations. This topic has been studied extensively via perceptual experiments, yet there are few, if any, well-developed signal processing methods which capitalize on or model these effects. We begin by summarizing evidence of the importance of modulation representations from psychophysical, physiological, and other sources. The concept of a two-dimensional joint acoustic and modulation frequency representation is proposed. A simple single sinusoidal amplitude modulator of a sinusoidal carrier is then used to illustrate properties of an unconstrained and ideal joint representation. Added constraints are required to remove or reduce undesired interference terms and to provide invertibility. It is then noted that the constraints would also apply to more general and complex cases of broader modulation and carriers. Applications in single-channel speaker separation and in audio coding are used to illustrate the applicability of this joint representation. Other applications in signal analysis and filtering are suggested.

  19. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  20. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  1. Acoustical scattering cross section of gas bubbles under dual-frequency acoustic excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Li, Shengcai

    2015-09-01

    The acoustical scattering cross section is a paramount parameter determining the scattering ability of cavitation bubbles when they are excited by the incident acoustic waves. This parameter is strongly related with many important applications of acoustic cavitation including facilitating the reaction of chemical process, boosting bubble sonoluminescence, and performing non-invasive therapy and drug delivery. In present paper, both the analytical and numerical solutions of acoustical scattering cross section of gas bubbles under dual-frequency excitation are obtained. The validity of the analytical solution is shown with demonstrating examples. The nonlinear characteristics (e.g., harmonics, subharmonics and ultraharmonics) of the scattering cross section curve under dual-frequency approach are investigated. Compared with single-frequency approach, the dual-frequency approach displays more resonances termed as "combination resonances" and could promote the acoustical scattering cross section significantly within a much broader range of bubble sizes due to the generation of more resonances. The influence of several paramount parameters (e.g., acoustic pressure amplitude, power allocations between two acoustic components, and the ratio of the frequencies) in the dual-frequency system on the predictions of scattering cross section has been discussed.

  2. The Production and Recognition of Acoustic Frequency Cues in Chickadees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Bernard Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The production and recognition of songs with appropriate species-typical features underlies a songbird's success in defending a breeding territory. The ability to recognize a song that is characteristic of one's own species presents an interesting problem, given the variety of types of information often encoded in song. Information in song may involve cues for individual identity, neighbor/stranger recognition, reproductive status, and motivational state. This thesis is concerned with the use of acoustic frequency as a cue for species-recognition of birdsong, and the various forms of frequency production and perception that may provide such cues. Carolina chickadees (Parus carolinensis) sing songs characterized by a succession of unmodulated, pure -tonal notes that alternate between high (approximately 5400-7000 Hz) and low (approximately 3000-4200 Hz) frequencies. Mechanisms of acoustic frequency perception in male territorial Carolina chickadees were evaluated using playback experiments designed to vary specific note frequencies, note frequency ranges, and the frequency range of the entire song type. Note frequency ranges provide the primary acoustic frequency cues for song recognition in this species. A gap between note frequency ranges exists in this species. Tones in this intermediate frequency range do not receive responses in the context of territorial song recognition. This kind of gap in frequency perception has not been demonstrated for other songbirds. Song playback experiments also were designed to vary systematically the contours (inter-note frequency sequences) of notes in song. Note frequency ranges provide the principal cues for song recognition, while the contour between note frequencies plays a supplementary role. The presence of a single descending interval between notes in the appropriate note frequency ranges of Carolina chickadee song generates full species-typical responses to song. Additionally, response to a descending contour between note

  3. The acoustic power of a vibrating clamped circular plate revisited in the wide low frequency range using expansion into the radial polynomials.

    PubMed

    Rdzanek, Wojciech P

    2016-06-01

    This study deals with the classical problem of sound radiation of an excited clamped circular plate embedded into a flat rigid baffle. The system of the two coupled differential equations is solved, one for the excited and damped vibrations of the plate and the other one-the Helmholtz equation. An approach using the expansion into radial polynomials leads to results for the modal impedance coefficients useful for a comprehensive numerical analysis of sound radiation. The results obtained are accurate and efficient in a wide low frequency range and can easily be adopted for a simply supported circular plate. The fluid loading is included providing accurate results in resonance. PMID:27369144

  4. Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k/2/ log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.

  5. Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k(2) log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.

  6. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  7. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  8. A systematic review of electric-acoustic stimulation: device fitting ranges, outcomes, and clinical fitting practices.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Paola V; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cowan, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Cochlear implant systems that combine electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear are now commercially available and the number of patients using these devices is steadily increasing. In particular, electric-acoustic stimulation is an option for patients with severe, high frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. There have been a range of approaches to combining electric stimulation and acoustic hearing in the same ear. To develop a better understanding of fitting practices for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation, we conducted a systematic review addressing three clinical questions: what is the range of acoustic hearing in the implanted ear that can be effectively preserved for an electric-acoustic fitting?; what benefits are provided by combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation?; and what clinical fitting practices have been developed for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation? A search of the literature was conducted and 27 articles that met the strict evaluation criteria adopted for the review were identified for detailed analysis. The range of auditory thresholds in the implanted ear that can be successfully used for an electric-acoustic application is quite broad. The effectiveness of combined electric and acoustic stimulation as compared with electric stimulation alone was consistently demonstrated, highlighting the potential value of preservation and utilization of low frequency hearing in the implanted ear. However, clinical procedures for best fitting of electric-acoustic devices were varied. This clearly identified a need for further investigation of fitting procedures aimed at maximizing outcomes for recipients of electric-acoustic devices. PMID:23539259

  9. Broadband fractal acoustic metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gang Yong; Cheng, Qiang; Huang, Bei; Dong, Hui Yuan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-09-01

    We fabricate and experimentally characterize a broadband fractal acoustic metamaterial that can serve to attenuate the low-frequency sounds at selective frequencies ranging from 225 to 1175 Hz. The proposed metamaterials are constructed by the periodic Hilbert fractal elements made of photosensitive resin via 3D printing. In analogy to electromagnetic fractal structures, it is shown that multiple resonances can also be excited in the acoustic counterpart due to their self-similar properties, which help to attenuate the acoustic energy in a wide spectrum. The confinement of sound waves in such subwavelength element is evidenced by both numerical and experimental results. The proposed metamaterial may provide possible alternative for various applications such as the noise attenuation and the anechoic materials.

  10. Swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique for noninvasive chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.N.; Han, Wei; Lizon, D.C.; Houlton, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range from outside a container (e.g., reactor vessel, tank, pipe, industrial containers etc.). From the frequency dependence of sound attenuation, fluid density can also be determined. These physical parameters. when combined together, can be used to identify a range of chemicals. This technique can be adapted for chemical diagnostic applications, particularly in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals (liquids, mixtures, emulsions, suspensions, etc.) may provide appropriate feedback information. The SFAI theory is discussed and experimental techniques are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are also presented.

  11. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  12. Extreme low frequency acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  13. Acoustic frequency combs for carrier-envelope phase stabilization.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Bastian; Lücking, Fabian; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-02-01

    A method for improved performance of feed-forward carrier-envelope phase stabilization in amplified laser sources is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The phase stabilization scheme is applicable for a broad range of repetition rates spanning from subhertz to 100 kHz. The method relies on driving an acousto-optic frequency shifter by few-cycle transients. The phase of these transients suitably controls the grating phase of the generated index grating inside the shifter material. This approach removes beam pointing as well as amplitude noise issues observed in continuously driven feed-forward schemes. The synthesis of these gratings can be understood as the acoustic equivalent of mode-locking or acoustic frequency combs. PMID:24487861

  14. Acoustic interpretation of the voice range profile (phonetogram).

    PubMed

    Titze, I R

    1992-02-01

    The voice range profile (VRP) is a display of vocal intensity range versus fundamental frequency (F0). Past measurements have shown that the intensity range is reduced at the extremes of the F0 range, that there is a gradual upward tilt of the high- and low-intensity boundaries with increasing F0, and that a ripple exists at the boundaries. The intensity ripple, which results from tuning of source harmonics to the formants, is more noticeable at the upper boundary than the lower boundary because higher harmonics are not energized as effectively near phonation threshold as at maximum lung pressure. The gradual tilt of the intensity boundaries results from more effective transmission and radiation of acoustic energy at higher fundamental frequencies. This depends on the spectral distribution of the source power, however, At low F0, a smaller spectral slope (more harmonic energy) produces greater intensity. At high F0, on the other hand, a shift of energy toward the fundamental results in greater intensity. This dependence of intensity on spectral distribution of source power seems to explain the reduced intensity range at higher F0. An unrelated problem of reduced intensity range at low F0 stems from the inherent difficulty of keeping F0 from rising when subglottal pressure is increased.

  15. Range aliasing in frequency coherent geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the effects of frequency selection on source localization and geoacoustic inversion methods that use frequency coherent objective functions. Matched-field processors based on frequency-coherent objective functions often have rapidly fluctuating range ambiguity surfaces. Insufficient sampling in frequency domain results in range aliasing terms that affect geoacoustic inversion. Range aliasing and its effects on source localization and environmental parameter inversion are demonstrated on data collected during the MAPEX2000 experiment. Guidance for frequency selection to avoid range aliasing is provided.

  16. Frequency Domain Calculations Of Acoustic Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Two complex geometry problems are solved using the linearized Euler equations. The impedance mismatch method1 is used to impose the solid surfaces without the need to use a body-fitted grid. The problem is solved in the frequency domain to avoid long run times. Although the harmonic assumption eliminates all time dependence, a pseudo-time term is added to allow conventional iterative methods to be employed. A Jameson type, Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in pseudo time. The spatial operator is based on a seven-point, sixth-order finite difference. Constant coefficient, sixth-derivative artificial dissipation is used throughout the domain. A buffer zone technique employing a complex frequency to damp all waves near the boundaries is used to minimize reflections. The results show that the method is capable of capturing the salient features of the scattering, but an excessive number of grid points are required to resolve the phenomena in the vicinity of the solid bodies because the wavelength of the acoustics is relatively short compared with the size of the bodies. Smoothly transitioning into the immersed boundary condition alleviates the difficulties, but a fine mesh is still required.

  17. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong; Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Wu, Junru

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  18. Optical Heterodyne Investigation of the Microwave Frequency Acoustic Properties of Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonney, Rob

    An optical heterodyne interferometer with a state -of-the-art microwave frequency acoustic transducer was used to measure the acoustic properties of liquids and solutions at frequencies up to 1.5 GHz. Heterodyne detection with a strong optical local oscillator was used to detect a weak optical signal beam produced by Bragg deflection from an acoustic wave coupled into a liquid sample. The acoustic transducer had a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz. Several liquid mixtures were measured for the first time, including aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethyl acetate in carbon disulphide. In some cases, previously unknown dispersions were characterized. A thermodynamic model (valid in the low frequency limit) involving the heat of mixing was used successfully to predict the variation of velocity with composition of liquid mixtures. With this model as a guide, an attempt was made to identify a liquid mixture which would make a superior medium for the acoustic microscope. The search produced results which supported theoretical predictions, but no superior medium was found. Solutions of biomolecules were also investigated due to interest in possible resonant acoustic modes in DNA. No dispersions or resonances were found in solutions of polyglycines, and results for DNA solutions were inconclusive. Applications of this work include general studies in liquid acoustics at very high frequencies, acoustic studies of DNA solutions, and characterization of media for such technological applications as acoustic microscopy or phase conjugation using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

  19. Transponder System for High-Frequency Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, C. L.; Shores, P. W.; Kobayashi, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transponder system uses phase difference between transmitted and reflected high-frequency radio waves to measure distance to target. To suppress spurious measurements of reflections from objects near target at transmitted frequency and its harmonics, transponder at target generates return signal at half transmitted frequency. System useful in such applications as surveying, docking of ships, and short-range navigation.

  20. Comparison of the TACOM acoustic-detection-range prediction model and the UK Dstl acoustic prediction propagation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunney, Victoria; Mantey, Robert; Crile, James

    2002-08-01

    Acoustic signatures are being exploited more and more by new technology in the battlefield as a way of detecting and identifying potential targets. An understanding of the way in which the acoustic signature of a land platform propagates through the atmosphere enables one to target suppression techniques to those acoustic sources on the vehicle that will provide the greatest military benefit in terms of reducing the detection range of the platform. Dstl Chertsey (UK) and TACOM (US) have developed acoustic propagation models which can predict the far-field sound pressure levels (SPLs) and associated detection ranges of land platforms under a variety of meteorological conditions over different terrain types. The Acoustic Prediction Propagation Model (APPM), UK) and Acoustic Detection Range Prediction Model (ADRPM, US) have previously been compared and have been found to produce similar results for simple scenarios. With recent developments in both models, this comparison has been carried out again, looking at the introduction of Fast-Field Programs (FFP) to both models and, in more detail, the differences between the results at certain frequencies. This paper represents the results found from this comparison study, showing the differences, similarities and potential of these models for the future.

  1. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-06-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  2. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  3. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    C.N. Corrado; J.E. Bondaryk; V. Godino

    1998-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and Ieaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containment in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify a technique(s) for inspection of inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary. Acoustic imaging has been identified as one of these potential techniques. A numerical feasibility study investigated the use of high-frequency bistatic acoustic imaging techniques for inspection of inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary of nuclear power plant containment. The range-dependent version of the OASES Code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was utilized to perform a series of numerical simulations. OASES is a well developed and extensively tested code for evaluation of the acoustic field in a system of stratified fluid and/or elastic layers. Using the code, an arbitrary number of fluid or solid elastic layers are interleaved, with the outer layers modeled as halfspaces. High frequency vibrational sources were modeled to simulate elastic waves in the steel. The received field due to an arbitrary source array can be calculated at arbitrary depth and range positions. In this numerical study, waves that reflect and scatter from surface roughness caused by modeled degradations (e.g., corrosion) are detected and used to identify and map the steel degradation. Variables in the numerical study included frequency, flaw size, interrogation distance, and sensor incident angle.Based on these analytical simulations, it is considered unlikely that acoustic imaging technology can be used to investigate embedded steel liners of reinforced concrete containment. The thin steel liner and high signal losses to the concrete make this application difficult. Results for portions of steel containment

  4. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  5. Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Gusev, Vitalyi; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-09-16

    We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids.

  6. Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Gusev, Vitalyi; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids. PMID:27633351

  7. Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Gusev, Vitalyi; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids. PMID:27633351

  8. Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Gusev, Vitalyi; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids.

  9. An acoustic dual filter in the audio frequencies with two local resonant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-qun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Shu-yi; Fan, Li

    2014-08-01

    We report an acoustic dual filter to realize the sound regulation in the audio frequency range, in which resonant vibrations of two membrane-air and metal-elastomer systems generate two sound transmission peaks and a sound blocking below 3000 Hz. The local vibrational profiles manifest that the transmission peak at lower frequency is mainly dependent on the resonant vibration of the membrane-air system, and the coupling vibrations of two systems generate the blocking frequency and transmission peak at higher frequency. Importantly, two transmission peaks can be controlled independently. It is feasible to realize the acoustic device in sound shield and dual filters.

  10. Long range acoustic imaging of the continental shelf environment: the Acoustic Clutter Reconnaissance Experiment 2001.

    PubMed

    Ratilal, Purnima; Lai, Yisan; Symonds, Deanelle T; Ruhlmann, Lilimar A; Preston, John R; Scheer, Edward K; Garr, Michael T; Holland, Charles W; Goff, John A; Makris, Nicholas C

    2005-04-01

    An active sonar system is used to image wide areas of the continental shelf environment by long-range echo sounding at low frequency. The bistatic system, deployed in the STRATAFORM area south of Long Island in April-May of 2001, imaged a large number of prominent clutter events over ranges spanning tens of kilometers in near real time. Roughly 3000 waveforms were transmitted into the water column. Wide-area acoustic images of the ocean environment were generated in near real time for each transmission. Between roughly 10 to more than 100 discrete and localized scatterers were registered for each image. This amounts to a total of at least 30000 scattering events that could be confused with those from submerged vehicles over the period of the experiment. Bathymetric relief in the STRATAFORM area is extremely benign, with slopes typically less than 0.5 degrees according to high resolution (30 m sampled) bathymetric data. Most of the clutter occurs in regions where the bathymetry is locally level and does not coregister with seafloor features. No statistically significant difference is found in the frequency of occurrence per unit area of repeatable clutter inside versus outside of areas occupied by subsurface river channels.

  11. Field observation of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation characteristics of an estuarine salt wedge.

    PubMed

    Reeder, D Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge, the stratification of which is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance, river discharge volumetric flow rate, and river mouth morphology. Competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed in this stratified environment control the degree of acoustic refraction occurring along an acoustic path. A field experiment was carried out in the Columbia River Estuary to test the hypothesis: the estuarine salt wedge is acoustically observable in terms of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation. Linear frequency-modulated acoustic signals in the 500-2000 Hz band were transmitted during the advance and retreat of the salt wedge during May 27-29, 2013. Results demonstrate that the salt wedge front is the dominant physical mechanism controlling acoustic propagation in this environment: received signal energy is relatively stable before and after the passage of the salt wedge front when the acoustic path consists of a single medium (either entirely fresh water or entirely salt water), and suffers a 10-15 dB loss and increased variability during salt wedge front passage. Physical parameters and acoustic propagation modeling corroborate and inform the acoustic observations. PMID:26827001

  12. Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2016-03-01

    Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.

  13. Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.

  14. Mid-frequency sound propagation through internal waves at short range with synoptic oceanographic observations.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Tang, Dajun; Williams, Kevin L; Wang, Zhongkang; Moum, James N

    2008-09-01

    Preliminary results are presented from an analysis of mid-frequency acoustic transmission data collected at range 550 m during the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment. The acoustic data were collected on a vertical array immediately before, during, and after the passage of a nonlinear internal wave on 18 August, 2006. Using oceanographic data collected at a nearby location, a plane-wave model for the nonlinear internal wave's position as a function of time is developed. Experimental results show a new acoustic path is generated as the internal wave passes above the acoustic source.

  15. Frequency Characteristics of Acoustic Emission Signals from Cementitious Waste-forms with Encapsulated Al

    SciTech Connect

    Spasova, Lyubka M.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2007-07-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals were continuously recorded and their intrinsic frequency characteristics examined in order to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious wasteform samples with encapsulated Al waste. The primary frequency in the power spectrum and its range of intensity for the detected acoustic waves were potentially related with appearance of different micro-mechanical events caused by Al corrosion within the encapsulating cement system. In addition the process of cement matrix hardening has been shown as a source of AE signals characterized with essentially higher primary frequency (above 2 MHz) compared with those due to Al corrosion development (below 40 kHz) and cement cracking (above 100 kHz). (authors)

  16. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of multiple-frequency, active and passive acoustics as surrogates for bedload transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Pachman, Gregory; Lorang, Mark; Tonolla, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple-frequency, active acoustics through deployment of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) shows potential for estimating bedload in selected grain size categories. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of Montana (UM), evaluated the use of multiple-frequency, active and passive acoustics as surrogates for bedload transport during a pilot study on the Kootenai River, Idaho, May 17-18, 2012. Four ADCPs with frequencies ranging from 600 to 2000 kHz were used to measure apparent moving bed velocities at 20 stations across the river in conjunction with physical bedload samples. Additionally, UM scientists measured the sound frequencies of moving particles with two hydrophones, considered passive acoustics, along longitudinal transects in the study reach. Some patterns emerged in the preliminary analysis which show promise for future studies. Statistically significant relations were successfully developed between apparent moving bed velocities measured by ADCPs with frequencies 1000 and 1200 kHz and bedload in 0.5 to 2.0 mm grain size categories. The 600 kHz ADCP seemed somewhat sensitive to the movement of gravel bedload in the size range 8.0 to 31.5 mm, but the relation was not statistically significant. The passive hydrophone surveys corroborated the sample results and could be used to map spatial variability in bedload transport and to select a measurement cross-section with moving bedload for active acoustic surveys and physical samples.

  18. Hybrid acoustically layered foam (HALF) foam for improved low-frequency acoustic mitigation for launch fairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Domme, Daniel J.; Ardelean, Emil V.; Henderson, B. Kyle

    2007-04-01

    Launch vehicles produce high levels of acoustic energy and vibration loads that can severely damage satellites during launch. Because of these high loads, the satellite structure is much more robust than it needs to be for on-orbit operations. Traditionally, acoustic foam is used for acoustic mitigation; however, it is ineffective at frequencies below 500 Hz. For this reason we investigated three different modified acoustic foam concepts consisting of a thin metal foil, a semi-rigid spacer, and a melamine foam substrate to improve the low frequency acoustic performance of the melamine foam. The goal of the Hybrid Acoustically Layered Foil (HALF) Foam concept was to excite bending waves within the plane of the foil to cause inter-particle interactions thus increasing the transmission loss of the foam. To determine the performance of the system, a transmission loss tube was constructed, and the normal incidence transmission loss for each sample was measured. The tests confirm the excitation of bending waves at the target frequency of 500 Hz and a significant increase, on the order of 8 dB, in the transmission loss.

  19. Observations of clustering inside oceanic bubble clouds and the effect on short-range acoustic propagation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas C

    2008-11-01

    It has recently been shown [Weber, T. C. et al. (2007). "Acoustic propagation through clustered bubble clouds," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 32, 513-523] that gas bubble clustering plays a role in determining the acoustic field characteristics of bubbly fluids. In particular, it has been shown that clustering changes the bubble-induced attenuation as well as the ping-to-ping variability in the acoustic field. The degree to which bubble clustering exists in nature, however, is unknown. This paper describes a method for quantifying bubble clustering using a high frequency (400 kHz) multibeam sonar, and reports on observations of near-surface bubble clustering during a storm (14.6 m/s wind speed) in the Gulf of Maine. The multibeam sonar data are analyzed to estimate the pair correlation function, a measure of bubble clustering. In order to account for clustering in the mean acoustic field, a modification to the effective medium wave number is made. With this modification, the multibeam sonar observations are used to predict the effect of clustering on the attenuation of the mean field for short-range propagation (1 m) at frequencies between 10 and 350 kHz. Results for this specific case show that clustering can cause the attenuation to change by 20%-80% over this frequency range.

  20. Observations of clustering inside oceanic bubble clouds and the effect on short-range acoustic propagation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas C

    2008-11-01

    It has recently been shown [Weber, T. C. et al. (2007). "Acoustic propagation through clustered bubble clouds," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 32, 513-523] that gas bubble clustering plays a role in determining the acoustic field characteristics of bubbly fluids. In particular, it has been shown that clustering changes the bubble-induced attenuation as well as the ping-to-ping variability in the acoustic field. The degree to which bubble clustering exists in nature, however, is unknown. This paper describes a method for quantifying bubble clustering using a high frequency (400 kHz) multibeam sonar, and reports on observations of near-surface bubble clustering during a storm (14.6 m/s wind speed) in the Gulf of Maine. The multibeam sonar data are analyzed to estimate the pair correlation function, a measure of bubble clustering. In order to account for clustering in the mean acoustic field, a modification to the effective medium wave number is made. With this modification, the multibeam sonar observations are used to predict the effect of clustering on the attenuation of the mean field for short-range propagation (1 m) at frequencies between 10 and 350 kHz. Results for this specific case show that clustering can cause the attenuation to change by 20%-80% over this frequency range. PMID:19045766

  1. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level.

  2. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level. PMID:16875213

  3. Study of Acoustic Parameters in Binary Mixture at Variable Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Tripathy, A.; Paikaray, R.

    2013-11-01

    The acoustical parameters for two binary liquid mixtures, acetone-toluene and acetone-xylene, have been determined for three different frequencies (1 MHz, 3 MHz, and 5 MHz) at 303 K. The acoustical parameters such as isentropic compressibility (), intermolecular free length (), acoustic impedance (), and their excess values are computed for the two systems from the measured ultrasonic velocity and density values. The extent of interactions between the component molecules has been investigated. For the acetone-toluene system, the more negative values of the different excess parameters suggest that the interactions between acetone-toluene molecules are greater compared to the acetone-xylene system. With an increase of frequency, the extent of the interactions becomes weaker in both systems due to thermal relaxation and agitation of the component molecules.

  4. Acoustic angiography: a new high frequency contrast ultrasound technique for biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Sarah E.; Lindsey, Brooks D.; Gessner, Ryan; Lee, Yueh; Aylward, Stephen; Lee, Hyunggyun; Cherin, Emmanuel; Foster, F. Stuart; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic Angiography is a new approach to high-resolution contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging enabled by ultra-broadband transducer designs. The high frequency imaging technique provides signal separation from tissue which does not produce significant harmonics in the same frequency range, as well as high resolution. This approach enables imaging of microvasculature in-vivo with high resolution and signal to noise, producing images that resemble x-ray angiography. Data shows that acoustic angiography can provide important information about the presence of disease based on vascular patterns, and may enable a new paradigm in medical imaging.

  5. Biases and caustics in long-range acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, Walter; Wunsch, Carl

    1985-11-01

    We consider the travel time perturbation δt of acoustic rays in an ocean sound channel. The perturbations arom a straining e(x,z) of the water column. An expansion to second order gives δt ≈ τ + ατ , where < e> and are suitably weighted strain wverages, α is a number of order 1 (except near caustics), and τ is the phase integral (the 'reduced travel time' in the seismic literature); τ is a function of ray steepness and range, and varies from zero for axial rays to order 10 s for steep rays at 1000 km range. The quadratic bais ατ changes sign at the caustics; generally it is negative (warm bias) for a range-dependent ocean as compared to a range-independent ocean with the same average properties. We consider two separate problems: (a) linear inversions for the range-averaged profile in soundspeed (temperature) introduces 0.5 m s -1 (0.1 °C) systematic errors arising from horizontal ocean variability (mesoscal activity), but these errors can be reduced by making corrections for . (b) In the problem of monitoring for climatic changes of large-scale ocean features, the quadratic bias is negligible compared to the sample variability, and there is an inherent advantage to the long-range horizontal integration in acoustic tomography over the traditional local measurements.

  6. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Moiz; Xiang, Liangzhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 106 per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range

  7. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic

  8. Acoustic trapping with a high frequency linear phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Liu, Changgeng; Tat Chiu, Chi; Lee, Changyang; Ham Kim, Hyung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-11-01

    A high frequency ultrasonic phased array is shown to be capable of trapping and translating microparticles precisely and efficiently, made possible due to the fact that the acoustic beam produced by a phased array can be both focused and steered. Acoustic manipulation of microparticles by a phased array is advantageous over a single element transducer since there is no mechanical movement required for the array. Experimental results show that 45 μm diameter polystyrene microspheres can be easily and accurately trapped and moved to desired positions by a 64-element 26 MHz phased array.

  9. Acoustic trapping with a high frequency linear phased array.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Liu, Changgeng; Tat Chiu, Chi; Lee, Changyang; Ham Kim, Hyung; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-11-19

    A high frequency ultrasonic phased array is shown to be capable of trapping and translating microparticles precisely and efficiently, made possible due to the fact that the acoustic beam produced by a phased array can be both focused and steered. Acoustic manipulation of microparticles by a phased array is advantageous over a single element transducer since there is no mechanical movement required for the array. Experimental results show that 45 μm diameter polystyrene microspheres can be easily and accurately trapped and moved to desired positions by a 64-element 26 MHz phased array.

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  11. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500-2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  12. Development of the Acoustic Ranging System Toward the Cable Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a short-range seafloor ranging system as a possible future application to the DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) cable system. Direct acoustic ranging is a simple way to monitor local crustal deformation, and various groups have successfully detected deformation on the seafloor using such a system. We aim to monitor the splay faults in the rupture area of the Tonankai earthquake in Nankai subduction zone (Park et al, 2002). Slip along the active splay faults may be an important mechanism that accommodates the elastic strain caused by relative plate motion. We plan to deploy PXPs (precise acoustic transponder) across the splay faults in the Kumano-nada area to measure the horizontal crustal movement to the accuracy required to detect VLF (Very Low Frequency) earthquakes. On the first step we collected 660 ranging data in this one-day experiment. The round trip travel time shows a variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 25 mm in the range. It was confirmed that most of the variation could be explained by the change in sound speed estimated from measured temperature and pressure. The remaining fluctuation in the acoustic measurements is +/-2 mm. On the next step, we carried out the experiment to estimate the accuracy of the long period. It collected the data during four month because it had made a trouble. Therefore we can recovery only two slave PXPs. We try to recovery two master PXPs using Hyper dolphin on September 2008. We report on the experiment with a direct acoustic ranging system and estimate the accuracy of the acoustic measurements for the middle period.

  13. Analysis of passive acoustic ranging of helicopters from the joint acoustic propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Benny L.; Morgan, John C.

    1993-01-01

    For more than twenty years, personnel of the U.S.A.E. Waterways Experiment Station (WES) have been performing research dealing with the application of sensors for detection of military targets. The WES research has included the use of seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and other sensors to detect, track, and classify military ground targets. Most of the WES research has been oriented toward the employment of such sensors in a passive mode. Techniques for passive detection are of particular interest in the Army because of the advantages over active detection. Passive detection methods are not susceptible to interception, detection, jamming, or location of the source by the threat. A decided advantage for using acoustic and seismic sensors for detection in tactical situations is the non-line-of-sight capability; i.e., detection of low flying helicopters at long distances without visual contact. This study was conducted to analyze the passive acoustic ranging (PAR) concept using a more extensive data set from the Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE).

  14. A frequency selective acoustic transducer for directional Lamb wave sensing.

    PubMed

    Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    A frequency selective acoustic transducer (FSAT) is proposed for directional sensing of guided waves. The considered FSAT design is characterized by a spiral configuration in wavenumber domain, which leads to a spatial arrangement of the sensing material producing output signals whose dominant frequency component is uniquely associated with the direction of incoming waves. The resulting spiral FSAT can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves, without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the spiral FSAT is obtained through the theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. Testing is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The discrete array approximates the continuous spiral FSAT geometry, and provides the flexibility to test several configurations. The experimental results demonstrate the strong frequency dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency selective acoustic sensors, to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. PMID:21973344

  15. The Suppression of Dominant Acoustic Frequencies in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Xingxian; Brown, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Patient discomfort and brain imaging distortion are serious MRI acoustic noise problems arising from the rapid switching on and off of gradient coils in the presence of the strong Larmor magnetic field. A study is made of dominant frequencies in the acoustic noise spectrum and, motivated by both spring and string ideas, we propose the cancellation of selected frequencies by appropriate gradient pulse sequence design. From both simulations and experiments, vibrations resulting from an impulsive force associated with a ramping up of a gradient pulse are shown to be cancelled upon the application of another impulsive force coming from the appropriately timed ramping down of that pulse. A method for the suppression of multiple-frequency contributions involving a series of gradient pulses with variable timings is developed and confirmed by experiment. Whether we refer to reduction in terms of dB (about 30-40 dB per peak), or to the verdict of a listener, the conclusion is that a marked reduction in sound can be achieved when at least three of the dominant frequency peaks are suppressed. A variety of pulse profiles and timing combinations can be used to attenuate important contributions to the acoustic spectrum. Supported by the Ohio Third Frontier Program.

  16. Effects of ultrasound frequency and acoustic amplitude on the size of sonochemically active bubbles - Theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2013-05-01

    Numerical simulation of chemical reactions inside an isolated spherical bubble of oxygen has been performed for various ambient bubble radii at different frequencies and acoustic amplitudes to study the effects of these two parameters on the range of ambient radius for an active bubble in sonochemical reactions. The employed model combines the dynamic of bubble collapse with the chemical kinetics of single cavitation bubble. Results from this model were compared with some experimental results presented in the literature and good apparent trends between them were observed. The numerical calculations of this study showed that there always exists an optimal ambient bubble radius at which the production of oxidizing species at the end of the bubble collapse attained their upper limit. It was shown that the range of ambient radius for an active bubble increased with increasing acoustic amplitude and decreased with increasing ultrasound frequency. The optimal ambient radius decreased with increasing frequency. Analysis of curves showing optimal ambient radius versus acoustic amplitude for different ultrasonic frequencies indicated that for 200 and 300kHz, the optimal ambient radius increased linearly with increasing acoustic amplitude up to 3atm. However, slight minima of optimal radius were observed for the curves obtained at 500 and 1000kHz. PMID:23187064

  17. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various frequencies.

    PubMed

    Maraghechi, Borna; Hasani, Mojtaba H; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. PMID:27250143

  18. Flat acoustic sources with frequency response correction based on feedback and feed-forward distributed control.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur P

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an acoustic source with a small thickness and high bending stiffness. The high bending stiffness is obtained with a sandwich structure in which the face of the sandwich structure internal to the source is perforated to increase the acoustic compliance, thereby leading to increased electroacoustic conversion efficiency. Multiple actuators are used to drive the moving component of the acoustic source. Control of the acoustic resonances and structural resonances is required to obtain an even frequency response. The use of collocated decentralized feedback control based on velocity sensing was found to be ineffective for controlling these resonances due to the destabilizing asymmetric modes caused by the coupling of the internal acoustic cavity and the rigid body vibration of the moving component. Resonances can be controlled by a set of independent combinations of symmetric driving patterns with corresponding velocity feedback controllers such that the fundamental mass-air resonance is effectively controlled, as is the lowest bending mode of the moving component. Finally, a compensation scheme for low frequencies is used which enables a flat frequency response in the range of 30 Hz to 1 kHz with deviations smaller than 3 dB.

  19. Membrane-constrained acoustic metamaterials for low frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaole; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Xudong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    We present a constrained membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (CMAM) that employs constraint sticks to add out-of-plane dimensions in the design space of MAM. A CMAM sample, which adopts constraint sticks to suppress vibrations at the membrane center, was fabricated to achieve a sound transmission loss (STL) peak of 26 dB at 140 Hz, with the static areal density of 6.0 kg/m2. The working mechanism of the CMAM as an acoustic metamaterial is elucidated by calculating the averaged normal displacement, the equivalent areal density, and the effective dynamic mass of a unit cell through finite element simulations. Furthermore, the vibration modes of the CMAM indicate that the eigenmodes related to STL dips are shifted into high frequencies, thus broadening its effective bandwidth significantly. Three samples possessing the same geometry and material but different constraint areas were fabricated to illustrate the tunability of STL peaks at low frequencies.

  20. Frequency diversity for OFDM mobile communication via underwater acoustic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Gang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Ran; Khan, Rehan; Wang, Yue

    2012-03-01

    The major constraint on the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based underwater acoustic (UWA) communication is to keep subcarriers orthogonal. In this paper, Doppler estimation and the respective compensation technique along with various diversity techniques were deliberated for OFDM-based systems best suited for underwater wireless information exchange. In practice, for mobile communication, adjustment and tuning of transducers in order to get spatial diversity is extremely difficult. Considering the relatively low coherence bandwidth in UWA, the frequency diversity design with the Doppler compensation function was elaborated here. The outfield experiments of mobile underwater acoustic communication (UWAC) based on OFDM were carried out with 0.17 bit/(s·Hz) spectral efficiency. The validity and the dependability of the scheme were also analyzed.

  1. 33 CFR 86.01 - Frequencies and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Frequencies and range of audibility. The fundamental frequency of the signal shall lie within the range 70-525..., which may include the fundamental and/or one or more higher frequencies, which lie within the...

  2. Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymaekers, Mark; Ernestus, Mirjam; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of lexical frequency on the durational reduction of morphologically complex words in spoken Dutch. The hypothesis that high-frequency words are more reduced than low-frequency words was tested by comparing the durations of affixes occurring in different carrier words. Four Dutch affixes were investigated, each occurring in a large number of words with different frequencies. The materials came from a large database of face-to-face conversations. For each word containing a target affix, one token was randomly selected for acoustic analysis. Measurements were made of the duration of the affix as a whole and the durations of the individual segments in the affix. For three of the four affixes, a higher frequency of the carrier word led to shorter realizations of the affix as a whole, individual segments in the affix, or both. Other relevant factors were the sex and age of the speaker, segmental context, and speech rate. To accommodate for these findings, models of speech production should allow word frequency to affect the acoustic realizations of lower-level units, such as individual speech sounds occurring in affixes.

  3. THE ACOUSTIC CUTOFF FREQUENCY OF THE SUN AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, P. L.; Garcia, R. A.

    2011-12-20

    The acoustic cutoff frequency-the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes-is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but are traveling waves. Interference among them gives rise to higher-frequency peaks-the pseudomodes-in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p-modes, making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cutoff frequency. Using data from the GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cutoff frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 until the present), a variation in the acoustic cutoff frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  4. Shifting fundamental frequency in simulated electric-acoustic listening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Scherrer, Nicole M.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown significant improvement in speech intelligibility under both simulated [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1658–1665; Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2010). Hear. Res. 266, 52–59] and real [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009b). Ear Hear. 30, 489–493] electric-acoustic stimulation when the target speech in the low-frequency region was replaced with a tone modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker’s fundamental frequency (F0), and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the target speech. The present study examined the effects in simulation of applying these cues to a tone lower in frequency than the mean F0 of the target talker. Results showed that shifting the frequency of the tonal carrier downward by as much as 75 Hz had no negative impact on the benefit to intelligibility due to the tone, and that even a shift of 100 Hz resulted in a significant benefit over simulated electric-only stimulation when the sensation level of the tone was comparable to that of the tones shifted by lesser amounts. PMID:20815462

  5. Low frequency acoustic pulse propagation in temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Albert, Donald G; Swearingen, Michelle E; Perron, Frank E; Carbee, David L

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of acoustic pulse propagation for a 30-m path were conducted in an open field and in seven different forest stands in the northeastern United States consisting of deciduous, evergreen, or mixed tree species. The waveforms recorded in forest generally show the pulse elongation characteristic of propagation over a highly porous ground surface, with high frequency scattered arrivals superimposed on the basic waveform shape. Waveform analysis conducted to determine ground properties resulted in acoustically determined layer thicknesses of 4-8 cm in summer, within 2 cm of the directly measured thickness of the litter layers. In winter the acoustic thicknesses correlated with the site-specific snow cover depths. Effective flow resistivity values of 50-88 kN s m(-4) were derived for the forest sites in summer, while lower values typical for snow were found in winter. Reverberation times (T60) were typically around 2 s, but two stands (deciduous and pruned spruce planted on a square grid) had lower values of about 1.2 s. One site with a very rough ground surface had very low summer flow resistivity value and also had the longest reverberation time of about 3 s. These measurements can provide parameters useful for theoretical predictions of acoustic propagation within forests. PMID:26328690

  6. Low frequency acoustic pulse propagation in temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Albert, Donald G; Swearingen, Michelle E; Perron, Frank E; Carbee, David L

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of acoustic pulse propagation for a 30-m path were conducted in an open field and in seven different forest stands in the northeastern United States consisting of deciduous, evergreen, or mixed tree species. The waveforms recorded in forest generally show the pulse elongation characteristic of propagation over a highly porous ground surface, with high frequency scattered arrivals superimposed on the basic waveform shape. Waveform analysis conducted to determine ground properties resulted in acoustically determined layer thicknesses of 4-8 cm in summer, within 2 cm of the directly measured thickness of the litter layers. In winter the acoustic thicknesses correlated with the site-specific snow cover depths. Effective flow resistivity values of 50-88 kN s m(-4) were derived for the forest sites in summer, while lower values typical for snow were found in winter. Reverberation times (T60) were typically around 2 s, but two stands (deciduous and pruned spruce planted on a square grid) had lower values of about 1.2 s. One site with a very rough ground surface had very low summer flow resistivity value and also had the longest reverberation time of about 3 s. These measurements can provide parameters useful for theoretical predictions of acoustic propagation within forests.

  7. Instability of interfaces of gas bubbles in liquids under acoustic excitation with dual frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Du, Xiaoze; Xian, Haizhen; Wu, Yulin

    2015-03-01

    Instability of interfaces of gas bubbles in liquids under acoustic excitation with dual frequency is theoretically investigated. The critical bubble radii dividing stable and unstable regions of bubbles under dual-frequency acoustic excitation are strongly affected by the amplitudes of dual-frequency acoustic excitation rather than the frequencies of dual-frequency excitation. The limitation of the proposed model is also discussed with demonstrating examples.

  8. The Suppression of Selected Acoustic Noise Frequencies in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Xingxian

    Problems due to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acoustic noise have long been an important concern, both in research and clinical applications. A study is made of certain dominant frequencies in the acoustic noise spectrum of the MRI system. Motivated by both spring and string ideas, we investigate whether the contributions to the sound from certain frequencies can be cancelled by the appropriate the gradient pulse sequence design. Ideas for cancelling these frequencies are investigated by carrying out theoretical string calculations. The MRI gradient assembly is modeled as a string and the gradient pulse sequences as a driving force for that string. Analytical results are obtained with different input gradient pulses including boxcars, trapezoids, and multiple trapezoids, along with special "quadratic" pulses. Pulse trains composed of repetitions of these pulse structures are studied. For comparison and to test these ideas, both simulations and experiments are carried out to verify our analytical results for the cancellations of selected frequency peaks. The idea that vibrations resulting from an impulsive force associated with a ramping up of a gradient pulse are shown to be cancelled immediately upon the application of another impulsive force coming from the subsequent appropriately timed ramping down of that pulse is verified both by simulations and experiments. A general approach to suppression of multiple-frequency contributions involving a series of gradient pulses with variable timings is given for the cancellations between pairs of impulse forces. The various examples investigated with string analytics and simulations and the associated MRI experiments are a physical embodiments of general time-invariant linear response theory. The present study also provides a foundation to explain results in previous papers on this subject. The method suggests that a variety of pulse profiles and timing combinations can be used to attenuate important contributions to

  9. Comparing surficial sediments maps interpreted by experts with dual-frequency acoustic backscatter on the Scotian Shelf, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, Andrew; Anderson, John T.; Devillers, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    Understanding seabed properties is increasingly important to support policy in the marine environment. Such knowledge can be gained from diverse methods, ranging from more traditional expert-interpretations of acoustic and ground-truth data, to maps resulting from fully quantitative analyses of acoustic data. This study directly compares surficial geology maps created through expert-interpretations to near-nadir acoustic backscatter data from two frequencies (38 kHz and 120 kHz) collected using single beam echosounders (SBES) for two 5×1 km study areas on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Statistical methods were used to analyze and classify both single and dual-frequency acoustic backscatter for comparisons. In particular, spatial scaling of acoustic backscatter responses and acoustic classes created using acoustic seabed classification (ASC) is compared between frequencies and to interpreted sediment units (ISUs) which make up surficial geology maps produced by experts. Seabed morphology layers were included in an ASC approach to reflect the morphological components included in the interpreted geological maps. Results confirmed that higher frequencies and coarser grain sizes generally produced higher backscatter, while more heterogeneous and rougher seabeds produced variable backscatter. Differing acoustic responses within similar substrate units suggest fundamental seabed variations not reflected in the geological interpretations. Spatial scaling of sand and gravel substrates from 38 kHz frequency were closer than the 120 kHz frequency to the spatial scaling of the interpreted geological map. Variable grain size in the sediment volume and surface morphology are both presented as possible reasons for frequency differences. While both frequencies had similar general responses, differences in frequency responses of backscatter occurred at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. Results presented here emphasize the importance of multi-scale seabed mapping and additional

  10. 47 CFR 18.309 - Frequency range of measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency range of measurements. 18.309 Section... MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.309 Frequency range of measurements. (a) For field strength measurements: Frequency band in which device operates (MHz) Range of frequency measurements Lowest...

  11. 47 CFR 18.309 - Frequency range of measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency range of measurements. 18.309 Section... MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.309 Frequency range of measurements. (a) For field strength measurements: Frequency band in which device operates (MHz) Range of frequency measurements Lowest...

  12. Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.

    Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the

  13. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  14. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  15. Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed.

  16. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S. Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-07-22

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  17. Biosonar resolving power: echo-acoustic perception of surface structures in the submillimeter range.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ralph; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Tschapka, Marco; Schneider, Annkathrin; Passauer, Nadine; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; von Helversen, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The minimum distance for which two points still can be separated from each other defines the resolving power of a visual system. In an echo-acoustic context, the resolving power is usually measured as the smallest perceivable distance of two reflecting surfaces on the range axis and is found to be around half a millimeter for bats employing frequency modulated (FM) echolocation calls. Only few studies measured such thresholds with physical objects, most often bats were trained on virtual echoes i.e., echoes generated and played back by a computer; moreover, bats were sitting while they received the stimuli. In these studies differences in structure depth between 200 and 340 μm were found. However, these low thresholds were never verified for free-flying bats and real physical objects. Here, we show behavioral evidence that the echo-acoustic resolving power for surface structures in fact can be as low as measured for computer generated echoes and even lower, sometimes below 100 μm. We found this exceptional fine discrimination ability only when one of the targets showed spectral interferences in the frequency range of the bats' echolocation call while the other target did not. This result indicates that surface structure is likely to be perceived as a spectral quality rather than being perceived strictly in the time domain. Further, it points out that sonar resolving power directly depends on the highest frequency/shortest wavelength of the signal employed.

  18. GHz-range surface acoustic wave interdigital transducers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Kazuhiko

    1989-11-01

    GHz-range interdigital transducers (IDTs) with nanometer electrodes fabricated by using a new method of direct electron beam lithography and O2-plasma ashing techniques are examined. Various kinds of unidirectional transducers for low-loss devices are described and a new fabrication technology for higher operating frequencies using a lift-off anodic oxidation method is presented. Electrode separations are obtained by dielectric thin film fabricated by anodic oxidation of the edge of an Al film covered by the photoresist. Various kinds of GHz-range unidirectional IDTs using the lift-off anodic oxidation method are described.

  19. Frequency-selective fading statistics of shallow-water acoustic communication channel with a few multipaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Minja; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Jongju; Xue, Dandan; Park, Kyu-Chil; Yoon, Jong Rak

    2016-07-01

    The bit error rate of an underwater acoustic communication system is related to multipath fading statistics, which determine the signal-to-noise ratio. The amplitude and delay of each path depend on sea surface roughness, propagation medium properties, and source-to-receiver range as a function of frequency. Therefore, received signals will show frequency-dependent fading. A shallow-water acoustic communication channel generally shows a few strong multipaths that interfere with each other and the resulting interference affects the fading statistics model. In this study, frequency-selective fading statistics are modeled on the basis of the phasor representation of the complex path amplitude. The fading statistics distribution is parameterized by the frequency-dependent constructive or destructive interference of multipaths. At a 16 m depth with a muddy bottom, a wave height of 0.2 m, and source-to-receiver ranges of 100 and 400 m, fading statistics tend to show a Rayleigh distribution at a destructive interference frequency, but a Rice distribution at a constructive interference frequency. The theoretical fading statistics well matched the experimental ones.

  20. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S.

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  1. Differential Influence of Frequency, Timing, and Intensity Cues in a Complex Acoustic Categorization Task

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Katherine I.; McLendon, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Songbirds, which, like humans, learn complex vocalizations, provide an excellent model for the study of acoustic pattern recognition. Here we examined the role of three basic acoustic parameters in an ethologically relevant categorization task. Female zebra finches were first trained to classify songs as belonging to one of two males and then asked whether they could generalize this knowledge to songs systematically altered with respect to frequency, timing, or intensity. Birds' performance on song categorization fell off rapidly when songs were altered in frequency or intensity, but they generalized well to songs that were changed in duration by >25%. Birds were not deaf to timing changes, however; they detected these tempo alterations when asked to discriminate between the same song played back at two different speeds. In addition, when birds were retrained with songs at many intensities, they could correctly categorize songs over a wide range of volumes. Thus although they can detect all these cues, birds attend less to tempo than to frequency or intensity cues during song categorization. These results are unexpected for several reasons: zebra finches normally encounter a wide range of song volumes but most failed to generalize across volumes in this task; males produce only slight variations in tempo, but females generalized widely over changes in song duration; and all three acoustic parameters are critical for auditory neurons. Thus behavioral data place surprising constraints on the relationship between previous experience, behavioral task, neural responses, and perception. We discuss implications for models of auditory pattern recognition. PMID:20610781

  2. Modulational excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic waves in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.; Yu, M. Y.

    2007-04-01

    During the observation of Perseid, Leonid, Gemenid, and Orionid meteor showers, stable low-frequency lines in the frequency range of 20-60 Hz were recorded against the radio-frequency noise background. A physical mechanism for this effect is proposed, and it is established that the effect itself is related to the modulational interaction between electromagnetic and dust acoustic waves. The dynamics of the components of a complex (dusty) ionospheric plasma with dust produced from the evolution of meteoric material is described. The conditions for the existence of dust acoustic waves in the ionosphere are considered, and the waves are shown to dissipate energy mainly in collisions of neutral particles with charged dust grains. The modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in a complex (dusty) ionospheric plasma is analyzed and is found to be driven by the nonlinear Joule heating, the ponderomotive force, and the processes governing dust charging and dynamics. The conditions for the onset of the modulational instability of electromagnetic waves, as well as its growth rate and threshold, are determined for both daytime and nighttime. It is shown that low-frequency perturbations generated in the modulational interaction are related to dust acoustic waves.

  3. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ≳ 10 λ, where λ is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  4. Modulational excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic waves in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.; Yu, M. Y.

    2007-04-15

    During the observation of Perseid, Leonid, Gemenid, and Orionid meteor showers, stable low-frequency lines in the frequency range of 20-60 Hz were recorded against the radio-frequency noise background. A physical mechanism for this effect is proposed, and it is established that the effect itself is related to the modulational interaction between electromagnetic and dust acoustic waves. The dynamics of the components of a complex (dusty) ionospheric plasma with dust produced from the evolution of meteoric material is described. The conditions for the existence of dust acoustic waves in the ionosphere are considered, and the waves are shown to dissipate energy mainly in collisions of neutral particles with charged dust grains. The modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in a complex (dusty) ionospheric plasma is analyzed and is found to be driven by the nonlinear Joule heating, the ponderomotive force, and the processes governing dust charging and dynamics. The conditions for the onset of the modulational instability of electromagnetic waves, as well as its growth rate and threshold, are determined for both daytime and nighttime. It is shown that low-frequency perturbations generated in the modulational interaction are related to dust acoustic waves.

  5. Communication: High-frequency acoustic excitations and boson peak in glasses: A study of their temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Giordano, V. M.; Orsingher, L.; Rols, S.; Scarponi, F.; Monaco, G.

    2010-07-01

    The results of a combined experimental study of the high-frequency acoustic dynamics and of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) as a function of temperature in a glass of sorbitol are reported here. The excess in the VDOS at ˜4.5 meV over the Debye, elastic continuum prediction (boson peak) is found to be clearly related to anomalies observed in the acoustic dispersion curve in the mesoscopic wavenumber range of few nm-1. The quasiharmonic temperature dependence of the acoustic dispersion curves offers a natural explanation for the observed scaling of the boson peak with the elastic medium properties.

  6. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  7. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  8. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  9. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  10. A high-frequency warm shallow water acoustic communications channel model and measurements.

    PubMed

    Chitre, Mandar

    2007-11-01

    Underwater acoustic communication is a core enabling technology with applications in ocean monitoring using remote sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles. One of the more challenging underwater acoustic communication channels is the medium-range very shallow warm-water channel, common in tropical coastal regions. This channel exhibits two key features-extensive time-varying multipath and high levels of non-Gaussian ambient noise due to snapping shrimp-both of which limit the performance of traditional communication techniques. A good understanding of the communications channel is key to the design of communication systems. It aids in the development of signal processing techniques as well as in the testing of the techniques via simulation. In this article, a physics-based channel model for the very shallow warm-water acoustic channel at high frequencies is developed, which are of interest to medium-range communication system developers. The model is based on ray acoustics and includes time-varying statistical effects as well as non-Gaussian ambient noise statistics observed during channel studies. The model is calibrated and its accuracy validated using measurements made at sea.

  11. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  12. Development of high frequency focused transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng

    Contactless particle trapping and manipulation have found many potential applications in diverse fields, especially in biological and medical research. Among the various methods, optical tweezers is the most well-known and extensively investigated technique. However, there are some limitations for particle manipulation based on optical tweezers. Due to the conceptual similarity with the optical tweezers and recent advances in high frequency ultrasonic transducer, a single beam acoustic tweezer using high frequency (≥ 20 MHz) focused transducer has recently been considered, and its feasibility was theoretically and experimentally investigated. This dissertation mainly describes the development of high frequency focused ultrasonic transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers applications. Three different types of transducers were fabricated. First, a 60 MHz miniature focused transducer (<1 mm) was made using press-focusing technique. The single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed to manipulate 15 microm polystyrene microspheres using this transducer. In vitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was also obtained with this device. Second approach is to build a 200 MHz self-focused ZnO transducer by sputtering ZnO film on a curved surface of the aluminum backing material. An individual 10 microm microsphere was effectively manipulated in two dimensions by this type of transducer. Another ultrahigh frequency focused transducer based on silicon lens design has also been developed, where a 330 MHz silicon lens transducer was fabricated and evaluated. Microparticle trapping experiment was carried out to demonstrate that silicon lens transducer can manipulate a single microsphere as small as 5 microm. The realization of single beam acoustic tweezers using high frequency focused transducers can offer wide range of applications in biomedical and chemical sciences including intercellular kinetics studies and cell stimulation. Additionally, we

  13. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  14. Shifting Gravel and the Acoustic Detection Range of Killer Whale Calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, C.; Thomson, J. M.; Polagye, B. L.; Wood, J.

    2012-12-01

    In environments suitable for tidal energy development, strong currents result in large bed stresses that mobilize sediments, producing sediment-generated noise. Sediment-generated noise caused by mobilization events can exceed noise levels attributed to other ambient noise sources at frequencies related to the diameters of the mobilized grains. At a site in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington, one year of ambient noise data (0.02 - 30 kHz) and current velocity data are combined. Peak currents at the site exceed 3.5 m/s. During slack currents, vessel traffic is the dominant noise source. When currents exceed 0.85 m/s noise level increases between 2 kHz and 30 kHz are correlated with near-bed currents and bed stress estimates. Acoustic spectrum levels during strong currents exceed quiescent slack tide conditions by 20 dB or more between 2 and 30 kHz. These frequencies are consistent with sound generated by the mobilization of gravel and pebbles. To investigate the implications of sediment-generated noise for post-installation passive acoustic monitoring of a planned tidal energy project, ambient noise conditions during slack currents and strong currents are combined with the characteristics of Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) vocalizations and sound propagation modeling. The reduction in detection range is estimated for common vocalizations under different ambient noise conditions. The importance of sediment-generated noise for passive acoustic monitoring at tidal energy sites for different marine mammal functional hearing groups and other sediment compositions are considered.

  15. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... level of radiated emissions within the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz, such as a CB receiver or a device designed to conduct its radio frequency emissions via connecting wires or cables, e.g., a carrier... used in the device, without going below 9 kHz (25 MHz for CB receivers), up to the frequency shown...

  16. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... level of radiated emissions within the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz, such as a CB receiver or a device designed to conduct its radio frequency emissions via connecting wires or cables, e.g., a carrier... used in the device, without going below 9 kHz (25 MHz for CB receivers), up to the frequency shown...

  17. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... level of radiated emissions within the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz, such as a CB receiver or a device designed to conduct its radio frequency emissions via connecting wires or cables, e.g., a carrier... used in the device, without going below 9 kHz (25 MHz for CB receivers), up to the frequency shown...

  18. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... level of radiated emissions within the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz, such as a CB receiver or a device designed to conduct its radio frequency emissions via connecting wires or cables, e.g., a carrier... used in the device, without going below 9 kHz (25 MHz for CB receivers), up to the frequency shown...

  19. 47 CFR 18.309 - Frequency range of measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency range of measurements. 18.309 Section 18.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.309 Frequency range of measurements. (a) For field...

  20. 47 CFR 18.309 - Frequency range of measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency range of measurements. 18.309 Section 18.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.309 Frequency range of measurements. (a) For field...

  1. 47 CFR 18.309 - Frequency range of measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency range of measurements. 18.309 Section 18.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.309 Frequency range of measurements. (a) For field...

  2. Noncontact microrheology at acoustic frequencies using frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S

    2010-08-01

    We report an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for assessing elastic and viscous properties of soft samples at acoustic frequencies under non-contact conditions. The method can be used to measure material properties via frequency modulation and is based on hydrodynamics theory of thin gaps we developed here. A cantilever with an attached microsphere is forced to oscillate tens of nanometers above a sample. The elastic modulus and viscosity of the sample are estimated by measuring the frequency-dependence of the phase lag between the oscillating microsphere and the driving piezo at various heights above the sample. This method features an effective area of pyramidal tips used in contact AFM but with only piconewton applied forces. Using this method, we analyzed polyacrylamide gels of different stiffness and assessed graded mechanical properties of guinea pig tectorial membrane. The technique enables the study of microrheology of biological tissues that produce or detect sound. PMID:20562866

  3. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  4. Ultralow frequency acoustic bandgap and vibration energy recovery in tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.

  5. Direct observation of low frequency confined acoustic phonons in silver nanoparticles: Terahertz time domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kamaraju, N; Karthikeyan, B; Tondusson, M; Freysz, E; Sood, A K

    2010-07-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy has been used to study low frequency confined acoustic phonons of silver nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix in the spectral range of 0.1-2.5 THz. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function show two bands at 0.60 and 2.12 THz attributed to the spheroidal and toroidal modes of silver nanoparticles, thus demonstrating the usefulness of terahertz time domain spectroscopy as a complementary technique to Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the nanoparticles.

  6. Digital Stroboscopic Holography Setup for Deformation Measurement at Both Quasi-Static and Acoustic Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-10-01

    A setup for digital stroboscopic holography that combines the advantages of full-field digital holographic interferometry with a high temporal resolution is presented. The setup can be used to identify and visualize complicated vibrational patterns with nanometer amplitudes, ranging from quasi-static to high frequency vibrations. By using a high-energy pulsed laser, single-shot holograms can be recorded and stability issues are avoided. Results are presented for an acoustically stimulated rubber membrane and the technique is evaluated by means of an accuracy and a repeatability test. The presented technique offers wide application possibilities in areas such as biomechanics and industrial testing.

  7. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  8. Precise rainbow trapping for low-frequency acoustic waves with micro Mie resonance-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Yuan, Baoguo; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    We have realized the acoustic rainbow trapping in the low frequency region (200-500 Hz) through micro Mie resonance-based structures. The structure has eight channels with a high refractive index obtained by coiling space, that can excite strong interactions with incident waves and support various orders of multipoles due to the Mie resonances of the microstructure. By utilizing the structure, the precise spatial modulation of the acoustic wave is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The effect of trapping broadband acoustic waves and spatially separating different frequency components are ascribed to the monopolar Mie resonances of the structures. The trapping frequency is derived and the trapping positions can be tuned arbitrarily. With enhanced wave-structure interactions and tailored frequency responses, such micro structures show precise spectral-spatial control of acoustic waves and open a diverse venue for high performance acoustic wave detection, sensing, filtering, and a nondestructive test.

  9. Negative refraction imaging of acoustic metamaterial lens in the supersonic range

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jianning; Wen, Tingdun; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lu

    2014-05-15

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative refraction index is the most promising method to overcome the diffraction limit of acoustic imaging to achieve ultrahigh resolution. In this paper, we use localized resonant phononic crystal as the unit cell to construct the acoustic negative refraction lens. Based on the vibration model of the phononic crystal, negative quality parameters of the lens are obtained while excited near the system resonance frequency. Simulation results show that negative refraction of the acoustic lens can be achieved when a sound wave transmiting through the phononic crystal plate. The patterns of the imaging field agree well with that of the incident wave, while the dispersion is very weak. The unit cell size in the simulation is 0.0005 m and the wavelength of the sound source is 0.02 m, from which we show that acoustic signal can be manipulated through structures with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave.

  10. Echo-acoustic flow dynamically modifies the cortical map of target range in bats.

    PubMed

    Bartenstein, Sophia K; Gerstenberg, Nadine; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating bats use the delay between their sonar emissions and the reflected echoes to measure target range, a crucial parameter for avoiding collisions or capturing prey. In many bat species, target range is represented as an orderly organized map of echo delay in the auditory cortex. Here we show that the map of target range in bats is dynamically modified by the continuously changing flow of acoustic information perceived during flight ('echo-acoustic flow'). Combining dynamic acoustic stimulation in virtual space with extracellular recordings, we found that neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat Phyllostomus discolor encode echo-acoustic flow information on the geometric relation between targets and the bat's flight trajectory, rather than echo delay per se. Specifically, the cortical representation of close-range targets is enlarged when the lateral passing distance of the target decreases. This flow-dependent enlargement of target representation may trigger adaptive behaviours such as vocal control or flight manoeuvres. PMID:25131175

  11. Echo-acoustic flow dynamically modifies the cortical map of target range in bats.

    PubMed

    Bartenstein, Sophia K; Gerstenberg, Nadine; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating bats use the delay between their sonar emissions and the reflected echoes to measure target range, a crucial parameter for avoiding collisions or capturing prey. In many bat species, target range is represented as an orderly organized map of echo delay in the auditory cortex. Here we show that the map of target range in bats is dynamically modified by the continuously changing flow of acoustic information perceived during flight ('echo-acoustic flow'). Combining dynamic acoustic stimulation in virtual space with extracellular recordings, we found that neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat Phyllostomus discolor encode echo-acoustic flow information on the geometric relation between targets and the bat's flight trajectory, rather than echo delay per se. Specifically, the cortical representation of close-range targets is enlarged when the lateral passing distance of the target decreases. This flow-dependent enlargement of target representation may trigger adaptive behaviours such as vocal control or flight manoeuvres.

  12. High-frequency combustion instability control through acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary for liquid rocket engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennewitz, John William

    This research investigation encompasses experimental tests demonstrating the control of a high-frequency combustion instability by acoustically modulating the propellant flow. A model rocket combustor burned gaseous oxygen and methane using a single-element, pentad-style injector. Flow conditions were established that spontaneously excited a 2430 Hz first longitudinal combustion oscillation at an amplitude up to p'/pc ≈ 6%. An acoustic speaker was placed at the base of the oxidizer supply to modulate the flow and alter the oscillatory behavior of the combustor. Two speaker modulation approaches were investigated: (1) Bands of white noise and (2) Pure sinusoidal tones. The first approach adjusted 500 Hz bands of white noise ranging from 0-500 Hz to 2000-2500 Hz, while the second implemented single-frequency signals with arbitrary phase swept from 500-2500 Hz. The results showed that above a modulation signal amplitude threshold, both approaches suppressed 95+% of the spontaneous combustion oscillation. By increasing the applied signal amplitude, a wider frequency range of instability suppression became present for these two acoustic modulation approaches. Complimentary to these experiments, a linear modal analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects of acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary on the longitudinal instability modes of a dump combustor. The modal analysis employed acoustically consistent matching conditions with a specific impedance boundary condition at the inlet to represent the acoustic modulation. From the modal analysis, a naturally unstable first longitudinal mode was predicted in the absence of acoustic modulation, consistent with the spontaneously excited 2430 Hz instability observed experimentally. Subsequently, a detailed investigation involving variation of the modulation signal from 0-2500 Hz and mean combustor temperature from 1248-1685 K demonstrated the unstable to stable transition of a 2300-2500 Hz first longitudinal mode. The

  13. Numerical simulation of carpet cloaking device in terahertz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, V. V.; Vozianova, A. V.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    This work is devoted to the numerical calculation of the effective constitutive parameters of the carpet cloaking device and to the numerical simulation of this cloak using finite element method (FEM) for the terahertz frequency range.

  14. Low-frequency tunable acoustic absorber based on split tube resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Caixing; Li, Xin; Meng, Yan; Gao, Yibo; Tian, Jingxuan; Wang, Li; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency tunable acoustic absorber for low frequencies (<500 Hz) with subwavelength thickness. The acoustic absorber is based on split tube resonators and could reach high-efficiency absorption at tunable resonance frequency with wavelength in air at least 30 times larger than its total thickness in simulations and experiments. The resonance frequency and high-efficiency absorption of the absorber are robust under oblique incidence even at large angles. The absorber could have potential applications for acoustic engineering due to its high structural stability, ease of fabrication, subwavelength thickness, and robust high-efficiency.

  15. Bulk micro-machined wide-band aero-acoustic microphone and its application to acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. J.; Rufer, L.; Salze, E.; Yuldashev, P.; Ollivier, S.; Wong, M.

    2013-10-01

    A wide-band aero-acoustic microphone was realized using a bulk micro-machining process based on the deep reactive-ion etching of silicon. The sensing diaphragm is completely sealed, thus eliminating the loss of low-frequency response resulting from pressure equalization through the release etch-holes present on the diaphragm of a previously reported microphone implemented using a surface-micro-machining process. A dynamic sensitivity of ∼0.33 µV/V/Pa was estimated using an acoustic shockwave (‘N-wave’) generated using a custom-built high-voltage electrical spark-discharge system. This value is comparable to the effective static sensitivity of ∼0.28 µV/V/Pa measured using a commercial nano-indenter system. The response of the microphone is relatively flat from 6 to 500 kHz, with a resonance frequency of ∼715 kHz. An array of three microphones was also constructed and tested to demonstrate the application of these microphones to the localization of high frequency and short duration acoustic sources.

  16. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations. PMID:12880062

  17. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations.

  18. Eleutherodactylus frogs show frequency but no temporal partitioning: implications for the acoustic niche hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in acoustic communities compete for the use of the sound resource for communication, a problem that can be studied as niche competition. The acoustic niche hypothesis presents a way to study the partitioning of the resource, but the studies have to take into account the three dimensions of this niche: time, acoustic frequency, and space. I used an Automated Digital Recording System to determine the partitioning of time and acoustic frequency of eight frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus from Puerto Rico. The calling activity was measured using a calling index. The community exhibited no temporal partitioning since most species called at the same time, between sunset and midnight. The species partitioned the acoustic frequency of their signals, which, in addition to the microhabitat partitioning, can provide some insight into how these species deal with the problem. This data also suggest that monitoring projects with this group should take place only before midnight to avoid false negatives. PMID:25101228

  19. An acoustic metamaterial composed of multi-layer membrane-coated perforated plates for low-frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ding, Jin; Li, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    Insulating against low-frequency sound (below 500 Hz ) remains challenging despite the progress that has been achieved in sound insulation and absorption. In this work, an acoustic metamaterial based on membrane-coated perforated plates is presented for achieving sound insulation in a low-frequency range, even covering the lower audio frequency limit, 20 Hz . Theoretical analysis and finite element simulations demonstrate that this metamaterial can effectively block acoustic waves over a wide low-frequency band regardless of incident angles. Two mechanisms, non-resonance and monopolar resonance, operate in the metamaterial, resulting in a more powerful sound insulation ability than that achieved using periodically arranged multi-layer solid plates.

  20. Estimation of the acoustic range of bat echolocation for extended targets.

    PubMed

    Stilz, Wolfram-Peter; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Extended natural structures of the bat environment such as trees, meadows, and water surfaces were ensonified in distances from 1 to 20 m and the echoes recorded using a mobile ultrasonic sonar system. By compensating the atmospheric attenuation, the attenuation of the reflected echo caused by diffraction, energy absorption of the target, and two-way-geometric spreading was calculated for each distance. For each target type the attenuation of the compensated echo sound pressure level was fitted over distance using a linear function which yields simple laws of reflection loss and geometric spreading. By adding to this function again variable atmospheric attenuation, the overall attenuation of a signal reflected from these targets can be estimated for various conditions. Given the dynamic range of a sonar system, the acoustic maximum detection distance can thus be estimated. The results show that the maximum range is dominantly limited by atmospheric attenuation. Energy loss in the reflecting surface is more variable than geometric spreading loss and accounts for most of the differences between the ensonified targets. Depending on atmospheric conditions, echolocation frequency, and the dynamic range of the sonar system, the maximum range for extended backgrounds such as a forest edge can be as short as 2.4 m.

  1. A Fisheries Application of a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar Acoustic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Peters, Rock D.

    2003-06-01

    The uses of an acoustic camera in fish passage research at hydropower facilities are being explored by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) is a high-resolution imaging sonar that obtains near video-quality images for the identification of objects underwater. Developed originally for the Navy by the University of Washington?s Applied Physics Laboratory, it bridges the gap between existing fisheries assessment sonar and optical systems. Traditional fisheries assessment sonars detect targets at long ranges but cannot record the shape of targets. The images within 12 m of this acoustic camera are so clear that one can see fish undulating as they swim and can tell the head from the tail in otherwise zero-visibility water. In the 1.8 MHz high-frequency mode, this system is composed of 96 beams over a 29-degree field of view. This high resolution and a fast frame rate allow the acoustic camera to produce near video-quality images of objects through time. This technology redefines many of the traditional limitations of sonar for fisheries and aquatic ecology. Images can be taken of fish in confined spaces, close to structural or surface boundaries, and in the presence of entrained air. The targets themselves can be visualized in real time. The DIDSON can be used where conventional underwater cameras would be limited in sampling range to < 1 m by low light levels and high turbidity, and where traditional sonar would be limited by the confined sample volume. Results of recent testing at The Dalles Dam, on the lower Columbia River in Oregon, USA, are shown.

  2. Dual-frequency acoustic droplet vaporization detection for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Christopher B; Novell, Anthony; Sheeran, Paul S; Puett, Connor; Moyer, Linsey C; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Liquid-filled perfluorocarbon droplets emit a unique acoustic signature when vaporized into gas-filled microbubbles using ultrasound. Here, we conducted a pilot study in a tissue-mimicking flow phantom to explore the spatial aspects of droplet vaporization and investigate the effects of applied pressure and droplet concentration on image contrast and axial and lateral resolution. Control microbubble contrast agents were used for comparison. A confocal dual-frequency transducer was used to transmit at 8 MHz and passively receive at 1 MHz. Droplet signals were of significantly higher energy than microbubble signals. This resulted in improved signal separation and high contrast-to-tissue ratios (CTR). Specifically, with a peak negative pressure (PNP) of 450 kPa applied at the focus, the CTR of B-mode images was 18.3 dB for droplets and -0.4 for microbubbles. The lateral resolution was dictated by the size of the droplet activation area, with lower pressures resulting in smaller activation areas and improved lateral resolution (0.67 mm at 450 kPa). The axial resolution in droplet images was dictated by the size of the initial droplet and was independent of the properties of the transmit pulse (3.86 mm at 450 kPa). In post-processing, time-domain averaging (TDA) improved droplet and microbubble signal separation at high pressures (640 kPa and 700 kPa). Taken together, these results indicate that it is possible to generate high-sensitivity, high-contrast images of vaporization events. In the future, this has the potential to be applied in combination with droplet-mediated therapy to track treatment outcomes or as a standalone diagnostic system to monitor the physical properties of the surrounding environment. PMID:26415125

  3. Spin noise spectroscopy from acoustic to GHz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Performing perturbation free measurements on semiconductor quantum systems has long been banished to textbooks on quantum mechanics. The emergent technique of spin noise spectroscopy is challenging this restriction. Empowered only by the ever present intrinsic spin fluctuation dynamics in thermal equilibrium, spin noise spectroscopy is capable to directly deduce several physical properties of carriers spins in semiconductors from these fluctuations. Originating from spin noise measurements on alkali metal vapors in quantum optics [1] the method has become a powerful technique to unravel the intrinsic spin dynamics in semiconductors [2]. In this talk I will present the recent progress of spin noise spectroscopy and how it is used to monitor the spin dynamic in semiconductor quantum wells at thermal equilibrium and as a consequence thereof directly detect the spatial dynamics of the carriers being marked with their own spin on a microscopic scale [3]. Further I will present measurements of how the non-perturbative nature of spin noise spectroscopy gives valuable insight into the delicate dependence of the spin relaxation time of electrons on doping density and temperature in semiconductors n-doped in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition where hyperfine and intra-band depolarization compete [4]. Also the measurement bandwidth can be extended to GHz frequencies by ultrafast optical probing [5] yielding in conjunction with depth resolved spin noise measurements insights into the origin of inhomogeneous spin dephasing effects at high magnetic fields [5]. Additionally I will present how spin noise spectroscopy can be employed to spatially depth resolve doping profiles with optical resolution [6] and give a summary on easy to implement techniques of spin noise spectroscopy at acoustic frequencies in alkali metal vapors. [4pt] [1] E. Aleksandrov and V. Zapassky, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132 (1981); S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith

  4. Towards an Automated Acoustic Detection System for Free Ranging Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Hensman, Sean; Stoeger, Angela S.

    2015-01-01

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most serious conservation problems in Asia and Africa today. The involuntary confrontation of humans and elephants claims the lives of many animals and humans every year. A promising approach to alleviate this conflict is the development of an acoustic early warning system. Such a system requires the robust automated detection of elephant vocalizations under unconstrained field conditions. Today, no system exists that fulfills these requirements. In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of elephant vocalizations that is robust to the diverse noise sources present in the field. We evaluate the method on a dataset recorded under natural field conditions to simulate a real-world scenario. The proposed method outperformed existing approaches and robustly and accurately detected elephants. It thus can form the basis for a future automated early warning system for elephants. Furthermore, the method may be a useful tool for scientists in bioacoustics for the study of wildlife recordings. PMID:25983398

  5. Long range acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Snellen, Mirjam

    2013-10-01

    A seamount 8 km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single hydrophones deployed as a 2 km triangle. Measurements of acoustic intensity for the path to the southern triplet are on the order of 6 dB lower than those received on the northern triplet. Temporal cross-correlation beamforming estimation is performed and the estimated arrival angles for the two arrays, 265° and 267° were consistent with the predicted geodesic arrival of 264.6° and 267.8°, respectively. Cross-correlation between single phones on the northern and southern arrays reveals a peak at 266°, with a cross-correlation of 0.1. Nx2D parabolic equation modeling predicts complete blockage due to seamount interaction along the geodesic path. Overprediction of the seamount blockage indicates that the 2D approximation is incorrect, and three-dimensional propagation must be used to explain the observations. This is demonstrated by the computation of the Adiabatic Mode Parabolic Equation Transmission Loss, which predicts a 5-10 dB lower reception at the southern site.

  6. Long range acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Snellen, Mirjam

    2013-10-01

    A seamount 8 km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single hydrophones deployed as a 2 km triangle. Measurements of acoustic intensity for the path to the southern triplet are on the order of 6 dB lower than those received on the northern triplet. Temporal cross-correlation beamforming estimation is performed and the estimated arrival angles for the two arrays, 265° and 267° were consistent with the predicted geodesic arrival of 264.6° and 267.8°, respectively. Cross-correlation between single phones on the northern and southern arrays reveals a peak at 266°, with a cross-correlation of 0.1. Nx2D parabolic equation modeling predicts complete blockage due to seamount interaction along the geodesic path. Overprediction of the seamount blockage indicates that the 2D approximation is incorrect, and three-dimensional propagation must be used to explain the observations. This is demonstrated by the computation of the Adiabatic Mode Parabolic Equation Transmission Loss, which predicts a 5-10 dB lower reception at the southern site. PMID:24116524

  7. Sound source localization by hearing preservation patients with and without symmetric, low-frequency acoustic hearing

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Louise H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Yost, William A.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study sound source localization by cochlear implant (CI) listeners with low-frequency (LF) acoustic hearing in both the operated ear and in the contralateral ear. Eight CI listeners had symmetrical LF acoustic hearing (symm) and four had asymmetric LF acoustic hearing (asymm). The effects of two variables were assessed: (i) the symmetry of the LF thresholds in the two ears and (ii) the presence/absence of bilateral acoustic amplification. Stimuli consisted of low-pass, high pass, and wide-band noise bursts presented in the frontal horizontal plane. Localization accuracy was 23 degrees of error for the symm listeners and 76 degrees of error for the asymm listeners. The presence of a unilateral CI used in conjunction with bilateral LF acoustic hearing does not impair sound source localization accuracy, but amplification for acoustic hearing can be detrimental to sound source localization accuracy. PMID:25832907

  8. Mechanisms of acoustical energy transfer by a cylindrical shell near the ring frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, M.; Gotteland, M.; Cacciolati, C.

    An analytical model is developed for the propagation of acoustic energy through a long cylinder with a large radius, such as encountered in aerospace applications. An acoustic wave is assumed to strike the exterior of the shell obliquely, part of the energy being reflected, the other absorbed. Account is taken of the displacements of the shell towards the interior, the appearance of a circular mode for the acoustic energy, the acoustic impedance of the shell, and the frequencies of the reflected and transmitted energy. A mass law is obtained for certain frequency zones. The law is useful for predicting when the acoustic energy transmitted to the interior will be zero. The model can be applied to controlling the noise levels transmitted to the interior of a fuselage.

  9. High-frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nanaostructures characterized by coherent extreme ultraviolet beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, M.; Li, Q.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Yang, R.; Anderson, E.; Nelson, K.

    2009-03-02

    We study ultrahigh frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nickel-on-sapphire nanostructures. The use of ultrafast, coherent, extreme ultraviolet beams allows us to extend optical measurements of propagation dynamics of surface acoustic waves to frequencies of nearly 50 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths as short as 125 nm. We repeat the measurement on a sequence of nanostructured samples to observe surface acoustic wave dispersion in a nanostructure series for the first time. These measurements are critical for accurate characterization of thin films using this technique.

  10. Ray travel times at long ranges in acoustic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Virovlyansky, A L

    2003-05-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism in terms of the action-angle variables is applied to study ray travel times in a waveguide with a smooth sound speed profile perturbed by a weak range-dependent inhomogeneity. A simple approximate formula relating the differences in ray travel times to range variations of action variables is derived. This relation is applied to study range variations of the timefront (representing ray arrivals in the time-depth plane). Widening and bias of timefront segments in the presence of perturbations are considered. Qualitative and quantitative explanations are given to surprising stability of early portions of timefronts observed in both numerical simulations and field experiments. This phenomenon is interpreted from the viewpoint of Fermat's principle. By ray tracing in a realistic deep water environment with an internal-wave-induced perturbation it has been demonstrated that our approach can be used at ranges up to, at least, 3000 km. PMID:12765372

  11. Coupled whispering gallery mode resonators in the Terahertz frequency range.

    PubMed

    Preu, S; Schwefel, H G L; Malzer, S; Döhler, G H; Wang, L J; Hanson, M; Zimmerman, J D; Gossard, A C

    2008-05-12

    We report on coupling of two whispering gallery mode resonators in the Terahertz frequency range. Due to the long wavelength in the millimeter to submillimeter range, the resonators can be macroscopic allowing for accurate size and shape control. This is necessary to couple specific modes of two or more resonators. Sets of polyethylene (PE) and quartz disk resonators are demonstrated, with medium (loaded) quality (Q)-factors of 40-800. Both exhibit coinciding resonance frequency spectra over more than ten times the free spectral range. Loading effects of single resonators are investigated which provide strong Q-factor degradation and red-shifts of the resonances in the 0.2% range. By coupling two resonators of the same size, we observe mode splitting, in very good agreement with our numerical calculations.

  12. WE-D-BRF-02: Acoustic Signal From the Bragg Peak for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, S; Assmann, W; Fink, A; Thirolf, P; Parodi, K; Kellnberger, S; Omar, M; Ntziachristos, V; Gaebisch, C; Moser, M; Dollinger, G; Sergiadis, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/− 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  13. Investigation of a slot nanoantenna in optical frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh kumar, V.; Asakawa, Kiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    Following the analogy of radio frequency slot antenna and its complementary dipole, we propose the implementation of a slot nanoantenna (SNA) in the optical frequency range. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the electromagnetic (EM) properties of a SNA formed in a thin gold film and compare the results with the properties of a gold dipole nanoantenna (DNA) of the same dimension as the slot. It is found that the response of the SNA is very similar to the DNA, like their counterparts in the radio frequency (RF) range. The SNA can enhance the near field intensity of incident field which strongly depends on its feedgap dimension. The resonance of the SNA is influenced by its slot length; for the increasing slot length, resonant frequency decreases whereas the sharpness of resonance increases. Besides, the resonance of the SNA is found sensitive to the thickness of metal film, when the latter is smaller than the skin depth. The effect of polarization of incident field on the EM response of the SNA was examined; the field enhancement is optimum when polarization is parallel to the feedgap. Finally, we calculate the radiation patterns of the DNA and SNA and compare them with those of the RF dipole antenna. The radiation pattern of the SNA is found to be independent of its slot length when excited at resonant frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on a slot antenna in the optical frequency.

  14. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Robert Jr.

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  15. Long-range Acoustic Interactions in Insect Swarms: An Adaptive Gravity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges' acoustic sensing, we show that our ``adaptive gravity'' model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. The adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  16. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  17. Parabolic equation modeling of high frequency acoustic transmission with an evolving sea surface.

    PubMed

    Senne, J; Song, A; Badiey, M; Smith, K B

    2012-09-01

    The present paper examines the temporal evolution of acoustic fields by modeling forward propagation subject to sea surface dynamics with time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds. A time-evolving rough sea surface model is combined with a rough surface formulation of a parabolic equation model for predicting time-varying acoustic fields. Surface waves are generated from surface wave spectra, and stepped in time using a Runge-Kutta integration technique applied to linear evolution equations. This evolving, range-dependent surface information is combined with other environmental parameters and input to the acoustic model, giving an approximation of the time-varying acoustic field. The wide-angle parabolic equation model manages the rough sea surfaces by molding them into the boundary conditions for calculations of the near-surface acoustic field. This merged acoustic model is validated using concurrently-collected acoustic and environmental information, including surface wave spectra. Data to model comparisons demonstrate that the model is able to approximate the ensemble-averaged acoustic intensity at ranges of about a kilometer for acoustic signals of around 15 kHz. Furthermore, the model is shown to capture variations due to surface fluctuations occurring over time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds.

  18. High-frequency acoustic waves are not sufficient to heat the solar chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Astrid; Carlsson, Mats

    2005-06-16

    One of the main unanswered questions in solar physics is why the Sun's outer atmosphere is hotter than its surface. Theory predicts abundant production of high-frequency (10-50 mHz) acoustic waves in subsurface layers of the Sun, and such waves are believed by many to constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the chromosphere (the lower part of the outer solar atmosphere) in non-magnetic regions. Such high-frequency waves are difficult to detect because of high-frequency disturbances in Earth's atmosphere (seeing) and other factors. Here we report the detection of high-frequency waves, and we use numerical simulations to show that the acoustic energy flux of these waves is too low, by a factor of at least ten, to balance the radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. Acoustic waves therefore cannot constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere. PMID:15959510

  19. Frequency stability requirements for two way range rate tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy limitations to two way range rate Doppler tracking due to master (reference) oscillator frequency instabilities are discussed. Theory is developed to treat both the effects of random and nonrandom oscillator instabilities. The nonrandom instabilities treated are drift, environmental effects, and coherent phase modulation. The effects of random instabilities on range rate accuracy are shown to be describable in terms of sigma y (2, T, tau). For the typical noise processes encountered in precision oscillators, range rate error is related to the more familiar sigma y (tau) and script L (f). Three examples are discussed to show how to determine range rate error from given sigma y (tau) or script L (f) curves, and approximations are developed to simplify the treatment of complex systems. An error analysis of range determined from rate data is also given.

  20. Deep seafloor arrivals: an unexplained set of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ralph A; Bolmer, S Thompson; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Worcester, Peter F; Andrew, Rex K; Buck, Linda J; Mercer, James A; Colosi, John A; Howe, Bruce M

    2009-08-01

    Receptions, from a ship-suspended source (in the band 50-100 Hz) to an ocean bottom seismometer (about 5000 m depth) and the deepest element on a vertical hydrophone array (about 750 m above the seafloor) that were acquired on the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment in the North Pacific Ocean, are described. The ranges varied from 50 to 3200 km. In addition to predicted ocean acoustic arrivals and deep shadow zone arrivals (leaking below turning points), "deep seafloor arrivals," that are dominant on the seafloor geophone but are absent or very weak on the hydrophone array, are observed. These deep seafloor arrivals are an unexplained set of arrivals in ocean acoustics possibly associated with seafloor interface waves.

  1. Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Ratcliffe, John M; Beedholm, Kristian; Christensen, Christian B; Johnson, Mark; Koblitz, Jens C; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats, maintain the ability to change beamwidth within this phase. Based on video, MRI, and acoustic-tag recordings, we propose this flexibility is modulated by the melon and implemented to accommodate dynamic spatial relationships with prey and acoustic complexity of surroundings. Despite independent evolution and different means of sound generation and transmission, whales and bats adaptively change their FOV, suggesting that beamwidth flexibility has been an important driver in the evolution of echolocation for prey tracking.

  2. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains. PMID:27446234

  3. Modeling of long range frequency sweeping for energetic particle modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nyqvist, R. M.; Breizman, B. N.

    2013-04-15

    Long range frequency sweeping events are simulated numerically within a one-dimensional, electrostatic bump-on-tail model with fast particle sources and collisions. The numerical solution accounts for fast particle trapping and detrapping in an evolving wave field with a fixed wavelength, and it includes three distinct collisions operators: Drag (dynamical friction on the background electrons), Krook-type collisions, and velocity space diffusion. The effects of particle trapping and diffusion on the evolution of holes and clumps are investigated, and the occurrence of non-monotonic (hooked) frequency sweeping and asymptotically steady holes is discussed. The presented solution constitutes a step towards predictive modeling of frequency sweeping events in more realistic geometries.

  4. An experimental study on resonance of oscillating air/vapor bubbles in water using a two-frequency acoustic apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaka, K.

    2003-05-01

    A two-frequency acoustic apparatus is employed to study the growth behavior of vapor-saturated bubbles driven in a volumetric mode. A unique feature of the apparatus is its capability of trapping a bubble by an ultrasonic standing wave while independently driving it into oscillations by a second lower-frequency acoustic wave. It is observed that the growing vapor bubbles exhibit a periodic shape transition between the volumetric and shape modes due to resonant coupling. In order to explain this observation, we performed an experimental investigation on resonant coupling of air bubbles and obtained the following results: First, the induced shape oscillations are actually a mixed mode that contains the volume component, thus, vapor bubbles can grow while they exhibit shape oscillations. Second, the acoustically levitated bubbles are deformed and therefore, degeneracy in resonant frequency is partially removed. As a result, the vapor bubbles exhibit the shape oscillations in both the axisymmetric mode and asymmetric (three-dimensional) modes. Nonlinear effects in addition to the frequency shift and split due to deformation creates overlapping of the coupling ranges for different modes, which leads to the continuous shape oscillations above a certain bubble radius as the bubble grows.

  5. A role for acoustic distortion in novel rapid frequency modulation behaviour in free-flying male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ingham, Robert A; Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new stereotypical acoustic behaviour by male mosquitoes in response to the fundamental frequency of female flight tones during mating sequences. This male-specific free-flight behaviour consists of phonotactic flight beginning with a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF in the lead up to copula formation. Male RFM behaviour involves remarkably fast changes in WBF and can be elicited without acoustic feedback or physical presence of the female. RFM features are highly consistent, even in response to artificial tones that do not carry the multi-harmonic components of natural female flight tones. Comparison between audiograms of the robust RFM behaviour and the electrical responses of the auditory Johnston's organ (JO) reveals that the male JO is tuned not to the female WBF per se but, remarkably, to the difference between the male and female WBFs. This difference is generated in the JO responses as a result of intermodulation distortion products (DPs) caused by non-linear interaction between male-female flight tones in the vibrations of the antenna. We propose that male mosquitoes rely on their own flight tones in making use of DPs to acoustically detect, locate and orientate towards flying females. We argue that the previously documented flight-tone harmonic convergence of flying male and female mosquitoes could be a consequence of WBF adjustments so that DPs generated through flight-tone interaction fall within the optimal frequency ranges for JO detection. PMID:27122548

  6. Frequency-range discriminations: special and general abilities in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Weisman, R; Njegovan, M; Sturdy, C; Phillmore, L; Coyle, J; Mewhort, D

    1998-09-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs and human speech can provide important pitch cues for recognition. Zebra finches and humans were trained to sort contiguous frequencies into 3 or 8 ranges, based on associations between the ranges and reward. The 3-range task was conducted separately in 3 spectral regions. Zebra finches discriminated 3 ranges in the medium and high spectral regions faster than in the low region and discriminated 8 ranges with precision. Humans discriminated 3 ranges in all 3 spectral regions to the same modest standard and acquired only a crude discrimination of the lowest and highest of 8 ranges. The results indicate that songbirds have a special sensitivity to the pitches in conspecific songs and, relative to humans, have a remarkable general ability to sort pitches into ranges.

  7. Frequency-range discriminations: special and general abilities in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Weisman, R; Njegovan, M; Sturdy, C; Phillmore, L; Coyle, J; Mewhort, D

    1998-09-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs and human speech can provide important pitch cues for recognition. Zebra finches and humans were trained to sort contiguous frequencies into 3 or 8 ranges, based on associations between the ranges and reward. The 3-range task was conducted separately in 3 spectral regions. Zebra finches discriminated 3 ranges in the medium and high spectral regions faster than in the low region and discriminated 8 ranges with precision. Humans discriminated 3 ranges in all 3 spectral regions to the same modest standard and acquired only a crude discrimination of the lowest and highest of 8 ranges. The results indicate that songbirds have a special sensitivity to the pitches in conspecific songs and, relative to humans, have a remarkable general ability to sort pitches into ranges. PMID:9770314

  8. Discovering your inner bat: echo-acoustic target ranging in humans.

    PubMed

    Schörnich, Sven; Nagy, Andreas; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2012-10-01

    Echolocation is typically associated with bats and toothed whales. To date, only few studies have investigated echolocation in humans. Moreover, these experiments were conducted with real objects in real rooms; a configuration in which features of both vocal emissions and perceptual cues are difficult to analyse and control. We investigated human sonar target-ranging in virtual echo-acoustic space, using a short-latency, real-time convolution engine. Subjects produced tongue clicks, which were picked up by a headset microphone, digitally delayed, convolved with individual head-related transfer functions and played back through earphones, thus simulating a reflecting surface at a specific range in front of the subject. In an adaptive 2-AFC paradigm, we measured the perceptual sensitivity to changes of the range for reference ranges of 1.7, 3.4 or 6.8 m. In a follow-up experiment, a second simulated surface at a lateral position and a fixed range was added, expected to act either as an interfering masker or a useful reference. The psychophysical data show that the subjects were well capable to discriminate differences in the range of a frontal reflector. The range-discrimination thresholds were typically below 1 m and, for a reference range of 1.7 m, they were typically below 0.5 m. Performance improved when a second reflector was introduced at a lateral angle of 45°. A detailed analysis of the tongue clicks showed that the subjects typically produced short, broadband palatal clicks with durations between 3 and 15 ms, and sound levels between 60 and 108 dB. Typically, the tongue clicks had relatively high peak frequencies around 6 to 8 kHz. Through the combination of highly controlled psychophysical experiments in virtual space and a detailed analysis of both the subjects' performance and their emitted tongue clicks, the current experiments provide insights into both vocal motor and sensory processes recruited by humans that aim to explore their environment by

  9. A broadband multifocal metalens in the terahertz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Moazami, Amin; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Metasurfaces, the 2D form of metamaterials with their ability in phase, amplitude and polarization manipulation are widely used in designing optical devices. Efforts to find proper photonic components in the terahertz (THz) range of frequency lead us to adopt metasurfaces as their constituent elements. Here, we conceived a broadband THz lens with an adjustable number and arrangement of focal points. To have a full control over the lens functionality, we used a metasurface with the capability of simultaneously modulating the amplitude and phase of the incident wave. C-shaped ring resonators (CSRRs) with different geometry and orientation capable of simultaneously manipulating phase and amplitude of the scattered fields, are proper choice to design the lens. We show that the introduced lens in a one-dimensional layout has a wide range of working frequencies within the THz spectrum, which can be used in a plethora of applications.

  10. Towards a reference cavitating vessel Part III—design and acoustic pressure characterization of a multi-frequency sonoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian; Memoli, Gianluca; Hodnett, Mark; Butterworth, Ian; Sarno, Dan; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2015-08-01

    A multi-frequency cavitation vessel (RV-multi) has been commissioned at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK), with the aim of establishing a standard source of acoustic cavitation in water, with reference to which details of the cavitation process can be studied and cavitation measurement techniques evaluated. The vessel is a cylindrical cavity with a maximum capacity up to 17 L, and is designed to work at six frequency ranges, from 21 kHz to 136 kHz, under controlled temperature conditions. This paper discusses the design of RV-multi and reports experiments carried out to establish the reproducibility of the acoustic pressure field established within the vessel and its operating envelope, including sensitivity to aspects such as water depth and temperature. The acoustic field distribution was determined along the radial and depth directions within the vessel using a miniature hydrophone, for two input voltage levels under low power transducer excitation conditions (e.g. below the cavitation threshold). Particular care was taken in determining peak acoustic pressure locations, as these are critical for accompanying cavitation studies. Perturbations of the vessel by the measuring hydrophone were also monitored with a bottom-mounted pressure sensor.

  11. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kuan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha; Jing, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies (⩽500Hz) was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial's structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm) lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  12. Frequency-dependent damping in propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Banerjee, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-07-10

    Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are often observed in polar plumes and active region fan loops. The observed periodicities of these waves range from a few minutes to a few tens of minutes and their amplitudes were found to decay rapidly as they travel along the supporting structure. Previously, thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, radiation, density stratification, and area divergence were identified to be some of the causes for change in the slow wave amplitude. Our recent studies indicate that the observed damping in these waves is frequency-dependent. We used imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to study this dependence in detail and for the first time via observations we attempted to deduce a quantitative relation between the damping length and frequency of these oscillations. We developed a new analysis method to obtain this relation. The observed frequency dependence does not seem to agree with the current linear wave theory and it was found that the waves observed in the polar regions show a different dependence from those observed in the on-disk loop structures despite the similarity in their properties.

  13. High-overtone self-focusing acoustic transducers for high-frequency ultrasonic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Lee, Chuangyuan; Kim, Eun Sok; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Gaofeng; Yu, Hongyu

    2010-05-01

    This work reports the potential use of high-overtone self-focusing acoustic transducers for high-frequency ultrasonic Doppler. By using harmonic frequencies of a thick bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducer with a novel air-reflector Fresnel lens, we obtained strong ultrasound signals at 60 MHz (3rd harmonic) and 100 MHz (5th harmonic). Both experimental and theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the transducers can be applied to Doppler systems with high frequencies up to 100 MHz.

  14. Dual-frequency modes of the dust acoustic surface wave in a semibounded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-07-01

    Dual-frequency modes of the dust acoustic surface waves propagating at the interface between a nonmagnetized multicomponent Lorentzian dusty plasma and a vacuum are investigated, including nonthermal and positron effects. The dispersion relation is kinetically derived by employing the specular reflection boundary condition and the dielectric permittivity for dusty plasma containing positrons. We found that there exist two modes of the dust acoustic surface wave; high- and low-frequency modes. We observe that both H and L modes are enhanced by the increase of the pair annihilation rate. However, the effects of positron density are twofold depending on the ratio of annihilated positrons. The effects of nonthermal plasmas are also investigated on the H and L modes of dust acoustic surface waves. We found that the nonthermal plasmas reduce the frequencies of both H and L modes.

  15. Dual-frequency modes of the dust acoustic surface wave in a semibounded system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-07-01

    Dual-frequency modes of the dust acoustic surface waves propagating at the interface between a nonmagnetized multicomponent Lorentzian dusty plasma and a vacuum are investigated, including nonthermal and positron effects. The dispersion relation is kinetically derived by employing the specular reflection boundary condition and the dielectric permittivity for dusty plasma containing positrons. We found that there exist two modes of the dust acoustic surface wave; high- and low-frequency modes. We observe that both H and L modes are enhanced by the increase of the pair annihilation rate. However, the effects of positron density are twofold depending on the ratio of annihilated positrons. The effects of nonthermal plasmas are also investigated on the H and L modes of dust acoustic surface waves. We found that the nonthermal plasmas reduce the frequencies of both H and L modes.

  16. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Ivry, Yachin E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk

    2014-03-31

    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  17. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  18. Frequency-Preserved Acoustic Diode Model with High Forward-Power-Transmission Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Du, Zongliang; Sun, Zhi; Gao, Huajian; Guo, Xu

    2015-06-01

    The acoustic diode (AD) can provide brighter and clearer ultrasound images by eliminating acoustic disturbances caused by sound waves traveling in two directions at the same time and interfering with each other. Such an AD could give designers new flexibility in making ultrasonic sources like those used in medical imaging or nondestructive testing. However, current AD designs, based on nonlinear effects, only partially fill this role by converting sound to a new frequency and blocking any backward flow of the original frequency. In this work, an AD model that preserves the frequencies of acoustic waves and has a relatively high forward-power-transmission rate is proposed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed AD has forward, reverse, and breakdown characteristics very similar to electrical diodes. The significant rectifying effect of the proposed AD is verified numerically through a one-dimensional example. Possible schemes for experimental realization of this model as well as more complex and efficient AD designs are also discussed.

  19. Noninvasive identification of fluids by swept-frequency acoustic interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1998-01-01

    A method for rapid, noninvasive identification and monitoring of chemicals in sealed containers or containers where direct access to the chemical is not possible is described. Multiple ultrasonic acoustic properties (up to four) of a fluid are simultaneously determined. The present invention can be used for chemical identification and for determining changes in known chemicals from a variety of sources. It is not possible to identify all known chemicals based on the measured parameters, but known classes of chemicals in suspected containers, such as in chemical munitions, can be characterized. In addition, a large number of industrial chemicals can be identified.

  20. Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Ballot, J.; Antia, H. M.; Basu, S.; Houdek, G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Seader, S. E.; Smith, J. C.

    2014-02-10

    For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

  1. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  2. Atmospheric range correction for two-frequency SLR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Dudy D.; Brunner, Fritz K.

    2011-09-01

    It has been widely known that the use of two-frequency Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system is limited by stringent precision requirements of the range measurements and the proper atmospheric model. Owing to the stringent requirements, this SLR system is impractical for the current requirement of SLR measurements within the framework of global geodetic observing system (GGOS). If in the future this stringent requirement could be met, this SLR system would be an attractive tool to reduce atmospheric propagation effects of SLR and would be of great benefit for the next generation of GGOS design. To anticipate possible future developments of the two-frequency SLR systems, we have developed a new atmospheric correction formula for the two-frequency SLR measurements. The new formula eliminates the total atmospheric density effect including its gradient and provides two terms to calculate the curvature effect and the water vapor distribution effect. While the curvature effect can be calculated by an accurate model, the required information about the water vapor distribution along the propagation path can be calculated using previous developments of optical delay modeling or alternatively using results from microwave measurements. Theoretical simulations using the two-frequency systems of the Graz and TIGO-Concepción stations shows that the new formula completely reduces all propagation effects at any elevation angle above 3° with an accuracy better than 1 mm. However, the required precision for the difference of the two-frequency SLR measurements, i.e. better than 45 μm for a single epoch, exceeds the capability of the current state of the art SLR systems.

  3. Robustness against distortion of fundamental frequency cues in simulated electro-acoustic hearing.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Arthur; Verschuur, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Speech recognition by cochlear implant users can be improved by adding an audible low frequency acoustic signal to electrical hearing; the resulting improvement is deemed "electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) benefit." However, a crucial low frequency cue, fundamental frequency (F0), can be distorted via the impaired auditory system. In order to understand how F0 distortions may affect EAS benefit, normal-hearing listeners were presented monaurally with vocoded speech (frequencies >250 Hz) and an acoustical signal (frequencies <250 Hz) with differing manipulations of the F0 signal, specifically: a pure tone with the correct mean F0 but with smaller variations around this mean, or a narrowband of white noise centered around F0, at varying bandwidths; a pure tone down-shifted in frequency by 50 Hz but keeping overall frequency modulations. Speech-recognition thresholds improved when tones with reduced frequency modulation were presented, and improved significantly for noise bands maintaining F0 information. A down-shifted tone, or only a tone to indicate voicing, showed no EAS benefit. These results confirm that the presence of the target's F0 is beneficial for EAS hearing in a noisy environment, and they indicate that the benefit is robust to F0 distortion, as long as the mean F0 and frequency modulations of F0 are preserved. PMID:27475149

  4. Propagation of high frequency jet noise using geometric acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, A.; Krejsa, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Spherical directivity of noise radiated from a convecting quadrupole source embedded in an arbitrary spreading jet is obtained by ray-tracing methods of geometrical acoustics. The six propagation equations are solved in their general form in a rectangular coordinate system. The noise directivity in the far field is calculated by applying an iteration scheme that finds the required radiation angles at the source resulting in propagation through a given observer point. Factors influencing the zone of silence are investigated. The caustics of geometrical acoustics and the exact locations where it forms is demonstrated by studying the variation in ray tube area obtained from transport equation. For a ring source convecting along the center-axis of an axisymmetric jet, the polar directivity of the radiated noise is obtained by an integration with respect to azimuthal directivity of compact quadrupole sources distributed on the ring. The Doppler factor is shown to vary slightly from point to point on the ring. Finally the scaling of the directivity pattern with power -3 of Doppler factor is investigated and compared with experimental data.

  5. An open-structure sound insulator against low-frequency and wide-band acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xiao-juan; Ding, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To block sound, i.e., the vibration of air, most insulators are based on sealed structures and prevent the flow of the air. In this research, an acoustic metamaterial adopting side structures, loops, and labyrinths, arranged along a main tube, is presented. By combining the accurately designed side structures, an extremely wide forbidden band with a low cut-off frequency of 80 Hz is produced, which demonstrates a powerful low-frequency and wide-band sound insulation ability. Moreover, by virtue of the bypass arrangement, the metamaterial is based on an open structure, and thus air flow is allowed while acoustic waves can be insulated.

  6. Ionospheric Coherence Bandwidth Measurements in the Lower VHF Frequency Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 820 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric coherence bandwidth and S4 scintillation index measurements in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range collected during the ESCINT equatorial scintillation experiment. 40-MHz continuous wave (CW) and 32 - 44 MHz swept frequency signals were transmitted simultaneously to the RFProp receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in three separate campaigns during the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results show coherence bandwidths as small as ~ 1 kHz for strong scintillation (S4 > 0.7) and indicate a high degree of ionospheric variability and irregularity on 10-m spatial scales. Spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities are also observed and are dominant at low elevation angles. The results are compared to previous measurements and available scaling laws.

  7. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship) call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1) Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2) High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3) Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged. PMID:23198727

  8. Heating by waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main aspects of heating with the fast wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are reviewed. First, the ion cyclotron resonance mechanism, fundamental and harmonics, is examined. Then the properties of fast wave dispersion are reviewed, and the principles of minority and higher cylcotron harmonic heating are discussed. An elementary coupling model is worked out in order to outline the computation of the electrical properties of ICRF antennas. Using the simple model, the antenna radiation pattern inside the plasma is computed and the effect of phasing on the k spectrum and on the antenna radiation properties is illustrated. The quasi linear-Fokker-Planck computation of the deformation of distribution functions due to Radio-Frequency (RF) and tail formation are briefly discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in the presence of pressure leakage and heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Rong, Zuochao

    2015-12-01

    The wide concern on absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies prompts the development of the pistonphone method. At low frequencies, the acoustic properties of pistonphones are governed by the pressure leakage and the heat conduction effects. However, the traditional theory for these two effects applies a linear superposition of two independent correction models, which differs somewhat from their coupled effect at low frequencies. In this paper, acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in full consideration of the pressure leakage and heat conduction effects have been quantitatively studied, and the explicit expression for the generated sound pressure has been derived. With more practical significance, a coupled correction expression for these two effects of pistonphones has been derived. In allusion to two typical pistonphones, the NPL pistonphone and our developed infrasonic pistonphone, comparisons were done for the coupled correction expression and the traditional one, whose results reveal that the traditional one produces maximum insufficient errors of about 0.1 dB above the lower limiting frequencies of two pistonphones, while at lower frequencies, excessive correction errors with an explicit limit of about 3 dB are produced by the traditional expression. The coupled correction expression should be adopted in the absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies. Furthermore, it is found that the heat conduction effect takes a limiting deviation of about 3 dB for the pressure amplitude and a small phase difference as frequency decreases, while the pressure leakage effect remarkably drives the pressure amplitude to attenuate and the phase difference tends to be 90° as the frequency decreases. The pressure leakage effect plays a more important role on the low frequency property of pistonphones.

  10. A general low frequency acoustic radiation capability for NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, G. C.; Henderson, F. M.; Schroeder, E. A.; Lipman, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    A new capability called NASHUA is described for calculating the radiated acoustic sound pressure field exterior to a harmonically-excited arbitrary submerged 3-D elastic structure. The surface fluid pressures and velocities are first calculated by coupling a NASTRAN finite element model of the structure with a discretized form of the Helmholtz surface integral equation for the exterior fluid. After the fluid impedance is calculated, most of the required matrix operations are performed using the general matrix manipulation package (DMAP) available in NASTRAN. Far field radiated pressures are then calculated from the surface solution using the Helmholtz exterior integral equation. Other output quantities include the maximum sound pressure levels in each of the three coordinate planes, the rms and average surface pressures and normal velocities, the total radiated power and the radiation efficiency. The overall approach is illustrated and validated using known analytic solutions for submerged spherical shells subjected to both uniform and nonuniform applied loads.

  11. A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, Wei; Hanjun, Jiang; Lingwei, Zhang; Jingjing, Dong; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang; Chun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44-2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is -94 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz and -121 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications.

  12. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes method including acoustic damping by eddy viscosity using RANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Target Range Estimation Using Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2010-07-01

    In ambient noise imaging (ANI), each pixel of a target image is mapped by either monochrome or pseudo color to represent its acoustic intensity in each direction. This intensity is obtained by measuring the target object's reflecting or scattering wave, with ocean background noise serving as the sound source. In the case of using an acoustic lens, the ANI system creates a C-mode-like image, where receivers are arranged on a focal plane and each pixel's color corresponds to the intensity of each receiver output. There is no consideration for estimating a target range by this method, because it is impossible to measure the traveling time between a transducer and a target by a method like an active imaging sonar. In this study, we tried to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens. Here, we conducted a numerical simulation of sound propagation based on the principle of the time reversal mirror. First, instead of actual ocean measurements in the forward propagation, we calculated the scattering wave from a rigid target object in an acoustic noise field generated by a large number of point sources using the two-dimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The time series of the scattering wave converged by the lens was then recorded on each receiver. The sound pressure distribution assuming that the time-reversed wave of the scattering wave was reradiated from each receiver position was also calculated using the 2D FDTD method in the backward propagation. It was possible to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens, because the maximum position of the reradiated sound pressure field was close to the target position.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Target Range Estimation Using Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuyoshi Mori,; Hanako Ogasawara,; Toshiaki Nakamura,; Takenobu Tsuchiya,; Nobuyuki Endoh,

    2010-07-01

    In ambient noise imaging (ANI), each pixel of a target image is mapped by either monochrome or pseudo color to represent its acoustic intensity in each direction. This intensity is obtained by measuring the target object’s reflecting or scattering wave, with ocean background noise serving as the sound source. In the case of using an acoustic lens, the ANI system creates a C-mode-like image, where receivers are arranged on a focal plane and each pixel’s color corresponds to the intensity of each receiver output. There is no consideration for estimating a target range by this method, because it is impossible to measure the traveling time between a transducer and a target by a method like an active imaging sonar. In this study, we tried to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens. Here, we conducted a numerical simulation of sound propagation based on the principle of the time reversal mirror. First, instead of actual ocean measurements in the forward propagation, we calculated the scattering wave from a rigid target object in an acoustic noise field generated by a large number of point sources using the two-dimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The time series of the scattering wave converged by the lens was then recorded on each receiver. The sound pressure distribution assuming that the time-reversed wave of the scattering wave was reradiated from each receiver position was also calculated using the 2D FDTD method in the backward propagation. It was possible to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens, because the maximum position of the reradiated sound pressure field was close to the target position.

  15. On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30 per cent, with the remaining 70 per cent resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.

  16. Maintaining acoustic communication at a cocktail party: heterospecific masking noise improves signal detection through frequency separation

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, M. E.; Römer, H.; Hartbauer, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined acoustic masking in a chirping katydid species of the Mecopoda elongata complex due to interference with a sympatric Mecopoda species where males produce continuous trills at high amplitudes. Frequency spectra of both calling songs range from 1 to 80 kHz; the chirper species has more energy in a narrow frequency band at 2 kHz and above 40 kHz. Behaviourally, chirper males successfully phase-locked their chirps to playbacks of conspecific chirps under masking conditions at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of −8 dB. After the 2 kHz band in the chirp had been equalised to the level in the masking trill, the breakdown of phase-locked synchrony occurred at a SNR of +7 dB. The remarkable receiver performance is partially mirrored in the selective response of a first-order auditory interneuron (TN1) to conspecific chirps under these masking conditions. However, the selective response is only maintained for a stimulus including the 2 kHz component, although this frequency band has no influence on the unmasked TN1 response. Remarkably, the addition of masking noise at 65 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to threshold response levels of TN1 for pure tones of 2 kHz enhanced the sensitivity of the response by 10 dB. Thus, the spectral dissimilarity between masker and signal at a rather low frequency appears to be of crucial importance for the ability of the chirping species to communicate under strong masking by the trilling species. We discuss the possible properties underlying the cellular/synaptic mechanisms of the ‘novelty detector’. PMID:24307713

  17. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOEpatents

    Kerner, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  18. Mid-Frequency Acoustic Backscattering from Finite Cylindrical Shells, and, the Influence of Helical Membrane Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Charles N., Jr.

    The measurements and analyses were conducted over a mid-frequency range of 2 < ka < 12 corresponding to about 1/2 to 3 times the ring frequency of the empty shell. The measurements were all conducted with the use of wide-band pulses yielding good time resolution of propagating waves. Various time and frequency domain representations of the scattered field are presented to illustrate the evolution of observed backscattering processes. Although the field measured at all aspect angles is reviewed, emphasis is placed on interpretation of the backscatter observed over a range within 30 degrees of beam aspect where phase matched (coincident) excitation of membrane waves occurs. Coincident shear wave radiation is the dominant source of backscatter generated by the empty shell at oblique angles of incidence within 30^circ of beam aspect. Peak levels of backscatter are generally found at combinations of aspect angle and frequency where coincidence and peak levels of length-scale modulation coexist. Coincident back radiation of shear waves remains evident in the backscatter of the ring stiffened shell, but the backscatter is smeared in time and frequency because the rings directly scatter energy to the acoustic medium, as well as from one membrane wave type to another, and to subsonic flexural waves. The decay rate of the empty shell backscatter exceeds that of the ring stiffened shell by a factor of 2-3 because the rings scatter energy to poorly radiating waves. Although details of the backscatter produced by the empty and ring stiffened shells differ, peak levels of target strength consistently fall within a range of -20 to -15 dB re 1 m. The internal loading further impairs coincident radiation but increases the target strength by about 2 dB for ka > 5.5. The damping provided by the resilient mounts increases backscatter decay rates by roughly 1.2 to 1.4 relative to those of the ring stiffened shell. Bistatic measurements of the internally loaded shell also demonstrate

  19. Frequency Shift of a Rotating Mass-Imbalance Immersed in an Acoustic Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Novascone; David M. Weinberg; Michael J. Anderson

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a physical mechanism that relates a measurable behavior of a vibrating device to the physical properties of a surrounding acoustic medium. The vibrating device under consideration is a rotating imbalance immersed in an unbounded acoustic fluid. It is assumed that the rotating imbalance is driven by an electromagnetic motor excited by a given DC voltage. If nonlinearities are ignored, the steady state operational frequency of such a device is determined by a balance between the applied electromagnetic and opposing frictional torque on the rotating imbalance. If nonlinearities are retained, it is shown that under certain circumstances, the surrounding acoustic medium exerts an additional time-averaged opposing torque on the rotating imbalance that reduces the operational frequency of the device. Consequently, the operational frequency of the device becomes linked to the physical properties of the surrounding medium. Analytical calculations showed that the radiative resistance of an acoustic fluid caused the opposing torque. The shift in frequency is proportional to the radiative resistance and the square of the rotating eccentricity, but inversely proportional the total transducer mass and the damping effect of the DC motor.

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustic Investigation: Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Stephen E.; Rand, Robert W.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the…

  1. Enhanced frequency response of a highly transparent PVDF-graphene based thin film acoustic actuator.

    PubMed

    Lee, James S; Shin, Keun-Young; Kim, Chanhoi; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-12-01

    A high-performance polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based thin film acoustic actuator with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene electrodes was successfully fabricated. Importantly, it showed 60, 19, and 22% enhancement in the bass, middle and treble frequency response, respectively. PMID:24136447

  2. Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi

    2015-09-15

    High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.

  3. Low-frequency acoustic atomization with oscillatory flow around micropillars in a microfluidic device

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Yin Nee E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Wong, Teck Neng E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Nguyen, Nam Trung

    2014-10-06

    This letter reports a low frequency acoustic atomization technique with oscillatory extensional flow around micropillars. Large droplets passing through two micropillars are elongated. Small droplets are then produced through the pinch-off process at the spindle-shape ends. As the actuation frequency increases, the droplet size decreases with increasing monodispersity. This method is suitable for in-situ mass production of fine droplets in a multi-phase environment without external pumping. Small particles encapsulation was demonstrated with the current technique.

  4. A programmable acoustic recording tag and first results from free-ranging northern elephant seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, W. C.; Tyack, P. L.; Le Boeuf, B. J.; Costa, D. P.

    A hydrophone-equipped tag recorded exposure to noise, as well as physiological and behavioral sounds, on free-ranging northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris). The compact acoustic probe (CAP) consisted of the hydrophone, a thermistor, and a pressure transducer in a 36 cm long, 10 cm diameter cylindrical hydrodynamic housing capable of withstanding 2000 m depth. The enclosed logging electronics included a programmable "TattleTale 7" data acquisition engine and a 340 Mb hard disk. A custom low-power operating system supported multi-channel interrupt-driven sampling at 5 kHz. The complete tag weighed 0.9 kg in water and displaced 2.1 l. During five deployments on juveniles translocated from and returning to Año Nuevo, California, CAP tags measured dive pattern, ambient and vessel noise exposure, oceanographic ranging (RAFOS) and thermometry (ATOC) beacons, acoustic signatures of swim stroke, surface respiration, and cardiac function, and possible vocalizations.

  5. On the selection of transmission range in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingsheng; Foh, Chuan Heng; Cai, Jianfei

    2012-01-01

    Transmission range plays an important role in the deployment of a practical underwater acoustic sensor network (UWSN), where sensor nodes equipping with only basic functions are deployed at random locations with no particular geometrical arrangements. The selection of the transmission range directly influences the energy efficiency and the network connectivity of such a random network. In this paper, we seek analytical modeling to investigate the tradeoff between the energy efficiency and the network connectivity through the selection of the transmission range. Our formulation offers a design guideline for energy-efficient packet transmission operation given a certain network connectivity requirement.

  6. Beam paths of flexural Lamb waves at high frequency in the first band within phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.

    2014-12-15

    This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.

  7. Eulerian Simulation of Acoustic Waves Over Long Range in Realistic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, Subhashini; Steinhoff, John

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for computation of long-range acoustics. The approach is a hybrid of near and far-field methods, and is unique in its Eulerian treatment of the far-field propagation. The near-field generated by any existing method to project an acoustic solution onto a spherical surface that surrounds a source. The acoustic field on this source surface is then extended to an arbitrarily large distance in an inhomogeneous far-field. This would normally require an Eulerian solution of the wave equation. However, conventional Eulerian methods have prohibitive grid requirements. This problem is overcome by using a new method, ``Wave Confinement'' (WC) that propagates wave-identifying phase fronts as nonlinear solitary waves that live on grid indefinitely. This involves modification of wave equation by the addition of a nonlinear term without changing the basic conservation properties of the equation. These solitary waves can then be used to ``carry'' the essential integrals of the acoustic wave. For example, arrival time, centroid position and other properties that are invariant as the wave passes a grid point. Because of this property the grid can be made as coarse as necessary, consistent with overall accuracy to resolve atmospheric/ground variations. This work is being funded by the U.S. Army under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (contract number: # W911W6-12-C-0036). The authors would like to thank Dr. Frank Caradonna and Dr. Ben W. Sim for this support.

  8. Liquid-glass transition as the freezing of characteristic acoustic frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sanditov, D. S.

    2010-11-15

    Half-quantum interpretation is proposed for the liquid-glass transition as the freezing of characteristic acoustic frequencies (degrees of freedom) that are related to the molecular mobility of delocalized excited kinetic units, namely, linear quantum oscillators. There exists a correlation between the energy quantum of an elementary excitation (atom delocalization energy) and the glass transition temperature, which is proportional to the characteristic Einstein temperature. By analogy with the Einstein theory of the heat capacity of solids, the temperature range of the concentration of excited atoms in an amorphous medium is divided into the following two regions: a high-temperature region with a linear temperature dependence of this concentration and a low-temperature region, where the concentration of excited atoms decreases exponentially to the limiting minimum value (about 3%). At this value, the viscosity increases to a critical value (about 10{sup 12} Pa s), which corresponds to the glass transition temperature, i.e., the temperature of freezing the mobility of excited kinetic units. The temperature dependence of the free activation energy of viscous flow in the glass transition range is specified by the temperature dependence of the relative number of excited atoms.

  9. Free-ranging finless porpoises acoustically inspect their frontal area in advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2001-05-01

    Echolocation events, interpulse intervals, and swimming speeds of nine free-ranging finless porpoises in an oxbow of the Yangtze River, China were recorded by datalogger systems attached on the animals. Over 120 h of successful recording indicated that the finless porpoises acoustically inspected their frontal area in advance before swimming silently. The acoustical sensing distance estimated by the interpulse interval was significantly larger than the swimming distance without echolocation beforehand. Terminal phase which was already known in the echolocation behavior of bats could be found in free-ranging finless porpoises. The terminal phase is the decreasing interpulse intervals in an echolocation pulse train that are observed just before the prey capture. During the terminal phase of finless porpoises, linearly decreased interpulse intervals were recognized. In the mean time, the swimming distance and the change of the sensing distance were closely correlated with each other. This suggests that the finless porpoise knew precisely the distance to the approaching target in the time scale of subsecond order. Acoustical sensing effort was considered to be controlled appropriately by free-ranging finless porpoises to obtain underwater information they need. [Research supported by Promotion of Basic Research Activities for Innovative Biosciences, Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution, Japan.

  10. Long-range acoustic interactions in insect swarms: an adaptive gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-07-01

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges’ acoustic sensing, we show that our ‘adaptive gravity’ model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. Additionally, the adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  11. Comprehensive experimental and numerical investigations of the effect of frequency and acoustic intensity on the sonolytic degradation of naphthol blue black in water.

    PubMed

    Ferkous, Hamza; Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, comprehensive experimental and numerical investigations of the effects of frequency and acoustic intensity on the sonochemical degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water have been carried out. The experiments have been examined at three frequencies (585, 860 and 1140 kHz) and over a wide range of acoustic intensities. The observed experimental results have been discussed using a more realistic approach that combines the single bubble sonochemistry and the number of active bubbles. The single bubble yield has been predicted using a model that combines the bubble dynamics with chemical kinetics consisting of series of chemical reactions (73 reversible reactions) occurring inside an air bubble during the strong collapse. The experimental results showed that the sonochemical degradation rate of NBB increased substantially with increasing acoustic intensity and decreased with increasing ultrasound frequency. The numerical simulations revealed that NBB degraded mainly through the reaction with hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the dominant oxidant detected in the bubble during collapse. The production rate of OH radical inside a single bubble followed the same trend as that of NBB degradation rate. It increased with increasing acoustic intensity and decreased with increasing frequency. The enhancing effect of acoustic intensity toward the degradation of NBB was attributed to the rise of both the individual chemical bubble yield and the number of active bubbles with increasing acoustic intensity. The reducing effect of frequency was attributed to the sharp decrease in the chemical bubble yield with increasing frequency, which would not compensated by the rise of the number of active bubbles with the increase in ultrasound frequency. PMID:25753313

  12. High precision spectroscopy and imaging in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.

    2014-03-01

    Application of microwave methods for development of the THz frequency range has resulted in elaboration of high precision THz spectrometers based on nonstationary effects. The spectrometers characteristics (spectral resolution and sensitivity) meet the requirements for high precision analysis. The gas analyzers, based on the high precision spectrometers, have been successfully applied for analytical investigations of gas impurities in high pure substances. These investigations can be carried out both in absorption cell and in reactor. The devices can be used for ecological monitoring, detecting the components of chemical weapons and explosive in the atmosphere. The great field of THz investigations is the medicine application. Using the THz spectrometers developed one can detect markers for some diseases in exhaled air.

  13. Oscillating two stream instability of electromagnetic pump in the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Nafis; Tripathi, V. K.; Rafat, M.; Husain, Mudassir M.

    2009-06-15

    An analytical formalism of oscillating two stream instability of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a plasma is developed. The instability produces electrostatic ion cyclotron sidebands and a driven low frequency mode. The nonlinear coupling arises primarily due to the motion of ions and is strong when the pump frequency is close to ion cyclotron frequency and the oscillatory ion velocity is a significant fraction of acoustic speed. For propagation perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, the X-mode pump wave produces flute type perturbation with maximum growth rate at some specific wavelengths, which are three to four times larger than the ion Larmor radius. For propagation at oblique angles to ambient magnetic field, the ion cyclotron O-mode, the growth rate increases with the wave number of the low frequency mode.

  14. Imaging Defects in Thin DLC Coatings Using High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Dong; Rebinsky, Douglas A.; Zinin, Pavel; Koehler, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    In this work high frequency scanning acoustic microscopy was employed to nondestructively characterize subsurface defects in chromium containing DLC (Cr-DLC) coatings. Subsurface defects as small as one micron were successfully detected in a flat Cr-DLC coated steel coupon. Depth of the imaged subsurface defects was estimated using a simple geometrical acoustics model. The nature of the subsurface defects was investigated by using FIB/SEM technique. Curved Cr-DLC coated components including a roller and gear tooth were also imaged, and the encountered challenges were addressed.

  15. Visualizing detecting low-frequency underwater acoustic signals by means of optical diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yao; Miao, Runcai; Su, Xiaoming; Chen, Hua

    2016-03-10

    A novel and simple technique based on the light diffraction effect for visualization of low-frequency underwater acoustic waves (LFUAWs) in real time has been developed in this paper. A cylindrical object has been put on the surface of the water. A low-frequency underwater longitudinal wave can be generated into a water surface transversal capillary wave around the cylinder by our technique. Modulating the phase of a laser beam reflected from a water surface by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) realizes the acousto-optic effect. Then, a steady and visible diffraction pattern is experimentally observed. A physical model of the SAW is established to verify the feasibility of our technique. An analytical expression of wavelength, wave amplitude, and excitation frequency has been derived to study the physical properties of LFUAWs, and it explains the experimental phenomenon very well. As a result, the technique is effective, easy, and practical for visualizing LFUAWs and has significance for applications. PMID:26974797

  16. The effects of probe-tone frequency on the acoustic-reflex growth function.

    PubMed

    Lutolf, John J; O'Malley, Honor; Silman, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic-reflex growth functions (ARGFs) were obtained from 20 normal-hearing listeners. Contralateral acoustic reflexes (ARs) were elicited with pure tones of 2000 Hz. The magnitude of changes in static compliant susceptance (BA) and conductance (GA) were monitored with probe-tone frequencies of 226 Hz, 678 Hz and 1000 Hz. ARGFs were obtained with six combinations of probe-tone frequency/admittance component: 226 Hz BA, 226 Hz GA, 678 Hz BA, 678 Hz GA, 1000 Hz BA, and 1000 Hz GA. Peak conductance (GA) and susceptance (BA) ARs were largest within the 678 Hz GA and 1000 Hz BAARGFs, respectively. Among high-frequency probe tones, the patterns of AR growth were larger and less variable for the 678 Hz GA ARGF and the 1000 Hz BA ARGF as determined by the magnitude of their linear (b1) and quadratic (b2) polynomial coefficients and the value of their squared correlation coefficients (R2).

  17. Low-frequency speech cues and simulated electric-acoustic hearing

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2009-01-01

    The addition of low-frequency acoustic information to real or simulated electric stimulation (so-called electric-acoustic stimulation or EAS) often results in large improvements in intelligibility, particularly in competing backgrounds. This may reflect the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information in the acoustic region. The contributions of F0 and the amplitude envelope (as well as voicing) of speech to simulated EAS was examined by replacing the low-frequency speech with a tone that was modulated in frequency to track the F0 of the speech, in amplitude with the envelope of the low-frequency speech, or both. A four-channel vocoder simulated electric hearing. Significant benefit over vocoder alone was observed with the addition of a tone carrying F0 or envelope cues, and both cues combined typically provided significantly more benefit than either alone. The intelligibility improvement over vocoder was between 24 and 57 percentage points, and was unaffected by the presence of a tone carrying these cues from a background talker. These results confirm the importance of the F0 of target speech for EAS (in simulation). They indicate that significant benefit can be provided by a tone carrying F0 and amplitude envelope cues. The results support a glimpsing account of EAS and argue against segregation. PMID:19275323

  18. Time-frequency-aspect analysis and visualization of acoustic scattering from elastic shells submerged in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Timothy J.

    2000-05-01

    The solutions for acoustic scattering from objects in separable geometries along with the associated fluid- structure interactions are well established. Closed-form solutions to these problems have either interpretations such as resonance scattering theory, or some limiting situations that provide insight into the physical processes that occur. In contrast, most acoustical scattering problems do not have closed-form solutions. Numerical solutions, like finite and boundary element methods, allow researchers to obtain solutions from scattering problems with more complicated geometries; unfortunately, these methods of solution are limited in that they lack the kind of interpretation that provides insight into the physical processes that occur. It is only through the systematic analysis of the large volume of data produced by numerical solutions that this insight is gained. One way to gain this insight is to analyze the monostatic dependence of echoes in the time-frequency domain. However, traditional three-dimensional graphical analysis of time-frequency signals that vary as a function of a third parameter (the monostatic dependence) does not display all of the signals' information content because two marginals, of this distribution (the time and frequency representations) contain information that is lost in the visual representation of the time-frequency domain. This information is lost because the uncertainty principal prevents simultaneous display of the time and frequency information via a time-frequency transform, and because humans do not possess the innate ability to perform the transforms that extract the information. The problem of how to systematically analyze monostatic scattering data in the time-frequency domain and how to visually display all of the data's information content is overcome by introducing a time-frequency-parameter graphical analysis technique. This technique is applied to farfield acoustic scattering from finite, elastic, cylindrical

  19. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  20. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  1. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  2. Novel Acoustic Technology for Studying Free-Ranging Shark Social Behaviour by Recording Individuals' Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Guttridge, Tristan L.; Gruber, Samuel H.; Krause, Jens; Sims, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Group behaviours are widespread among fish but comparatively little is known about the interactions between free-ranging individuals and how these might change across different spatio-temporal scales. This is largely due to the difficulty of observing wild fish groups directly underwater over long enough time periods to quantify group structure and individual associations. Here we describe the use of a novel technology, an animal-borne acoustic proximity receiver that records close-spatial associations between free-ranging fish by detection of acoustic signals emitted from transmitters on other individuals. Validation trials, held within enclosures in the natural environment, on juvenile lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris fitted with external receivers and transmitters, showed receivers logged interactions between individuals regularly when sharks were within 4 m (∼4 body lengths) of each other, but rarely when at 10 m distance. A field trial lasting 17 days with 5 juvenile lemon sharks implanted with proximity receivers showed one receiver successfully recorded association data, demonstrating this shark associated with 9 other juvenile lemon sharks on 128 occasions. This study describes the use of acoustic underwater proximity receivers to quantify interactions among wild sharks, setting the scene for new advances in understanding the social behaviours of marine animals. PMID:20174465

  3. Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Ratcliffe, John M; Beedholm, Kristian; Christensen, Christian B; Johnson, Mark; Koblitz, Jens C; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats, maintain the ability to change beamwidth within this phase. Based on video, MRI, and acoustic-tag recordings, we propose this flexibility is modulated by the melon and implemented to accommodate dynamic spatial relationships with prey and acoustic complexity of surroundings. Despite independent evolution and different means of sound generation and transmission, whales and bats adaptively change their FOV, suggesting that beamwidth flexibility has been an important driver in the evolution of echolocation for prey tracking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05651.001 PMID:25793440

  4. Generation of infrasonic waves by low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.

    2008-06-01

    It is shown that, during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers, the excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations by modulational instability in the Earth’s ionosphere can lead to the generation of infrasonic waves. The processes accompanying the propagation of these waves are considered, and the possibility of observing the waves from the Earth’s surface is discussed, as well as the possible onset of acoustic gravitational vortex structures in the region of dust acoustic perturbations. The generation of such structures during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers can show up as an increase in the intensity of green nightglow by an amount on the order of 10% and can be attributed to the formation of nonlinear (vortex) structures at altitudes of 110-120 km.

  5. Dynamical energy analysis for built-up acoustic systems at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Chappell, D J; Giani, S; Tanner, G

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods for describing the intensity distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave fields in the high frequency asymptotic limit are often based on flow transport equations. Common techniques are statistical energy analysis, employed mostly in the context of vibro-acoustics, and ray tracing, a popular tool in architectural acoustics. Dynamical energy analysis makes it possible to interpolate between standard statistical energy analysis and full ray tracing, containing both of these methods as limiting cases. In this work a version of dynamical energy analysis based on a Chebyshev basis expansion of the Perron-Frobenius operator governing the ray dynamics is introduced. It is shown that the technique can efficiently deal with multi-component systems overcoming typical geometrical limitations present in statistical energy analysis. Results are compared with state-of-the-art hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin finite element simulations.

  6. Generation of infrasonic waves by low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers, the excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations by modulational instability in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the generation of infrasonic waves. The processes accompanying the propagation of these waves are considered, and the possibility of observing the waves from the Earth's surface is discussed, as well as the possible onset of acoustic gravitational vortex structures in the region of dust acoustic perturbations. The generation of such structures during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers can show up as an increase in the intensity of green nightglow by an amount on the order of 10% and can be attributed to the formation of nonlinear (vortex) structures at altitudes of 110-120 km.

  7. Studies of depredating sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off Sitka, AK, using videocameras, tags, and long-range passive acoustic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Delphine

    This dissertation uses videocameras, tags and acoustic recorders to investigate the diving and acoustic behavior of sperm whales in the Gulf of Alaska during natural and depredation foraging conditions. First, underwater videocamera footage of a sperm whale attacking a fisherman's longline at 100 m depth was used to examine its acoustic behavior at close range and to estimate its size both acoustically and visually. Second, bioacoustic tagging data demonstrated that the same individuals displayed different acoustic behaviors during natural and depredation foraging states. Two broad categories of depredation, "shallow" and "deep," were also identified. These results suggest that passive acoustic monitoring at close ranges may yield useful metrics for quantifying depredation activity. Third, the behavioral reactions of depredating sperm whales to a variety of acoustic playbacks generated at relatively low source levels were investigated using bioacoustic tags. Finally, bioacoustic and satellite tag data were used to develop passive acoustic techniques for tracking sperm whales with a short-aperture two-element vertical array. When numeric sound propagation models were exploited, localization ranges up to 35 km were obtained. The tracking methods were also used to estimate the source levels of sperm whale "clicks" and "creaks", predict the maximum detection range of the signals as a function of sea state, and measure the drift of several whales away from a visual decoy.

  8. Monitoring Microbe-Induced Physical Property Changes Using High-Frequency Acoustic Waveform Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. H.; Brockman, F. J.; Johnson, L. R.

    2002-12-01

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of microbially generated gas in controlled, saturated sediment columns utilizing a novel technique involving acoustic wave propagation. Specifically, the effect of N2 gas production and the resulting hypothesized plugging of pore throats by gas bubbles was evaluated during denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri in pre-sterilized sediment columns. The propagation of high frequency acoustic waves through the sediment columns was used to locate those regions in the column where gas accumulation occurred. Over a period of six weeks, regions of gas accumulation resulted in the attenuation of acoustic wave energies with the decreases in amplitude typically greater than one order of magnitude. The temporal production of N2 gas was evaluated quantitatively using the stable isotope 15N in the form of added Na15NO3. This was done to ascertain the origin (biotic or abiotic) of any produced gas with the results showing a dramatic increase in microbe-respired 15N2. Hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measurements made over the experimental period establish the rate and degree of pore throat blocking with the result being a reduction in Ks by more than 70 percent. The results were compared to a nutrient-amended but non-inoculated control column which showed neither a decrease in acoustic wave amplitudes nor hydraulic conductivity over the same time-period. Final destructive analysis of one column was performed in order to assess the cell density of denitrifying microbes throughout the column. Cell densities were found to be in close agreement with the stoichiometric predictions made prior to initiation of the experiment. Evaluation of the multiple data sets suggests that microbial gas production is both directly detectable using the high frequency acoustic wave approach and capable of significantly altering saturated flow conditions. The acoustic approach may be useful for time-course monitoring of locations of high

  9. [Research on Time-frequency Characteristics of Magneto-acoustic Signal of Different Thickness Medium Based on Wave Summing Method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shunqi; Yin, Tao; Ma, Ren; Liu, Zhipeng

    2015-08-01

    Functional imaging method of biological electrical characteristics based on magneto-acoustic effect gives valuable information of tissue in early tumor diagnosis, therein time and frequency characteristics analysis of magneto-acoustic signal is important in image reconstruction. This paper proposes wave summing method based on Green function solution for acoustic source of magneto-acoustic effect. Simulations and analysis under quasi 1D transmission condition are carried out to time and frequency characteristics of magneto-acoustic signal of models with different thickness. Simulation results of magneto-acoustic signal were verified through experiments. Results of the simulation with different thickness showed that time-frequency characteristics of magneto-acoustic signal reflected thickness of sample. Thin sample, which is less than one wavelength of pulse, and thick sample, which is larger than one wavelength, showed different summed waveform and frequency characteristics, due to difference of summing thickness. Experimental results verified theoretical analysis and simulation results. This research has laid a foundation for acoustic source and conductivity reconstruction to the medium with different thickness in magneto-acoustic imaging.

  10. Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K M; Fox, C G; Clark, D S

    1998-12-01

    Analysis of acoustic signals recorded from the U.S. Navy's SOund SUrveillance System (SOSUS) was used to detect and locate blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) calls offshore in the northeast Pacific. The long, low-frequency components of these calls are characteristic of calls recorded in the presence of blue whales elsewhere in the world. Mean values for frequency and time characteristics from field-recorded blue whale calls were used to develop a simple matched filter for detecting such calls in noisy time series. The matched filter was applied to signals from three different SOSUS arrays off the coast of the Pacific Northwest to detect and associate individual calls from the same animal on the different arrays. A U.S. Navy maritime patrol aircraft was directed to an area where blue whale calls had been detected on SOSUS using these methods, and the presence of vocalizing blue whale was confirmed at the site with field recordings from sonobuoys.

  11. Measurements of high-frequency acoustic scattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops.

    PubMed

    Olson, Derek R; Lyons, Anthony P; Sæbø, Torstein O

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of acoustic backscattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops were made off the coast of Sandefjord, Norway using a high-frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) system. A method by which scattering strength can be estimated from data collected by a SAS system is detailed, as well as a method to estimate an effective calibration parameter for the system. Scattering strength measurements from very smooth areas of the rock outcrops agree with predictions from both the small-slope approximation and perturbation theory, and range between -33 and -26 dB at 20° grazing angle. Scattering strength measurements from very rough areas of the rock outcrops agree with the sine-squared shape of the empirical Lambertian model and fall between -30 and -20 dB at 20° grazing angle. Both perturbation theory and the small-slope approximation are expected to be inaccurate for the very rough area, and overestimate scattering strength by 8 dB or more for all measurements of very rough surfaces. Supporting characterization of the environment was performed in the form of geoacoustic and roughness parameter estimates. PMID:27106331

  12. Measurements of high-frequency acoustic scattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops.

    PubMed

    Olson, Derek R; Lyons, Anthony P; Sæbø, Torstein O

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of acoustic backscattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops were made off the coast of Sandefjord, Norway using a high-frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) system. A method by which scattering strength can be estimated from data collected by a SAS system is detailed, as well as a method to estimate an effective calibration parameter for the system. Scattering strength measurements from very smooth areas of the rock outcrops agree with predictions from both the small-slope approximation and perturbation theory, and range between -33 and -26 dB at 20° grazing angle. Scattering strength measurements from very rough areas of the rock outcrops agree with the sine-squared shape of the empirical Lambertian model and fall between -30 and -20 dB at 20° grazing angle. Both perturbation theory and the small-slope approximation are expected to be inaccurate for the very rough area, and overestimate scattering strength by 8 dB or more for all measurements of very rough surfaces. Supporting characterization of the environment was performed in the form of geoacoustic and roughness parameter estimates.

  13. Difference-frequency generation in nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a rigid sphere.

    PubMed

    Silva, Glauber T; Bandeira, Anderson

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, the partial-wave expansion method is applied to describe the difference-frequency pressure generated in a nonlinear scattering of two acoustic waves with an arbitrary wavefront by means of a rigid sphere. Particularly, the difference-frequency generation is analyzed in the nonlinear scattering with a spherical scatterer involving two intersecting plane waves in the following configurations: collinear, crossing at right angles, and counter-propagating. For the sake of simplicity, the plane waves are assumed to be spatially located in a spherical region which diameter is smaller than the difference-frequency wavelength. Such arrangements can be experimentally accomplished in vibro-acoustography and nonlinear acoustic tomography techniques. It turns out to be that when the sphere radius is of the order of the primary wavelengths, and the downshift ratio (i.e. the ratio between the fundamental frequency and the difference-frequency) is larger than five, difference-frequency generation is mostly due to a nonlinear interaction between the primary scattered waves. The exception to this is the collinear scattering for which the nonlinear interaction of the primary incident waves is also relevant. In addition, the difference-frequency scattered pressure in all scattering configurations decays as r(-1)lnr and 1/r, where r is the radial distance from the scatterer to the observation point.

  14. Studies of horizontal refraction and scattering of low-frequency acoustic signals using a modal approach in signal processing of NPAL data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronovich, Alexander G.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.

    2003-04-01

    In our previous paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2232], we obtained a time dependence of the horizontal refraction angle (HRA) of acoustic signals propagating over a range of about 4000 km in the ocean. This dependence was computed by processing of acoustic signals recorded during the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment using a ray-type approach. In the present paper, we consider the results obtained in signal processing of the same data using a modal approach. In this approach, the acoustic field is represented as a sum of local acoustic modes with amplitudes depending on a frequency and arrival angle. We obtained a time dependence of HRA for a time interval of about a year. Time evolution of HRA exhibits long-period variations which could be associated with seasonal trends in the sound speed profiles. The results are consistent with those obtained by the ray approach. Different horizontal angles within arrivals were impossible to resolve due to sound scattering by internal waves. A theoretical estimate of the angular width of the acoustic signals in a horizontal plane was obtained. It appears to be consistent with the observed variance of HRA data. [Work supported by ONR.] a)J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, B. M. Howe, J. A. Mercer, R. C. Spindel, and P. F. Worcester.

  15. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 5000. Above 1000 5th harmonic of the highest frequency or 40 GHz, whichever is lower. (2) A... below 10 GHz: to the tenth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 40 GHz, whichever is... harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 100 GHz, whichever is lower. (3) If the...

  16. Confined Mesoscopic Fluid-like Films Analyzed with Frequency Modulation and Acoustic Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    Complete understanding of the physics underlying the changes in viscoelasticity, relaxation time, and phase transitions that mesoscopic fluid-like systems undergo at solid-liquid interfaces or under confinement remains one of the major challenges in condensed matter physics. Moreover, studies of confined mesoscopic fluid films are relevant to technological areas like adhesion, wetting processes and nanotribology. This thesis addresses the interaction between two sliding solids interfaces separated by a nanometer sized gap, with emphasis on the role of the mesoscopic fluid film trapped between them. For this purpose we integrated two acoustic techniques, recently introduced by our group, into a sub-nanometer precision and thermal drift corrected scanning probe microscope (SPM): the shear-force/acoustic near-field Microscope (SANM) and the whispering gallery acoustic sensing (WGAS). The SANM monitors the sound waves originating in the probe-layer interaction while the motion of the probe is monitored by the WGAS. Additionally, we decouple the interaction forces by using frequency modulation and measure the local tunneling current to help establish the location of the substrate. Our results show a strong correlation between the elastic component of the probe's interaction and the SANM amplitude, as well as between the phase lag response of the fluid relative to the probe's excitation (represented by the SANM phase) and the onset of the probe-sample contact region. Frequency modulation SANM-WGAS brings a new acoustic sensing mechanism to the challenging characterization of fluid-like physical systems at the nanometer scale.

  17. Characterization of compressed earth blocks using low frequency guided acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ben Mansour, Mohamed; Ogam, Erick; Fellah, Z E A; Soukaina Cherif, Amel; Jelidi, Ahmed; Ben Jabrallah, Sadok

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the influence of compaction pressure on the intrinsic acoustic parameters (porosity, tortuosity, air-flow resistivity, viscous, and thermal characteristic lengths) of compressed earth blocks through their identification by solving an inverse acoustic wave transmission problem. A low frequency acoustic pipe (60-6000 Hz of length 22 m, internal diameter 3.4 cm) was used for the experimental characterization of the samples. The parameters were identified by the minimization of the difference between the transmissions coefficients data obtained in the pipe with that from an analytical interaction model in which the compressed earth blocks were considered as having rigid frames. The viscous and thermal effects in the pores were accounted for by employing the Johnson-Champoux-Allard-Lafarge model. The results obtained by inversion for high-density compressed earth blocks showed some discordance between the model and experiment especially for the high frequency limit of the acoustic characteristics studied. This was as a consequence of applying high compaction pressure rendering them very highly resistive therefore degrading the signal-to-noise ratios of the transmitted waves. The results showed that the airflow resistivity was very sensitive to the degree of the applied compaction pressure used to form the blocks. PMID:27250150

  18. Frequency spectrum of the noise emitted by two interacting cavitation bubbles in strong acoustic fields.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Fengbing; Chen, Haosheng; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong

    2012-03-01

    The dynamics and acoustic emission of two interacting cavitation bubbles exposed to strong acoustic fields with a frequency of 515 KHz are investigated numerically in this paper. After comparing the dynamics of a single bubble excited by the given pressure waves, bubbles with ambient radii of 2 and 5 μm were chosen to be studied to discuss the influence of the mutual bubble-bubble interaction on the dynamic behaviors and acoustic emission of the bubbles. The results show that, aside from the external driving pressure waves, the interaction between the bubbles imposes an extra nonlinear effect on the oscillations of the bubbles and that the dynamics of the smaller bubble could be suppressed gradually with the enhancement of this mutual interaction by decreasing the distance between the bubbles. Moreover, the improvement in the oscillation nonlinearity of the bubbles due to the change in the ambient circumstance could readily be observed from the frequency spectra of the bubbles' acoustic emission, which interprets the change by exhibiting an appropriate development of the subharmonics, the ultraharmonics, and the broadband component.

  19. Characterization of compressed earth blocks using low frequency guided acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ben Mansour, Mohamed; Ogam, Erick; Fellah, Z E A; Soukaina Cherif, Amel; Jelidi, Ahmed; Ben Jabrallah, Sadok

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the influence of compaction pressure on the intrinsic acoustic parameters (porosity, tortuosity, air-flow resistivity, viscous, and thermal characteristic lengths) of compressed earth blocks through their identification by solving an inverse acoustic wave transmission problem. A low frequency acoustic pipe (60-6000 Hz of length 22 m, internal diameter 3.4 cm) was used for the experimental characterization of the samples. The parameters were identified by the minimization of the difference between the transmissions coefficients data obtained in the pipe with that from an analytical interaction model in which the compressed earth blocks were considered as having rigid frames. The viscous and thermal effects in the pores were accounted for by employing the Johnson-Champoux-Allard-Lafarge model. The results obtained by inversion for high-density compressed earth blocks showed some discordance between the model and experiment especially for the high frequency limit of the acoustic characteristics studied. This was as a consequence of applying high compaction pressure rendering them very highly resistive therefore degrading the signal-to-noise ratios of the transmitted waves. The results showed that the airflow resistivity was very sensitive to the degree of the applied compaction pressure used to form the blocks.

  20. High-frequency characterization of tissue phantoms using a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farny, Caleb H.; Chklovski, Tara C.; Szabo, T. L.; Roy, Ron A.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-04-01

    A SAM has been developed to measure the acoustic properties of samples. The SAM consists of a wideband (35-75 MHz) ultrasound transducer operating in pulse-echo mode. Waveforms measured from the front and back surfaces of a uniform sample are used to determine the impedance, sound-speed, and attenuation of the sample as a function of frequency. The principle of causality is used to ensure that the sound-speed dispersion and attenuation measurements are consistent. The transducer is scanned over the surface of the sample in a raster scan and a two-dimensional map of the acoustic properties averaged over depth can be obtained. Scans of high-density polyethylene show agreement with previously published properties. The SAM was used to evaluate the high-frequency acoustic properties of a tissue phantom composed of agar, gelatin and silica. The silica content was varied from 2% to 10% and the impact of the silica scattering particles on the acoustic properties was evaluated. The sound-speed showed almost no dependence on silica content but the attenuation at 30 MHz increased from 8.4 to 23.8 dB/cm. This phantom has the potential to be used to mimic the walls of blood vessels. [Work supported by the NSF through the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems.

  1. Numerical and experimental analysis of high frequency acoustic microscopy and infrared reflectance system for early detection of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Apostolidis, Georgios; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a very malicious type of cancer as it metastasizes early and hence its late diagnosis leads to death. Consequently, early diagnosis of melanoma and its removal is considered the most effective way of treatment. We present a design of a high frequency acoustic microscopy and infrared reflectance system for the early detection of melanoma. Specifically, the identification of morphological changes related to carcinogenesis is required. In this work, we simulate of the propagation of the ultrasonic waves of the order of 100 MHz as well as of electromagnetic waves of the order of 100 THz in melanoma structures targeting to the estimation and optimization of the basic characteristics of the systems. The simulation results of the acoustic microscopy subsystem aim to provide information such as the geometry of the transducer, the center frequency of operation, the focal length where the power transmittance is optimum and the spot size in focal length. As far as the infrared is concerned the optimal frequency range and the spot illumination size of the external probe is provided. This information is next used to assemble a properly designed system which is applied to melanoma phantoms as well as real skin lesions. Finally, the measurement data are visualized to reveal the information of the experimented structures, proving noteworthy accuracy.

  2. Depression Diagnoses and Fundamental Frequency-Based Acoustic Cues in Maternal Infant-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porritt, Laura L.; Zinser, Michael C.; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Kaplan, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    F[subscript 0]-based acoustic measures were extracted from a brief, sentence-final target word spoken during structured play interactions between mothers and their 3- to 14-month-old infants and were analyzed based on demographic variables and DSM-IV Axis-I clinical diagnoses and their common modifiers. F[subscript 0] range (?F[subscript 0]) was…

  3. Generation of terahertz radiation via an electromagnetically induced transparency at ion acoustic frequency region in laser-produced dense plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Makoto; Kodama, Ryosuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency is a well-known quantum phenomena that electromagnetic wave controls the refractive index of medium. It enables us to create a passband for low-frequency electromagnetic wave in a dense plasma even if the plasma is opaque for the electromagnetic wave. This technique can be used to prove the ion acoustic wave because the ion acoustic frequency is lower than the plasma frequency. We have investigated a feasibility of electromagnetic radiation at THz region corresponding to the ion acoustic frequency from a dense plasma. We confirmed that the passband is created at about 7.5 THz corresponding to the ion acoustic frequency in the electron plasma density of 10(21) cm(-3) with a Ti:Sapphire laser with the wavelength of 800 nm and the laser intensity of 10(17) W/cm(2). The estimated radiation power is around 1 MW, which is expected to be useful for nonlinear THz science and applications.

  4. Experimental Study on Effects of Frequency and Mean Pressure on Heat Pumping by Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Akira; Ozawa, Mamoru; Kataoka, Masaki; Takifuji, Tomonari

    Experimental studies were conducted for the fundamental understanding of the thermoacoustic behavior in the simulated resonance-tube refrigerator with special reference to the effect of imposed frequency and mean pressure. The resonance frequency in the case of helium was lower by about 20% than the theoretical prediction, while the experimental value in the case of air was almost the same as the theoretical one. The temperature difference observed along the stack increased with the increase in the amplitude of acoustic pressure, and decreased with the increase in the mean pressure, Based on the simplified model of heat pumping process, the relationship between the temperature variation and the acoustic pressure field was formulated, and thus the characteristic parameter which represents overall heat transfer between gas and stack plates or heat exchangers was obtained.

  5. Multi-input multi-output underwater communications over sparse and frequency modulated acoustic channels.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Jian; Nordenvaad, Magnus Lundberg

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communications over sparse acoustic channels suffering from frequency modulations. An extension of the recently introduced SLIM algorithm, which stands for sparse learning via iterative minimization, is presented to estimate the sparse and frequency modulated acoustic channels. The extended algorithm is referred to as generalization of SLIM (GoSLIM). The sparseness is exploited through a hierarchical Bayesian model, and because GoSLIM is user parameter free, it is easy to use in practical applications. Moreover this paper considers channel equalization and symbol detection for various MIMO transmission schemes, including both space-time block coding and spatial multiplexing, under the challenging channel conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated using in-water experimental measurements recently acquired during WHOI09 and ACOMM10 experiments.

  6. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  7. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  8. Observations and transport theory analysis of low frequency, acoustic mode propagation in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Colosi, John A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    Second order mode statistics as a function of range and source depth are presented from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX). During LOAPEX, low frequency broadband signals were transmitted from a ship-suspended source to a mode-resolving vertical line array. Over a one-month period, the ship occupied seven stations from 50 km to 3200 km distance from the receiver. At each station broadband transmissions were performed at a near-axial depth of 800 m and an off-axial depth of 350 m. Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes. The experimental observations agree with theoretical predictions within experimental uncertainty.

  9. Microstructure Imaging Using Frequency Spectrum Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy F-Sras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, S. D.; Li, W.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2010-02-01

    Material microstructure can have a profound effect on the mechanical properties of a component, such as strength and resistance to creep and fatigue. SRAS—spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy—is a laser ultrasonic technique which can image microstructure using highly localized surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity as a contrast mechanism, as this is sensitive to crystallographic orientation. The technique is noncontact, nondestructive, rapid, can be used on large components, and is highly tolerant of acoustic aberrations. Previously, the SRAS technique has been demonstrated using a fixed frequency excitation laser and a variable grating period (к-vector) to determine the most efficiently generated SAWs, and hence the velocity. Here, we demonstrate an implementation which uses a fixed grating period with a broadband laser excitation source. The velocity is determined by analyzing the measured frequency spectrum. Experimental results using this "frequency spectrum SRAS" (f-SRAS) method are presented. Images of microstructure on an industrially relevant material are compared to those obtained using the previous SRAS method ("k-SRAS"), excellent agreement is observed. Moreover, f-SRAS is much simpler and potentially much more rapid than k-SRAS as the velocity can be determined at each sample point in one single laser shot, rather than scanning the grating period.

  10. Fundamental frequency is critical to speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearinga

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeff; Tiaden, Stephanie; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have been shown to benefit from residual low-frequency hearing, specifically in pitch related tasks. It remains unclear whether this benefit is dependent on fundamental frequency (F0) or other acoustic cues. Three experiments were conducted to determine the role of F0, as well as its frequency modulated (FM) and amplitude modulated (AM) components, in speech recognition with a competing voice. In simulated CI listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio was varied to estimate the 50% correct response. Simulation results showed that the F0 cue contributes to a significant proportion of the benefit seen with combined acoustic and electric hearing, and additionally that this benefit is due to the FM rather than the AM component. In actual CI users, sentence recognition scores were collected with either the full F0 cue containing both the FM and AM components or the 500-Hz low-pass speech cue containing the F0 and additional harmonics. The F0 cue provided a benefit similar to the low-pass cue for speech in noise, but not in quiet. Poorer CI users benefited more from the F0 cue than better users. These findings suggest that F0 is critical to improving speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearing. PMID:21973360

  11. Investigation of near-axial interference effects in long-range acoustic propagation in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, Natalie S.; Fridman, Gregory M.

    2002-05-01

    The observed time-of-arrival patterns from a number of long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiments show early geometrical-like arrivals followed by a crescendo of energy that propagates along the sound-channel axis and is not resolved into individual arrivals. The two-dimensional reference point source problem for the parabolic index of refraction squared is investigated to describe in a simple model case the interference of near-axial waves which resulted in forming the so-called axial wave and propose a formula for the axial wave in more general cases. Using the method proposed by Buldyrev [V. Buldyrev, Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklov 115, 78-102 (1971)], the integral representation for the exact solution is transformed in such a way to extract ray summands corresponding to rays radiated from the source at angles less than a certain angle, the axial wave, and a term corresponding to the sum of all the rays having launch angles greater than the indicated angle. Numerical results for the axial wave and the last term are obtained for parameters corresponding to long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiments. The generalization of the obtained formula for the axial wave to the case of an arbitrary range-independent sound speed is given and discussed. [Work supported by VSP Grant No. N00014-01-4003.

  12. Identification of Damaged Wheat Kernels and Cracked-Shell Hazelnuts with Impact Acoustics Time-Frequency Patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new adaptive time-frequency (t-f) analysis and classification procedure is applied to impact acoustic signals for detecting hazelnuts with cracked shells and three types of damaged wheat kernels. Kernels were dropped onto a steel plate, and the resulting impact acoustic signals were recorded with ...

  13. A wide-frequency-range air-jet shaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Robert W

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a simple air-jet shaker. Its force can be calibrated statically and appears to be constant with frequency. It is relatively easy to use, and it has essentially massless characteristics. This shaker is applied to define the unstable branch of a frequency-response curve obtained for a nonlinear spring with a single degree of freedom.

  14. Surface acoustic wave opto-mechanical oscillator and frequency comb generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2011-09-01

    We report on realization of an efficient triply resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyperparametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb by observing the modulation of the light escaping the resonator.

  15. Acoustic analysis of the frequency-dependent coupling between the frog's ears.

    PubMed

    Shofner, William P

    2015-09-01

    The ears of anurans are coupled through the Eustachian tubes and mouth cavity. The degree of coupling varies with frequency showing a bandpass characteristic, but the characteristics differ between empirically measured data based on auditory nerve responses and tympanic membrane vibration. In the present study, the coupling was modeled acoustically as a tube connected with a side branch. This tube corresponds to the Eustachian tubes, whereas the side branch corresponds to the mouth cavity and nares. The analysis accounts for the frequency dependency shown by the empirical data and reconciles the differences observed between the coupling as measured by tympanic membrane vibration and auditory nerve responses.

  16. Observation of seafloor crustal movement using the seafloor acoustic ranging on Kumano-nada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Along the Nankai Trough, where the Philippine Sea plate subducts under southeastern Japan with a convergence rate of about 65 mm/yr, large interplate thrust earthquakes of magnitude 8 class have occurred repeatedly with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years. About 60 years have passed since the last earthquakes happened in 1944 and 1946. Therefore it is important to monitor the tectonic activities in the Nankai Trough. Since most of the source region of the earthquakes is located beneath the ocean, an observation system is necessary in the offshore source region. We developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system to continuously monitor the seafloor crustal movement. We aim to monitor the activity in the splay faults in the rupture area of the Tonankai earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone. Slips along the active splay faults may be an important mechanism that the elastic strain caused by relative plate motion. We carried out two experiments, a short-term (one day) and a long-term (four month) experiments, to estimate the repeatability of acoustic measurements of this system. We deployed four PXPs (precision acoustic transponders) with about 600 m (M2-S1 baseline) and 920 m (M2-S2 base line) spacing in the long-term experiment. The standard deviation in acoustic measurements was about 1 cm on each baseline. In September 2008 we carried out an observation to monitor an active splay faults on Kumano-Nada prism slope. We deployed three PXPs with about 925 m (M1-S2 baseline) and 725 m (M1-S2 base line) spacing at the depth of some 2880 m. We recovered them in August 2010 to get data of acoustic measurements for 6 month and pressure measurements for 18 month. The round trip travel time shows a variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 1msec. We preliminarily collected the time series of round trip travel times using sound speed, which was estimated from measured temperature and pressure, and attitude data. We discuss the result of a variation of distance.

  17. On the location of frequencies of maximum acoustic-to-seismic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatier, J.M.; Bass, H.E.; Elliott, G.R.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic transfer function (ratio of the normal soil particle velocity at a depth d to the acoustic pressure at the surface) for outdoor ground surfaces quite typically reveal a series of maxima and minima. In a publication (Sabatier et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80, 646--649 (1986)), the location and magnitude of these maxima are measured and predicted for several outdoor ground surfaces using a layered poroelastic model of the ground surface. In this paper, the seismic transfer function for a desert site is compared to the seismic transfer function for holes dug in the desert floor which were filled with pumice (volcanic rock). The hole geometry was rectangular and the hole depths varied from 0.25--2.0 m. The p- and s-wave speeds, densities, porosities, and flow resistivities for the desert floor and pumice were all measured. By varying the hole depth and the fill material, the maxima in the seismic transfer function can be shifted in frequency and the locations of the maxima compare reasonably with that of a hard-backed layer calculation. The area or extent of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling for pumice was determined to be less than 1 m/sup 2/.

  18. Film resonance on acoustic wave devices: the roles of frequency and contacting fluid.

    PubMed

    Lagier, C M; Efimov, I; Hillman, A R

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of composite films of polypyrrole and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) were studied by means of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. Admittance spectra recorded after successive cycles of electrodeposition showed dramatic changes, which were interpreted in terms of acoustic resonance of the film. Reports of this phenomenon are rare and unquantified, presenting a unique opportunity for the first test of a recently reported theoretical model. The model, valid at frequencies in the vicinity of film resonance, is represented in terms of an equivalent electrical circuit with parallel LCR elements in the motional arm of the resonator. Since it was developed for viscoelastic films exposed to a vacuum, this provides an opportunity to test the importance of the fluid necessarily present in in situ electrochemical experiments. Measurements at the fundamental frequency and at higher harmonics reveal the sensitivity of film resonance effects to frequency and provide insights into film dynamics through the variation of shear moduli with time scale (frequency).

  19. Stability of Low-Frequency Residual Hearing in Patients Who Are Candidates for Combined Acoustic Plus Electric Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wai Na; Turner, Christopher W.; Gantz, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability over time of low-frequency auditory thresholds to better determine if the new technique of using a short-electrode cochlear implant that preserves residual low-frequency acoustic hearing can be a long-term solution for those with severe-to-profound hearing loss at high frequencies. The…

  20. Direct and sustained intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules using acoustic-transfection with high frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Chiu, Chi Tat; Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Hyung Ham; Wang, Yingxiao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-02-01

    Controlling cell functions for research and therapeutic purposes may open new strategies for the treatment of many diseases. An efficient and safe introduction of membrane impermeable molecules into target cells will provide versatile means to modulate cell fate. We introduce a new transfection technique that utilizes high frequency ultrasound without any contrast agents such as microbubbles, bringing a single-cell level targeting and size-dependent intracellular delivery of macromolecules. The transfection apparatus consists of an ultrasonic transducer with the center frequency of over 150 MHz and an epi-fluorescence microscope, entitled acoustic-transfection system. Acoustic pulses, emitted from an ultrasonic transducer, perturb the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane of a targeted single-cell to induce intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules. Simultaneous live cell imaging using HeLa cells to investigate the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and propidium iodide (PI) and the delivery of 3 kDa dextran labeled with Alexa 488 were demonstrated. Cytosolic delivery of 3 kDa dextran induced via acoustic-transfection was manifested by diffused fluorescence throughout whole cells. Short-term (6 hr) cell viability test and long-term (40 hr) cell tracking confirmed that the proposed approach has low cell cytotoxicity.

  1. Source implementation to eliminate low-frequency artifacts in finite difference time domain room acoustic simulation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyok; Lam, Yiu Wai

    2012-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is a numerical technique that is straight forward to implement for the simulation of acoustic propagation. For room acoustics applications, the implementation of efficient source excitation and frequency dependent boundary conditions on arbitrary geometry can be seen as two of the most significant problems. This paper deals with the source implementation problem. Among existing source implementation methods, the hard source implementation is the simplest and computationally most efficient. Unfortunately, it generates a large low-frequency modulation in the measured time response. This paper presents a detailed investigation into these side effects. Surprisingly, some of these side effects are found to exist even if a transparent source implementation is used. By combing a time limited approach with a class of more natural source pulse function, this paper develops a source implementation method in FDTD that is as simple and computationally as efficient as a hard source implementation and yet capable of producing results that are virtually the same as a true transparent source. It is believed that the source implementation method developed in this paper will provide an improvement to the practical usability of the FDTD method for room acoustic simulation. PMID:22280589

  2. Evidence of high-frequency acoustic emissions from the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris).

    PubMed

    Mitson, R B; Morris, R J

    1988-02-01

    Recordings of the signals from a school of white-beaked dolphins show that the frequency of their acoustic emissions extends to at least 305 kHz. These signals were detected by a sector scanning sonar used as a passive listening device of high bearing and time resolution. The records contain three types of signal, one of high intensity, one of a variable high repetition rate, and another showing a time-varying effect. Acoustic signals radiated by dolphins have been recorded and studied over a long period of time by many investigators. The purpose of this letter is to report evidence that acoustic emissions from white-beaked dolphins have significant energy at frequencies around 305 kHz, about one octave higher than previously observed. The observations discussed here were made aboard the fisheries research vessel CLIONE in the Wellbank flat area of the southern North Sea on 13 June 1970 between 1040 and 1110 h. When the dolphin signals were observed, the transmitter of the sector-scanning sonar in use was turned off, and the system was utilized as a passive listening device of high bearing and time resolution.

  3. Direct and sustained intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules using acoustic-transfection with high frequency ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Chiu, Chi Tat; Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Hyung Ham; Wang, Yingxiao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Controlling cell functions for research and therapeutic purposes may open new strategies for the treatment of many diseases. An efficient and safe introduction of membrane impermeable molecules into target cells will provide versatile means to modulate cell fate. We introduce a new transfection technique that utilizes high frequency ultrasound without any contrast agents such as microbubbles, bringing a single-cell level targeting and size-dependent intracellular delivery of macromolecules. The transfection apparatus consists of an ultrasonic transducer with the center frequency of over 150 MHz and an epi-fluorescence microscope, entitled acoustic-transfection system. Acoustic pulses, emitted from an ultrasonic transducer, perturb the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane of a targeted single-cell to induce intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules. Simultaneous live cell imaging using HeLa cells to investigate the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and propidium iodide (PI) and the delivery of 3 kDa dextran labeled with Alexa 488 were demonstrated. Cytosolic delivery of 3 kDa dextran induced via acoustic-transfection was manifested by diffused fluorescence throughout whole cells. Short-term (6 hr) cell viability test and long-term (40 hr) cell tracking confirmed that the proposed approach has low cell cytotoxicity. PMID:26843283

  4. ADRPM-VII applied to the long-range acoustic detection problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalis, Edward; Koenig, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic detection range prediction model (ADRPM-VII) has been written for IBM PC/AT machines running on the MS-DOS operating system. The software allows the user to predict detection distances of ground combat vehicles and their associated targets when they are involved in quasi-military settings. The program can also calculate individual attenuation losses due to spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground reflection and atmospheric refraction due to temperature and wind gradients while varying parameters effecting the source-receiver problem. The purpose here is to examine the strengths and limitations of ADRPM-VII by modeling the losses due to atmospheric refraction and ground absorption, commonly known as excess attenuation, when applied to the long range detection problem for distances greater than 3 kilometers.

  5. Analysis and experimental validation of the middle-frequency vibro-acoustic coupling property for aircraft structural model based on the wave coupling hybrid FE-SEA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunju; Li, Pengbo; Lin, Huagang

    2016-06-01

    The finite element (FE) method is suitable for low frequency analysis and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) for high frequency analysis, but the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis at middle frequency, especially with a certain range of uncertainty system, requires some new methods. A hybrid FE-SEA method is proposed in this study and the Monte Carlo method is used to check the hybrid FE-SEA method through the energy response analysis of a beam-plate built-up structure with some uncertainty, and the results show that two kinds of calculation results match well consistently. Taking the advantage of the hybrid FE-SEA method, the structural vibration and the cabin noise field responses under the vibro-acoustic coupling for an aircraft model are numerically analyzed, and, also, the corresponding experiment is carried out to verify the simulated results. Results show that the structural vibration responses at low frequency accord well with the experiment, but the error at high frequency is greater. The error of sound pressure response level in cabin throughout the spectrum is less than 3 dB. The research proves the reliability of the method proposed in this paper. This indicates that the proposed method can overcome the strict limitations of the traditional method for a large complex structure with uncertainty factors, and it can also avoid the disadvantages of solving complex vibro-acoustic system using the finite element method or statistical energy analysis in the middle frequency.

  6. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for Aircraft Acoustic Nacelle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in aircraft engine nacelles. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  7. Tuning the acoustic frequency of a gold nanodisk through its adhesion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Shun; Wen, Fangfang; Chakraborty, Debadi; Su, Man-Nung; Zhang, Yue; Shuang, Bo; Nordlander, Peter; Sader, John E.; Halas, Naomi J.; Link, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    To fabricate robust metallic nanostructures with top-down patterning methods such as electron-beam lithography, an initial nanometer-scale layer of a second metal is deposited to promote adhesion of the metal of interest. However, how this nanoscale layer affects the mechanical properties of the nanostructure and how adhesion layer thickness controls the binding strength to the substrate are still open questions. Here we use ultrafast laser pulses to impulsively launch acoustic phonons in single gold nanodisks with variable titanium layer thicknesses, and observe an increase in phonon frequencies as a thicker adhesion layer facilitates stronger binding to the glass substrate. In addition to an all-optical interrogation of nanoscale mechanical properties, our results show that the adhesion layer can be used to controllably modify the acoustic phonon modes of a gold nanodisk. This direct coupling between optically excited plasmon modes and phonon modes can be exploited for a variety of emerging optomechanical applications.

  8. High Frequency Acoustic Response Characterization and Analysis of the Deep Throttling Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Common Extensive Cryogenic Engine program demonstrated the operation of a deep throttling engine design. The program, spanning five years from August 2005 to July 2010, funded testing through four separate engine demonstration test series. Along with successful completion of multiple objectives, a discrete response of approximately 4000 Hz was discovered and explored throughout the program. The typical low-amplitude acoustic response was evident in the chamber measurement through almost every operating condition; however, at certain off-nominal operating conditions, the response became discrete with higher amplitude. This paper summarizes the data reduction, characterization, and analysis of the 4,000 Hz response for the entire program duration, using the large amount of data collected. Upon first encountering the response, new objectives and instrumentation were incorporated in future test series to specifically collect 4,000 Hz data. The 4,000 Hz response was identified as being related to the first tangential acoustic mode by means of frequency estimation and spatial decomposition. The latter approach showed that the effective node line of the mode was aligned with the manifold propellant inlets with standing waves and quasi-standing waves present at various times. Contour maps that contain instantaneous frequency and amplitude trackings of the response were generated as a significant improvement to historical manual approaches of data reduction presentation. Signal analysis and dynamic data reduction also uncovered several other features of the response including a stable limit cycle, the progressive engagement of subsequent harmonics, the U-shaped time history, an intermittent response near the test-based neutral stability region, other acoustic modes, and indications of modulation with a separate subsynchronous response. Although no engine damage related to the acoustic mode was noted, the peak-to-peak fluctuating pressure amplitude achieved 12.1% of the

  9. Carrier frequency offset estimation for an acoustic-electric channel using 16 QAM modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Michael T.; Anderson, Leonard A.; Wilt, Kyle R.; Chakraborty, Soumya; Saulnier, Gary J.; Scarton, Henry A.

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic-electric channels can be used to send data through metallic barriers, enabling communications where electromagnetic signals are ineffective. This paper considers an acoustic-electric channel that is formed by mounting piezoelectric transducers on metallic barriers that are separated by a thin water layer. The transducers are coupled to the barriers using epoxy and the barriers are positioned to axially-align the PZTs, maximizing energy transfer efficiency. The electrical signals are converted by the transmitting transducers into acoustic waves, which propagate through the elastic walls and water medium to the receiving transducers. The reverberation of the acoustic signals in these channels can produce multipath distortion with a significant delay spread that introduces inter-symbol interference (ISI) into the received signal. While the multipath effects can be severe, the channel does not change rapidly which makes equalization easier. Here we implement a 16-QAM system on this channel, including a method for obtaining accurate carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimates in the presence of the quasi-static multipath propagation. A raised-power approach is considered but found to suffer from excessive data noise resulting from the ISI. An alternative approach that utilizes a pilot tone burst at the start of a data packet is used for CFO estimation and found to be effective. The autocorrelation method is used to estimate the frequency of the received burst. A real-time prototype of the 16 QAM system that uses a Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller-based transmitter and a personal computer-based receiver is presented along with performance results.

  10. Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2014-01-01

    Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).

  11. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-08-10

    A chemical or intrinsic physical property sensor is described comprising: (a) a substrate; (b) an interaction region of said substrate where the presence of a chemical or physical stimulus causes a detectable change in the velocity and/or an attenuation of an acoustic wave traversing said region; and (c) a plurality of paired input and output interdigitated electrodes patterned on the surface of said substrate where each of said paired electrodes has a distinct periodicity, where each of said paired electrodes is comprised of an input and an output electrode; (d) an input signal generation means for transmitting an input signal having a distinct frequency to a specified input interdigitated electrode of said plurality so that each input electrode receives a unique input signal, whereby said electrode responds to said input signal by generating an acoustic wave of a specified frequency, thus, said plurality responds by generating a plurality of acoustic waves of different frequencies; (e) an output signal receiving means for determining an acoustic wave velocity and an amplitude of said acoustic waves at several frequencies after said waves transverses said interaction region and comparing these values to an input acoustic wave velocity and an input acoustic wave amplitude to produce values for perturbations in acoustic wave velocities and for acoustic wave attenuation as a function of frequency, where said output receiving means is individually coupled to each of said output interdigitated electrode; (f) a computer means for analyzing a data stream comprising information from said output receiving means and from said input signal generation means to differentiate a specified response due to a perturbation from a subsequent specified response due to a subsequent perturbation to determine the chemical or intrinsic physical properties desired.

  12. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES... is defined as a device operating in a mode in which it has the capability to transmit without receiving an enabling signal. In this mode it is able to select a channel and initiate a network by...

  13. Seismo-acoustic propagation in environments that depend strongly on both range and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outing, Donald A.; Siegmann, William L.; Dorman, LeRoy M.; Collins, Michael D.

    2002-11-01

    The parabolic equation method provides an excellent combination of accuracy and efficiency for range-dependent ocean acoustics and seismology problems. This approach is highly developed for problems in which the ocean bottom can be modeled as a fluid. For the elastic case, there remain some accuracy limitations for problems involving sloping interfaces. Progress on this problem has been made by combining a new formulation of the elastic parabolic equation that handles layering more effectively [W. Jerzak, ''Parabolic Equations for Layered Elastic Media,'' doctoral dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (2001)] and a mapping approach that handles sloping interfaces accurately [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1937-1942 (2000)]. This approach makes it possible to handle problems involving complex layering and steep slopes, but the rate of change of the slope must be small. The method and its application to data will be described. Our immediate goal is to model propagation of seismic surface waves propagating across a transition between dry and marshy terrain. We have suitable data applicable to vehicle-tracking problems from Marine Corps Base Camp, Pendleton, CA. [Work supported by ONR.

  14. The secondary Bjerknes force between two gas bubbles under dual-frequency acoustic excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Yuning; Li, Shengcai

    2016-03-01

    The secondary Bjerknes force is one of the essential mechanisms of mutual interactions between bubbles oscillating in a sound field. The dual-frequency acoustic excitation has been applied in several fields such as sonochemistry, biomedicine and material engineering. In this paper, the secondary Bjerknes force under dual-frequency excitation is investigated both analytically and numerically within a large parameter zone. The unique characteristics (i.e., the complicated patterns of the parameter zone for sign change and the combination resonances) of the secondary Bjerknes force under dual-frequency excitation are revealed. Moreover, the influence of several parameters (e.g., the pressure amplitude, the bubble distance and the phase difference between sound waves) on the secondary Bjerknes force is also investigated numerically.

  15. The mass load effect on the resonant acoustic frequencies of colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Girard, Adrien; Saviot, Lucien; Pedetti, Silvia; Tessier, Mickaël D; Margueritat, Jérémie; Gehan, Hélène; Mahler, Benoit; Dubertret, Benoit; Mermet, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Resonant acoustic modes of ultrathin CdS and CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with varying thicknesses were probed using low frequency Raman scattering. The spectra are dominated by an intense band ascribed to the thickness breathing mode of the 2D nanostructures. The measured Raman frequencies show strong deviations with respect to the values expected for simple bare plates, all the more so as the thickness is reduced. The deviation is shown to arise from the additional mass of the organic ligands that are bound to the free surfaces of the nanoplatelets. The calculated eigen frequencies of vibrating platelets weighed down by the mass of the organic ligands are in very good agreement with the observed experimental behaviours. This finding opens up a new possibility of nanomechanical sensing such as nanobalances. PMID:27334524

  16. Punch stretching process monitoring using acoustic emission signal analysis. II - Application of frequency domain deconvolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Steven Y.; Dornfeld, David A.; Nickerson, Jackson A.

    1987-01-01

    The coloring effect on the acoustic emission signal due to the frequency response of the data acquisition/processing instrumentation may bias the interpretation of AE signal characteristics. In this paper, a frequency domain deconvolution technique, which involves the identification of the instrumentation transfer functions and multiplication of the AE signal spectrum by the inverse of these system functions, has been carried out. In this way, the change in AE signal characteristics can be better interpreted as the result of the change in only the states of the process. Punch stretching process was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the technique. Results showed that, through the deconvolution, the frequency characteristics of AE signals generated during the stretching became more distinctive and can be more effectively used as tools for process monitoring.

  17. Design factors of intravascular dual frequency transducers for super-harmonic contrast imaging and acoustic angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianguo; Martin, K. Heath; Li, Yang; Dayton, Paul A.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of coronary vasa vasorum may lead to assessment of the vulnerable plaque development in diagnosis of atherosclerosis diseases. Dual frequency transducers capable of detection of microbubble super-harmonics have shown promise as a new contrast-enhanced intravascular ultrasound (CE-IVUS) platform with the capability of vasa vasorum imaging. Contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) in CE-IVUS imaging can be closely associated with low frequency transmitter performance. In this paper, transducer designs encompassing different transducer layouts, transmitting frequencies, and transducer materials are compared for optimization of imaging performance. In the layout selection, the stacked configuration showed superior super-harmonic imaging compared with the interleaved configuration. In the transmitter frequency selection, a decrease in frequency from 6.5 MHz to 5 MHz resulted in an increase of CTR from 15 dB to 22 dB when receiving frequency was kept constant at 30 MHz. In the material selection, the dual frequency transducer with the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) 1-3 composite transmitter yielded higher axial resolution compared to single crystal transmitters (70 μm compared to 150 μm pulse length). These comparisons provide guidelines for the design of intravascular acoustic angiography transducers.

  18. Design factors of intravascular dual frequency transducers for super-harmonic contrast imaging and acoustic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianguo; Martin, K. Heath; Li, Yang; Dayton, Paul A.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of coronary vasa vasorum may lead to assessment of the vulnerable plaque development in diagnosis of atherosclerosis diseases. Dual frequency transducers capable of detection of microbubble super-harmonics have shown promise as a new contrast-enhanced intravascular ultrasound (CE-IVUS) platform with the capability of vasa vasorum imaging. Contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) in CE-IVUS imaging can be closely associated with the low frequency transmitter performance. In this paper, transducer designs encompassing different transducer layouts, transmitting frequencies, and transducer materials are compared for optimization of imaging performance. In the layout selection, the stacked configuration showed superior super-harmonic imaging compared with the interleaved configuration. In the transmitter frequency selection, a decrease in frequency from 6.5 MHz to 5 MHz resulted in an increase of CTR from 15 dB to 22 dB when receiving frequency was kept constant at 30 MHz. In the material selection, the dual frequency transducer with the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) 1-3 composite transmitter yielded higher axial resolution compared to single crystal transmitters (70 μm compared to 150 μm pulse length). These comparisons provide guidelines for design of intravascular acoustic angiography transducers. PMID:25856384

  19. Design factors of intravascular dual frequency transducers for super-harmonic contrast imaging and acoustic angiography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianguo; Martin, K Heath; Li, Yang; Dayton, Paul A; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of coronary vasa vasorum may lead to assessment of the vulnerable plaque development in diagnosis of atherosclerosis diseases. Dual frequency transducers capable of detection of microbubble super-harmonics have shown promise as a new contrast-enhanced intravascular ultrasound (CE-IVUS) platform with the capability of vasa vasorum imaging. Contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) in CE-IVUS imaging can be closely associated with low frequency transmitter performance. In this paper, transducer designs encompassing different transducer layouts, transmitting frequencies, and transducer materials are compared for optimization of imaging performance. In the layout selection, the stacked configuration showed superior super-harmonic imaging compared with the interleaved configuration. In the transmitter frequency selection, a decrease in frequency from 6.5 MHz to 5 MHz resulted in an increase of CTR from 15 dB to 22 dB when receiving frequency was kept constant at 30 MHz. In the material selection, the dual frequency transducer with the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) 1-3 composite transmitter yielded higher axial resolution compared to single crystal transmitters (70 μm compared to 150 μm pulse length). These comparisons provide guidelines for the design of intravascular acoustic angiography transducers. PMID:25856384

  20. The mass load effect on the resonant acoustic frequencies of colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Adrien; Saviot, Lucien; Pedetti, Silvia; Tessier, Mickaël D.; Margueritat, Jérémie; Gehan, Hélène; Mahler, Benoit; Dubertret, Benoit; Mermet, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Resonant acoustic modes of ultrathin CdS and CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with varying thicknesses were probed using low frequency Raman scattering. The spectra are dominated by an intense band ascribed to the thickness breathing mode of the 2D nanostructures. The measured Raman frequencies show strong deviations with respect to the values expected for simple bare plates, all the more so as the thickness is reduced. The deviation is shown to arise from the additional mass of the organic ligands that are bound to the free surfaces of the nanoplatelets. The calculated eigen frequencies of vibrating platelets weighed down by the mass of the organic ligands are in very good agreement with the observed experimental behaviours. This finding opens up a new possibility of nanomechanical sensing such as nanobalances.Resonant acoustic modes of ultrathin CdS and CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with varying thicknesses were probed using low frequency Raman scattering. The spectra are dominated by an intense band ascribed to the thickness breathing mode of the 2D nanostructures. The measured Raman frequencies show strong deviations with respect to the values expected for simple bare plates, all the more so as the thickness is reduced. The deviation is shown to arise from the additional mass of the organic ligands that are bound to the free surfaces of the nanoplatelets. The calculated eigen frequencies of vibrating platelets weighed down by the mass of the organic ligands are in very good agreement with the observed experimental behaviours. This finding opens up a new possibility of nanomechanical sensing such as nanobalances. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR07383A

  1. Two-dimensional frequency-domain acoustic full-waveform inversion with rugged topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian-Jiang; Dai, Shi-Kun; Chen, Long-Wei; Li, Kun; Zhao, Dong-Dong; Huang, Xing-Xing

    2015-09-01

    We studied finite-element-method-based two-dimensional frequency-domain acoustic FWI under rugged topography conditions. The exponential attenuation boundary condition suitable for rugged topography is proposed to solve the cutoff boundary problem as well as to consider the requirement of using the same subdivision grid in joint multifrequency inversion. The proposed method introduces the attenuation factor, and by adjusting it, acoustic waves are sufficiently attenuated in the attenuation layer to minimize the cutoff boundary effect. Based on the law of exponential attenuation, expressions for computing the attenuation factor and the thickness of attenuation layers are derived for different frequencies. In multifrequency-domain FWI, the conjugate gradient method is used to solve equations in the Gauss-Newton algorithm and thus minimize the computation cost in calculating the Hessian matrix. In addition, the effect of initial model selection and frequency combination on FWI is analyzed. Examples using numerical simulations and FWI calculations are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Low frequency finite element models of the acoustical behavior of earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Sylvain; Doutres, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Laville, Frédéric; Boutin, Jérôme

    2015-05-01

    This paper compares different approaches to model the vibroacoustic behavior of earmuffs at low frequency and investigates their accuracy by comparison with objective insertion loss measurements recently carried out by Boyer et al. [(2014). Appl. Acoust. 83, 76-85]. Two models based on the finite element (FE) method where the cushion is either modeled as a spring foundation (SF) or as an equivalent solid (ES), and the well-known lumped parameters model (LPM) are investigated. Modeling results show that: (i) all modeling strategies are in good agreement with measurements, providing that the characterization of the cushion equivalent mechanical properties are performed with great care and as close as possible to in situ loading, boundary, and environmental conditions and that the frequency dependence of the mechanical properties is taken into account, (ii) the LPM is the most simple modeling strategy, but the air volume enclosed by the earmuff must be correctly estimated, which is not as straightforward as it may seem, (iii) similar results are obtained with the SF and the ES FE-models of the cushion, but the SF should be preferred to predict the earmuff acoustic response at low frequency since it requires less parameters and a less complex characterization procedure. PMID:25994693

  3. Amplification of terahertz frequency acoustic phonons by drifting electrons in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    The amplification coefficient α of acoustic phonons is theoretically investigated in a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal (3DDS) driven by a dc electric field E causing the drift of the electrons. It is numerically studied as a function of the frequency ωq, drift velocity vd, electron concentration ne, and temperature T in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2. We find that the amplification of acoustic phonons (α ˜ hundreds of cm-1) takes place when the electron drift velocity vd is greater than the sound velocity vs. The amplification is found to occur at small E (˜few V/cm) due to large electron mobility. The frequency dependence of α shows amplification in the THz regime with a maximum αm occurring at the same frequency ωqm for different vd. The αm is found to increase with increasing vd. α vs ωq for different ne also shows a maximum, with αm shifting to higher ωq for larger ne. Each maximum is followed by a vanishing α at nearly "2kf cutoff," where kf is the Fermi wave vector. It is found that αm/ne and ωqm/ne1/3 are nearly constant. The αm ˜ ne can be used to identify the 3DDS phase as it differs from αm ˜ ne1/3 dependence in conventional bulk Cd3As2 semiconductor.

  4. Laboratory measurements of high-frequency, acoustic broadband backscattering from sea ice and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Christopher; Lavery, Andone C; Maksym, Ted; Wilkinson, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Recent decreases in summer sea ice cover are spurring interest in hydrocarbon extraction and shipping in Arctic waters, increasing the risk of an oil spill in ice covered waters. With advances in unmanned vehicle operation, there is an interest in identifying techniques for remote, underwater detection of oil spills from below. High-frequency (200-565 kHz), broadband acoustic scattering data demonstrate that oil can be detected and quantified under laboratory grown sea ice and may be of use in natural settings. A simple scattering model based on the reflection coefficients from the interfaces agrees well with the data. PMID:25618096

  5. Aero-acoustics source separation with sparsity inducing priors in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, Olivier; Picheral, José; Gac, Nicolas; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali; Blacodon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of acoustic sources is of great interest in many industrial applications, in particular for the aeronautic or automotive industry for the development of new products. While localization of sources using observations from a wind tunnel is a well-known subject, the characterization and separation of the sources still needs to be explored. We present here a Bayesian approach for sources separation. Two prior modeling of the sources are considered: a sparsity inducing prior in the frequency domain and an autoregressive model in the time domain. The proposed methods are evaluated on synthetic data simulating noise sources emitting from an airfoil inside a wind tunnel.

  6. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfei; Shen, Huijie; Zhang, Linke; Su, Yongsheng; Yu, Dianlong

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range.

  7. Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

  8. A method for achieving monotonic frequency-temperature response for langasite surface-acoustic-wave high-temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaoming, Bao; Yabing, Ke; Yanqing, Zheng; Lina, Cheng; Honglang, Li

    2016-02-01

    To achieve the monotonic frequency-temperature response for a high-temperature langasite (LGS) surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor in a wide temperature range, a method utilizing two substrate cuts with different propagation angles on the same substrate plane was proposed. In this method, the theory of effective permittivity is adopted to calculate the temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF), electromechanical coupling coefficients (k2), and power flow angle (PFA) for different propagation angles on the same substrate plane, and then the two substrate cuts were chosen to have large k2 and small PFA, as well as the difference in their TCFs (ΔTCF) to always have the same sign of their values. The Z-cut LGS substrate plane was taken as an example, and the two suitable substrate cuts with propagation angles of 74 and 80° were chosen to derive a monotonic frequency-temperature response for LGS SAW sensors at -50 to 540 °C. Experiments on a LGS SAW sensor using the above two substrate cuts were designed, and its measured frequency-temperature response at -50 to 540 °C agreed well with the theory, demonstrating the high accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted.

  10. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted. PMID:16893259

  11. Airborne Gravity Gradiometry Resolves a Full Range of Gravity Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragio, J.; Brewster, J.; Mims, J.

    2007-12-01

    Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) was flown at high altitude coincident with Airborne Gravity (AG) flown in 2003 in West Arnhem Land, Australia. A preliminary analysis of two data sets indicates that the Air\\-FTGR system has the capability of resolving intermediate to long wavelengths features that may be associated with relatively deeper geological structures. A comparison of frequency filtered slices and power spectral density (PSD) for both data sets using the short (> 5 km), intermediate (10 km) and long (20 km) wavelengths reveals that high altitude Air\\-FTGR data show greater response in high frequency anomalies than a conventional Airborne Gravity and matches well with the AG even at the longest wavelengths anomalies. The effect of line spacing and target resolution was examined between the two data sets. Reprocessed gradient and AG data at 2, 4 and 6 km line spacing suggest that Air\\-FTGR could be effectively flown at a comparatively wider line spacing to resolve similar targets the AG would resolve with tighter line spacing. Introduction Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) data have been available to the mining industry since 2002 and their use for geologic applications is well established. However, Air\\-FTGR data has been mostly considered and used in mapping and delineation of near surface geological targets. This is due to the fact that gravity gradiometer measurements are well suited to capture the high frequency signal associated with near\\-surface targets ( Li, 2001). This is possible because the gradiometer signal strength falls off with the cube of the distance to the target. Nonetheless, in recent years there has been an increasing demand from the mining, oil, and gas industry in utilizing Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometer as a mapping tool for both regional and prospect level surveys. Air\\-FTGR as a Regional Mapping Tool Several, relatively low altitude surveys have been successfully flown in Brazil, Canada and Australia

  12. Determination of acoustic properties of thin polymer films utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound reflected back from a system comprising a reflection plate, the film, and a material that covers the film. The frequency components of the echo reflected from the back of the plate, where the film is attached, take their minimum values at the resonant frequency, and from these frequency characteristics, the acoustic impedance, sound velocity, and the density of the film can be determined. We applied this technique to characterize an ion exchange membrane, which has high water absorbability, and successfully determined the acoustic properties of the membrane without getting it wet.

  13. Ultra-thin smart acoustic metasurface for low-frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xiao, Yong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2016-04-01

    Insulating low-frequency sound is a conventional challenge due to the high areal mass required by mass law. In this letter, we propose a smart acoustic metasurface consisting of an ultra-thin aluminum foil bonded with piezoelectric resonators. Numerical and experimental results show that the metasurface can break the conventional mass law of sound insulation by 30 dB in the low frequency regime (<1000 Hz), with an ultra-light areal mass density (<1.6 kg/m2) and an ultra-thin thickness (1000 times smaller than the operating wavelength). The underlying physical mechanism of such extraordinary sound insulation performance is attributed to the infinite effective dynamic mass density produced by the smart resonators. It is also demonstrated that the excellent sound insulation property can be conveniently tuned by simply adjusting the external circuits instead of modifying the structure of the metasurface.

  14. Acoustic attenuation logging using centroid frequency shift and amplitude ratio methods: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.

    1994-12-31

    The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.

  15. Acoustics vector sensor linear array passive ranging based on waveguide invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Sun, Guiqing; Han, Qingbang; Zhang, Chunhua

    2012-11-01

    A passive ranging method is proposed based on waveguide invariant analysis. The received Low Frequency Analysis Record (LOFAR) spectrum contains parabolic striations when a wideband target passes by the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). We can extract the striations through a suitable image processing technique such as the HOUGH transform, and we can then derive the waveguide invariant. Finally we can estimate the range of the target. A vector LOFARgram containing particle velocity information has higher SNR than a scalar LOFARgram, and this information can improve the precision of range estimate. This method can estimate the range of the CPA with high precision for both simulation and experimental data. In estimating the CPA range, both the experimental value and the measured value of the waveguide invariant are used. The results show that the measured value is more credible.

  16. Home range and diel behavior of the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta, determined by acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Alós, Josep; March, David; Palmer, Miquel; Mucientes, Gonzalo; Saborido-Rey, Fran

    2013-07-01

    Effective fisheries management needs to consider spatial behavior in addition to more traditional aspects of population dynamics. Acoustic telemetry has been extensively used to provide information on fish movements over different temporal and spatial scales. Here, we used a fixed-receiver array to examine the movement patterns of Labrus bergylta Ascanius 1767, a species highly targeted by the artisanal fleet of Galicia, NW Spain. Data from 25 individuals was assessed for a period of 71 days between September and November 2011 in the Galician Atlantic Islands Maritime-Terrestrial National Park. Fish were present within the monitored area more than 92% of the monitored time. The estimated size of individual home ranges, i.e. the area where fish spent most of their time, was small. The total minimum convex polygons area based on all the estimated positions was 0.133 ± 0.072 km2, whereas the home range size estimated using a 95% kernel distribution of the estimated positions was 0.091 ± 0.031 km2. The core area (50% kernel) was 0.019 ± 0.006 km2. L. bergylta exhibited different patterns of movement in the day versus the night, with 92% of the fish detected more frequently and traveling longer distances during the daytime. In addition, 76% of the fish displayed a larger home range during the day versus during the night. The linearity index was less than 0.005 for all fish suggesting random movements but within a relatively small area, and the volume of intersection index between consecutive daily home ranges was 0.75 ± 0.13, suggesting high site fidelity. The small home range and the sedentary behavior of L. bergylta highlight the potential use of small MPAs as a management tool to ensure a sustainable fishery for this important species.

  17. Separation of fine particles at different frequencies and HRTs using acoustic standing waves.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang Ho; Ahn, Jaehwan; Kim, I-Tae; Kang, Sungwon; Kim, Seoggu; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Kwang Baik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the separation of fine particles using several frequencies and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in an acoustic standing wave reactor without any separate cooling devices. The acoustic standing wave reactor consisted of sufficient space (over 100 mm) between the transducer and reflector, resulting in a slight increase in temperature. However, the increase in temperature did not affect the formation of standing waves and particle aggregations in our experiments. The results indicated that the turbidity removal efficiencies of fine kaolin particles, when using frequencies of 580 kHz, 1, and 2 MHz, increased with longer standing wave operation time. Especially, the turbidity removal efficiencies for 1 and 2 MHz were higher than that for 580 kHz because the wavelength (λ) of the 580 kHz wave was longer than that of the 1 and 2 MHz waves. Furthermore, the turbidity removal efficiency of kaolin in a continuous reactor improved with increasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs), and the reactor was more effective with 1 and 2 MHz used in parallel instead of 1 and 2 MHz used individually under the same HRT conditions with the entrance length (EL) having no adverse effect.

  18. Frequency-space prediction filtering for acoustic clutter and random noise attenuation in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Frequency-space prediction filtering (FXPF), also known as FX deconvolution, is a technique originally developed for random noise attenuation in seismic imaging. FXPF attempts to reduce random noise in seismic data by modeling only real signals that appear as linear or quasilinear events in the aperture domain. In medical ultrasound imaging, channel radio frequency (RF) signals from the main lobe appear as horizontal events after receive delays are applied while acoustic clutter signals from off-axis scatterers and electronic noise do not. Therefore, FXPF is suitable for preserving only the main-lobe signals and attenuating the unwanted contributions from clutter and random noise in medical ultrasound imaging. We adapt FXPF to ultrasound imaging, and evaluate its performance using simulated data sets from a point target and an anechoic cyst. Our simulation results show that using only 5 iterations of FXPF achieves contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements of 67 % in a simulated noise-free anechoic cyst and 228 % in a simulated anechoic cyst contaminated with random noise of 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our findings suggest that ultrasound imaging with FXPF attenuates contributions from both acoustic clutter and random noise and therefore, FXPF has great potential to improve ultrasound image contrast for better visualization of important anatomical structures and detection of diseased conditions.

  19. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  20. Bandwidth-efficient frequency-domain equalization for single carrier multiple-input multiple-output underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a single carrier (SC) receiver scheme with bandwidth-efficient frequency-domain equalization (FDE) for underwater acoustic (UWA) communications employing multiple transducers and multiple hydrophones. Different from the FDE methods that perform FDE on a whole data block, the proposed algorithm implements an overlapped-window FDE by partitioning a large block into small subblocks. A decision-directed channel estimation scheme is incorporated with the overlapped-window FDE to track channel variations and improve the error performance. The proposed algorithm significantly increases the length of each block and keeps the same number of training symbols per block, hence achieving better data efficiency without performance degradation. The proposed scheme is tested by the undersea data collected in the Rescheduled Acoustic Communications Experiment (RACE) in March 2008. Without coding, the 2-by-12 MIMO overlapped-window FDE reduces the average bit error rate (BER) over traditional SC-FDE schemes by 74.4% and 84.6% for the 400 m and 1000 m range systems, respectively, at the same data efficiency. If the same BER performance is required, the proposed algorithm has only 8.4% transmission overhead, comparing to over 20% overhead in other existing UWA OFDM and SC-FDE systems. The improved data efficiency and/or error performance of the proposed FDE scheme is achieved by slightly increased computational complexity over traditional SC-FDE schemes.

  1. Time-frequency analysis of the bistatic acoustic scattering from a spherical elastic shell.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Shaun D; Sabra, Karim G; Zakharia, Manell E; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The development of low-frequency sonar systems, using, for instance, a network of autonomous systems in unmanned vehicles, provides a practical means for bistatic measurements (i.e., when the source and receiver are widely separated) allowing for multiple viewpoints of the target of interest. Time-frequency analysis, in particular, Wigner-Ville analysis, takes advantage of the evolution time dependent aspect of the echo spectrum to differentiate a man-made target, such as an elastic spherical shell, from a natural object of the similar shape. A key energetic feature of fluid-loaded and thin spherical shell is the coincidence pattern, also referred to as the mid-frequency enhancement (MFE), that results from antisymmetric Lamb-waves propagating around the circumference of the shell. This article investigates numerically the bistatic variations of the MFE with respect to the monostatic configuration using the Wigner-Ville analysis. The observed time-frequency shifts of the MFE are modeled using a previously derived quantitative ray theory by Zhang et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1862-1874 (1993)] for spherical shell's scattering. Additionally, the advantage of an optimal array beamformer, based on joint time delays and frequency shifts is illustrated for enhancing the detection of the MFE recorded across a bistatic receiver array when compared to a conventional time-delay beamformer.

  2. Location of acoustic radiators and inversion for energy density using radio-frequency sources and thunder recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Arechiga, R. O.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    We use radio frequency (VHF) pulse locations mapped with the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) to study the distribution of thunder sources in lightning channels. A least squares inversion is used to fit channel acoustic energy radiation with broadband (0.01 to 500 Hz) acoustic recordings using microphones deployed local (< 10 km) to the lightning. We model the thunder (acoustic) source as a superposition of line segments connecting the LMA VHF pulses. An optimum branching algorithm is used to reconstruct conductive channels delineated by VHF sources, which we discretize as a superposition of finely-spaced (0.25 m) acoustic point sources. We consider total radiated thunder as a weighted superposition of acoustic waves from individual channels, each with a constant current along its length that is presumed to be proportional to acoustic energy density radiated per unit length. Merged channels are considered as a linear sum of current-carrying branches and radiate proportionally greater acoustic energy. Synthetic energy time series for a given microphone location are calculated for each independent channel. We then use a non-negative least squares inversion to solve for channel energy densities to match the energy time series determined from broadband acoustic recordings across a 4-station microphone network. Events analyzed by this method have so far included 300-1000 VHF sources, and correlations as high as 0.5 between synthetic and recorded thunder energy were obtained, despite the presence of wind noise and 10-30 m uncertainty in VHF source locations.

  3. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas; Torchinsky, Darius H; Dyre, Jeppe C; Nelson, Keith A

    2013-03-28

    This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed using the recently developed time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, in which acoustic waves are generated optically, propagated through nm thin liquid layers of different thicknesses, and detected optically after transmission into a transparent detection substrate. This allows for a determination of the frequency dependence of the speed of sound and the sound-wave attenuation. When the data are converted into mechanical moduli, a linear relationship between longitudinal and shear acoustic moduli is revealed, which is consistent with the generalized Cauchy relation. In glycerol, the temperature dependence of the shear acoustic relaxation time agrees well with literature data for dielectric measurements. In DC704, combining the new data with data from measurements obtained previously by piezo-ceramic transducers yields figures showing the longitudinal and shear sound velocities at frequencies from mHz to GHz over an extended range of temperatures. The shoving model's prediction for the relaxation time's temperature dependence is fairly well obeyed for both liquids as demonstrated from a plot with no adjustable parameters. Finally, we show that for both liquids the instantaneous shear modulus follows an exponential temperature dependence to a good approximation, as predicted by Granato's interstitialcy model. PMID:23556795

  4. Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat.

    PubMed

    Selby, Thomas H; Hart, Kristen M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J; Pollock, Clayton J; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Lundgren, Ian; Oli, Madan K

    2016-07-01

    Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large-scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long-term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array-representative receivers for range-testing by submersing fixed delay interval range-testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0-73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4-39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef environment

  5. Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selby, Thomas H.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J.; Pollock, Clayton J; Hillis-Star, Zandy M; Lundgren, Ian; Oli, Madan K.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large-scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long-term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array-representative receivers for range-testing by submersing fixed delay interval range-testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0–73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4–39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef

  6. Response Pattern Based on the Amplitude of Ear Canal Recorded Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms across Acoustic Frequencies in Normal Hearing Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often concealed by acoustic background noise such as those from a patient’s breathing and from the environment during recording in clinics. When using electrocochleaography (ECochG or ECoG), such as cochlear microphonics (CMs), acoustic background noise do not contaminate the recordings. Our objective is to study the response pattern of CM waveforms (CMWs) to explore an alternative approach in assessing cochlear functions. In response to a 14-msec tone burst across several acoustic frequencies, CMWs were recorded at the ear canal from ten normal hearing subjects. A relatively long tone burst has a relatively narrow frequency band. The CMW amplitudes among different frequencies were compared. The CMW amplitudes among different frequencies were compared. Two features were observed in the response pattern of CMWs: the amplitude of CMWs decreased with an increase of stimulus frequency of the tone bursts; and such a decrease occurred at a faster rate at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies. Five factors as potential mechanisms for these features are proposed. Clinical applications such as hearing screening are discussed. Therefore, the response pattern of CMWs suggests that they may be used as an alternative to OAEs in the assessment of cochlear functions in the clinic, especially at low frequencies. PMID:22696071

  7. Acoustic characterization of multi-element, dual-frequency transducers for high-intensity contact ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, M.; N'Djin, W. A.; Persaud, L.; Bronskill, M.; Chopra, R.

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity contact ultrasound therapy can generate precise volumes of thermal damage in deep-seated tissue using interstitial or intracavitary devices. Multi-element, dual-frequency transducers offer increased spatial control of the heating pattern by enabling modulation of ultrasound power and frequency along the device. The performance and acoustic coupling between elements of simple, multi-element, dual-frequency transducers was measured. Transducer arrays were fabricated by cutting halfway through a rectangular plate of PZT, creating individual 4 × 5 mm segments with fundamental frequency (4.1 MHz) and third harmonic (13.3 MHz). Coupling between elements was investigated using a scanning laser vibrometer to measure transducer surface displacements at each frequency and different acoustic powers (0, 10, 20 W/cm2). The measured acoustic power was proportional to the input electrical power with no hysteresis and efficiencies >50% at both frequencies. Maximum transducer surface displacements were observed near element centers, reducing to ˜1/3-maximum near edges. The power and frequency of neighboring transducer segments had little impact on an element's output. In the worst case, an element operating at 4.1 MHz and 20 W/cm2 coupled only 1.5 W/cm2 to its immediate neighboring element. Multi-element, dual-frequency transducers were successfully constructed using a simple dicing method. Coupling between elements was minor, therefore the power and frequency of each transducer element could be considered independent.

  8. An optical beam frequency reference with 10{sup -14} range frequency instability

    SciTech Connect

    McFerran, J. J.; Hartnett, J. G.; Luiten, A. N.

    2009-07-20

    The authors report on a thermal beam optical frequency reference with a fractional frequency instability of 9.2x10{sup -14} at 1 s reducing to 2.0x10{sup -14} at 64 s before slowly rising. The {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line in neutral {sup 40}Ca is used as a frequency discriminator. A diode laser at 423 nm probes the ground state population after a Ramsey-Borde sequence of 657 nm light-field interactions on the atoms. The measured fractional frequency instability is an order of magnitude improvement on previously reported thermal beam optical clocks. The photon shot-noise of the read-out produces a limiting square root {lambda}-variance of 7x10{sup -14}/{radical}({tau})

  9. Quadratic Time-Frequency Analysis of Hydroacoustic Signals as Applied to Acoustic Emissions of Large Whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Victor, Sucic; Damir, Malnar; Götz, Bokelmann

    2014-05-01

    In order to enrich the set of attributes in setting up a large database of whale signals, as envisioned in the Baleakanta project, we investigate methods of time-frequency analysis. The purpose of establishing the database is to increase and refine knowledge of the emitted signal and of its propagation characteristics, leading to a better understanding of the animal migrations in a non-invasive manner and to characterize acoustic propagation in oceanic media. The higher resolution for signal extraction and a better separation from other signals and noise will be used for various purposes, including improved signal detection and individual animal identification. The quadratic class of time-frequency distributions (TFDs) is the most popular set of time-frequency tools for analysis and processing of non-stationary signals. Two best known and most studied members of this class are the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville distribution. However, to be used efficiently, i.e. to have highly concentrated signal components while significantly suppressing interference and noise simultaneously, TFDs need to be optimized first. The optimization method used in this paper is based on the Cross-Wigner-Ville distribution, and unlike similar approaches it does not require prior information on the analysed signal. The method is applied to whale signals, which, just like the majority of other real-life signals, can generally be classified as multicomponent non-stationary signals, and hence time-frequency techniques are a natural choice for their representation, analysis, and processing. We present processed data from a set containing hundreds of individual calls. The TFD optimization method results into a high resolution time-frequency representation of the signals. It allows for a simple extraction of signal components from the TFD's dominant ridges. The local peaks of those ridges can then be used for the signal components instantaneous frequency estimation, which in turn can be used as

  10. Acoustical effects of a large ridge on low-frequency sound propagation in stationary and moving atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. S.; Jacobson, M. J.; Siegmann, W. L.; Santandrea, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a ridge on a low-frequency acoustic propagation in quiescent and windy atmospheres are investigated using a parabolic approximation. A logarithmic wind-speed profile, commonly employed to model atmospheric wind currents, is modified and used to model two-dimensional atmospheric flow over a triangularly-shaped hill. The parabolic equation is solved using an implicit finite-difference algorithm. Several examples are examined to determine the combined effects of source-ridge distance, ridge dimensions, wind-speed profile, and CW source frequency on the received acoustic field.

  11. Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontecorvo, Emanuele; Ortolani, Michele; Polli, Dario; Ferretti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio; Scopigno, Tullio

    2011-01-01

    Building on a 1 kHz amplified Ti:sapphire laser source, we developed a novel pump-probe setup for broadband picosecond acoustics using a white-light continuum probe coupled to an optical multichannel analyzer. The system allows one to access, in a single measurement, acoustic parameters such as sound velocity and attenuation all over the bandwidth of the acoustic wave-packet launched by the pump pulse. We use the setup to measure the sound attenuation in fused silica and observe a dynamic crossover occurring at ≈170 GHz.

  12. High-Frequency Pulsed-Electro-Acoustic (PEA) Measurements for Mapping Charge Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Kristina; Pearson, Lee; Dennison, J. R.; Doyle, Timothy; Hartley, Kent

    2012-10-01

    High-frequency pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements are a non-destructive method used to investigate internal charge distributions in dielectric materials. This presentation discusses the theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments and shows results of PEA measurements. PEA experiments involve a thin dielectric positioned between two conducting electrodes. A voltage signal on the two electrodes generates an electric field across the dielectric, which stimulates embedded charge and creates a pressure wave that propagates within the capacitor. A coupled acoustic sensor then measures the ensuing pressure pulse response. Spatial distributions of the charge profile are obtained from the resultant pressure waveform. Gaussian filters and other signal processing methods are used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in this waveform. Estimates of the charge distribution inside the dielectric are extracted from this analysis. Our ultimate objective is to develop high resolution PEA methods to investigate in vacuo charge deposition in thin film polymeric, ceramic, or glass dielectric materials using medium to high energy (approximately 103 to 107 eV) electron beams.

  13. High-frequency hopping conductivity in the quantum Hall effect regime: Acoustical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Galperin, Yu. M.; Toropov, A. I.

    2000-09-01

    The high-frequency conductivity of Si δ-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures is studied in the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime, using acoustic methods. Both the real and the imaginary parts of the complex conductivity are determined from the experimentally observed magnetic field and temperature dependencies of the velocity and the attenuation of a surface acoustic wave. It is demonstrated that in structures with carrier density (1.3-2.8)×1011 cm-2 and mobility (1-2)×105 cm2/V s the mechanism of low-temperature conductance near the QHE plateau centers is hopping. It is also shown that at magnetic fields corresponding to filling factors 2 and 4, the doped Si δ layer efficiently shunts the conductance in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel. A method to separate the two contributions to the real part of the conductivity is developed, and the localization length in the 2DEG channel is estimated within the context of a nearest-neighbor hopping model.

  14. Amplitude-Frequency Analysis of Signals of Acoustic Emission from Granite Fractured at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, I. P.; Chmel‧, A. E.

    2015-05-01

    The problem of stability of underground structures serving to store radioactive waste, to gasify carbon, and to utilize geothermal energy is associated with the action of elevated temperatures and pressures. The acoustic-emission method makes it possible to monitor the accumulation of microcracks arising in stress fields of both thermal and mechanical origin. In this report, the authors give results of a laboratory investigation into the acoustic emission from granite subjected to impact fracture at temperatures of up to 600°C. An amplitude-frequency analysis of acousticemission signals has enabled the authors to evaluate the dimension of the arising microcracks and to determine their character (intergranular or intragranular). It has been shown that intergranular faults on the boundaries between identical minerals predominate at room temperature (purely mechanical action); at a temperature of 300°C (impact plus thermoelastic stresses), there also appear cracks on the quartz-feldspar boundaries; finally, at temperatures of 500-600°C, it is intragranular faults that predominate in feldspar. The dimensions of the above three types of microcracks are approximately 2, 0.8, and 0.3 mm respectively.

  15. Solar-cycle variations of large frequency separations of acoustic modes: implications for asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied solar-cycle changes in the large frequency separations that can be observed in Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) data. The large frequency separation is often one of the first outputs from asteroseismic studies because it can help constrain stellar properties like mass and radius. We have used three methods for estimating the large separations: use of individual p-mode frequencies, computation of the autocorrelation of frequency-power spectra, and computation of the power spectrum of the power spectrum. The values of the large separations obtained by the different methods are offset from each other and have differing sensitivities to the realization noise. A simple model was used to predict solar-cycle variations in the large separations, indicating that the variations are due to the well-known solar-cycle changes to mode frequency. However, this model is only valid over a restricted frequency range. We discuss the implications of these results for asteroseismology.

  16. Stabilization and Low-Frequency Oscillation of Capillary Bridges with Modulated Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Morse, S. F.; Thiessen, David B.

    1996-01-01

    In the work reported here it is demonstrated that acoustic radiation pressure may be used in simulated low gravity to produce stable bridges significantly beyond the Rayleigh limit with S as large as 3.6. The bridge (PDMS mixed with a dense liquid) has the same density as the surrounding water bath containing an ultrasonic standing wave. Modulation was first used to excite specific bridge modes. In the most recent work reported here the shape of the bridge is optically sensed and the ultrasonic drive is electronically adjusted such that the radiation stress distribution dynamically quenches the most unstable mode. This active control simulates passive stabilization suggested for low gravity. Feedback increases the mode frequency in the naturally stable region since the effective stiffness of the mode is increased.

  17. Acoustic dispersive prism

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  18. Acoustic characteristics of biosonar sounds of free-ranging botos (Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxis (Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Negro River, Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; da Silva, Vera M F; Yoshida, Yayoi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    Odontoceti emit broadband high-frequency clicks on echolocation for orientation or prey detection. In the Amazon Basin, two odontoceti species, boto (Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), live sympatrically. The acoustic characteristics of the echolocation clicks of free-ranging botos and tucuxis were measured with a hydrophone array consisting of a full-band and an acoustic event recorder (A-tag). The clicks of the two species were short-duration broadband signals. The apparent source level was 201 dB 1 μPa peak-to-peak at 1 m in the botos and 181 dB 1 μPa peak-to-peak at 1 m in the tucuxis, and the centroid frequency was 82.3 kHz in the botos and 93.1 kHz in the tucuxis. The high apparent source level and low centroid frequency are possibly due to the difference in body size or sound production organs, especially the nasal structure, the sound source of clicks in odontoceti. PMID:26328686

  19. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  20. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  1. Acoustic Reflection and Transmission of 2-Dimensional Rotors and Stators, Including Mode and Frequency Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.

  2. Low-frequency magnetohydrodynamics and geodesic acoustic modes in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, C.

    2009-08-01

    This paper analyses low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes, especially the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), in toroidal plasmas with large aspect ratio and circular cross section, including the effects of toroidal plasma rotation. A system of equations describing MHD modes with frequency of the order of the sound frequency in such plasmas is derived from the Frieman-Rotenberg equation, using a technique where the plasma perturbation ξ and the perturbed magnetic field Q are expanded separately in the inverse aspect ratio ɛ = r/R, where r and R denote the minor and major radii of the plasma torus, respectively. The large-scale, ideal MHD properties of the GAM induced by toroidal rotation (Wahlberg 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 115003) are thereafter analysed in more detail employing this system of equations. It is shown that both the axisymmetric GAMs existing in rotating plasmas are localized on a specific magnetic surface only to leading order in ɛ, and that a 'halo' consisting of finite components of both ξ and Q with dominant poloidal mode numbers m = ±2 appears outside this magnetic surface to higher orders in ɛ.

  3. Comparison of spatial frequency domain features for the detection of side attack explosive ballistics in synthetic aperture acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Josh; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Ball, John E.; Keller, James M.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards in current and former conflict zones are a threat to both military and civilian personnel. As a result, much effort has been dedicated to identifying automated algorithms and systems to detect these threats. However, robust detection is complicated due to factors like the varied composition and anatomy of such hazards. In order to solve this challenge, a number of platforms (vehicle-based, handheld, etc.) and sensors (infrared, ground penetrating radar, acoustics, etc.) are being explored. In this article, we investigate the detection of side attack explosive ballistics via a vehicle-mounted acoustic sensor. In particular, we explore three acoustic features, one in the time domain and two on synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) beamformed imagery. The idea is to exploit the varying acoustic frequency profile of a target due to its unique geometry and material composition with respect to different viewing angles. The first two features build their angle specific frequency information using a highly constrained subset of the signal data and the last feature builds its frequency profile using all available signal data for a given region of interest (centered on the candidate target location). Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on cross-validation experiments for data collected at a U.S. Army test site on different days with multiple target types and clutter. Our preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that the top performing feature is the unrolled two dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of SAA beamformed imagery.

  4. Low-frequency source for very long-range underwater communication.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Frédéric; Matte, Guillaume; Shimura, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Very long-range underwater acoustic communication (UAC) is crucial for long cruising (>1000 km) autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Very long-range UAC source for AUV must exhibit high electro-acoustic efficiency (>60%) and compactness. This paper describes the Janus-Hammer Bell (JHB) transducer that has been designed for this purpose and meets those requirements. The transducer works on the 450-550 Hz bandwidth and reaches source level above 200 dB (ref. 1 μPa at 1 m) with 1 kW excitation and full immersion capability. JHB source has been used for communication experiments by the Japanese institute for marine technology (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) achieving a baud rate of 100 bits/s at 1000 km. PMID:23298019

  5. Low-frequency source for very long-range underwater communication.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Frédéric; Matte, Guillaume; Shimura, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Very long-range underwater acoustic communication (UAC) is crucial for long cruising (>1000 km) autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Very long-range UAC source for AUV must exhibit high electro-acoustic efficiency (>60%) and compactness. This paper describes the Janus-Hammer Bell (JHB) transducer that has been designed for this purpose and meets those requirements. The transducer works on the 450-550 Hz bandwidth and reaches source level above 200 dB (ref. 1 μPa at 1 m) with 1 kW excitation and full immersion capability. JHB source has been used for communication experiments by the Japanese institute for marine technology (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) achieving a baud rate of 100 bits/s at 1000 km.

  6. Frequency-dependent conductivity contrast for tissue characterization using a dual-frequency range conductivity mapping magnetic resonance method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chauhan, Munish; Kim, Min-Oh; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Sersa, Igor; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-02-01

    Electrical conductivities of biological tissues show frequency-dependent behaviors, and these values at different frequencies may provide clinically useful diagnostic information. MR-based tissue property mapping techniques such as magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) and magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT) are widely used and provide unique conductivity contrast information over different frequency ranges. Recently, a new method for data acquisition and reconstruction for low- and high-frequency conductivity images from a single MR scan was proposed. In this study, we applied this simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method to evaluate its utility in a designed phantom and two in vivo animal disease models. Magnetic flux density and B(1)(+) phase map for dual-frequency conductivity images were acquired using a modified spin-echo pulse sequence. Low-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREIT data by the projected current density method, while high-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREPT data by B(1)(+) mapping. Two different conductivity phantoms comprising varying ion concentrations separated by insulating films with or without holes were used to study the contrast mechanism of the frequency-dependent conductivities related to ion concentration and mobility. Canine brain abscess and ischemia were used as in vivo models to evaluate the capability of the proposed method to identify new electrical properties-based contrast at two different frequencies. The simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method provides unique contrast information related to the concentration and mobility of ions inside tissues. This method has potential to monitor dynamic changes of the state of disease.

  7. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  8. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos Piper, Ben

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  9. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1993-01-01

    A chemical sensor (1) includes two or more pairs of interdigital electrodes (10) having different periodicities. Each pair is comprised of a first electrode (10a) and a second electrode (10b). The electrodes are patterned on a surface of a piezoelectric substrate (12). Each pair of electrodes may launch and receive various acoustic waves (AW), including a surface acoustic wave (SAW), and may also launch and receive several acoustic plate modes (APMs). The frequencies associated with each are functions of the transducer periodicity as well as the velocity of the particular AW in the chosen substrate material. An AW interaction region (13) exists between each pair of electrodes. Circuitry (20, 40) is used to launch, receive, and monitor the propagation characteristics of the AWs and may be configured in an intermittent measurement fashion or in a continuous measurement fashion. Perturbations to the AW velocity and attenuation are recorded at several frequencies and provide the sensor response.

  10. Calibration of miniature medical ultrasonic hydrophones for frequencies in the range 100 to 500 kHz using an ultrasonically absorbing waveguide.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Srinath; Zeqiri, Bajram; Gélat, Pierre N

    2014-05-01

    Enhancements to the existing primary standard optical interferometer and narrowband tone-burst comparison calibration methods for miniature medical ultrasonic hydrophones of the membrane type over the frequency range 100 to 500 kHz are described. Improvements were realized through application of an ultrasonically absorbing waveguide made of a low-frequency-absorbing tile used in sonar applications which narrows the spatial extent of the broad acoustic field. The waveguide was employed in conjunction with a sonar multilayered polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hydrophone used as a transmitting transducer covering a frequency range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The acoustic field emanating from the ultrasonically absorbing waveguide reduced the significance of diffracted acoustic waves from the membrane hydrophone ring and the consequent interference of this wave with the direct acoustic wave received by the active element of the hydrophone during calibration. Four membrane hydrophone make/ models with ring sizes (defined as the inner diameter of the annular mounting ring of the hydrophone) in the range 50 to 100 mm were employed along with a needle hydrophone. A reference membrane hydrophone, calibrated using the NPL primary standard optical interferometer in combination with the ultrasonically absorbing waveguide, was subsequently used to calibrate the other four hydrophones by comparison, again using the ultrasonically absorbing waveguide. In comparison to existing methods, the use of the ultrasonically absorbing waveguide enabled the low-frequency calibration limit of a membrane hydrophone with a ring diameter of 50 mm to be reduced from 400 kHz to 200 kHz.

  11. Absolute backscatter coefficient estimates of tissue-mimicking phantoms in the 5–50 MHz frequency range

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew M.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Deaner, Meagan E.; Varghese, Tomy

    2011-01-01

    Absolute backscatter coefficients in tissue-mimicking phantoms were experimentally determined in the 5–50 MHz frequency range using a broadband technique. A focused broadband transducer from a commercial research system, the VisualSonics Vevo 770, was used with two tissue-mimicking phantoms. The phantoms differed regarding the thin layers covering their surfaces to prevent desiccation and regarding glass bead concentrations and diameter distributions. Ultrasound scanning of these phantoms was performed through the thin layer. To avoid signal saturation, the power spectra obtained from the backscattered radio frequency signals were calibrated by using the signal from a liquid planar reflector, a water-brominated hydrocarbon interface with acoustic impedance close to that of water. Experimental values of absolute backscatter coefficients were compared with those predicted by the Faran scattering model over the frequency range 5–50 MHz. The mean percent difference and standard deviation was 54% ± 45% for the phantom with a mean glass bead diameter of 5.40 μm and was 47% ± 28% for the phantom with 5.16 μm mean diameter beads. PMID:21877789

  12. Computed Linear/Nonlinear Acoustic Response of a Cascade for Single/Multi Frequency Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mode generation and propagation characteristics of a 2-D cascade due to incident vortical disturbances using a time domain approach. Full nonlinear Euler equations are solved employing high order accurate spatial differencing and time marching techniques. The solutions show the generation and propagation of mode orders that are expected from theory. Single frequency excitations show linear response over a wide range of amplitudes. The response for multi-frequency excitations tend to become nonlinear due to interaction between frequencies and self interaction.

  13. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    PubMed

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  14. An experimental investigation of thermoacoustic lasers operating in audible frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhe, Sanket Anil

    Thermoacoustic lasers convert heat from a high-temperature heat source into acoustic power while rejecting waste heat to a low temperature sink. The working fluids involved can be air or noble gases which are nontoxic and environmentally benign. Simple in construction due to absence of moving parts, thermoacoustic lasers can be employed to achieve generation of electricity at individual homes, water-heating for domestic purposes, and to facilitate space heating and cooling. The possibility of utilizing waste heat or solar energy to run thermoacoustic devices makes them technically promising and economically viable to generate large quantities of acoustic energy. The research presented in this thesis deals with the effects of geometric parameters (stack position, stack length, tube length) associated with a thermoacoustic laser on the output sound wave. The effects of varying input power on acoustic output were also studied. Based on the experiments, optimum operating conditions were identified and qualitative and/or quantitative explanations were provided to justify our observations. It was observed that the maximum sound pressure level was generated for the laser with the stack positioned at a distance of quarter lengths of a resonator from the closed end. Higher sound pressure levels were recorded for the laser with longer stack lengths and longer resonator lengths. Efforts were also made to develop high-frequency thermoacoustic lasers.

  15. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  16. Classification of Hazelnut Kernels by Using Impact Acoustic Time-Frequency Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Habil; Ince, Nuri Firat; Tewfik, Ahmed H.; Yardimci, Yasemin; Pearson, Tom

    2007-12-01

    Hazelnuts with damaged or cracked shells are more prone to infection with aflatoxin producing molds ( Aspergillus flavus). These molds can cause cancer. In this study, we introduce a new approach that separates damaged/cracked hazelnut kernels from good ones by using time-frequency features obtained from impact acoustic signals. The proposed technique requires no prior knowledge of the relevant time and frequency locations. In an offline step, the algorithm adaptively segments impact signals from a training data set in time using local cosine packet analysis and a Kullback-Leibler criterion to assess the discrimination power of different segmentations. In each resulting time segment, the signal is further decomposed into subbands using an undecimated wavelet transform. The most discriminative subbands are selected according to the Euclidean distance between the cumulative probability distributions of the corresponding subband coefficients. The most discriminative subbands are fed into a linear discriminant analysis classifier. In the online classification step, the algorithm simply computes the learned features from the observed signal and feeds them to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The algorithm achieved a throughput rate of 45 nuts/s and a classification accuracy of 96% with the 30 most discriminative features, a higher rate than those provided with prior methods.

  17. Active noise reduction systems: Their interaction with very low frequency acoustical energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, R. Brian

    1994-08-01

    Active noise reduction (ANR) is used for reducing noise at the ears of an observer through the action of interfering sound waves. Noise sensed by a microphone built into the observer's headset or helmet is processed and reintroduced into the ear cup cavity out of phase with the original sound, thus cancelling the noise at the ear. Recent field experience has shown that system exposure to very high amplitude low-frequency sound, such as during the operation of helicopters, can lead to saturation or overload of the ANR electronics. Experiments using acoustical maniquins were conducted to assess the low-frequency behavior of ANR equipment. Results of measurement of the threshold of overload indicated large differences in the saturation thresholds among systems tested. Performance strongly depended on the integrity of the ear seal. Those systems offering active attenuation into the infrasound region tended to saturate most easily, but did create the best listening condition for the user when operated below the saturation threshold.

  18. Acoustic information available to bats using frequency-modulated sounds for the perception of insect prey.

    PubMed

    Moss, C F; Zagaeski, M

    1994-05-01

    Through the present study, the acoustic information available to an echolocating bat that uses brief frequency-modulated (FM) sonar sounds for the pursuit and capture of insect prey has been characterized. Computer-generated sonar pulses were broadcast at tethered insects, and the returning echoes were recorded on analog tape at high speed for off-line analyses. Echoes from stationary and fluttering insects were displayed using time waveform, spectrogram, power spectrum, and cross-correlation representations. The results show echo signatures for the different insect species studied, which change with the angle of incident sound. Sequences of echoes from fluttering insects show irregular changes in sound amplitude and time-frequency structure, reflecting a random temporal relation between the changing wing position and the arrival of incident sound. A set of recordings that controlled the temporal relation between incident sound and insect wing position suggests that information about the spatial profile of a flying insect could be enhanced if the bat were to produce a sequence of sounds that synchronized briefly with the moving target's wing-beat cycle. From this study, it has been proposed that the FM bat receives stroboscopic-like glimpses of fluttering prey whose spatial representation depends on the operation of the bat's sonar receiver.

  19. Course of hearing recovery according to frequency in patients with acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hirofumi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Imamura, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    Through pure-tone audiometry, we studied the course of hearing recovery in 24 ears of 20 men (ages 18-48 years) who had acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). All subjects were members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force. The hearing level in 5 ears returned to normal, the hearing level of 13 ears recovered but was not within the normal range, and the hearing level of 6 ears was unchanged. The time from noise exposure to presentation was longer in patients with unchanged hearing than in other patients. Recovery of hearing was poorest at 4,000 Hz, followed by 8,000 and 2,000 Hz. We concluded that hearing in patients with acute ASHL is likely to return to normal when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz recovers gradually; partial recovery of hearing is expected when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz reaches an early plateau. PMID:18616091

  20. Multi-bearing defect detection with trackside acoustic signal based on a pseudo time-frequency analysis and Dopplerlet filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of train bearing defects based on the acoustic signal acquired by a trackside microphone plays a significant role in the transport system. However, the wayside acoustic signal suffers from the Doppler distortion due to the high moving speed and also contains the multi-source signals from different train bearings. This paper proposes a novel solution to overcome the two difficulties in trackside acoustic diagnosis. In the method a pseudo time-frequency analysis (PTFA) based on an improved Dopplerlet transform (IDT) is presented to acquire the time centers for different bearings. With the time centers, we design a series of Dopplerlet filters (DF) in time-frequency domain to work on the signal's time-frequency distribution (TFD) gained by the short time Fourier transform (STFT). Then an inverse STFT (ISTFT) is utilized to get the separated signals for each sound source which means bearing here. Later the resampling method based on certain motion parameters eliminates the Doppler Effect and finally the diagnosis can be made effectively according to the envelope spectrum of each separated signal. With the effectiveness of the technique validated by both simulated and experimental cases, the proposed wayside acoustic diagnostic scheme is expected to be available in wayside defective bearing detection.

  1. Using multi-frequency acoustic attenuation to monitor grain size and concentration of suspended sediment in rivers.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A; Le Coz, J; Hurther, D; Paquier, A

    2013-04-01

    Multi-frequency acoustic backscatter profiles recorded with side-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers are used to monitor the concentration and size of sedimentary particles suspended in fluvial environments. Data at 300, 600, and 1200 kHz are presented from the Isère River in France where the dominant particles in suspension are silt and clay sizes. The contribution of suspended sediment to the through-water attenuation was determined for three high concentration (> 100 mg/L) events and compared to theoretical values for spherical particles having size distributions that were measured by laser diffraction in water samples. Agreement was good for the 300 kHz data, but it worsened with increasing frequency. A method for the determination of grain size using multi-frequency attenuation data is presented considering models for spherical and oblate spheroidal particles. When the resulting size estimates are used to convert sediment attenuation to concentration, the spheroidal model provides the best agreement with optical estimates of concentration, but the aspect ratio and grain size that provide the best fit differ between events. The acoustic estimates of size were one-third the values from laser grain sizing. This agreement is encouraging considering optical and acoustical instruments measure different parameters. PMID:23556566

  2. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  3. Improvement spatial resolution of frequency modulated continuous wave laser ranging system by splicing equal optical frequency interval sampled signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guang; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-02-01

    A dual interferometry FMCW laser ranging system is presented. The auxiliary interferometer for generating the clock pulses at equally spaced optical frequencies is incorporated into the main interferometer to simplify the system configuration and to compensate the tuning linearity of the laser source. The need of widely tunable laser limits the practical application of the FMCW laser ranging for precision industrial measurement. Splicing sampled signal method is proposed to break though the tuning range of the laser source limitation against the special resolution. In the experiments, 50 μm range resolution at 8.7 m is demonstrated, and this resolution is maintained over the entire measuring range. The measuring range depending on the power and coherence length of the source can reach more than 20 m. The system structure is simple, and the requirement on the tuning range of laser source is reduced in this system.

  4. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  5. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  6. Spatial Release From Masking in Simulated Cochlear Implant Users With and Without Access to Low-Frequency Acoustic Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Mathias; Hohmann, Volker; Jürgens, Tim

    2015-01-01

    For normal-hearing listeners, speech intelligibility improves if speech and noise are spatially separated. While this spatial release from masking has already been quantified in normal-hearing listeners in many studies, it is less clear how spatial release from masking changes in cochlear implant listeners with and without access to low-frequency acoustic hearing. Spatial release from masking depends on differences in access to speech cues due to hearing status and hearing device. To investigate the influence of these factors on speech intelligibility, the present study measured speech reception thresholds in spatially separated speech and noise for 10 different listener types. A vocoder was used to simulate cochlear implant processing and low-frequency filtering was used to simulate residual low-frequency hearing. These forms of processing were combined to simulate cochlear implant listening, listening based on low-frequency residual hearing, and combinations thereof. Simulated cochlear implant users with additional low-frequency acoustic hearing showed better speech intelligibility in noise than simulated cochlear implant users without acoustic hearing and had access to more spatial speech cues (e.g., higher binaural squelch). Cochlear implant listener types showed higher spatial release from masking with bilateral access to low-frequency acoustic hearing than without. A binaural speech intelligibility model with normal binaural processing showed overall good agreement with measured speech reception thresholds, spatial release from masking, and spatial speech cues. This indicates that differences in speech cues available to listener types are sufficient to explain the changes of spatial release from masking across these simulated listener types. PMID:26721918

  7. 3D numerical simulation of the long range propagation of acoustical shock waves through a heterogeneous and moving medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François

    2015-10-01

    Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D

  8. 3D numerical simulation of the long range propagation of acoustical shock waves through a heterogeneous and moving medium

    SciTech Connect

    Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François

    2015-10-28

    Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D

  9. Acoustic and perceptual effects of overall F0 range in a lexical pitch accent distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Travis

    2002-05-01

    A speaker's overall fundamental frequency range is generally considered a variable, nonlinguistic element of intonation. This study examined the precision with which overall F0 is predictable based on previous intonational context and the extent to which it may be perceptually significant. Speakers of Tokyo Japanese produced pairs of sentences differing lexically only in the presence or absence of a single pitch accent as responses to visual and prerecorded speech cues presented in an interactive manner. F0 placement of high tones (previously observed to be relatively variable in pitch contours) was found to be consistent across speakers and uniformly dependent on the intonation of the different sentences used as cues. In a subsequent perception experiment, continuous manipulation of these same sentences between typical accented and typical non-accent-containing versions were presented to Japanese listeners for lexical identification. Results showed that listeners' perception was not significantly altered in compensation for artificial manipulation of preceding intonation. Implications are discussed within an autosegmental analysis of tone. The current results are consistent with the notion that pitch range (i.e., specific vertical locations of tonal peaks) does not simply vary gradiently across speakers and situations but constitutes a predictable part of the phonetic specification of tones.

  10. Evaluation of a scale-model experiment to investigate long-range acoustic propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Mcaninch, Gerry L.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.

    1987-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a scale-model experiment situated in an anechoic facility to investigate long-range sound propagation over ground terrain. For a nominal scale factor of 100:1, attenuations along a linear array of six microphones colinear with a continuous-wave type of sound source were measured over a wavelength range from 10 to 160 for a nominal test frequency of 10 kHz. Most tests were made for a hard model surface (plywood), but limited tests were also made for a soft model surface (plywood with felt). For grazing-incidence propagation over the hard surface, measured and predicted attenuation trends were consistent for microphone locations out to between 40 and 80 wavelengths. Beyond 80 wavelengths, significant variability was observed that was caused by disturbances in the propagation medium. Also, there was evidence of extraneous propagation-path contributions to data irregularities at more remote microphones. Sensitivity studies for the hard-surface and microphone indicated a 2.5 dB change in the relative excess attenuation for a systematic error in source and microphone elevations on the order of 1 mm. For the soft-surface model, no comparable sensitivity was found.

  11. Passive acoustic telemetry reveals highly variable home range and movement patterns among unicornfish within a marine reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshell, A.; Mills, J. S.; Rhodes, K. L.; McIlwain, J.

    2011-09-01

    Marine reserves are the primary management tool for Guam's reef fish fishery. While a build-up of fish biomass has occurred inside reserve boundaries, it is unknown whether reserve size matches the scale of movement of target species. Using passive acoustic telemetry, we quantified movement patterns and home range size of two heavily exploited unicornfish Naso unicornis and Naso lituratus. Fifteen fish ( N. unicornis: n = 7; N. lituratus: n = 4 male, n = 4 female) were fitted with internal acoustic tags and tracked continuously over four months within a remote acoustic receiver array located in a decade-old marine reserve. This approach provided robust estimates of unicornfish movement patterns and home range size. The mean home range of 3.2 ha for N. unicornis was almost ten times larger than that previously recorded from a three-week tracking study of the species in Hawaii. While N. lituratus were smaller in body size, their mean home range (6.8 ha) was over twice that of N. unicornis. Both species displayed strong site fidelity, particularly during nocturnal and crepuscular periods. Although there was some overlap, individual movement patterns and home range size were highly variable within species and between sexes. N. unicornis home range increased with body size, and only the three largest fish home ranges extended into the deeper outer reef slope beyond the shallow reef flat. Both Naso species favoured habitat dominated by corals. Some individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations or habitat types. There was no evidence of significant spillover from the marine reserve into adjacent fished areas. Strong site fidelity coupled with negligible spillover suggests that small-scale reserves, with natural habitat boundaries to emigration, are effective in protecting localized unicornfish populations.

  12. Evidence of Increasing Acoustic Emissivity at High Frequency with Solar Cycle 23 in Sun-as-a-star Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Simoniello, R.; Finsterle, W.

    2009-09-16

    We used long high-quality unresolved (Sun-as-a-star observations) data collected by GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite to investigate the amplitude variation with solar cycle 23 in the high-frequency band (5.7<{nu}<6.3 mHz). We found an enhancement of acoustic emissivity over the ascending phase of about 18{+-}3 in velocity observations and a slight enhancement of 3{+-}2 in intensity. Mode conversion from fast acoustic to fast magneto-acoustic waves could explain the enhancement in velocity observations. These findings open up the possibility to apply the same technique to stellar intensity data, in order to investigate stellar-magnetic activity.

  13. Simulation of polarizer based on chiral medium for terahertz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolenko, S. Yu; Grebenchukov, A. N.; Masyukov, M. S.; Vozianova, A. V.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2016-08-01

    The work is devoted to development of the polarizer for terahertz frequency range. Chiral medium was simulated using the software package CST Microwave Studio by the method of Finite-Differences in Frequency Domain. The influence of geometry of chiral unit cell on the polarization of incident plane wave was investigated.

  14. Vibroacoustics of the piano soundboard: (Non)linearity and modal properties in the low- and mid-frequency ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ege, Kerem; Boutillon, Xavier; Rébillat, Marc

    2013-03-01

    The piano soundboard transforms the string vibration into sound and therefore, its vibrations are of primary importance for the sound characteristics of the instrument. An original vibro-acoustical method is presented to isolate the soundboard nonlinearity from that of the exciting device (here: a loudspeaker) and to measure it. The nonlinear part of the soundboard response to an external excitation is quantitatively estimated for the first time, at ≈-40 dB below the linear part at the ff nuance. Given this essentially linear response, a modal identification is performed up to 3 kHz by means of a novel high resolution modal analysis technique [K. Ege, X. Boutillon, B. David, High-resolution modal analysis, Journal of Sound and Vibration 325 (4-5) (2009) 852-869]. Modal dampings (which, so far, were unknown for the piano in this frequency range) are determined in the mid-frequency domain where FFT-based methods fail to evaluate them with an acceptable precision. They turn out to be close to those imposed by wood. A finite-element modelling of the soundboard is also presented. The low-order modal shapes and the comparison between the corresponding experimental and numerical modal frequencies suggest that the boundary conditions can be considered as blocked, except at very low frequencies. The frequency-dependency of the estimated modal densities and the observation of modal shapes reveal two well-separated regimes. Below ≈1 kHz, the soundboard vibrates more or less like a homogeneous plate. Above that limit, the structural waves are confined by ribs, as already noticed by several authors, and localised in restricted areas (one or a few inter-rib spaces), presumably due to a slightly irregular spacing of the ribs across the soundboard.

  15. Multipath Effects on High-Frequency Coherent Acoustic Communications in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Kim, Hyeonsu; Joo, Jongmin; Choi, Jee Woong

    2013-07-01

    Shallow-water acoustic communication channel, referred to as a multipath-limited channel, produces inter-symbol interference that poses a significant obstacle to reliable communication. Accordingly, signal-to-multipath ratio (SMR), rather than signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), becomes an important factor affecting communication performance. However, it is difficult to estimate SMR from measured communication data, especially at higher frequency (>10 kHz) because many arrivals scattered from rough ocean boundaries produce a significant intrapath time spreading, which acts as random noise in communication. In this paper, the energy fraction of the channel impulse response existing in one symbol duration is proposed as a parameter for estimating the quality of shallow-water communication channels. This parameter is compared with the bit-error-rate performance for data acquired in shallow water off the south coast of Korea, where the water depth is 45 m and the bottom consists of sandy clay sediment. The results imply that the energy fraction in one symbol duration may be used as a parameter for describing shallow-water communication channels and applied to the quick decision of a symbol or bit rate in a shallow-water field for reliable underwater communication.

  16. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  17. High-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging for precision distance metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guang; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Meng, Xiangsong

    2014-12-01

    Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) laser ranging is one of the most interesting techniques for precision distance metrology. In order to ensure the theoretical measurement range and precision, a narrow linewidth external cavity tunable laser with large tuning range is chosen. In practical situations, the tuning nonlinearity of the laser reduces the measurement precision, hence an auxiliary interferometer is used to measure the laser tuning rate and linearize the frequency ramp. Then, fast Fourier transform algorithm is applied to the resampled signal of the main interferometer, and the full-width at half maximum of the frequency spectrum is narrowed. In the end, the experiments are carried out using the FMCW laser ranging system and demonstrate 50-μm range resolution at 8.7 m.

  18. Acoustic and Perceptual Measurement of Expressive Prosody in High-Functioning Autism: Increased Pitch Range and What it Means to Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadig, Aparna; Shaw, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Are there consistent markers of atypical prosody in speakers with high functioning autism (HFA) compared to typically-developing speakers? We examined: (1) acoustic measurements of pitch range, mean pitch and speech rate in conversation, (2) perceptual ratings of conversation for these features and overall prosody, and (3) acoustic measurements of…

  19. Full-range imaging of eye accommodation by high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Satoh, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Reiko; Choi, Donghak; Nakanishi, Motoi; Igarashi, Akihito; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Kohji; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system employing a long-coherence length tunable source and demonstrate dynamic full-range imaging of the anterior segment of the eye including from the cornea surface to the posterior capsule of the crystalline lens with a depth range of 12 mm without removing complex conjugate image ambiguity. The tunable source spanned from 1260 to 1360 nm with an average output power of 15.8 mW. The fast A-scan rate of 20,000 per second provided dynamic OFDI and dependence of the whole anterior segment change on time following abrupt relaxation from the accommodated to the relaxed status, which was measured for a healthy eye and that with an intraocular lens. PMID:21258564

  20. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  1. Dielectric response of transformer oil based ferrofluid in low frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajnak, M.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Marton, K.; Tomco, L.; Taculescu, A.; Vekas, L.; Kovac, J.; Vavra, I.; Tothova, J.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this article, our experimental study of the dynamic dielectric behaviour of transformer oil-based ferrofluid with magnetite nanoparticles is presented. Frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and dissipation factor were measured within the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz by a capacitance method. The ferrofluid samples were placed in a liquid crystal cell, and experiments were carried out in an electromagnetically anechoic chamber. Two polarization processes and corresponding relaxations were revealed within the applied frequency range. Schwarz theory of electric double layer polarization is used to explain the low frequency relaxation maximum. Moreover, the shift of the maximum position towards higher frequencies is observed as the magnetic volume fraction in the ferrofluid increases. The related decrease in relaxation time due to higher counterion mobility is analysed. Reduced electric field intensity due to depolarization field, which is dependent on the particle concentration, is proposed as the reason for the maxima shift. This assumption is wholly supported by a complementary experiment.

  2. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (<2000 Hz) acoustic methods for medical diagnosis. Several candidate methods of pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (p<0.0001). The ratio of acoustic energy between low (<220 Hz) and mid (550-770 Hz) frequency bands was significantly different in the control (healthy) and pneumothorax states (p<0.0001). The second approach measured breath sounds in the absence of an external acoustic input. Pneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (p<0.01 for each). Finally, chest percussion was implemented. Pneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  3. Development of Acceleration Sensor and Acceleration Evaluation System for Super-Low-Range Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shogo; Matsumoto, Hideki

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes the development process for acceleration sensors used on automobiles and an acceleration evaluation system designed specifically for acceleration at super-low-range frequencies. The features of the newly developed sensor are as follows. 1) Original piezo-bimorph design based on a disc-center-fixed structure achieves pyroeffect cancelling and stabilization of sensor characteristics and enables the detection of the acceleration of 0.0009 G at the super-low-range-frequency of 0.03 Hz. 2) The addition of a self-diagnostic function utilizing the characteristics of piezoceramics enables constant monitoring of sensor failure. The frequency range of acceleration for accurate vehicle motion control is considered to be from DC to about 50 Hz. However, the measurement of acceleration in the super-low-range frequency near DC has been difficult because of mechanical and electrical noise interruption. This has delayed the development of the acceleration sensor for automotive use. We have succeeded in the development of an acceleration evaluation system for super-low-range frequencies from 0.015 Hz to 2 Hz with detection of the acceleration range from 0.0002 G (0.2 gal) to 1 G, as well as the development of a piezoelectric-type acceleration sensor for automotive use.

  4. Numerical analysis of radio-frequency sheath-plasma interactions in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kohno, H.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2012-01-15

    A new finite element numerical scheme for analyzing self-consistent radio-frequency (RF) sheath-plasma interaction problems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is applied to various problems represented by simplified models for the tokamak scrape-off layer. The present code incorporates a modified boundary condition, which is called a sheath boundary condition, that couples the radio-frequency waves and sheaths at the material boundaries by treating the sheath as a thin vacuum layer. A series of numerical analyses in one- and two-dimensional domains show several important physical properties, such as the existence of multiple roots, hysteresis effects, presence and characteristics of the sheath-plasma waves, and the phase shift of a reflected slow wave, some of which are newly identified by introducing a spatially varying plasma density and background magnetic field.

  5. Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Andrews, Mark; Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Patel, Ruben; Jech, J Michael; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300-1200 Hz range using (1) a low-frequency ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) system, (2) areal population density calibration with several conventional fish finding sonar (CFFS) systems, and (3) low-frequency transmission loss measurements. The OAWRS system's instantaneous imaging diameter of 100 km and regular updating enabled unaliased monitoring of fish populations over ecosystem scales including shoals of Atlantic herring containing hundreds of millions of individuals, as confirmed by concurrent trawl and CFFS sampling. High spatial-temporal coregistration was found between herring shoals imaged by OAWRS and concurrent CFFS line-transects, which also provided fish depth distributions. The mean scattering cross-section of an individual shoaling herring is found to consistently exhibit a strong, roughly 20 dB/octave roll-off with decreasing frequency in the range of the OAWRS survey over all days of the roughly 2-week experiment, consistent with the steep roll-offs expected for sub-resonance scattering from fish with air-filled swimbladders.

  6. Passive probing of the sound fixing and ranging channel with hydro-acoustic observations from ridge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Evers, Läslo G; Snellen, Mirjam

    2015-04-01

    The International Monitoring System includes a hydro-acoustic part to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Besides explosive signals, monitoring stations also detect acoustic waves from earthquakes that travel through the SOund Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel. The travel times of such detections are listed in the Reviewed Event Bulletin, which is statistically evaluated for the stations located in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. The celerities of ridge earthquakes are calculated to build up a homogeneous data-set, based on similar source mechanisms. The celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the travel time. The global characteristics of these celerities can be well understood in terms of temperature variations in the SOFAR channel. A detailed velocity profile has been retrieved for the Atlantic Ocean where large differences (14 m/s) are found between the southern and northern parts of the basin. Propagation modeling with normal modes supports these findings, which shows that the celerity gives an estimate of the sound speed in the SOFAR channel. These results compare remarkably well with those from active experiments, showing the ability of passively probing the SOFAR channel with hydro-acoustic waves from earthquake sources.

  7. Passive probing of the sound fixing and ranging channel with hydro-acoustic observations from ridge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Evers, Läslo G; Snellen, Mirjam

    2015-04-01

    The International Monitoring System includes a hydro-acoustic part to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Besides explosive signals, monitoring stations also detect acoustic waves from earthquakes that travel through the SOund Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel. The travel times of such detections are listed in the Reviewed Event Bulletin, which is statistically evaluated for the stations located in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. The celerities of ridge earthquakes are calculated to build up a homogeneous data-set, based on similar source mechanisms. The celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the travel time. The global characteristics of these celerities can be well understood in terms of temperature variations in the SOFAR channel. A detailed velocity profile has been retrieved for the Atlantic Ocean where large differences (14 m/s) are found between the southern and northern parts of the basin. Propagation modeling with normal modes supports these findings, which shows that the celerity gives an estimate of the sound speed in the SOFAR channel. These results compare remarkably well with those from active experiments, showing the ability of passively probing the SOFAR channel with hydro-acoustic waves from earthquake sources. PMID:25920862

  8. Combination of spatial diversity and parallel decision feedback equalizer in a Single Input Multiple Output underwater acoustic communication system operating at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoro Kaskarovska, Violeta; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) acoustic communication system using an adaptive spatial diversity combined with parallel Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) is presented in this document. The SIMO system operates at high frequencies with high data rate over a limited range (less than 200 m) in very shallow waters. The SIMO system consists of a single source transmitting Phase Shift Keying (PSK) messages modulated at 300 kHz and received by multiple receivers. In a first configuration, the symbols collected at each receiver are equalized using a decision feedback equalizer and combined using Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC). In a second configuration, the MRC outputs are used as decision symbols in the DFE. This second configuration is a form of turbo equalization: the process can be repeated over and over, leading to a better estimate of the received message as the number of iterations increases. The adaptive process of diversity is repeated until the best possible result is achieved or a predefined error criterion is met. Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise-and-Interference Ratio (SNIR) are used as performance metrics of the acoustic channel. Experimental results using SIMO system with three, four or five receivers and pre-processed real recorded data demonstrate ability to improve the performance of the acoustic channel in challenging environments. Using received messages with non-zero BER, adaptive spatial diversity can achieve BER of 0% and increased SNIR of 3 dB with number of iterations depending on the number of receivers used.

  9. Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

  10. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  11. Relationship Between Distortion Product – Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) and High-Frequency Acoustic Immittance Measures

    PubMed Central

    De Paula Campos, Ualace; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Śliwa, Lech K.; Skarżyński, Piotr H.; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W.; Skarżyński, Henryk; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathologies that alter the impedance of the middle ear may consequently modify the DPOAE amplitude. The aim of this study was to correlate information from 2 different clinical procedures assessing middle ear status. Data from DPOAE responses (both DP-Gram and DP I/O functions) were correlated with data from multi-component tympanometry at 1000 Hz. Material/Methods The subjects were divided into a double-peak group (DPG) and a single-peak group (SPG) depending on 1000 Hz tympanogram pattern. Exclusion criteria (described in the Methods section) were applied to both groups and finally only 31 ears were assigned to each group. The subjects were also assessed with traditional tympanometry and behavioral audiometry. Results Compared to the single-peak group, in terms of the 226 Hz tympanometry data, subjects in the DPG group presented: (i) higher values of ear canal volume; (ii) higher peak pressure, and (iii) significantly higher values of acoustic admittance. DPOAE amplitudes were lower in the DPG group only at 6006 Hz, but the difference in amplitude between the DPG and SPG groups decreased as the frequency increased. Statistical differences were observed only at 1001 Hz and a borderline difference at 1501 Hz. In terms of DPOAE I/O functions, significant differences were observed only in 4 of the 50 tested points. Conclusions The 1000-Hz tympanometric pattern significantly affects the structure of DPOAE responses only at 1001 Hz. In this context, changes in the properties of the middle ear (as detected by the 1000 Hz tympanometry) can be considered as prime candidates for the observed variability in the DP-grams and the DP I/O functions. PMID:27299792

  12. Coupling of Helmholtz resonators to improve acoustic liners for turbofan engines at low frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted to evaluate means for increasing the effectiveness of low frequency sound absorbing liners for aircraft turbine engines. Three schemes for coupling low frequency absorber elements were considered. These schemes were analytically modeled and their impedance was predicted over a frequency range of 50 to 1,000 Hz. An optimum and two off-optimum designs of the most promising, a parallel coupled scheme, were fabricated and tested in a flow duct facility. Impedance measurements were in good agreement with predicted values and validated the procedure used to transform modeled parameters to hardware designs. Measurements of attenuation for panels of coupled resonators were consistent with predictions based on measured impedance. All coupled resonator panels tested showed an increase in peak attenuation of about 50% and an increase in attenuation bandwidth of one one-third octave band over that measured for an uncoupled panel. These attenuation characteristics equate to about 35% greater reduction in source perceived noise level (PNL), relative to the uncoupled panel, or a reduction in treatment length of about 24% for constant PNL reduction. The increased effectiveness of the coupled resonator concept for attenuation of low frequency broad spectrum noise is demonstrated.

  13. Strong Destabilization of Stable Modes with a Half-Frequency Associated with Chirping Geodesic Acoustic Modes in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Osakabe, M.; Lesur, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Toi, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt and strong excitation of a mode has been observed when the frequency of a chirping energetic-particle driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) reaches twice the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency. The frequency of the secondary mode is the GAM frequency, which is a half-frequency of the primary EGAM. Based on the analysis of spatial structures, the secondary mode is identified as a GAM. The phase relation between the secondary mode and the primary EGAM is locked, and the evolution of the growth rate of the secondary mode indicates nonlinear excitation. The results suggest that the primary mode (EGAM) contributes to nonlinear destabilization of a subcritical mode.

  14. Ultrawideband temperature-dependent dielectric properties of animal liver tissue in the microwave frequency range.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Converse, Mark C; Booske, John H; Hagness, Susan C

    2006-04-01

    The development of ultrawideband (UWB) microwave diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, such as UWB microwave breast cancer detection and hyperthermia treatment, is facilitated by accurate knowledge of the temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of biological tissues. To this end, we characterize the temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a representative tissue type-animal liver-from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Since discrete-frequency linear temperature coefficients are impractical and inappropriate for applications spanning wide frequency and temperature ranges, we propose a novel and compact data representation technique. A single-pole Cole-Cole model is used to fit the dielectric properties data as a function of frequency, and a second-order polynomial is used to fit the Cole-Cole parameters as a function of temperature. This approach permits rapid estimation of tissue dielectric properties at any temperature and frequency.

  15. Leg stiffness of older and younger individuals over a range of hopping frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiichi; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare spring-mass behavior between older and younger individuals at a range of hopping frequencies. A total of 14 elderly and 14 young subjects performed in-place hopping in time with a metronome at frequencies of 2.2, 2.6, and 3.0 Hz. Using a spring-mass model, leg stiffness was calculated as the ratio of maximum ground reaction force to maximum center of mass displacement at the middle of the stance phase during ground contact. The lower extremities of both groups behaved like a simple spring-mass system at all three hopping frequencies. Further, statistical analysis revealed the existence of a significant interaction between hopping frequency and age group on leg stiffness. These results suggest that the sensitivity of leg stiffness to accommodate for variations in hopping frequency is likely to differ between elderly and young individuals. PMID:25716326

  16. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, S. E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com; Poornima,; Dasgupta, K.; Mishra, S.; Behera, R.

    2015-06-15

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  17. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S; Mishra, S; Behera, R; Poornima; Dasgupta, K

    2015-06-01

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz(1/2) @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity. PMID:26133825

  18. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S; Mishra, S; Behera, R; Poornima; Dasgupta, K

    2015-06-01

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz(1/2) @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  19. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  20. Leg stiffness adjustment for a range of hopping frequencies in humans.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Inoue, Koh; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Omuro, Kohei; Sakamoto, Masanori; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans adjust leg stiffness over a range of hopping frequencies. Ten male subjects performed in place hopping on two legs, at three frequencies (1.5, 2.2, and 3.0Hz). Leg stiffness, joint stiffness and touchdown joint angles were calculated from kinetic and/or kinematics data. Electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded from six leg muscles. Leg stiffness increased with an increase in hopping frequency. Hip and knee stiffnesses were significantly greater at 3.0Hz than at 1.5Hz. There was no significant difference in ankle stiffness among the three hopping frequencies. Although there were significant differences in EMG activity among the three hopping frequencies, the largest was the 1.5Hz, followed by the 2.2Hz and then 3.0Hz. The subjects landed with a straighter leg (both hip and knee were extended more) with increased hopping frequency. These results suggest that over the range of hopping frequencies we evaluated, humans adjust leg stiffness by altering hip and knee stiffness. This is accomplished by extending the touchdown joint angles rather than by altering neural activity.

  1. Spatial Correlation of the Low-Frequency Acoustic Reverberation in Oceanic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raevsky, M. A.; Khil'ko, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze spatial correlations of the surface reverberation in a plane-layered acoustic channel. The horizontal correlation function of the wind reverberation for the developed waves with an isotropic spectrum is theoretically studied within the framework of the mode representation of an acoustic field. The correlation function of monostatic reverberation is shown to have a universal form, while in the case of a bistatic radiation regime, the characteristic correlation scale of the reverberation significantly depends on its delay time.

  2. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  3. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  4. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy Investigation of Frequency-Dependent Reflectance of Acid-Etched Human Dentin Using Homotopic Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marangos, Orestes; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette; Katz, J. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Composite restorations in modern restorative dentistry rely on the bond formed in the adhesive-infiltrated acid-etched dentin. The physical characteristics of etched dentin are, therefore, of paramount interest. However, characterization of the acid-etched zone in its natural state is fraught with problems stemming from a variety of sources including its narrow size, the presence of water, heterogeneity, and spatial scale dependency. We have developed a novel homotopic (same location) measurement methodology utilizing scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Homotopic measurements with SAM overcome the problems encountered by other characterization/ imaging methods. These measurements provide us with acoustic reflectance at the same location of both the pre- and post-etched dentin in its natural state. We have applied this methodology for in vitro measurements on dentin samples. Fourier spectra from acid-etched dentin showed amplitude reduction and shifts of the central frequency that were location dependent. Through calibration, the acoustic reflectance of acid-etched dentin was found to have complex and non-monotonic frequency dependence. These data suggest that acid-etching of dentin results in a near-surface graded layer of varying thickness and property gradations. The measurement methodology described in this paper can be applied to systematically characterize mechanical properties of heterogeneous soft layers and interfaces in biological materials. PMID:21429849

  5. Absolute frequency measurement for the emission transitions of molecular iodine in the 982 - 985 nm range

    SciTech Connect

    Matyugin, Yu A; Ignatovich, S M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Nesterenko, M I; Okhapkin, M V; Pivtsov, V S; Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Bagaev, Sergei N

    2012-03-31

    We report high-precision frequency measurements of the separate hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the emission B - X system transitions of {sup 127}I{sub 2} molecules in the 982 - 985 nm range. To resolve the HFS of the emission lines, advantage was taken of the method of three-level laser spectroscopy. The function of exciting radiation was fulfilled by the second harmonic of a cw Nd : YAG laser, and the probe radiation in the 968 - 998 nm range was generated by an external-cavity diode laser. The output Nd : YAG laser frequency was locked to an HFS component of the absorption transition and the probing laser radiation to the emission transition component. When both frequencies were locked to HFS components with a common upper level, the output diode laser frequency was precisely equal to the emission transition frequency. The output frequency of the thus stabilised diode laser was measured with the help of a femtosecond optical frequency synthesiser based on a Ti : sapphire laser. We present the results of the absolute frequency measurements of 20 HFS components belonging to six vibrational - rotational transitions of the B - X system of iodine [R56(32 - 48)a1, P58(32 - 48)a1, P85(33 - 48)a1, R87(33 - 48a1, R88(33 - 48)a10] and all 15 components of the R86(33 - 48) line. The relative measurement uncertainty is equal to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and is determined by the frequency instability of the diode laser radiation.

  6. On radio frequency current drive in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in DEMO and large ignited plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Marco; Bilato, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    To explore the possibility of efficient fast wave current drive in an ignited plasma in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequency in spite of competition from absorption by ions, we have added to the full-wave toroidal code TORIC a set of subroutines which evaluate absorption by these particles at IC harmonic resonances, using a realistic ‘slowing-down’ distribution function, and taking into account that their Larmor radius is comparable or even larger than the fast wave wavelength. The thermalized population of α-particles is not a serious competitor for power absorption as long as their number density is compatible with maintenance of ignition. By contrast, the energetic slowing down fraction, in spite of its even greater dilution, can absorb from the waves a substantial amount of power at the cyclotron resonance and its harmonics. An extensive exploration both in frequency and in toroidal wavenumbers using the parameters of one of the European versions of DEMO shows that three frequency windows exist in which damping is nevertheless predominantly on the electrons. Designing an antenna capable of shaping the launched spectrum to optimize current drive, however, will not be straightforward. Only in a narrow range when the first IC harmonic of tritium is deep inside the plasma on the high-field side of the magnetic axis, and that of deuterium and helium is still outside on the low-field side, it appears possible to achieve a satisfactory current drive efficiency with a conventional multi-strap antenna, preferentially located in the upper part of the vessel. Exploiting the other two windows at quite low and quite high frequencies is either impossible on first principles, or will demand novel ideas in antenna design.

  7. Changing the average frequency of contact calls is associated with changes in other acoustic parameters in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanski, Michael; Dooling, Robert

    2001-05-01

    The most-often produced vocalization of the budgerigar, a small parrot native to Australia, is the short (100-150 ms) frequency-modulated contact call. These calls play a role in maintaining flock dynamics and are believed to act as vocal signatures in these birds. Previous findings in our lab have shown that budgerigars can control the intensity of their vocal behavior and exhibit a robust Lombard effect (Manabe et al., 1998). Recently, we have shown that there is a high degree of stereotypy in contact calls across a number of acoustic parameters (Osmanski and Dooling, 2004). Questions arise concerning the limits of plasticity in these calls and the relation or interdependence among the various parameters. As a first approach to answering these questions, four budgerigars were trained using operant conditioning methods to change the average peak frequency of their contact calls (both upward and downward in frequency) to obtain access to a food reward. Results show that these birds can both increase and decrease the average frequency of their contact calls. Such changes are associated with modifications in a number of other acoustic parameters, suggesting constraints on vocal plasticity. [Work supported by NIH DC-00198 to RJD and NIDCD Training Grant DC-00046.

  8. A wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alser, Mohammed H.; Assaad, Maher M.; Hussin, Fawnizu A.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, an FPGA-based design and implementation of a fully digital wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter is presented. The advantages of the proposed architecture are that, it simultaneously generates a high frequency signal from a low frequency reference signal (i.e. synthesising), and synchronising the two signals (signals have the same phase, or a constant difference) without jitter accumulation issue. The architecture is portable and can be easily implemented for various platforms, such as FPGAs and integrated circuits. The frequency synthesizer circuit can be used as a part of SERDES devices in intra/inter chip communication in system-on-chip (SoC). The proposed circuit is designed using Verilog language and synthesized for the Altera DE2-70 development board, with the Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on board. Simulation and experimental results are included; they prove the synthesizing and tracking features of the proposed architecture. The generated clock signal frequency of a range from 19.8 MHz to 440 MHz is synchronized to the input reference clock with a frequency step of 0.12 MHz.

  9. Rolling estimations of long range dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long range dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.

  10. A Study of Acoustic Reflections in Full-Scale Rotor Low Frequency Noise Measurements Acquired in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha L.; Sim, Ben W.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Goulding, Pat, II

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining full-scale rotor low frequency noise measurements in wind tunnels are addressed via residual sound reflections due to non-ideal anechoic wall treatments. Examples illustrated with the Boeing-SMART rotor test in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel facility demonstrated that these reflections introduced distortions in the measured acoustic time histories that are not representative of free-field rotor noise radiation. A simplified reflection analysis, based on the method of images, is used to examine the sound measurement quality in such "less-than-anechoic" environment. Predictions of reflection-adjusted acoustic time histories are qualitatively shown to account for some of the spurious fluctuations observed in wind tunnel noise measurements

  11. Parameterizing both path amplitude and delay variations of underwater acoustic channels for block decoding of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoka; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Shengli; Wan, Lei

    2012-06-01

    There are no commonly-agreed mathematical models for the input-output relationship of underwater acoustic channels. For each path in a time-varying multipath channel within a short period of time (e.g., one short data block), this paper proposes to use one polynomial to approximate the amplitude variation and another polynomial up to the first order to approximate the delay variation within a block duration. Under such a channel parameterization, the discrete-time channel input- output relationship tailored to zero-padded orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions is then derived, based on which an OFDM receiver is validated using experimental data collected during the 2008 Surface Processes and Acoustic Communications Experiment. For channels with a short coherence time, the numerical results show that incorporating both the amplitude and delay variations improves the system performance.

  12. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  13. Computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizos, G.; Niarchos, D.

    2014-07-01

    A computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range is described. It is a system built on a PXI platform combining PXI modules for control signal generation and data acquisition. The physiscal signals are digitized and the respective data strems are processed, presented and recorded in LabVIEW 7.0.

  14. Obtaining eigensolutions for multiple frequency ranges in a single NASTRAN execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Brown, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A novel and general procedure for obtaining eigenvalues and eigenvectors for multiple frequency ranges in a single NASTRAN execution is presented. The scheme is applicable to normal modes analyzes employing the FEER and Inverse Power methods of eigenvalue extraction. The procedure is illustrated by examples.

  15. Semiannual Status Report. [excitation of electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the last six months, we have continued our study of the excitation of electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range and the role that these waves will play in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral region. A paper entitled 'Electron Beam Excitation of Upstream Waves in the Whistler Mode Frequency Range' was listed in the Journal of Geophysical Research. In this paper, we have shown that an anisotropic electron beam (or gyrating electron beam) is capable of generating both left-hand and right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range. Since right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves can interact with background electrons and left-hand polarized waves can interact with background ions through cyclotron resonance, it is possible that these beam generated left-hand and right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves can accelerate either ions or electrons (or both), depending on the physical parameters under consideration. We are currently carrying out a comprehensive study of the electromagnetic whistler and lower hybrid like waves observed in the auroral zone using both wave and particle data. Our first task is to identify these wave modes and compare it with particle observations. Using both the DE-1 particle and wave measurements, we can positively identify those electromagnetics lower hybrid like waves as fast magnetosonic waves and the upper cutoff of these waves is the local lower hybrid frequency. From the upper cutoff of the frequency spectrum, one can infer the particle density and the result is in very good agreement with the particle data. Since these electromagnetic lower hybrid like waves can have frequencies extended down to the local ion cyclotron frequency, it practically confirms that they are not whistler waves.

  16. Acoustic characterization of contrast-to-tissue ratio and axial resolution for dual-frequency contrast-specific acoustic angiography imaging.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Rojas, Juan D; Martin, K Heath; Shelton, Sarah E; Dayton, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Recently, dual-frequency transducers have enabled high-spatial-resolution and high-contrast imaging of vasculature with minimal tissue artifacts by transmitting at a low frequency and receiving broadband superharmonic echoes scattered by microbubble contrast agents. In this work, we examine the imaging parameters for optimizing contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) for dual-frequency imaging and the relationship with spatial resolution. Confocal piston transducers are used in a water bath setup to measure the SNR, CTR, and axial resolution for ultrasound imaging of nonlinear scattering of microbubble contrast agents when transmitting at a lower frequency (1.5 to 8 MHz) and receiving at a higher frequency (7.5 to 25 MHz). Parameters varied include the frequency and peak negative pressure of transmitted waves, center frequency of the receiving transducer, microbubble concentration, and microbubble size. CTR is maximized at the lowest transmission frequencies but would be acceptable for imaging in the 1.5 to 3.5 MHz range. At these frequencies, CTR is optimized when a receiving transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz is used, with the maximum CTR of 25.5 dB occurring when transmitting at 1.5 MHz with a peak negative pressure of 1600 kPa and receiving with a center frequency of 10 MHz. Axial resolution is influenced more heavily by the receiving center frequency, with a weak decrease in measured pulse lengths associated with increasing transmit frequency. A microbubble population containing predominately 4-μm-diameter bubbles yielded the greatest CTR, followed by 1- and then 2-μm bubbles. Varying concentration showed little effect over the tested parameters. CTR dependence on transmit frequency and peak pressure were confirmed through in vivo imaging in two rodents. These findings may lead to improved imaging of vascular remodeling in superficial or luminal cancers such as those of the breast, prostate, and colon. PMID:25265176

  17. An Alternative Realization of Gauss-Newton for Frequency-Domain Acoustic Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chi, B.; Dong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since FWI was studied under the least-square misfit optimization proposed by Tarantola (1984) in time domain, it has been greatly improved by many researchers. Pratt (1998) developed FWI in frequency domain using a Gauss-Newton optimization. In recent years, FWI has been widely studied under the framework of adjoint-state methods, as summarized by Plessix (2006). Preconditioning and high order gradients are important for FWI. Many researches have focused on the Newton optimization, in which the calculation of inverse Hessian is the key problem. Pseudo Hessian such as the diagonal Hessian was firstly used to approximate inverse Hessian (Choi & Shin, 2007). Then Gauss-Newton or l-BFGS method was widely studied to iteratively calculate the inverse approximate Hessian Haor full Hessian (Sheen et al., 2006). Full Hessian is the base of the exact Newton optimization. Fichtner and Trampert (2011) presented an extension of the adjoint-state method to directly compute the full Hessian; Métivier et al. (2012) proposed a general second-order adjoint-state formula for Hessian-vector product to tackle Gauss-Newton and exact Newton. Liu et al. (2014) proposed a matrix-decomposition FWI (MDFWI) based on Born kernel. They used the Born Fréchet kernel to explicitly calculate the gradient of the objective function through matrix decomposition, no full Fréchet kernel being stored in memory beforehand. However, they didn't give a method to calculate the Gauss-Newton. In this paper, We propose a method based on Born Fréchet kernel to calculate the Gauss-Newton for acoustic full waveform inversion (FWI). The Gauss-Newton is iteratively constructed without needing to store the huge approximate Hessian (Ha) or Fréchet kernel beforehand, and the inverse of Ha is not need to be calculated either. This procedure can be efficiently accomplished through matrix decomposition. More resolved result and faster convergence are obtained when this Gauss-Newton is applied in FWI based on the Born

  18. High-frequency volume and boundary acoustic backscatter fluctuations in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Gallaudet, Timothy C; de Moustier, Christian P

    2003-08-01

    Volume and boundary acoustic backscatter envelope fluctuations are characterized from data collected by the Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS), a 68 kHz cylindrical array capable of 360 degrees multibeam imaging in the vertical plane perpendicular to its axis. The data are processed to form acoustic backscatter images of the seafloor, sea surface, and horizontal and vertical planes in the volume, which are used to attribute nonhomogeneous spatial distributions of zooplankton, fish, bubbles and bubble clouds, and multiple boundary interactions to the observed backscatter amplitude statistics. Three component Rayleigh mixture probability distribution functions (PDFs) provided the best fit to the empirical distribution functions of seafloor acoustic backscatter. Sea surface and near-surface volume acoustic backscatter PDFs are better described by Rayleigh mixture or log-normal distributions, with the high density portion of the distributions arising from boundary reverberation, and the tails arising from nonhomogeneously distributed scatterers such as bubbles, fish, and zooplankton. PDF fits to the volume and near-surface acoustic backscatter data are poor compared to PDF fits to the boundary backscatter, suggesting that these data may be better described by mixture distributions with component densities from different parametric families. For active sonar target detection, the results demonstrate that threshold detectors which assume Rayleigh distributed envelope fluctuations will experience significantly higher false alarm rates in shallow water environments which are influenced by near-surface microbubbles, aggregations of zooplankton and fish, and boundary reverberation.

  19. AC electric field induced dielectrophoretic assembly behavior of gold nanoparticles in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiyu; Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we focus on frequency-dependence of pearl chain formations (PCF) of gold nanoparticles driven by AC dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially in a low field-frequency range, where induced double-layer charging effect at ideally polarizable surfaces on particle DEP behavior and surrounding liquid motion need not be negligible. As field frequency varies, grown features of DEP assembly structures ranging from low-frequency non-bridged gap to high-frequency single gold nanoparticle-made nanowires bridging the electrodes are demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, at 10 kHz, a kind of novel channel-like structure with parallel opposing banks is formed at the center of interelectrode gap. In stark contrast, at 1 MHz, thin PCF with diameter of 100 nm is created along the shortest distance of the isolation spacing. Moreover, a particular conductive path of nanoparticle chains is produced at 1 MHz in a DEP device embedded with multiple floating electrodes. A theoretical framework taking into account field-induced double-layer polarization at both the particle/electrolyte and electrode/electrolyte interface is developed to correlate these experimental observations with induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) phenomenon. And a RC circuit model is helpful in accounting for the formation of this particular non-bridged channel-like structure induced by a low-frequency AC voltage. As compared to thin PCF formed at high field frequency that effectively short circuits the electrode pair, though it is difficult for complete PCF bridging to occur at low frequency, the non-bridged conducting microstructure has potential to further miniaturize the size of electrode gap fabricated by standard micromachining process and may find useful application in biochemical sensing.

  20. The influence of flight speed on the ranging performance of bats using frequency modulated echolocation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonman, Arjan M.; Parsons, Stuart; Jones, Gareth

    2003-01-01

    Many species of bat use ultrasonic frequency modulated (FM) pulses to measure the distance to objects by timing the emission and reception of each pulse. Echolocation is mainly used in flight. Since the flight speed of bats often exceeds 1% of the speed of sound, Doppler effects will lead to compression of the time between emission and reception as well as an elevation of the echo frequencies, resulting in a distortion of the perceived range. This paper describes the consequences of these Doppler effects on the ranging performance of bats using different pulse designs. The consequences of Doppler effects on ranging performance described in this paper assume bats to have a very accurate ranging resolution, which is feasible with a filterbank receiver. By modeling two receiver types, it was first established that the effects of Doppler compression are virtually independent of the receiver type. Then, used a cross-correlation model was used to investigate the effect of flight speed on Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling separately. This paper further shows how pulse duration, bandwidth, function type, and harmonics influence Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling. The influence of each signal parameter is illustrated using calls of several bat species. It is argued that range-Doppler coupling is a significant source of error in bat echolocation, and various strategies bats could employ to deal with this problem, including the use of range rate information are discussed.

  1. Single-carrier frequency-domain turbo equalization without cyclic prefix or zero padding for underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longbao; Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    2012-12-01

    A frequency-domain turbo equalization (FDTE) scheme without cyclic prefix (CP) or zero padding is proposed for single-carrier, multiple-input-multiple-output underwater acoustic communication. In the first iteration of the FDTE, the received continuous data stream is divided into consecutive blocks and a combined inter-block-interference (IBI) cancellation and overlapped windowing scheme is used to diagonalize each data block for low-complexity detection in the frequency domain. Since the second iteration, IBI cancellation and CP reconstruction are applied on each block to enable effective symbol detection. This work extends the authors' previous work on frequency-domain hard-decision equalization to soft-decision turbo equalization so that it not only retains high data transmission efficiency, but also improves the bit error rate performance with slightly increased complexity due to multiple iterations. Its feasibility and effectiveness have been tested by field trial data from the ACOMM09 underwater communication experiment. PMID:23231110

  2. Single-carrier frequency-domain turbo equalization without cyclic prefix or zero padding for underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longbao; Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    2012-12-01

    A frequency-domain turbo equalization (FDTE) scheme without cyclic prefix (CP) or zero padding is proposed for single-carrier, multiple-input-multiple-output underwater acoustic communication. In the first iteration of the FDTE, the received continuous data stream is divided into consecutive blocks and a combined inter-block-interference (IBI) cancellation and overlapped windowing scheme is used to diagonalize each data block for low-complexity detection in the frequency domain. Since the second iteration, IBI cancellation and CP reconstruction are applied on each block to enable effective symbol detection. This work extends the authors' previous work on frequency-domain hard-decision equalization to soft-decision turbo equalization so that it not only retains high data transmission efficiency, but also improves the bit error rate performance with slightly increased complexity due to multiple iterations. Its feasibility and effectiveness have been tested by field trial data from the ACOMM09 underwater communication experiment.

  3. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  4. [Study of the dielectric permeability in the superhigh frequency range of a degraded polyoxybutyrate biopolymer].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, G A; Volova, T G; Drokin, N A; Shepov, V N

    2000-01-01

    The dielectric permeability of the degradable biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus was investigated by the resonance method using original highly sensitive microstrip sensors. For the first time, a linear growth of dielectric permeability (delta epsilon/delta T = 7 x 10(-4) degree-1) due to the flexibility of the polymer chain in the temperature range from 10 to 70 degrees C was revealed. The energy of a bend of the nearest fragments was evaluated (E = 392 K), and its correspondence to the energies of bends of the alcyl groups of low-molecular substances like liquid crystals was established. It was shown that at low values of dielectric permeability in the high-frequency range (epsilon' = 2.25 +/- 0.02), which are stable, in a wide range of frequencies of the electromagnetic field (1 MHz - 1 Hz), polyoxybutyrate can be used in the microwave equipment.

  5. Optical Generation And Spatially Distinct Interferometric Detection Of Ultrahigh Frequency Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Hurley

    2006-05-01

    Generation and interferometric detection of 22 GHz surface acoustic waves (SAWs) using two laterally separated absorption gratings on a Si substrate are presented. Optical phase sensitive detection of SAWs is demonstrated using a modified Sagnac interferometer. The reflection characteristics of the suboptical wavelength grating necessitate the use of only linear polarization. This is accomplished by employing a Faraday rotator to ensure path reversal of the reference and signal pulses. The enhanced sensitivity of the interferometer is exploited to measure the acoustic disturbance on an identical absorption grating at a distance of ~4.5 µm from the generation site.

  6. Development of gyrotrons for fusion with power exceeding 1 MW over a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Minami, R.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kato, T.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Mutoh, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Ono, M.; Mitsunaka, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotrons covering a wide frequency range (14 GHz-300 GHz) are in increasing demand for nuclear fusion. Recent electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive experiments highlight a requirement of megawatt-scale gyrotrons at a relatively lower frequency (14-35 GHz) range of some plasma devices, like GAMMA 10/PDX of the University of Tsukuba, QUEST of Kyushu University, NSTX-U of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and Heliotron J of Kyoto University. Collaborative studies for designing a new 28 GHz/35 GHz dual-frequency gyrotron and a 14 GHz gyrotron have commenced. Operation above 1 MW of 28 GHz/35 GHz dual oscillation was demonstrated experimentally. Further in the design of dual-frequency gyrotron, operations with 2 MW 3 s and 0.4 MW CW (continuous wave) at 28 GHz, and power exceeding 1 MW for 3 s at 34.8 GHz have been shown to be feasible. The 14 GHz gyrotron is expected to operate above 1 MW. We are also developing higher frequency gyrotrons (77-300 GHz). The joint program of National Institute for Fusion Science and the University of Tsukuba developed two new 154 GHz gyrotrons for the large helical device after the demonstration of three 77 GHz gyrotrons. The 154 GHz gyrotrons achieved a maximum output power of 1.25 MW and quasi-CW operation of 0.35 MW for 30 min.

  7. Free-Ranging Male Koalas Use Size-Related Variation in Formant Frequencies to Assess Rival Males

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Whisson, Desley A.; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals. PMID:23922967

  8. Assessing a dual-frequency identification sonars' fish-counting accuracy, precision, and turbid river range capability.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Suzanne L; Gove, Nancy E

    2007-12-01

    Accurately assessing migrating salmon populations in turbid rivers with hydroacoustics is challenging. Using single, dual, or split-beam sonars, difficulties occur fitting acoustic beams between the river's narrow boundaries, distinguishing fish from nonfish echoes, and resolving individual fish at high densities. To address these issues, the fish-counting capability of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON), which produces high resolution, video-like images, was assessed. In a clear river, fish counts generated from a DIDSON, an echo counter, split-beam sonar, and video were compared to visual counts from a tower, a method frequently used to ground-truth sonars. The DIDSON and tower counts were very similar and showed the strongest agreement and least variability compared to the other methods. In a highly turbid river, the DIDSON's maximum detection range for a 10.16 cm spherical target was 17 m, less than absorption and wave spreading losses predict, and 26 m in clear water. Unlike tower and video methods, the DIDSON was not limited by surface disturbances or turbidity. DIDSON advantages over other sonars include: better target resolution; wider viewing angle; better coverage of the water column; accurate direction of travel; and simpler to aim and operate.

  9. Observation of harmonically related solar radio zebra patterns in the 1-4 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Karlický, M.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    A unique case of two zebra patterns related harmonically with ratio of ~ 1:2 was observed by distant radio telescopes at São José dos Campos and Ondřejov Observatories. Accompanied zebras show that the ratio of frequencies of the neighboring zebra lines is in the range of 1.009-1.037. There is a tendency of a decrease of this ratio with decreasing frequency within the specific zebra pattern. Both facts speak in favour of plasma emission models for the zebra pattern fine structure in radio burst continua.

  10. Excitation of azimuthal surface modes by relativistic flows of electrons in the high-frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Girka, V. O.; Girka, I. O.; Pavlenko, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Excitation of extraordinarily polarized azimuthal surface eigenwaves is shown to be possible in the frequency range above the upper hybrid resonance in waveguides with metal walls which are partially filled by cold magnetoactive plasma. Interaction of these waves with flows of electrons which rotate around the plasma column in the narrow gap separating the plasma from the wall of the waveguide is studied. Conditions of resonant interaction of the beam with the mentioned high-frequency azimuthal surface waves are shown by numerical methods to be reachable ones in the case of enough strong external magnetic fields without passing to the field of ultra-relativistic velocities of the beam.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  12. Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Qin, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A variational principle code which can calculate self-consistently currents on the conductors is used to assess the coupling characteristic of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna. Taking into account two layers of antenna conductors without lateral frame but with slab geometry, the antenna impedances as a function of frequency and the structure of RF field excited inside the plasma in various phasing cases are discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant No. 2015GB101001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375236 and 11375235).

  13. Evaluation of frequency dependent non-linear optical property using long-range correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Yukina; Ishimaru, Hiroki; Kamiya, Muneaki; Sekino, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    We for the first time performed a systematic evaluation of dynamic second hyperpolarizabilities corresponding to all the third-order Nonlinear Optical (NLO) processes using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with exchange functional corrected for long-range interaction. We develop a program system which quantitatively evaluate the frequency dependent non-linear optical property of molecules, and apply to the polyene molecules of different lengths. The dispersion curves obtained for each NLO processes have divergence at the frequency corresponding to the one predicted by Sum Over State (SOS) interpretation of the property.

  14. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  15. Fundamental Frequency Range in Japanese and English: The Case of Simultaneous Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Graham, Calbert

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to test whether Japanese and English speakers vary their fundamental frequency (f0) range as a function of the language spoken. Speech samples of Japanese-(American) English simultaneous bilinguals (5 males, 5 females; all undergraduates at UC Berkeley) performing comparable reading tasks in their two native languages were analysed. The study builds on a relatively new approach to measuring f0 range that computes its high and low points from tonal targets in the intonational phonology. Unlike in most previous studies where f0 range is traditionally treated as a one-dimensional measure, f0 range in this study is measured along two quasi-independent dimensions: level and span. Findings revealed statistically significant crosslanguage differences between Japanese and English in both dimensions. This provides new insights into the relation between prosodic structure and f0 range in these two typologically different prosodic systems. PMID:25997935

  16. Fundamental Frequency Range in Japanese and English: The Case of Simultaneous Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Graham, Calbert

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to test whether Japanese and English speakers vary their fundamental frequency (f0) range as a function of the language spoken. Speech samples of Japanese-(American) English simultaneous bilinguals (5 males, 5 females; all undergraduates at UC Berkeley) performing comparable reading tasks in their two native languages were analysed. The study builds on a relatively new approach to measuring f0 range that computes its high and low points from tonal targets in the intonational phonology. Unlike in most previous studies where f0 range is traditionally treated as a one-dimensional measure, f0 range in this study is measured along two quasi-independent dimensions: level and span. Findings revealed statistically significant crosslanguage differences between Japanese and English in both dimensions. This provides new insights into the relation between prosodic structure and f0 range in these two typologically different prosodic systems.

  17. Acoustic measurement of suspensions of clay and silt particles using single frequency attenuation and backscatter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of ultrasonic acoustic technology to measure the concentration of fine suspended sediments has the potential to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of sediment measurements while reducing the need for personnel to be present at gauging stations during storm events. The conv...

  18. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Effects of Abrupt Frequency Changes in Excised Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects due to a sudden change from chest to falsetto register or vice versa. It was hypothesized that the continuous change in subglottal pressure and flow rate alone (pressure-flow sweep [PFS]) can trigger a mode change in the canine larynx. Method: Ten canine larynges were each mounted over a…

  19. Analysis of the acoustic cut-off frequency and high-frequency peaks in six Kepler stars with stochastically excited pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, A.; García, R. A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; Mathur, S.

    2015-11-01

    Gravito-acoustic modes in the Sun and other stars propagate in resonant cavities with a frequency below a given limit known as the cut-off frequency. At higher frequencies, waves are no longer trapped in the stellar interior and become traveller waves. In this article, we study six pulsating solar-like stars at different evolutionary stages observed by the NASA Kepler mission. These high signal-to-noise targets show a peak structure that extends at very high frequencies and are good candidates for studying the transition region between the modes and interference peaks or pseudo-modes. Following the same methodology successfully applied on Sun-as-a-star measurements, we uncover the existence of pseudo-modes in these stars with one or two dominant interference patterns depending on the evolutionary stage of the star. We also infer their cut-off frequency as the midpoint between the last eigenmode and the first peak of the interference patterns. Using ray theory we show that, while the period of one of the interference patterns is very close to half the large separation, the period of the other interference pattern depends on the time phase of mixed waves, thus carrying additional information on the stellar structure and evolution. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Continuous measurements of suspended sediment loads using dual frequency acoustic Doppler profile signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Stokseth, Siri

    2016-04-01

    A huge thread to Hydropower plants (HPP) is incoming sediments in suspension from the rivers upstream. The sediments settle in the reservoir and reduce the effective head as well as the volume and reduce consequently the lifetime of the reservoir. In addition are the fine sediments causing severe damages to turbines and infrastructure of a HPP. For estimating the amount of in-coming sediments in suspension and the consequent planning of efficient counter measures, it is essential to monitor the rivers within the catchment of the HPP for suspended sediments. This work is considerably time consuming and requires highly educated personnel and is therefore expensive. Surrogate-indirect methods using acoustic and optic devices have bee developed since the last decades that may be efficiently applied for the continuous monitoring of suspended sediment loads. The presented study proposes therefore to establish a research station at a cross section of a river which is the main tributary to a reservoir of a HPP and equip this station with surrogate as well as with common method of measuring suspended load concentrations and related flow discharge and level. The logger at the research station delivers data automatically to a server. Therefore it is ensured that also large flood events are covered. Data during flood are of high interest to the HPP planners since they carried the most part of the sediment load in a hydrological year. Theses peaks can hardly be measured with common measurement methods. Preliminary results of the wet season 2015/2016 are presented. The data gives insight in the applicable range, in terms of scattering particles concentration-average size and corresponding flow discharge and level, eventually enabling the study of suspended sediment load-water flow correlations during peak events. This work is carried out as part of a larger research project on sustainable hydro power plants exposed to high sediment yield, SediPASS. SediPASS is funded by the

  1. Seafloor roughness estimation employing bathymetric systems: An appraisal of the classification and characterization of high-frequency acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Haris, K.

    2012-11-01

    The study of the seafloor is important for living and non-living resource estimation along with the related processes identification. To understand the fine-scale seafloor processes, various methods such as application of acoustic remote sensing, seafloor photographic and geological samplings are well established. Among these, the high-frequency single beam echo-sounding system (SBES) and multi-beam echo-sounding system (MBES) became more familiar due to their rapid data acquisition advantages. These systems are extensively used to study the seafloor morphology etc. Seafloor acoustic backscatter information provides fine-scale seafloor roughness and associated sediment processes. The angular and normal incidence backscatter strength data can be utilized to estimate seafloor roughness parameters using physics based numerical inversion models. However, for such applications, the segmentation of the backscatter data is essential, especially before initiating any numerical based models to characterize the seafloor. Under such situations, the employment of the soft-computational techniques e.g., artificial neural networks (ANNs) are found to be suitable for seafloor acoustic data segmentation and classifications. Seafloor studies are carried out at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa during the last two decades employing similar techniques, and study results related to the seafloor classification and characterizations are documented in this research review.

  2. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangpil; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-08-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young's moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young's moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed.

  3. Clock signal requirement for high-frequency, high dynamic range acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Viscor, Ivo; Halamek, Josef; Villa, Marco

    2005-11-15

    Analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) are increasingly replacing mixers in frequency conversion schemes. To achieve superior performances, in terms of bandwidth and dynamic range, a nearly ideal ADC clock is needed, with a spectral purity higher than the reference signal of the classical mixing scheme. These requirements of spectral purity for the ADC clock are discussed by analyzing in detail the nonuniform sampling process and by characterizing an actual acquisition system. The effect of clock phase imperfections on the output is proportional to the input frequency over sampling frequency ratio. Moreover, at the output we may have a multiple folding of the phase jitter spectrum. These effects are illustrated by three sets of measurements performed using our system: transfer of spurious clock components, aliasing of these components, and transfer of clock phase noise.

  4. A direct method for measuring acoustic ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jin H; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Frazier, W M Garth; Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger

    2010-11-01

    A method is reported for determining ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments by using the definition of impedance directly. The method is envisioned as way of measuring the impedence at multiple locations along the propagation path, using the signals broadcast during the experiment itself. In a short-range (10 m) test, the direct method was in good agreement with a more conventional model-based least-squares method. The utility of the direct method was demonstrated in a 400 m propagation experiment in a agricultural field. The resulting impedance was consistent with the impedance measured previously in the same field. PMID:21110540

  5. Human interface and transmit frequency control for the through-air acoustic real-time high resolution vision substitute system.

    PubMed

    Taki, Hirofumi; Sato, Toru

    2005-01-01

    Existing vision substitute systems are not useful as navigation system due to the limitation of spatial and time resolution. In this study we propose a transmit control method free from range aliasing for a high resolution acoustic vision substitute systems, which we previously proposed. We also examine a human-machine information transfer method with a vibrotactile stimulator array consisting of 13 × 21 elements. It presents the target area of 30 degree × 60 degree by the sampling interval of 1 degree at the center. The system presents range, direction, and surface topography of targets to the subject.

  6. Propagation in a shearing plasma. II - Turbulence and the frequency range of pulsar microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Tademaru, E.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical calculations are presented which explore the propagation of radio waves and pulses through a turbulent shearing plasma. A stochastic model is used to describe the turbulent velocity field, in which random fluctuations are superposed on a mean profile. Both Gaussian wave packets and shot-noise pulses polarized in the plane of shearing acquire quasi-periodic intensity modulations above the rest-frame plasma frequency. The frequency range over which these modulations appear is shown to depend on the spatial correlation length of the turbulent fluctuations and on their standard deviation from the mean velocity. The period of the modulations is variable from one realization of the random process to the next, and the average period is frequency dependent. The results of these calculations lend further support to a model for pulsar microstructure in which periodic micropulses are pure temporal modulations of the emitted radiation due to propagation effects in magnetospheric shearing regions. It is shown that turbulence on a scale of approximately 10 cm can produce these quasi-periodic modulations over a frequency range comparable to that of observed microstructure.

  7. Design and optimization of an ultra-wide frequency range CMOS divide-by-two circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Lu; Niansong, Mei; Hu, Chen; Zhiliang, Hong

    2010-11-01

    A novel toggled flip-flop (TFF) divide-by-two circuit (DTC) and its optimization method based on a large-signal analysis approach are proposed. By reducing the output RC constant in tracking mode and making it large in latching mode, compressing the internal signal swing as well as compensating the current leaked in the latching mode, the operating frequency range is greatly expanded. Implemented in a SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a 1.2 V power supply, it can work under an ultra-wide frequency band ranging from 320 MHz to 29.6 GHz. Experimental results show that two phase-locked loops (PLLs) with the proposed DTC can achieve in-band phase noise of -94 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz under 4224 MHz operating frequency and -84 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz under 10 GHz operating frequency, respectively. The power consumption of the proposed DTC is reduced by almost 50% compared with the conventional counterparts.

  8. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  9. A reduced order model for dielectric elastomer actuators over a range of frequencies and prestrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, Jillian; Manning, Michael; Adler, David; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The actuation strain of an equibiaxially prestrained dielectric elastomer membrane is studied as a function of driving frequency and prestrain. Experimental data are gathered on the membrane's creep and recovery following DC actuation, as well as the steady state amplitude and phase for AC driving voltages ranging from 2 to 40 Hz. The effect of prestretch on steady state actuation was also investigated, using membranes of both 250% and 300% prestretch. A three-element generalized Kelvin-Voigt model is developed to capture the transient and steady-state actuation responses as a function of frequency and prestrain. We show that, despite its relative simplicity, this model captures the relevant timescales for the membrane behavior with good fidelity and can be used to accurately predict the actuation magnitude and phase as a function of time over a range of actuation configurations and driving conditions.

  10. [Immunotropic effects of electromagnetic fields in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, M P; Stankiewicz, W; Sobiczewska, E; Szmigielski, S

    2001-11-01

    On the grounds of reviewed literature and the results of own experiments, the authors present current views on the possible immunotropic influence of low energy electromagnetic fields, in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies. They conclude, that a more systematic and multidisciplinary investigations should be undertaken, comprising the wide spectrum of immune homeostatic tasks, including defensive, immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative capabilities of immune system exposed to rapid environmental spread of different electromagnetic emitters.

  11. Moment method analysis of microstrip antennas over a wide frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, B. W.; Newman, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    Expressions for the self and mutual impedance between microstrip antenna modes on a grounded dielectric slab are presented. The mutual impedance between the microstrip modes and a vertical current filament in the dielectric is also presented. These are the quantities required in a method of moments analysis of the microstrip antenna. Entire domain expansion modes, suitable for representing the microstrip current over a broad frequency range, are used. Efficient methods for the evaluation of the mutual impedance elements are described.

  12. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement. PMID:27388587

  13. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range

    PubMed Central

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement. PMID:27388587

  14. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-07-08

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement.

  15. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement.

  16. Serially homologous ears perform frequency range fractionation in the praying mantis, Creobroter (Mantodea, Hymenopodidae).

    PubMed

    Yager, D D

    1996-04-01

    Unlike most praying mantises that have a single region of auditory sensitivity, species in the genus Creobroter have equally sensitive hearing at 2-4 and at 25-50 kHz and and are relatively insensitivity at 10-15 kHz- they have a W-shaped audiogram. Ultrasonic sensitivity originates from an auditory organ in the ventral midline of the metathorax that closely resembles the ear of other mantises. Ablation experiments demonstrate that low frequency sensitivity derives from a serially homologous mesothoracic auditory organ. Extracellular recordings suggest that these two ears operate largely, if not entirely, independently of one another in the thorax. The low frequency response has a longer latency, more action potentials per stimulus, and different patterns of change with increasing SPL than the high frequency response. Separate interneurons mediate responses in the two frequency ranges, but our evidence suggests that they are two serially homologous sets of cells. Neither auditory organ shows any physiological evidence of directional sensitivity. Ultrasound triggers a set of behaviors in flying hymenopodid mantises much like those in other mantises, but the behavioral significance of low frequency hearing in these animals is still unknown. PMID:8847662

  17. Compensation of laser frequency tuning nonlinearity of a long range OFDR using deskew filter.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Jiang, Junfeng; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2013-02-11

    We present a simple and effective method to compensate the optical frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in a long range optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) by using the deskew filter, where a frequency tuning nonlinear phase obtained from an auxiliary interferometer is used to compensate the nonlinearity effect on the beating signals generated from a main OFDR interferometer. The method can be applied to the entire spatial domain of the OFDR signals at once with a high computational efficiency. With our proposed method we experimentally demonstrated a factor of 93 times improvement in spatial resolution by comparing the results of an OFDR system with and without nonlinearity compensation. In particular we achieved a measurement range of 80 km and a spatial resolution of 20 cm and 1.6 m at distances of 10 km and 80 km, respectively with a short signal processing time of less than 1 s for 5 × 10(6) data points. The improved performance of the OFDR with a high spatial resolution, a long measurement range and a short process time will lead to practical applications in the real-time monitoring, test and measurement of fiber optical communication networks and sensing systems.

  18. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangwei, Yin; Ning, Li; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 × 0.28 mm2. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  19. [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Rubanik, A V; Pashovkin, T N; Chemeris, N K

    2007-01-01

    The capability of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (35,27 GHz, pulse widths of 100 and 600 ns, peak power of 20 kW) to excite acoustic waves in model water-containing objects and muscular tissue of animals has been experimentally shown for the first time. The amplitude and duration of excited acoustic pulses are within the limits of accuracy of theoretical assessments and have a complex nonlinear dependence on the energy input of electromagnetic radiation supplied. The velocity of propagation of acoustic pulses in water-containing models and isolated muscular tissue of animals was close to the reference data. The excitation of acoustic waves in biological systems under the action of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency is the important phenomenon, which essentially contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of biological effects of these electromagnetic fields.

  20. SLS Scale Model Acoustic Test Liftoff Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, Douglas; Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible design phase test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments.

  1. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  2. Frequency-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Ranging Using Photon-Counting Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Barber, Zeb W.; Dahl, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Optical ranging is a problem of estimating the round-trip flight time of a phase- or amplitude-modulated optical beam that reflects off of a target. Frequency- modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) ranging systems obtain this estimate by performing an interferometric measurement between a local frequency- modulated laser beam and a delayed copy returning from the target. The range estimate is formed by mixing the target-return field with the local reference field on a beamsplitter and detecting the resultant beat modulation. In conventional FMCW ranging, the source modulation is linear in instantaneous frequency, the reference-arm field has many more photons than the target-return field, and the time-of-flight estimate is generated by balanced difference- detection of the beamsplitter output, followed by a frequency-domain peak search. This work focused on determining the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm when continuous-time photoncounting detectors are used. It is founded on a rigorous statistical characterization of the (random) photoelectron emission times as a function of the incident optical field, including the deleterious effects caused by dark current and dead time. These statistics enable derivation of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the accuracy of FMCW ranging, and derivation of the ML estimator, whose performance approaches this bound at high photon flux. The estimation algorithm was developed, and its optimality properties were shown in simulation. Experimental data show that it performs better than the conventional estimation algorithms used. The demonstrated improvement is a factor of 1.414 over frequency-domainbased estimation. If the target interrogating photons and the local reference field photons are costed equally, the optimal allocation of photons between these two arms is to have them equally distributed. This is different than the state of the art, in which the local field is stronger than the target return. The optimal

  3. Monitoring microbe-induced physical property changes using high-frequency acoustic waveform data: Toward the development of a microbial megascope

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kenneth Hurst

    2002-05-20

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of microbe generated gas bubbles in controlled, saturated sediment columns utilizing a novel technique involving acoustic wave propagation. Specifically, the effect of denitrifying bacteria on saturated flow conditions was evaluated in light of the stimulated production of N{sub 2} gas and the resulting plugging of the pore throats. The propagation of high frequency acoustic waves through the sediment columns was used to locate those regions in the column where gas accumulation occurred. Over a period of six weeks, regions of gas accumulation resulted in the attenuation of acoustic wave energies with the decreases in amplitude typically greater than one order of magnitude.

  4. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Segers, Laurent; Van Bavegem, David; De Winne, Sam; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2015-07-30

    This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy.

  5. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Van Bavegem, David; De Winne, Sam; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy. PMID:26263986

  6. Objective low-frequency audiometry by distortion-product acoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Bonfils, P; Avan, P; Londero, A; Trotoux, J; Narcy, P

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOEs) in a clinical setting. First, DPOE input-output functions were automatically realized to determine the ratio of the pure tones (primaries) f2 and f1 that would elicit the most significant DPOE input-output function. The DPOE input-output functions presented two separate portions for the f2/f1 ratio, ranging from 1.18 to 1.26: (1) below 60-dB sound pressure level (SPL), a saturating portion with a DPOE detection threshold at 36-dB SPL; and (2) above 66-dB SPL, a linear portion. For other f2/f1 ratios, DPOE input-output functions had a more linear behavior. The DPOEs generated by primary intensities below 60-dB SPL, which show saturating behavior, probably have their origin in the properties of outer hair cells. This indicates that DPOE measurements in a clinical setting must be realized with precise stimulus values: (1) f2/f1 ratio near 1.22, and (2) primary intensities below 60-dB SPL. Second, DPOE input-output functions were realized for DPOEs varying from 707.5 to 342 Hz. No more saturating plateau could be observed with DPOEs below 512.5 Hz, suggesting that active mechanisms are absent below 725 Hz within the human cochlea. These data permit us to establish the bases of an objective low-frequency audiometric test. PMID:1910706

  7. Mechanical properties of bulk polydimethylsiloxane for microfluidics over a large range of frequencies and aging times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placet, V.; Delobelle, P.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamic mechanical characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over a large range of frequencies (10-2 < f < 105 Hz) and long aging times at room temperature (4 h < tv < ~60 000 h) has been presented. Three samples with different curing conditions have been studied and three different techniques, dynamic mechanical analysis at different temperatures, nano-indentation and scanning micro-deformation microscopy, have been used. Although the three techniques work at different scales and at different frequencies all the results match the same master curve. As expected, the storage and the loss moduli greatly increase with the frequency. Moreover, these moduli moderately increase with the aging time tv depending on the curing temperature. A simple model which takes the frequency and the aging time into account, and which is based on the Havriliak-Negami model, has been presented and identified. Hence, values of the relaxed and instantaneous moduli at tv = 0 and tv = ∞ are proposed. Only the relaxed moduli depend on the curing conditions and moreover it has been shown that the tangent of the phase lag is independent of the aging time and thus of the curing process.

  8. Boosting brain excitability by transcranial high frequency stimulation in the ripple range

    PubMed Central

    Moliadze, Vera; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1). Twenty-one subjects participated in three different experimental studies and they received on separate days tACS at three frequencies (80 Hz, 140 Hz and 250 Hz) and sham stimulation in a randomized order. tACS with 140 Hz frequency increased M1 excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation-generated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during and for up to 1 h after stimulation. Control experiments with sham and 80 Hz stimulation were without any effect, and 250 Hz stimulation was less efficient with a delayed excitability induction and reduced duration. After-effects elicited by 140 Hz stimulation were robust against inversion of test MEP amplitudes seen normally under activation. Stimulation at 140 Hz reduced short interval intracortical inhibition, but left intracortical facilitation, long interval cortical inhibition and cortical silent period unchanged. Implicit motor learning was not facilitated by 140 Hz stimulation. High frequency stimulation in the ripple range is a new promising non-invasive brain stimulation protocol to increase human cortical excitability during and after the end of stimulation. PMID:20962008

  9. Dielectric dispersion of water in the frequency range from 10 mHz to 30 MHz.

    PubMed

    Batalioto, F; Duarte, A R; Barbero, G; Neto, A M F

    2010-03-18

    We investigate the dielectric dispersion of water, specially in the low-frequency range, by using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The frequency dependencies of the real R and imaginary chi parts of the impedance could not be explained by means of the usual description of the dielectric properties of the water as an insulating liquid containing ions. This is due to the incomplete knowledge of the parameters entering in the fundamental equations describing the evolution of the system, and on the mechanisms regulating the exchange of charge of the cell with the external circuit. We propose a simple description of our experimental data based on the model of Debye, by invoking a dc conductivity of the cell, related to the nonblocking character of the electrodes. A discussion on the electric circuits able to simulate the cell under investigation, based on bulk and surface elements, is also reported. We find that the simple circuit formed by a series of two parallels of resistance and capacitance is able to reproduce the experimental data concerning the real and imaginary part of the electrical impedance of the cell for frequency larger than 1 Hz. According to this description, one of the parallels takes into account the electrical properties of interface between the electrode and water, and the other of the bulk. For frequency lower than 1 Hz, a good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by simulating the electrical properties of the interface by means of the constant phase element.

  10. Boosting brain excitability by transcranial high frequency stimulation in the ripple range.

    PubMed

    Moliadze, Vera; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2010-12-15

    Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1). Twenty-one subjects participated in three different experimental studies and they received on separate days tACS at three frequencies (80 Hz, 140 Hz and 250 Hz) and sham stimulation in a randomized order. tACS with 140 Hz frequency increased M1 excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation-generated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during and for up to 1 h after stimulation. Control experiments with sham and 80 Hz stimulation were without any effect, and 250 Hz stimulation was less efficient with a delayed excitability induction and reduced duration. After-effects elicited by 140 Hz stimulation were robust against inversion of test MEP amplitudes seen normally under activation. Stimulation at 140 Hz reduced short interval intracortical inhibition, but left intracortical facilitation, long interval cortical inhibition and cortical silent period unchanged. Implicit motor learning was not facilitated by 140 Hz stimulation. High frequency stimulation in the ripple range is a new promising non-invasive brain stimulation protocol to increase human cortical excitability during and after the end of stimulation.

  11. Dielectric dispersion of water in the frequency range from 10 mHz to 30 MHz.

    PubMed

    Batalioto, F; Duarte, A R; Barbero, G; Neto, A M F

    2010-03-18

    We investigate the dielectric dispersion of water, specially in the low-frequency range, by using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The frequency dependencies of the real R and imaginary chi parts of the impedance could not be explained by means of the usual description of the dielectric properties of the water as an insulating liquid containing ions. This is due to the incomplete knowledge of the parameters entering in the fundamental equations describing the evolution of the system, and on the mechanisms regulating the exchange of charge of the cell with the external circuit. We propose a simple description of our experimental data based on the model of Debye, by invoking a dc conductivity of the cell, related to the nonblocking character of the electrodes. A discussion on the electric circuits able to simulate the cell under investigation, based on bulk and surface elements, is also reported. We find that the simple circuit formed by a series of two parallels of resistance and capacitance is able to reproduce the experimental data concerning the real and imaginary part of the electrical impedance of the cell for frequency larger than 1 Hz. According to this description, one of the parallels takes into account the electrical properties of interface between the electrode and water, and the other of the bulk. For frequency lower than 1 Hz, a good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by simulating the electrical properties of the interface by means of the constant phase element. PMID:20178324

  12. High-resolution frequency measurement method with a wide-frequency range based on a quantized phase step law.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoqiang; Dong, Shaofeng; Wang, Yanfeng; Guo, Shuting; Cao, Lingzhi; Zhou, Wei; Zuo, Yandi; Liu, Dan

    2013-11-01

    A wide-frequency and high-resolution frequency measurement method based on the quantized phase step law is presented in this paper. Utilizing a variation law of the phase differences, the direct different frequency phase processing, and the phase group synchronization phenomenon, combining an A/D converter and the adaptive phase shifting principle, a counter gate is established in the phase coincidences at one-group intervals, which eliminates the ±1 counter error in the traditional frequency measurement method. More importantly, the direct phase comparison, the measurement, and the control between any periodic signals have been realized without frequency normalization in this method. Experimental results show that sub-picosecond resolution can be easily obtained in the frequency measurement, the frequency standard comparison, and the phase-locked control based on the phase quantization processing technique. The method may be widely used in navigation positioning, space techniques, communication, radar, astronomy, atomic frequency standards, and other high-tech fields.

  13. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  14. Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low-frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Gulkis, S.; Six, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian DAM emission has been performed utilizing the O-4 magnetic field model (Acuna and Ness, 1979) and a realistic plasma model. Minimal assumptions about the emission mechanism have been made that include radiation in the right-hand extraordinary mode, propagating nearly perpendicular to the field line at source points located just above the RX cutoff frequency along Io flux tubes. Ray tracing has been performed in the frequency range from 2-35 MHz from successive Io flux tubes separated by ten degrees of central meridian longitude for a full circumference of northern hemisphere sources. The results show unusual complexity in model arc spectra that is displayed in a constant Io phase format with many similarities to the Voyager PRA data. The results suggest much of the variation in observed DAM spectral features is a result of propagation effects rather than emission process differences.

  15. Parallel PWMs Based Fully Digital Transmitter with Wide Carrier Frequency Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Dake

    2013-01-01

    The carrier-frequency (CF) and intermediate-frequency (IF) pulse-width modulators (PWMs) based on delay lines are proposed, where baseband signals are conveyed by both positions and pulse widths or densities of the carrier clock. By combining IF-PWM and precorrected CF-PWM, a fully digital transmitter with unit-delay autocalibration is implemented in 180 nm CMOS for high reconfiguration. The proposed architecture achieves wide CF range of 2 M–1 GHz, high power efficiency of 70%, and low error vector magnitude (EVM) of 3%, with spectrum purity of 20 dB optimized in comparison to the existing designs. PMID:24223503

  16. Morfology of SEE spectral features in a wide pump wave frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, E. N.; Frolov, V. L.; Grach, S. M.; Kotov, P. V.

    Systematic study of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) stationary spectrum dependence on the pump wave (PW) frequency f_0 was continued. Investigations were performed at the SURA facility for the PW frequency range 4.3≤ f_0 ≤ 9.5 MHz with stepping of ≈ 5-50 kHz including the vicinities of the electron gyroharmonics nfce from n=4 to n=7 for most prominent SEE features like downshifted maximum (DM) and its satellites, narrow and broad continua (NC and BC), upshifted maximum (UM), broad upshifted maximum (BUM), and broad upshifted structure (BUS) (for references see, e.g., Leyser et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1993, v. 98, p. 17597, 1994, Frolov et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2001, v. 28, p. 3103). Main attention was paid to maximal and integral intensities of the SEE features and their frequency shifts Δ f from f_0. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) While the SEE qualitative behaviour periodically repeats between successive gyroharmonics, maximal intensity for all of the SEE features is observed for 4fce5fce (except of narrow range below 6 and 7fce) the BC is replaced by a set of DM satellites in the SEE spectrum. (iii) DM intensity decreases with f_0 and DM peak frequency shift increases with f_0 as Δ fDM ˜ 2 f_0\\cdot10-3 across the whole f_0 frequency range, except of narrow ranges near f_0 ≃ nfce, where the DM intensity falls up to the noise level, and Δ fDM decreases up to ≈ 9 kHz. (iv) The UM behaviour is similar for the DM one, but for f_0≃ nfce the maximal UM and minimal DM intensities occur for the same f_0, while the minimal UM is observed for f_0 less by 10-20 kHz in comparison with f_0 for the minimal DM. (v) Maximal BUM intensity is observed for f_0 just above nfce where the frequency shift of BUM peak Δ fBUM ≃ 20 kHz; for f_0 ≳ nfce+30 kHz Δ f

  17. Neurons sensitive to narrow ranges of repetitive acoustic transients in the medial geniculate body of the cat.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, E; de Ribaupierre, F

    1982-01-01

    Neuronal activity was recorded in the medial geniculate body (MGB) of nitrous oxide anaesthetized, paralysed cats in response to click trains. For most cells responding to these stimuli the spike discharges are precisely time locked to individual clicks within the train. The present study has revealed that, apart from the normal "locker" response being characterized by a monotonic decrease in the entrainment as the frequency of the clicks within the train increases, there is a small population of "lockers" which show a non-monotonic response to increasing click frequency. 41% of these non-monotonic cells were not at all entrained by the lowest click rates and had time-locked responses for very restricted frequency ranges. These particular non-monotonic "lockers" were more commonly-found in the posterior part of the pars lateralis and in the suprageniculate nucleus. These cells might be involved in the temporal coding of natural sounds such as animal vocalizations and the cat's purr.

  18. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  19. Spectral investigation of nematic liquid crystals with high optical anisotropy at THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorow, U.; Parka, J.; Garbat, K.; Pałka, N.; Czupryński, K.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) with high optical anisotropy are very desirable for different applications in devices, such as filters, phase shifters, or phase gratings [T. Göbel, P. Meissner, A. Gaebler, M. Koeberle, S. Mueller, and R. Jakoby, Dual-Frequency Switching Liquid Crystal Based Tunable THz Filter, CLEO, Baltimore, MD, 2009; C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 (2003), pp. 4497-4499; and C.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, Y.-T. Li, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, Electrically controlled liquid crystal phase grating for terahertz waves, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21 (2009), pp. 730-732]. We present spectral studies of LCs with large optical anisotropy in the range from 0.3 to 3 THz. Nematic LC mixtures which have Δn > 0.30 for visible frequency range, i.e., 1825 (Δn = 0.42 at 633 nm) were measured. Properties of LC materials like birefringence, absorption coefficients, and refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary polarization in THz range were obtained. Orientation of LC was done by a high electric field. Measurements were performed using a TDS spectra 3000 spectrometer.

  20. Optimization of the signal processing in frequency modulated continuous wave laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangsong; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-02-01

    Based on a dual interferometry frequency modulated wave laser (FMCW) laser ranging system, three steps to optimize the signal processing is proposed in this paper. The first step is signal re-sampling, by which the sampling signal is turned to be equal optical frequency intervals. The second step is splicing the re-sampled signal, by which can break though the tuning range of the laser source limitation. The last step is the all-phase pretreatment of the signal, its means that the all-phase Fast Fourier Transformation (apFFT) is used to handle the re-sampled signal, which could reduce the phase error of the signal. The experiments shows that the noise effect due to the tuning nonlinearity of laser can be reduced by re-sampling the signal, 50μm range resolution can be easily obtained by this method, the apFFT is more reliable and effective than FFT in the processing to reduce the phase error and improve the speed of operation.

  1. Time-averaged acoustic forces acting on a rigid sphere within a wide range of radii in an axisymmetric levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic levitation is a physical phenomenon that arises when the acoustic radiation pressure is strong enough to overcome gravitational force. It is a nonlinear phenomenon which can be predicted only if higher order terms are included in the acoustic field calculation. The study of acoustic levitation is usually conducted by solving the linear acoustic equation and bridging the gap with an analytical solution. Only recently, the scientific community has shown interest in the full solution of the Navier-Stokes' equation with the aim of deeply investigating the acoustic radiation pressure. We present herein a numerical model based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Dynamic Mesh (DM) for the calculation of the acoustic radiation pressure acting on a rigid sphere inside an axisymmetric levitator which is the most widely used and investigated type of levitators. In this work, we focus on the third resonance mode. The use of DM is new in the field of acoustic levitation, allowing a more realistic simulation of the phenomenon, since no standing wave has to be necessarily imposed as boundary condition. The radiating plate is modeled as a rigid cylinder moving sinusoidally along the central axis. The time-averaged acoustic force exerting on the sphere is calculated for different radii Rs of the sphere (0.025 to 0.5 wavelengths). It is shown that the acoustic force increases proportional to Rs3 for small radii, then decreases when the standing wave condition is violated and finally rises again in the travelling wave radiation pressure configuration. The numerical model is validated for the inviscid case with a Finite Element Method model of the linear acoustic model based on King's approximation.

  2. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  3. Nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchea, M.; Tudose, I. V.; Tzagkarakis, G.; Kenanakis, G.; Katharakis, M.; Drakakis, E.; Koudoumas, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report on preliminary results regarding the applicability of nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range of 4-20 GHz. Various combinations of materials were employed including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), polyaniline, graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, Cu nanoparticles and Poly(vinyl alcohol). As shown, paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline PEDOT:PSS and Poly(vinyl alcohol) can offer quite effective electromagnetic shielding, similar or even better than that of commercial products, the response strongly depending on their thickness and resistivity.

  4. Comments on finite Larmor radius models for ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Smithe, D.N.

    1994-06-01

    The accuracy of standard finite Larmor radius (FLR) models for wave propagation in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is compared against full hot plasma models. For multiple ion species plasmas, the FLR model is shown to predict the presence of a spurious second harmonic ion-ion type resonance between the second harmonic cyclotron layers of two ion species. It is shown explicitly here that the spurious resonance is an artifact of the FLR models and that no absorption occurs in the plasma as a result of this ``resonance.``

  5. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  6. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  7. Range-resolved frequency-agile CO2 lidar measurements of smokestack vapor effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Francis M.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Warren, Russell E.

    1999-11-01

    Range-resolved lidar measurements of chemical vapor output from a smokestack were conducted using a moderate-power (100 millijoules per pulse) frequency-agile CO2 differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. A 70-foot non-industrial smokestack, erected for the purpose of studying effluent emissions, was used in the experiment. These measurements were conducted for the purpose of obtaining real data to support development of advanced chemical and biological (CB) range- resolved vapor detection algorithms. Plume transmission measurements were made using natural atmospheric backscatter from points at the mouth of the stack and several positions downwind. Controlled releases of triethyl-phosphate (TEP), dimethyl-methylphosphonate (DMMP), and sulfur-hexaflouride (SF6) were performed. Test methodology and experimental results are presented. Effective application of ground-based lidar to the monitoring of smokestack effluents, without the use of fixed targets, is discussed.

  8. Optical-fiber frequency domain interferometer with nanometer resolution and centimeter measuring range.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jidong; Tao, Tianjiong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2013-11-01

    A new optical-fiber frequency domain interferometer (OFDI) device for accurate measurement of the absolute distance between two stationary objects, with centimeter measuring range and nanometer resolution, has been developed. Its working principle and on-line data processing method were elaborated. The new OFDI instrument was constructed all with currently available commercial communication products. It adopted the wide-spectrum amplified spontaneous emission light as the light source and optical-fiber tip as the test probe. Since this device consists of only fibers or fiber coupled components, it is very compact, convenient to operate, and easy to carry. By measuring the single-step length of a translation stage and the thickness of standard gauge blocks, its ability in implementing nanometer resolution and centimeter measuring range on-line measurements was validated.

  9. Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light in the geophysical field range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Hovde, D. C.; Gawlik, W.; Pustelny, S.; Zachorowski, J.; Yashchuk, V. V.

    2006-05-01

    Recent work investigating resonant nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) related to long-lived (τrel˜1s) ground-state atomic coherences has demonstrated potential magnetometric sensitivities exceeding 10-11G/Hz for small (≲1μG ) magnetic fields. In the present work, NMOR using frequency-modulated light (FM NMOR) is studied in the regime where the longitudinal magnetic field is in the geophysical range (˜500mG) , of particular interest for many applications. In this regime a splitting of the FM NMOR resonance due to the nonlinear Zeeman effect is observed. At sufficiently high light intensities, there is also a splitting of the FM NMOR resonances due to ac Stark shifts induced by the optical field, as well as evidence of alignment-to-orientation conversion type processes. The consequences of these effects for FM-NMOR-based atomic magnetometry in the geophysical field range are considered.

  10. LTP in Hippocampal Area CA1 Is Induced by Burst Stimulation over a Broad Frequency Range Centered around Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Lawrence M.; Kim, Eunyoung; Cooke, Jennifer D.; Holmes, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is typically studied using either continuous high-frequency stimulation or theta burst stimulation. Previous studies emphasized the physiological relevance of theta frequency; however, synchronized hippocampal activity occurs over a broader frequency range. We therefore tested burst stimulation at intervals from 100…

  11. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golykh, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  12. Flight parameter estimation using instantaneous frequency and time delay measurements from a three-element planar acoustic array.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W

    2016-05-01

    The acoustic signal emitted by a turbo-prop aircraft consists of a strong narrowband tone superimposed on a broadband random component. A ground-based three-element planar acoustic array can be used to estimate the full set of flight parameters of a turbo-prop aircraft in transit by measuring the time delay (TD) between the signal received at the reference sensor and the signal received at each of the other two sensors of the array over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using instantaneous frequency (IF) measurements from the reference sensor to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates. A simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis shows that the standard deviations in the estimates of the aircraft velocity and altitude can be greatly reduced when IF measurements are used together with TD measurements. Two flight parameter estimation algorithms that utilize both IF and TD measurements are formulated and their performances are evaluated using both simulated and real data. PMID:27250134

  13. Frequency-Range Distribution of Boulders Around Cone Crater: Relevance to Landing Site Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Boulders represent a landing hazard that must be addressed in the planning of future landings on the Moon. A boulder under a landing leg can contribute to deck tilt and boulders can damage spacecraft during landing. Using orbital data to characterize boulder populations at locations where landers have safely touched down (Apollo, Luna, Surveyor, and Chang'e-3 sites) is important for determining landing hazard criteria for future missions. Additionally, assessing the distribution of boulders can address broader science issues, e.g., how far craters distribute boulders and how this distribution varies as a function of crater size and age. The availability of new Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images [1] enables the use of boulder size- and range frequency distributions for a variety of purposes [2-6]. Boulders degrade over time and primarily occur around young or fresh craters that are large enough to excavate bedrock. Here we use NAC images to analyze boulder distributions around Cone crater (340 m diameter) at the Apollo 14 site. Cone crater (CC) was selected because it is the largest crater where astronaut surface photography is available for a radial traverse to the rim. Cone crater is young (approximately 29 Ma [7]) relative to the time required to break down boulders [3,8], giving us a data point for boulder range-frequency distributions (BRFDs) as a function of crater age.

  14. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  15. Lexical frequency effects and phonetic duration of English homophones: An acoustic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Abigail C.; Brugman, Johanna; Crawford, Clifford; Joseph, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    Some current views of phonology assume a single abstract representation for each lexical item, while others assume extensive encoding of fine-grained detail. Some proponents of the latter view have claimed that differences in lexical (token) frequency are manifested as differences in phonetic duration. This claim was investigated in three experiments measuring the phonetic durations of heterographic pairs of homophonous English nouns differing in token frequency. Homophonous pairs were grouped according to magnitude of frequency difference within pairs: large difference (time ~ thyme), medium difference (pain ~ pane), and no difference (son ~ sun). Four participants read (a) words in a list in a frame sentence; (b) target items in composed sentences; and (c) pairs in contrast. No systematic differences of ratio of duration (more frequent/less frequent) were found for individual speakers or across speakers in (a) or (b). Preliminary results for (c) show differences in duration correlated with contrastive focus and final lengthening, but not lexical frequency. The lack of positive correlation between duration and frequency calls into question the hypothesis that greater frequency leads to shorter duration, and underlines the need for a better understanding of the locus of frequency effects in the lexicon and speech production.

  16. Optical multi-point measurements of the acoustic particle velocity with frequency modulated Doppler global velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas; König, Jörg; Haufe, Daniel; Schlüssler, Raimund; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    To reduce the noise of machines such as aircraft engines, the development and propagation of sound has to be investigated. Since the applicability of microphones is limited due to their intrusiveness, contactless measurement techniques are required. For this reason, the present study describes an optical method based on the Doppler effect and its application for acoustic particle velocity (APV) measurements. While former APV measurements with Doppler techniques are point measurements, the applied system is capable of simultaneous measurements at multiple points. In its current state, the system provides linear array measurements of one component of the APV demonstrated by multi-tone experiments with tones up to 17 kHz for the first time.

  17. Optical multi-point measurements of the acoustic particle velocity with frequency modulated Doppler global velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas; König, Jörg; Haufe, Daniel; Schlüssler, Raimund; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    To reduce the noise of machines such as aircraft engines, the development and propagation of sound has to be investigated. Since the applicability of microphones is limited due to their intrusiveness, contactless measurement techniques are required. For this reason, the present study describes an optical method based on the Doppler effect and its application for acoustic particle velocity (APV) measurements. While former APV measurements with Doppler techniques are point measurements, the applied system is capable of simultaneous measurements at multiple points. In its current state, the system provides linear array measurements of one component of the APV demonstrated by multi-tone experiments with tones up to 17 kHz for the first time. PMID:23927110

  18. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  19. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  20. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  1. Blind source separation based on time-frequency morphological characteristics for rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun

    2016-06-01

    Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.

  2. Time-varying autoregressive modelling for nonstationary acoustic signal and its frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodsri, Chukiet

    2003-06-01

    A time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) approach is used for modeling nonstationary signals, and frequency information is then extracted from the TVAR parameters. Two methods may be used for estimating the TVAR parameters: the adaptive algorithm approach and the basis function approach. Adaptive algorithms, such as the least mean square (LMS) and the recursive least square (RLS), use a dynamic model for adapting the TVAR parameters and are capable of tracking time-varying frequency, provided that the variation is slow. It is observed that, if the signals have a single time-frequency component, the RLS with a fixed pole on the unit circle yields the fastest convergence. The basis function method employs an explicit model for the TVAR parameter variation, and model parameters are estimated via a block calculation. We proposed a modification to the basis function method by utilizing both forward and backward predictors for estimating the time-varying spectral density of nonstationary signals. It is shown that our approach yields better accuracy than the existing basis function approach, which uses only the forward predictor. The selection of the basis functions and limitations are also discussed in this thesis. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to analyze violin vibrato. Our results showed superior frequency resolution and spectral line smoothness using the proposed approach, compared to conventional analysis with the short time Fourier transform (STFT) whose frequency resolution is very limited. It was also found that frequency modulation of vibrato occurs at the rate of 6 Hz, and the frequency variations for each partial are different and increase nonlinearly with the partial number.

  3. Radio frequency interference survey over the 1.0-10.4 GHz frequency range at the Goldstone-Venus Development Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Klein, M. J.; Jackson, E. B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a low sensitivity Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) survey carried out at the Venus Station of the Goldstone Communications Complex are reported. The data cover the spectral range from 1 GHz to 10.4 GHz with a 10-kHz instantaneous bandwidth. Frequency and power levels were observed using a sweep-frequency spectrum analyzer connected to a 1-m diameter antenna pointed at zenith. The survey was conducted from February 16, 1987 through February 24, 1987.

  4. Iterative Frequency Domain Decision Feedback Equalization and Decoding for Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jian-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Single-carrier (SC) transmission with frequency-domain equalization (FDE) is today recognized as an attractive alternative to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for communication application with the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel. In this paper, we investigate an iterative receiver based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with symbol rate and fractional rate samplings in the frequency domain (FD) and serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoder. Based on sound speed profiles (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray tracking (Bellhop) method, the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. Performance results show that the proposed iterative receiver can significantly improve the performance and obtain better data transmission than FD linear and adaptive decision feedback equalizers, especially in adopting fractional rate sampling.

  5. Decomposition of frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals for different types of partial discharges sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witos, F.; Gacek, Z.; Paduch, P.

    2006-11-01

    The problem touched in the article is decomposition of frequency characteristic of AE signals into elementary form of three-parametrical Gauss function. At the first stage, for modelled curves in form of sum of three-parametrical Gauss peaks, accordance of modelled curve and a curve resulting from a solutions obtained using method with dynamic windows, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, genetic algorithms and differential evolution algorithm are discussed. It is founded that analyses carried out by means differential evolution algorithm are effective and the computer system served an analysis of AE signal frequency characteristics was constructed. Decomposition of frequency characteristics for selected AE signals coming from modelled PD sources using different ends of the bushing, and real PD sources in generator coil bars are carried out.

  6. Magnetic relaxation for Mn-based compounds exhibiting the Larmor precession at THz wave range frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, S.; Iihama, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Sugihara, A.; Ranjbar, R.; Suzuki, K. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Mn-based hard magnets are potentially suitable for advanced ultra-high frequency spintronics applications because they exhibit the Larmor precession of magnetization at THz wave-range frequencies with low magnetic relaxation. However, the low magnetic relaxation properties are not well understood; thus, a more detailed study is necessary. In this study, magnetization precessions in L10 Mn1.54Ga, D022 Mn2.12Ga, and C38 MnAlGe epitaxial films grown on MgO substrates were investigated using an all-optical pump-probe method under a magnetic field of ˜20 kOe. The coherent magnetization precessions at frequencies of more than 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 THz for the C38 MnAlGe, L10 Mn1.54Ga, and D022 Mn2.12Ga films, respectively, were clearly measured. The effective damping constant for the C38 MnAlGe film was smaller than the previously reported value measured at 10 kOe by a factor of 2, whereas those showed a large angular dependence. The effective damping constants for the L10 Mn1.54Ga and D022 Mn2.12Ga films were independent of the field angle and approximately identical to the values measured at 10 kOe. Thus, it was concluded that the values for the Gilbert damping constant, α, were 0.008 and 0.012 for the L10 Mn1.54Ga and D022 Mn2.12Ga films, respectively. The possible origin of the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical α values for these films is discussed.

  7. Frequency-division multiplexing in the terahertz range using a leaky-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Nicholas J.; McKinney, Robert W.; Monnai, Yasuaki; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2015-11-01

    The idea of using radiation in the 0.1-1.0 THz range as carrier waves for free-space wireless communications has attracted growing interest in recent years, due to the promise of the large available bandwidth. Recent research has focused on system demonstrations, as well as the exploration of new components for modulation, beam steering and polarization control. However, the multiplexing and demultiplexing of terahertz signals remains an unaddressed challenge, despite the importance of such capabilities for broadband networks. Using a leaky-wave antenna based on a metal parallel-plate waveguide, we demonstrate frequency-division multiplexing and demultiplexing over more than one octave of bandwidth. We show that this device architecture offers a unique method for controlling the spectrum allocation, by variation of the waveguide plate separation. This strategy, which is distinct from those previously employed in either the microwave or optical regimes, enables independent control of both the centre frequency and bandwidth of multiplexed terahertz channels.

  8. Long range dependence in the high frequency USD/INR exchange rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2014-02-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper examines the long memory property in the unconditional and conditional volatility of the USD/INR exchange rate at different time scales using the Local Whittle (LW), the Exact Local Whittle (ELW) and the FIAPARCH models. Results indicate that the long memory property remains quite stable across different time scales for both unconditional and conditional volatility measures. Results from the non-overlapping moving window approach indicate that the extreme events (such as the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis) resulted in highly persistent behavior of the USD/INR exchange rate and thus lead to market inefficiency. This paper also examines the long memory property in the realized volatility based on different time scale data. Results indicate that the realized volatility measures based on different scales of the high frequency data exhibit a consistent and stable long memory property. However, the realized volatility measures based on daily data exhibit lower degree of long-range dependence. This study has implications for traders and investors (with different trading horizons) and can be helpful in predicting expected future volatility and in designing and implementing trading strategies at different time scales.

  9. Global Low Frequency Protein Motions in Long-Range Allosteric Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeish, Tom; Rogers, Thomas; Townsend, Philip; Burnell, David; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark; Cann, Martin; Richards, Shane; Jones, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    We present a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low frequency dynamics without a change in protein structure. Elastic inhomogeneities allow entropic ``signalling at a distance.'' Remarkably, many globular proteins display just this class of elastic structure, in particular those that support allosteric binding of substrates (long-range co-operative effects between the binding sites of small molecules). Through multi-scale modelling of global normal modes we demonstrate negative co-operativity between the two cAMP ligands without change to the mean structure. Crucially, the value of the co-operativity is itself controlled by the interactions around a set of third allosteric ``control sites.'' The theory makes key experimental predictions, validated by analysis of variant proteins by a combination of structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. A quantitative description of allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein ``design space'' that identified the key inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, by analyzing naturally occurring CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. The methodology establishes the means to engineer allosteric mechanisms that are driven by low frequency dynamics.

  10. Absolute distance measurement with extension of nonambiguity range using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the method of synthetic wavelength interferometry (SWI) for absolute measurement of long distances using the radio-frequency harmonics of the pulse repetition rate of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Our intention here is to extend the nonambiguity range (NAR) of the SWI method using a coarse virtual wavelength synthesized by shifting the pulse repetition rate. The proposed concept of NAR extension is experimentally verified by measuring a ˜13-m distance with repeatability of 9.5 μm (root-mean-square). The measurement precision is estimated to be 31.2 μm in comparison with an incremental He-Ne laser interferometer. This extended SWI method is found to be well suited for long-distance measurements demanded in the fields of large-scale precision engineering, geodetic survey, and future space missions.

  11. Fiber optic probe of free electron evanescent fields in the optical frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    So, Jin-Kyu MacDonald, Kevin F.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2014-05-19

    We introduce an optical fiber platform which can be used to interrogate proximity interactions between free-electron evanescent fields and photonic nanostructures at optical frequencies in a manner similar to that in which optical evanescent fields are sampled using nanoscale aperture probes in scanning near-field microscopy. Conically profiled optical fiber tips functionalized with nano-gratings are employed to couple electron evanescent fields to light via the Smith-Purcell effect. We demonstrate the interrogation of medium energy (30–50 keV) electron fields with a lateral resolution of a few micrometers via the generation and detection of visible/UV radiation in the 700–300 nm (free-space) wavelength range.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of biotissue-mimicking phantoms in the THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakhov, E.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Popov, A.; Odlyanitskiy, E.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    The study revealed the most promising candidates for phantoms mimicking different biological tissues in the terahertz frequency range. Closest to biological tissues in terms of the refractive index appeared to be gelatin-based gels; in terms of the absorption coefficient they were agar-based gels. Gelatin is more stable in time, but requires special storage conditions to limit water evaporation. The dense structure of the agar-based phantom allows its use without mold and risk of damage. However, agar is a nutrient medium for bacteria and its parameters degrade even when the phantom form and water content are retained. Use of liquid suspensions of lecithin and milk powder are found to be extremely limited.

  13. Frequency and time pattern differences in acoustic signals produced by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)in stored maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acoustic signals emitted by the last stage larval instars and adults of Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize were investigated. Analyses were performed to identify brief, 1-10-ms broadband sound impulses of five different frequency patterns produced by larvae and adults,...

  14. Fitting stress relaxation experiments with fractional Zener model to predict high frequency moduli of polymeric acoustic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinxin; Yan, Guqi; Benyahia, Lazhar; Sahraoui, Sohbi

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a time domain method to determine viscoelastic properties of open-cell foams on a wide frequency range. This method is based on the adjustment of the stress-time relationship, obtained from relaxation tests on polymeric foams' samples under static compression, with the four fractional derivatives Zener model. The experimental relaxation function, well described by the Mittag-Leffler function, allows for straightforward prediction of the frequency-dependence of complex modulus of polyurethane foams. To show the feasibility of this approach, complex shear moduli of the same foams were measured in the frequency range between 0.1 and 16 Hz and at different temperatures between -20 °C and 20 °C. A curve was reconstructed on the reduced frequency range (0.1 Hz-1 MHz) using the time-temperature superposition principle. Very good agreement was obtained between experimental complex moduli values and the fractional Zener model predictions. The proposed time domain method may constitute an improved alternative to resonant and non-resonant techniques often used for dynamic characterization of polymers for the determination of viscoelastic moduli on a broad frequency range.

  15. Stability and efficacy of synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides nebulized using high frequency acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rezk, Amgad R; Khara, Jasmeet Singh; Yeo, Leslie Y; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW), a nanometer amplitude electroelastic wave generated and propagated on low-loss piezoelectric substrates (such as LiNbO3), is an extremely efficient solid-fluid energy transfer mechanism. The present study explores the use of SAW nebulization as a solution for effective pulmonary peptide delivery. In vitro deposition characteristics of the nebulized peptides were determined using a Next Generation Cascade Impactor. 70% of the peptide-laden aerosols generated were within a size distribution favorable for deep lung distribution. The integrity of the nebulized peptides was found to be retained, as shown via mass spectrometry. The anti-mycobacterial activity of the nebulized peptides was found to be uncompromised compared with their non-nebulized counterparts, as demonstrated by the minimum inhibition concentration and the colony forming inhibition activity. The peptide concentration and volume recoveries for the SAW nebulizer were significantly higher than 90% and found to be insensitive to variation in the peptide sequences. These results demonstrate the potential of the SAW nebulization platform as an effective delivery system of therapeutic peptides through the respiratory tract to the deep lung. PMID:27375820

  16. Parametric study of a Schamel equation for low-frequency dust acoustic waves in dusty electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetkar, Akbar; Dorranian, Davoud

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, our attention is first concentrated on obliquely propagating properties of low-frequency (ω ≪ ωcd) "fast" and "slow" dust acoustic waves, in the linear regime, in dusty electronegative plasmas with Maxwellian electrons, kappa distributed positive ions, negative ions (following the combination of kappa-Schamel distribution), and negatively charged dust particles. So, an explicit expression for dispersion relation is derived by linearizing a set of dust-fluid equations. The results show that wave frequency ω in long and short-wavelengths limit is conspicuously affected by physical parameters, namely, positive to negative temperature ion ratio (βp), trapping parameter of negative ions (μ), magnitude of the magnetic field B0 (via ωcd), superthermal index ( κn,κp ), and positive ion to dust density ratio (δp). The signature of the penultimate parameter (i.e., κn) on wave frequency reveals that the frequency gap between the modes reduces (escalates) for k kc r ), where kcr is critical wave number. Alternatively, for weakly nonlinear analysis, reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct 1D and 3D Schamel Korteweg-de Vries (S-KdV) equations, whose nonlinearity coefficient prescribes only compressive soliton for all parameter values of interest. The survey manifests that deviation of ions from Maxwellian behavior leads intrinsic properties of solitary waves to be evolved in opposite trend. Additionally, at lower proportion of trapped negative ions, solitary wave amplitude mitigates, whilst the trapping parameter has no effect on both spatial width and the linear wave. The results are discussed in the context of the Earth's mesosphere of dusty electronegative plasma.

  17. Laboratory investigation of the acoustic response of seagrass tissue in the frequency band 0.5-2.5 kHz.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Preston S; Dunton, Kenneth H

    2009-04-01

    Previous in situ investigations of seagrass have revealed acoustic phenomena that depend on plant density, tissue gas content, and free bubbles produced by photosynthetic activity, but corresponding predictive models that could be used to optimize acoustic remote sensing, shallow water sonar, and mine hunting applications have not appeared. To begin to address this deficiency, low frequency (0.5-2.5 kHz) acoustic laboratory experiments were conducted on three freshly collected Texas Gulf Coast seagrass species. A one-dimensional acoustic resonator technique was used to assess the biomass and effective acoustic properties of the leaves and rhizomes of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Independent biomass and gas content estimates were obtained via microscopic cross-section imagery. The acoustic results were compared to model predictions based on Wood's equation for a two-phase medium. The effective sound speed in the plant-filled resonator was strongly dependent on plant biomass, but the Wood's equation model (based on tissue gas content alone) could not predict the effective sound speed for the low irradiance conditions of the experiment, in which no free bubbles were generated by photosynthesis. The results corroborate previously published results obtained in situ for another seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica. PMID:19354371

  18. Laboratory investigation of the acoustic response of seagrass tissue in the frequency band 0.5-2.5 kHz.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Preston S; Dunton, Kenneth H

    2009-04-01

    Previous in situ investigations of seagrass have revealed acoustic phenomena that depend on plant density, tissue gas content, and free bubbles produced by photosynthetic activity, but corresponding predictive models that could be used to optimize acoustic remote sensing, shallow water sonar, and mine hunting applications have not appeared. To begin to address this deficiency, low frequency (0.5-2.5 kHz) acoustic laboratory experiments were conducted on three freshly collected Texas Gulf Coast seagrass species. A one-dimensional acoustic resonator technique was used to assess the biomass and effective acoustic properties of the leaves and rhizomes of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Independent biomass and gas content estimates were obtained via microscopic cross-section imagery. The acoustic results were compared to model predictions based on Wood's equation for a two-phase medium. The effective sound speed in the plant-filled resonator was strongly dependent on plant biomass, but the Wood's equation model (based on tissue gas content alone) could not predict the effective sound speed for the low irradiance conditions of the experiment, in which no free bubbles were generated by photosynthesis. The results corroborate previously published results obtained in situ for another seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica.

  19. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOEpatents

    Georgiades, N.P.; Polzik, E.S.; Kimble, H.J.

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies are disclosed. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100`s THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 {micro}m to 1.66 {micro}m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage. 7 figs.

  20. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOEpatents

    Georgiades, Nikos P.; Polzik, Eugene S.; Kimble, H. Jeff

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.