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Sample records for acoustic neuroma excision

  1. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  2. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  3. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...

  4. Functional outcome in patients after excision of extracanalicular acoustic neuromas using the suboccipital approach.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, N. M.; Kazanas, S.; Maw, A. R.; Coakham, H. B.; Torrens, M. J.; Morgan, M. H.; Stranjalis, G.; Butler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    An audit of surgery for acoustic neuroma was carried out to determine the frequency and nature of postoperative symptoms and their impact upon the patient's quality of life and vocation. Fifty-six patients were interviewed between 6 months and 5 years (mean 26 months) after surgical excision of an acoustic neuroma. The objective surgical results in these patients are good, with normal or near normal functional preservation rates of 80% for the facial nerve (House-Brackmann grade I/II), and 27.3% for a previously functioning acoustic nerve. Despite this there was no significant overall reduction in the reported occurrence of balance problems, tinnitus, headache and other neurological sequelae of the tumour after surgical excision. In 20% of the patients persistent symptoms, including deafness and facial weakness, had prevented the resumption of former social activities. As a result of these symptoms 8.6% of the patients were certified medically unfit for work, but of those employed preoperatively over 70% had returned to their jobs. The success of neuro-otological surgical management of acoustic neuroma is offset by some degree of chronic morbidity. Our patients expressed the need to know whether their symptoms would resolve, but were often too afraid to ask. Patients can be reassured that the majority resume their former social and vocational activities, but should be advised that some symptoms can persist or occur de novo after surgery. Our data suggest that early intervention would reduce the incidence of these troublesome sequelae. PMID:7598420

  5. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, is a rare benign tumor of the ... Acoustic Neuroma? An acoustic neuroma, known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that ...

  6. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  7. Morbidity and mortality following acoustic neuroma excision in the United States: analysis of racial disparities during a decade in the radiosurgery era

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shearwood; Guo, Hongfei; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic neuromas present a challenging problem, with the major treatment modalities involving operative excision, stereotactic radiosurgery, observation, and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The morbidity/mortality following excision may differ by patient race. To address this concern, the morbidity of acoustic neuroma excision was assessed on a nationwide level. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1994–2003 was used for analysis. Only patients admitted for acoustic neuroma excision were included (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, Clinical Modification = 225.1; primary procedure code = 04.01). Analysis was adjusted for several variables, including patient age, race, sex, primary payer for care, income in ZIP code of residence, surgeon caseload, and hospital caseload. Multivariate analyses revealed that postoperative mortality following acoustic neuroma excision was 0.5%, with adverse discharge disposition of 6.1%. The odds ratio for mortality in African Americans compared with Caucasians was 8.82 (95% confidence interval = 1.85–41.9, P = .006). Patients with high-caseload surgeons (more than 2 excisions/year), private insurance, and younger age had decreased mortality, better discharge disposition, and lower overall morbidity (P < .04). Neither hospital caseload nor median income were predictive factors. African Americans were 9 times more likely to die following surgery than Caucasians over a decade-long analysis. Given the relatively benign natural history of acoustic neuroma and the alarmingly increased mortality rate following surgical excision among older patients, African Americans, and patients receiving care from low-caseload surgeons, acoustic neuromas in these patient populations may be best managed by a more minimally invasive modality such as observation, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery. PMID:21856684

  8. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... 177. Battista RA. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2009;42:635-654. ...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Platinum Sponsors More from this sponsor... Platinum Sponsor Gold Sponsor University of Colorado Acoustic Neuroma Program Rocky Mountain Gamma Knife Center Gold Sponsor NYU Langone Medical Center Departments of Neurosurgery ...

  10. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  11. Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis On this page: ... more information about vestibular schwannomas? What is a vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma)? Inner ear with vestibular schwannoma ( ...

  12. Loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James L; Pettersson, David; Palmisano, Sadie; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Edwards, Colin G; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Bergenheim, Tommy; Florentzson, Rut; Harder, Henrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Siesjö, Peter; Feychting, Maria

    2014-07-01

    The results from studies of loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma are conflicting. A population-based case-control study of 451 acoustic neuroma patients and 710 age-, sex-, and region-matched controls was conducted in Sweden between 2002 and 2007. Occupational exposure was based on historical measurements of occupational noise (321 job titles summarized by a job exposure matrix) and compared with self-reported occupational noise exposure. We also evaluated self-reported noise exposure during leisure activity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. There was no statistically significant association between acoustic neuroma and persistent occupational noise exposure, either with or without hearing protection. Exposure to loud noise from leisure activity without hearing protection was more common among acoustic neuroma cases (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.03). Statistically significant odds ratios were found for specific leisure activities including attending concerts/clubs/sporting events (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.04) and participating in workouts accompanied by loud music (odds ratio = 2.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 5.89). Our findings do not support an association between occupational exposure to loud noise and acoustic neuroma. Although we report statistically significant associations between leisure-time exposures to loud noise without hearing protection and acoustic neuroma, especially among women, we cannot rule out recall bias as an alternative explanation. PMID:24786799

  13. Resection planning for robotic acoustic neuroma surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrayer, Kepra L.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic neuroma surgery is a procedure in which a benign mass is removed from the Internal Auditory Canal (IAC). Currently this surgical procedure requires manual drilling of the temporal bone followed by exposure and removal of the acoustic neuroma. This procedure is physically and mentally taxing to the surgeon. Our group is working to develop an Acoustic Neuroma Surgery Robot (ANSR) to perform the initial drilling procedure. Planning the ANSR's drilling region using pre-operative CT requires expertise and around 35 minutes' time. We propose an approach for automatically producing a resection plan for the ANSR that would avoid damage to sensitive ear structures and require minimal editing by the surgeon. We first compute an atlas-based segmentation of the mastoid section of the temporal bone, refine it based on the position of anatomical landmarks, and apply a safety margin to the result to produce the automatic resection plan. In experiments with CTs from 9 subjects, our automated process resulted in a resection plan that was verified to be safe in every case. Approximately 2 minutes were required in each case for the surgeon to verify and edit the plan to permit functional access to the IAC. We measured a mean Dice coefficient of 0.99 and surface error of 0.08 mm between the final and automatically proposed plans. These preliminary results indicate that our approach is a viable method for resection planning for the ANSR and drastically reduces the surgeon's planning effort.

  14. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  15. Histopathology of the inner ear in unoperated acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohd Ridzo; Khan, Aayesha M; Nadol, Joseph B

    2003-11-01

    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal

  16. Intraoperative neuromonitoring techniques in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taemin; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Fong, Brendan M; Trang, Andy; Gopen, Quinton; Parsa, Andrew T; Yang, Isaac

    2012-09-01

    Unfavorable outcomes such as facial paralysis and deafness were once unfortunate probable complications following resection of acoustic neuromas. However, the implementation of intraoperative neuromonitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery has demonstrated placing more emphasis on quality of life and preserving neurological function. A modern review demonstrates a great degree of recent success in this regard. In facial nerve monitoring, the use of modern electromyography along with improvements in microneurosurgery has significantly improved preservation. Recent studies have evaluated the use of video monitoring as an adjunctive tool to further improve outcomes for patients undergoing surgery. Vestibulocochlear nerve monitoring has also been extensively studied, with the most popular techniques including brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring, electrocochleography, and direct compound nerve action potential monitoring. Among them, direct recording remains the most promising and preferred monitoring method for functional acoustic preservation. However, when compared with postoperative facial nerve function, the hearing preservation is only maintained at a lower rate. Here, the authors analyze the major intraoperative neuromonitoring techniques available for acoustic neuroma resection. PMID:22937857

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Potter, Andrew E.; Brophy, Brian P.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  18. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Piras, Gianluca; Brandolini, Cristina; Castellucci, Andrea; Modugno, Giovanni Carlo

    2013-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of vestibular testing in patients with acoustic neuroma, considering two main aspects: to compare diagnostic sensitivity of the current vestibular tests, especially considering ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) and to identify pre-operative localization of the tumor (inferior vestibular nerve vs. superior vestibular nerve) only with the help of vestibular electrophysiological data. Twenty-six patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma (mainly intracanalicular type) were studied with a full audio-vestibular test battery (pure tone and speech audiometry, caloric bithermal test, vibration-induced nystagmus test (VIN), cervical and OVEMPs). 18 patients (69 %) showed abnormal caloric responses. 12 patients (46.2 %) showed a pattern of VIN test suggestive of vestibular asymmetry. 16 patients (61.5 %) showed abnormal OVEMPs (12 only to AC, 4 both to AC and BC). 10 patients (38.5 %) showed abnormal cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (5 both to AC and BC, 5 only to AC). In one case, results of vestibular evoked potentials and caloric test were confirmed by intra-operative and post-operative findings. Results of electrophysiological tests in AN patients could be helpful for planning the proper surgical approach, considering that sensitivity of every exam is quite low in intracanalicular lesion; clinical data allow a better interpretation of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. PMID:22526579

  19. The Fully Endoscopic Acoustic Neuroma Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Carner, Marco; Rubini, Alessia; Nogueira, João Flávio; Masotto, Barbara; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Presutti, Livio

    2016-10-01

    Surgical approaches to vestibular schwannomas (VS) are widely known and extensively recorded. For the first time, an exclusive endoscopic approach to the internal acoustic canal (IAC) was described and used to safely remove a cochlear schwannoma involving IAC in March 2012. The aim of this article was to summarize indications and technique to treat intracanalicular VS by transcanal/transpromontorial endoscopic approach. Because management of intracanalicular VSs is complex and strongly debated, this kind of therapeutic option in the appropriate and selected cases could modify classic concepts of the management of this pathology. PMID:27565388

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife for acoustic neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, R.L.; Coffey, R.J.; Swanson, J.W.

    1995-07-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife for acoustic neuromas. Between January 1990 and January 1993, 36 patients with acoustic neuromas were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife. The median maximum tumor diameter was 21 mm (range: 6-32 mm). Tumor volumes encompasses within the prescribed isodose line varied from 266 to 8,667 mm{sup 3} (median: 3,135 mm{sup 3}). Tumors {<=} 20 mm in maximum diameter received a dose of 20 Gy to the margin, tumors between 21 and 30 mm received 18 Gy, and tumors > 30 mm received 16 Gy. The dose was prescribed to the 50% isodose line in 31 patients and to the 45%, 55%, 60%, 70%, and 80% isodose line in one patient each. Nine tumors (26%) were smaller, and 26 tumors (74%) were unchanged. No tumor had progressed. The 1- and 2-year actuarial incidences of facial neuropathy were 52.2% and 66.5%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year actuarial incidences of trigeminal neuropathy were 33.7% and 58.9%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year actuarial incidence of facial or trigeminal neuropathy (or both) was 60.8% and 81.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the following were associated with the time of onset or worsening of facial weakness or trigeminal neuropathy: (a) patients < age 65 years, (b) dose to the tumor margin, (c) maximum tumor diameter {>=} 21 mm, (d) use of the 18 mm collimator, and (e) use of > five isocenters. The 1- and 2-year actuarial rates of preservation of useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson class I or II) were 100% and 41.7% {plus_minus} 17.3, respectively. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife provides short-term control of acoustic neuromas when a dose of 16 to 20 Gy to the tumor margin is used. Preservation of useful hearing can be accomplished in a significant proportion of patients. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Management of the Acoustic Neuroma in an Only Hearing Ear

    PubMed Central

    Pensak, Myles L.; Tew, John M.; Keith, Robert W.; VanLoveren, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    Heightened physician awareness of the sociologic and psychologic trauma related to deafness coupled with an increased emphasis on early diagnosis has prompted the employment of sophisticated diagnostic studies in an attempt at identification of an acoustic neuroma as a cause of hearing loss. Because profound bilateral hearing impairment is a catastrophic event, the management and care of an individual with an eighth nerve lesion in an only hearing ear remains a significant challenge for both patient and physician. In this article we will summarize our experience with this unique patient population through case presentations that will include diagnostic testing and intraoperative and perioperative findings. The literature regarding diagnosis and management will be reviewed. Recommendations for options available in the care of these patients will be discussed. PMID:17170828

  2. [Changes in early auditory evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma].

    PubMed

    Hoth, S

    1991-09-01

    The auditory brain-stem responses (ABRs) of 38 patients with acoustic neuroma (AN) were recorded pre-operatively and evaluated with regard to pathological deviations from the normal. Several qualitative and quantitative features of the ABRs were compared statistically with the results obtained from a control group for age and sex, and considering patients with various cochlear pathologies (Meniere's disease, sudden deafness, presbycusis). Retrocochlear disorders were ruled out by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Statistical analysis yielded the following results. The central conduction time (latency difference between Jewett waves J1 and J5) is significantly prolonged in the AN group. A critical value of 4.3 ms separates the retrocochlear from the cochlear lesions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 90%. If conductive hearing loss can be excluded, and if the amount of cochlear hearing loss is taken into account, about the same separation effectively is achieved by evaluation of the sole latency of J5 and its stimulus level dependence. The interaural difference of the central conduction time can be a useful parameter for indicating the presence of acoustic tumours, unless both sides are affected. The same is true of the interaural differences for the J5 latency, but this quantity must be corrected for the effects of peripheral hearing loss. The critical interaural difference values are 0.3 ms for the conduction time (at any stimulus level) and 0.5 ms for the latency of J5 (for stimulus levels above 60 dB nHL). A weaker distinction is provided by the amplitude of J5 and the amplitude ratio of J5 and J1. These quantities are only slightly smaller in cases of AN. Only the combination of small J5 amplitudes with large latency values can be regarded as being characteristic of retrocochlear lesions. This can be highlighted in an amplitude-latency diagram. Further hints as to the site of the lesion can be obtained from a distorted waveform morphology

  3. Risk Factors of Acoustic Neuroma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mantao; Fan, Zuoxu; Cao, Fei; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many epidemiological studies have investigated environmental risk factors for the development of acoustic neuroma. However, these results are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to identify any potential relationship between history of noise exposure, smoking, allergic diseases, and risk of acoustic neuroma. Materials and Methods We searched PubMed to identify relevant articles. Two researchers evaluated the eligibility and extracted the data independently. Results Eleven case-control studies were included in our meta-analysis. Acoustic neuroma was found to be associated with leisure noise exposure [odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.68], but not with occupational noise exposure and ever noise exposure (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.84–1.72 and OR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.80–1.65). The OR of acoustic neuroma for ever (versus never) smoking was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.30–0.94), while the subgroup analysis indicated ORs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81–1.10) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.41–0.59) for ex-smoker and current smoker respectively. The ORs for asthma, eczema, and seasonal rhinitis were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.80–1.18), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.76–1.09), and 1.52 (95% CI: 0.90–2.54), respectively. Conclusion Our meta-analysis is suggestive of an elevated risk of acoustic neuroma among individuals who were ever exposed to leisure noise, but not to occupational noise. Our study also indicated a lower acoustic neuroma risk among ever and current cigarette smokers than never smokers, while there was no significant relationship for ex-smokers. No significant associations were found between acoustic neuroma and history of any allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and seasonal rhinitis. PMID:26996581

  4. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas) may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump') neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, fatigue severity

  5. Retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of acoustic neuroma with hearing preservation: a video publication.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Carlson, Matthew L; Godil, Saniya S; Bennett, Marc L; Wanna, George B; Weaver, Kyle D

    2014-01-01

    In this publication, video format is utilized to review the operative technique of retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of acoustic neuroma with attempted hearing preservation. Steps of the operative procedure are reviewed and salient principles and technical nuances useful in minimizing complications and maximizing efficacy are discussed. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/PBE5rQ7B0Ls . PMID:24380523

  6. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of adult meningioma, glioma, and acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Hutchinson, Amy; Wichner, Sara; Black, Peter M; Fine, Howard A; Loeffler, Jay S; Selker, Robert G; Shapiro, William R; Rothman, Nathaniel; Linet, Martha S; Inskip, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Although the etiology of primary brain tumors is largely unknown, prior studies suggest that DNA repair polymorphisms may influence risk of glioma. Altered DNA repair is also likely to affect the risk of meningioma and acoustic neuroma, but these tumors have not been well studied. We estimated the risk of glioma (n = 362), meningioma (n = 134), and acoustic neuroma (n = 69) in non-Hispanic whites with respect to 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 26 genes involved in DNA repair in a hospital-based, case-control study conducted by the National Cancer Institute. We observed significantly increased risk of meningioma with the T variant of GLTSCR1 rs1035938 (OR(CT/TT) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.9; P(trend) .0006), which persisted after controlling for multiple comparisons (P = .019). Significantly increased meningioma risk was also observed for the minor allele variants of ERCC4 rs1800067 (P(trend) .01); MUTYH rs3219466 (P(trend) .02), and PCNA rs25406 (P(trend) .03). The NBN rs1805794 minor allele variant was associated with decreased meningioma risk (P(trend) .006). Risk of acoustic neuroma was increased for the ERCC2 rs1799793 (P(trend) .03) and ERCC5 rs17655 (P(trend) .05) variants and decreased for the PARP1 rs1136410 (P(trend) .03). Decreased glioma risk was observed with the XRCC1 rs1799782 variant (P(trend) .04). Our results suggest that common DNA repair variants may affect the risk of adult brain tumors, especially meningioma. PMID:20150366

  7. Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon; Shin, Dongoh; Park, Sungho; Chung, Weon Kuu; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  8. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D; Chung, W; Shin, D; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  9. Long-term outcome of stereotactic radiosurgery (Srs) in patients with acoustic neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E. . E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Thilmann, Christoph; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and long-term outcome of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas (AN). Patients and Methods: Between 1990 and 2001, we treated 26 patients with 27 AN with SRS. Two patients suffered from neurofibromatosis type 2. Before SRS, a subtotal or total resection had been performed in 3 and in 5 patients, respectively. For SRS, a median single dose of 13 Gy/80% isodose was applied. Results: The overall actuarial 5-year and 10-year tumor control probability in all patients was 91%. Two patients developed tumor progression after SRS at 36 and 48 months. Nineteen patients (73%) were at risk of treatment-related facial nerve toxicity; of these, 1 patient developed a complete facial nerve palsy after SRS (5%). A total of 93% of the lesions treated were at risk of radiation-induced trigeminal neuralgia. Two patients (8%) developed mild dysesthesia of the trigeminal nerve after SRS. The hearing preservation rate in patients with useful hearing before SRS was 55% at 9 years. Conclusion:: Stereotactic radiosurgery results in good local control rates of AN and the risk of cranial nerve toxicities is acceptable. As toxicity is lower with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, SRS should be reserved for smaller lesions.

  10. Acoustic neuroma: potential risk factors and audiometric surveillance in the aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode; Galusha, Deron; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Kirsche, Sharon; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R; Donoghue, A Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To look for an association between acoustic neuroma (AN) and participation in a hearing conservation programme (HCP) and also for an association between AN and possible occupational risk factors in the aluminium industry. Methods We conducted a case–control analysis of a population of US aluminium production workers in 8 smelters and 43 other plants. Using insurance claims data, 97 cases of AN were identified between 1996 and 2009. Each was matched with four controls. Covariates included participation in a HCP, working in an aluminium smelter, working in an electrical job and hearing loss. Results In the bivariate analyses, covariates associated with AN were participation in the HCP (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.69) and smelter work (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.36). Electrical work was not significant (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.65 to 3.94). Owing to high participation in the HCP in smelters, multivariate subanalyses were required. In the multivariate analyses, participation in the HCP was the only statistically significant risk factor for AN. In the multivariate analysis restricted to employees not working in a smelter, the OR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.17). Hearing loss, an indirect measure of in-ear noise dose, was not predictive of AN. Conclusions Our results suggest the incidental detection of previously undiagnosed tumours in workers who participated in the company-sponsored HCP. The increased medical surveillance among this population of workers most likely introduced detection bias, leading to the identification of AN cases that would have otherwise remained undetected. PMID:25015928

  11. Correlation between Ki-67 index and some clinical aspects of acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas).

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, K; Vaneecloo, F M; Lecomte, M H; Lejeune, J P; Lemaitre, L; Skarzyński, H; Vincent, C; Dubrulle, F

    2000-12-01

    Evaluation of the proliferation activity of neuromas has a practical meaning when there are doubts about the complete resection of the tumor. Evaluation of the clinical aspects connected with increased proliferation activity may have a much broader application. The aim of this study was to correlate selected clinical and radiologic aspects of vestibular schwannomas with the results of the Ki-67 index. The studied group included 23 males and 20 females. Unilateral neuromas were stated in 38 cases (mean age, 52.2 years) and bilateral tumors in 5 cases (mean age, 44.2 years). The immunohistochemical tests (Ki-67) were performed on the specimens preserved in formalin and stored in paraffin. The Ki-67 index was estimated in a semiquantitative study. The mean value of Ki-67 index was 1.86%. In case of unilateral neuromas (n = 38), the average Ki-67 index was 1.74%. In 5 cases of bilateral tumors, the index amounted to 2.79% (P = 0.278). No significant correlation was found by comparing the value of the Ki-67 index with the age of patients (P = 0.410: r = 0.128). Significant differences in the value of the Ki-67 index were noted in the sub-groups of tumors that were evaluated radiologically as growing and stable. The mean value of Ki-67 index was 3.17% in the first subgroup; in stable neuromas, it was significantly lower, amounting to 1.11% (P = 0.020). Such results may confirm that the growth rate of vestibular schwannomas varies and may explain the difficulties in estimating the growth of neuromas on the basis of clinical aspects only. PMID:11112979

  12. Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Adams, William R

    2010-10-01

    Morton neuroma is a common source of forefoot pain. This condition is more correctly termed as interdigital nerve compression and is not a true neuroma. Although Morton neuroma is a common diagnosis, debate exists as to the best surgical and nonsurgical treatments. This article discusses the pathogenesis, diagnosis, nonsurgical and surgical management, and surgical complications of this common disorder. PMID:20934103

  13. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    PubMed

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. PMID:26806089

  14. Fat graft-assisted internal auditory canal closure after retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma: Technique for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Azad, Tareq; Mendelson, Zachary S; Wong, Anni; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2016-02-01

    The retrosigmoid transmeatal approach remains an important strategy in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas. Gross total resection of acoustic neuromas requires removal of tumor within the cerebellopontine angle as well as tumor involving the internal auditory canal (IAC). Drilling into the petrous bone of the IAC can expose petrous air cells, which can potentially result in a fistulous tract to the nasopharynx manifesting as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. We describe our method of IAC closure using autologous fat graft and assessed the rates of postoperative CSF leakage. We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients who underwent retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma who underwent our method of fat graft-assisted IAC closure. We assessed rates of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, and occurrence of meningitis. Twenty-four patients (10 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 47 years (range 18-84) underwent fat graft-assisted IAC closure. No lumbar drains were used postoperatively. There were no instances of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, or occurrence of meningitis. There were no graft site complications. Our results demonstrate that autologous fat grafts provide a safe and effective method of IAC defect closure to prevent postoperative CSF leakage after acoustic tumor removal via a retrosigmoid transmeatal approach. The surgical technique and operative nuances are described. PMID:26482457

  15. Twenty years' experience in the treatment of acoustic neuromas with fractionated radiotherapy: A review of 45 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: jean-philippe.maire@chu-bordeaux.fr; Huchet, Aymeri; Milbeo, Yann; Darrouzet, Vincent; Causse, Nicole; Celerier, Denis; Liguoro, Dominique; Bebear, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate very long-term results of fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) of acoustic neuromas (AN). Methods and Materials: From January 1986 to January 2004, FRT was performed in 45 consecutive patients (46 AN). Indications were as follows: poor general condition contraindicating surgery, hearing preservation in bilateral neuromas, partial resection, nonsurgical recurrence. A 3-field to 5-field technique with static beams was used. A mean total dose of 51 Gy was given (1.80 Gy/fraction). The median tumor diameter was 31 mm (range, 11-55 mm). The median follow-up from FRT was 80 months (range, 4-227 months). Results: The particularity of our series consists of a very long-term follow-up of FRT given to selected patients. Nineteen patients died, two with progressive disease, and 17 from non-AN causes. A serviceable level of hearing was preserved in 7/9 hearing patients. No patient had facial or trigeminal neuropathy. Tumor shrinkage was observed in 27 (59%) and stable disease in 16 (35%). Tumor progression occurred in three patients, 12 to 15 months after FRT. Two additional tumors recurred after shrinkage 20 and 216 months after treatment and were operated on. Actuarial local tumor control rates at 5 and 15 years were 86%. For the patient who had a tumor recurrence at 216 months, histologic examination documented transformation to a low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Conclusion: Very long-term efficacy of FRT is well documented in this series. However, our results suggest that malignant transformation can occur many years after FRT so we advocate caution when using this treatment for young patients.

  16. Retrosigmoid Versus Translabyrinthine Approach for Acoustic Neuroma Resection: An Assessment of Complications and Payments in a Longitudinal Administrative Database

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tyler; Veeravagu, Anand; Zhang, Michael; Swinney, Christian; Li, Gordon H; Ratliff, John K; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Object Retrosigmoid (RS) and translabyrinthine (TL) surgery remain essential treatment approaches for symptomatic or enlarging acoustic neuromas (ANs). We compared nationwide complication rates and payments, independent of tumor characteristics, for these two strategies. Methods We identified 346 and 130 patients who underwent RS and TL approaches, respectively, for AN resection in the 2010-2012 MarketScan database, which characterizes primarily privately-insured patients from multiple institutions nationwide. Results Although we found no difference in 30-day general neurological or neurosurgical complication rates, in TL procedures there was a decreased risk for postoperative cranial nerve (CN) VII injury (20.2% vs 10.0%, CI 0.23–0.82), dysphagia (10.4% vs 3.1%, CI 0.10–0.78), and dysrhythmia (8.4% vs 2.3%, CI 0.08–0.86). Overall, there was no difference in surgical repair rates of CSF leak; however, intraoperative fat grafting was significantly higher in TL approaches (19.8% vs 60.2%, CI 3.95–9.43). In patients receiving grafts, there was a trend towards a higher repair rate after RS approach, while in those without grafts, there was a trend towards a higher repair rate after TL approach. Median total payments were $16,856 higher after RS approaches ($67,774 vs $50,918, p < 0.0001), without differences in physician or 90-day postoperative payments. Conclusions  Using a nationwide longitudinal database, we observed that the TL, compared to RS, approach for AN resection experienced lower risks of CN VII injury, dysphagia, and dysrhythmia. There was no significant difference in CSF leak repair rates. The payments for RS procedures exceed payments for TL procedures by approximately $17,000. Data from additional years and non-private sources will further clarify these trends. PMID:26623224

  17. Management of Painful Recurrent Intermetatarsal Neuroma Using Processed Porcine Extracellular Matrix Material: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert G; Merced-O'Neil, Orlando

    2016-04-01

    Painful recurrent stump neuroma presents a common clinical problem following the transection of a nerve after initial interdigital neuroma excision but there is no gold standard of treatment. A patient presented with pain symptoms consistent with recurrent intermetatarsal stump neuroma after undergoing previous surgery to excise a Hauser neuroma. The recurrent stump neuroma was excised and the resulting nerve was capped and implantation into intrinsic muscle. Postoperatively, the patient experienced a complete resolution of pain and return of normal function. This article discusses capping material characteristics and considers the factors that may contribute to clinical success. PMID:27013414

  18. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, S; Joshy, S; Hariharan, K; Rashid, M

    2013-09-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton's neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton's neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton's neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to that of a Morton's neuroma. Our patients were rendered asymptomatic with surgical treatment and went on to have appropriate management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid nodule should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Morton's neuroma in not only rheumatoid arthritis patients but also asymptomatic patients who have never been tested for rheumatoid antibodies. PMID:23135058

  19. Neurectomy for Bilateral Morton's Neuroma A Case Report of a Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Terufumi; Yoshimura, Ichiro; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hagio, Tomonobu; Minokawa, So; Nagatomo, Masaya; Naito, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common condition that mainly affects middle-aged women, and many articles have addressed the surgical treatment of this condition. Previous reports have described bilateral neuroma excision in women but not in men. We report a rare case of bilateral neuromas in a male patient treated with simultaneous neurectomy. PMID:27269979

  20. SU-E-T-318: The Effect of Patient Positioning Errors On Target Coverage and Cochlear Dose in Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment of Acoustic Neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamonica, D.; Luo, G.; Ding, G.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Setup errors on the order of millimeters may cause under-dosing of targets and significant changes in dose to critical structures especially when planning with tight margins in stereotactic radiosurgery. This study evaluates the effects of these types of patient positioning uncertainties on planning target volume (PTV) coverage and cochlear dose for stereotactic treatments of acoustic neuromas. Methods: Twelve acoustic neuroma patient treatment plans were retrospectively evaluated in Brainlab iPlan RT Dose 4.1.3. All treatment beams were shaped by HDMLC from a Varian TX machine. Seven patients had planning margins of 2mm, five had 1–1.5mm. Six treatment plans were created for each patient simulating a 1mm setup error in six possible directions: anterior-posterior, lateral, and superiorinferior. The arcs and HDMLC shapes were kept the same for each plan. Change in PTV coverage and mean dose to the cochlea was evaluated for each plan. Results: The average change in PTV coverage for the 72 simulated plans was −1.7% (range: −5 to +1.1%). The largest average change in coverage was observed for shifts in the patient's superior direction (−2.9%). The change in mean cochlear dose was highly dependent upon the direction of the shift. Shifts in the anterior and superior direction resulted in an average increase in dose of 13.5 and 3.8%, respectively, while shifts in the posterior and inferior direction resulted in an average decrease in dose of 17.9 and 10.2%. The average change in dose to the cochlea was 13.9% (range: 1.4 to 48.6%). No difference was observed based on the size of the planning margin. Conclusion: This study indicates that if the positioning uncertainty is kept within 1mm the setup errors may not result in significant under-dosing of the acoustic neuroma target volumes. However, the change in mean cochlear dose is highly dependent upon the direction of the shift.

  1. On the acoustic effects of the supraglottic structures in excised larynges

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic effects of the supraglottic laryngeal structures (SGSs), including the false vocal folds (FVFs) laryngeal ventricle, and the epiglottis were investigated in an excised canine larynx model with and without these anatomical structures. The purpose of this study was to better understand the acoustic contributions of these structures to phonation. Canine larynges were prepared and mounted over a 3/4 in. tube, which supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottal adduction was accomplished by rotating the arytenoids with a suture passed behind the vocal folds to simulate the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle action. The SGSs were kept intact in the first part of the experiment and were removed in the second part. Results indicated that when the FVFs vibrated, a low frequency component was observed in the spectral data. The excised larynx with a SGS had a limited range of frequency with subglottal pressure, while the larynx without a SGS had a larger frequency range. The excised canine larynx with a SGS oscillated with a higher phonation threshold pressure and significantly louder. PMID:23654402

  2. Identifying the Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  4. Sciatic Neuroma Presenting Forty Years After Above-Knee Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kitcat, M; Hunter, J.E; Malata, C.M

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a sciatic neuroma presenting forty years after above knee amputation. Patients developing neuroma following a limb amputation can present with stump pain which is commonly resistant to medical intervention. The length of interval from the initial injury to presentation is widely variable. Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and accurate assessment, radiological imaging and, if indicated, surgical exploration. MRI provides a better soft tissue definition than CT and is more accurate in identifying small lesions than ultrasound. The aim of treatment for symptomatic neuroma is pain relief and improvement of function. This is often achieved by surgical excision. PMID:20224738

  5. Diagnostic Value of Elastography in the Diagnosis of Intermetatarsal Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Ormeci, Tugrul; Güler, Olcay; Malkoc, Melih; Keskinbora, Mert; Güngören, Fatma Zeynep; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the ultrasound and elastographic properties of intermetatarsal neuroma (interdigital neuroma) and their contribution to diagnosis. Eighteen patients with metatarsalgia, who had presented to an orthopedic clinic from April 2013 to February 2015, were diagnosed with 25 intermetatarsal neuromas (11 unilateral [61.11%], 7 bilateral [38.89%]). These patients underwent evaluation with ultrasonography and simultaneous ultrasound strain elastography to assess the elastographic properties of the tissues in the intermetatarsal space. The intermetatarsal neuroma diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic inspection. The lesion contours, localization, dimensions, and vascularization were evaluated before surgical excision. The elasticity and strain ratio values were compared between the neuroma and adjacent healthy intermetatarsal space. Of the 25 intermetatarsal neuromas, 1 (4%) was not detected by ultrasonography (incidence of detection of 96%). The mean neuroma width was 6.35 (range 3.7 to 13) mm in the coronal plane, and the mean elasticity and strain ratio values were 3.44 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and 9.47 (range 2.3 to 19.3), respectively. The elasticity and strain ratio values were significantly greater in the presence of an interdigital neuroma than in the adjacent healthy intermetatarsal spaces (Z = -3.964, p = .0001 and Z = -3.927, p = .0001, respectively). The diagnostic cutoff values were calculated as 2.52 for elasticity and 6.1 for the strain ratio. Four neuromas (16%) were not demarcated, and the elasticity and strain ratio values for these were lower than those for neuromas with demarcated contours but were greater than those for healthy intermetatarsal spaces (p < .006 and p < .005, respectively). Patients with clinically suspected intermetatarsal neuromas that do not show demarcation and with smaller lesions might benefit from the use of ultrasound elastography for diagnosis. PMID:26964696

  6. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma): Predicting the Risk of Hydrocephalus;Vestibular schwannoma; Hydrocephalus; Fractionated; Stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Ceri; Micallef, Caroline; Gonsalves, Adam; Wharram, Bev; Ashley, Sue; Brada, Michael

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and predictive factors for the development of hydrocephalus in patients with acoustic neuromas (AN) treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Seventy-two patients with AN were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 (45-50 Gy in 25-30 fractions over 5 to 6 weeks). The pretreatment MRI scan was assessed for tumor characteristics and anatomic distortion independently of subsequent outcome and correlated with the risk of hydrocephalus. Results: At a median follow-up of 49 months (range, 1-120 months), 5-year event-free survival was 95%. Eight patients (11%) developed hydrocephalus within 19 months of radiotherapy, which was successfully treated. On univariate analysis, pretreatment factors predictive of hydrocephalus were maximum diameter (p = 0.005), proximity to midline (p = 0.009), displacement of the fourth ventricle (p = 0.02), partial effacement of the fourth ventricle (p < 0.001), contact with the medulla (p = 0.005), and more brainstem structures (p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for fourth ventricular effacement, no other variables remained independently associated with hydrocephalus formation. Conclusions: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy results in excellent tumor control of AN, albeit with a risk of developing hydrocephalus. Patients at high risk, identified as those with larger tumors with partial effacement of the fourth ventricle before treatment, should be monitored more closely during follow-up. It would also be preferable to offer treatment to patients with progressive AN while the risk of hydrocephalus is low, before the development of marked distortion of fourth ventricle before tumor diameter significantly exceeds 2 cm.

  7. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  8. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Effects of Abrupt Frequency Changes in Excised Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects due to a sudden change from chest to falsetto register or vice versa. It was hypothesized that the continuous change in subglottal pressure and flow rate alone (pressure-flow sweep [PFS]) can trigger a mode change in the canine larynx. Method: Ten canine larynges were each mounted over a…

  9. Excision without excision

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel; Hawke, Ian; Pollney, Denis

    2007-10-15

    to turducken (turduckens, turduckening, turduckened, turduckened) [math.]: To stuff a black hole. We analyze and apply an alternative to black hole excision based on smoothing the interior of black holes with arbitrary initial data, and solving the vacuum Einstein evolution equations everywhere. By deriving the constraint propagation system for our hyperbolic formulation of the BSSN evolution system we rigorously prove that the constraints propagate causally and so any constraint violations introduced inside the black holes cannot affect the exterior spacetime. We present evolutions of Cook-Pfeiffer binary black hole initial configurations showing that these techniques appear to work robustly for generic data. We also present evidence from spherically symmetric evolutions that for the gauge conditions used the same stationary end-state is approached irrespective of the choice of initial data and smoothing procedure.

  10. Multiple interdigital neuromas: a retrospective study of 279 feet with 462 neuromas.

    PubMed

    Valero, José; Gallart, José; González, David; Deus, Javier; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common pathologic entity that, traditionally, was considered to be an isolated tumor that rarely affected more than 1 interdigital space. However, in recent years, multiple neuromas have become more common in our day-to-day practice. The objective of the present study was to assess the frequency with which Morton's neuroma appears in the different interdigital spaces. A retrospective study was performed of 279 feet that had been surgically treated for Morton's neuroma using a dorsal approach during a 9-year period (from January 2003 to December 2011), with an ultrasound scan taken preoperatively and histopathologic analysis performed afterward. From the 279 treated feet, 462 interdigital neuromas were surgically removed. Of the 279 feet, 97 (34.8%) displayed isolated neuromas, and 182 (65.2%) were treated for multiple neuromas. Regarding the neuromas that were treated as isolated lesions, 74.2% were located in the third space. For the feet affected by multiple interdigital neuromas, 100% had a neuroma in the third space and 98.9% in the second. The incidence of multiple interdigital neuromas can be considered frequent. The assessment, therefore, of interdigital neuromas of the foot should include, at a minimum, the second and third interdigital spaces. PMID:25128316

  11. Perineural fat grafting in the treatment of painful end-neuromas of the upper limb: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vaienti, L; Merle, M; Battiston, B; Villani, F; Gazzola, R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and middle-term durability of the results achieved with perineural fat grafting of painful neuromas of the upper limb. We retrospectively analysed eight patients, affected by eight neuromas, treated by neuroma excision and fat grafting around the proximal nerve stump. Clinical parameters, the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand score, and the visual analogue scale were recorded at 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. A reduction of 23.2% was observed in the mean disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand scores at 12 months. The spontaneous baseline visual analogue scale score showed a mean improvement of 22% at 12 months, although not this was not statistically significant. Perineural fat grafting is a quick and useful procedure and could represent a useful primary operation in the treatment of pain syndromes of neuropatic origin. PMID:22415427

  12. Palisaded Encapsulated Neuroma of the Trunk: A Case Report and Review of Palisaded Encapsulated Neuroma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Palisaded encapsulated neuroma is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor. It most commonly presents as a solitary, flesh-colored, dome-shaped nodule affecting the face. However, albeit rarely, palisaded encapsulated neuroma may also appear on the trunk, genitals, or extremities. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a male patient who presented with a palisaded encapsulated neuroma on his left flank. In addition, we review the characteristics of patients with truncal palisaded encapsulated neuromas and summarize the clinical and histologic differential diagnosis of this tumor.

  13. Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation Under Ultrasound Guidance for Huge Neuroma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Il; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Se Hun; Kim, Jin Sun; Yoo, Byoung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Amputation neuroma can cause very serious, intractable pain. Many treatment modalities are suggested for painful neuroma. Pharmacologic treatment shows a limited effect on eliminating the pain, and surgical treatment has a high recurrence rate. We applied pulsed radiofrequency treatment at the neuroma stalk under ultrasonography guidance. The long-term outcome was very successful, prompting us to report this case. PMID:25031817

  14. Neuromas

    MedlinePlus

    ... or numbness between the toes and in the ball of the foot. The principal symptom associated with ... between the toes Tingling and numbness in the ball of the foot Swelling between the toes Pain ...

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2010-09-01

    Morton's neuroma is a benign foot condition that occurs more often in women than men, and particularly in those who wear narrow, high-heeled shoes. This article presents a case study of the condition, discusses its symptoms and diagnosis, and provides information about the range of treatments on offer. PMID:20882801

  16. Post-traumatic Median Nerve Neuroma in Wrist. A Case Report and brief review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Ahmet; Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Sargin, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Distal median nerve masses may be developed post-traumatic or non-traumatic. In this paper, we aim to present a 52 year old female case with a postraumatic neuroma of the median nerve in the left wrist. Case Series: A 52-year-old female patient had accidental incised wound over her left wrist which was primarily sutured. She presented 6 months later with unrelieved pain and growing swelling at the wrist. USG showed solid mass of size 2x3 cms. Intraoperatively the mass was seen to arise from medial nerve and careful excision was done protecting the nerve. At one year follow up the patient is relived of her symptoms with no sensorimotor deficit. Conclusion: Post traumatic neuroma present as unrelieved pain and progressive swelling. A high index of suspicion should be kept in cases of wound that are primarily sutured over an area with superficial nerves. Careful excision of the lesion is very effective in relieving patients symptoms PMID:27298917

  17. Regenerative surgery of the complications with Morton's neuroma surgery: use of platelet rich plasma and hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Barbara; Lucarini, Lucilla; Orlandi, Fabrizio; Agovino, Annarita; Migner, Alessia; Cervelli, Valerio; Izzo, Valentina; Curcio, Cristiano

    2013-08-01

    Morton's neuroma is an entrapment neuropathy of the plantar digital nerve. We treated five patients with wound dehiscence and tendon exposure, after Morton's neuroma surgery excision using a dorsal approach. In this article we describe our technique. From July 2010 to August 2011, at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', five patients (four females and one male), with ages ranging between 35 and 52 years, were treated with a combination of PRP (platelet rich plasma) and HA (hyaluronic acid). Thirty days following surgery, all patients showed a complete healing of the wound. The use of this technique for the treatment of postoperative wound dehiscence and tendon exposure has proven as satisfactory. PMID:22694086

  18. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  19. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Joplin's Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Mark M; Patel, Anup; Dellon, A Lee

    2016-01-01

    Joplin's neuroma is a rare perineurial fibrosis of the medial plantar digital proper nerve arising from various etiologies but most commonly after bunion surgery. Treatment for this painful great toe problem remains controversial. It is our purpose to describe our experience with this chronic pain problem, considering it to be a neuroma requiring resection. A retrospective medical record review of 8 patients with medial hallux pain related to the digital nerve was performed. Each patient had failed to respond to >6 months of nonoperative therapy. At surgery, the medial digital nerve to the hallux was identified distally, the neuroma was resected distally, and the proximal end of the nerve was implanted into the arch of the foot in 7 (87.5%) of the 8 patients. At a mean follow-up of 25 (range 13 to 43) months, 6 results (75%) were excellent, 1 (12.5%) was good, and 1 (12.5%) was fair. The 1 fair result was in the only patient in whom the distal end of the divided nerve was not implanted proximally, according to the patient's request. In conclusion, surgical resection of the medial plantar nerve to the hallux with implantation of the proximal end of the nerve into the arch of the foot, can be expected to result in good to excellent relief of pain in 80% of the patients. PMID:25488599

  20. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  1. Operative treatment of interdigital Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Valente, Maurizio; Crucil, Marina; Alecci, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    The Authors present their experience in the surgical treatment of Morton's neuroma via a dorsal approach. The assessed results have been very good in terms of a clear clinical improvement and no recurrences in all the treated cases. The histological examination carried out on all the removed samples have shown that the thickening of the nerve first occurs due to perineural fibrosis and successively associated with sclerohyalinosis of the tissue, which is in line with the already existing literature reports. The Authors of the article reckon the adopted surgical technique to be simple, safe and highly effective. PMID:18343980

  2. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  3. Is the difference in the volume of the pharyngeal space, as measured by acoustic pharyngometry, before and after tonsillectomy proportional to the volume of the excised tonsils?

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata C.; Kreibich, Mariana Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. METHODS: We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. RESULTS: Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume. PMID:27276399

  4. Radiofrequency thermoneurolysis for the treatment of Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joshua L; Rosen, Ritchard; Cohen, Jeffrey; Rosen, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Pedal neuroma is a common disorder. The authors undertook a review of 32 feet in 29 patients with a symptomatic neuroma treated between January 2007 and January 2010 to evaluate the effectiveness of radiofrequency thermoneurolysis therapy in alleviating symptoms. Overall relief of symptoms was rated as complete by 24 (83%) patients, with 5 patients experiencing minimal to no relief. Two patients were lost to follow-up after 1 month, 2 patients opted for no further intervention, and 1 patient went to open resection of the neuroma. Average follow-up was 13 months and total recovery time was 2 days. Complications included 1 foot with cellulitis treated by a course of oral antibiotics. The results of this retrospective study indicate radiofrequency thermoneurolysis therapy is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive alternative treatment for symptomatic neuromas of the foot. PMID:22055491

  5. Acoustic Neuroma: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... reserved. × Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat. Our FREE E-mail Newsletter In each issue of HEALTHbeat: ... on health books and reports Plus, receive your FREE Bonus Report, "101 Tips for Tip-Top Health" ...

  6. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence. PMID:18305440

  7. Spinal cord stimulation for recurrent painful neuromas of the foot.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppe; Nazzi, Vittoria; Sinisi, Marco; Dones, Ivano; Pollo, Bianca; Franzini, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The authors report the case of a patient affected by recurrent neuromas of the interdigital nerves of the left foot that appeared after surgery for Morton's disease. Implantation of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system was performed after three unsuccessful surgical revisions, which demonstrated the presence of multiple neuromas growing at endings of the stumps of the nerves and fasciculi. The patient developed chronic neuropathic pain localized within the third metatarsal region of the left foot. Conservative treatments failed and autonomous gait became impossible. SCS immediately abolished pain and the patient was able to perform her normal daily activities within 1 month. At our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of SCS successfully employed for recurrent and refractory pain due to Morton's neuroma. PMID:21678072

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Diagnosis and Treatment of Morton's Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Ata, Ayşe Merve; Onat, Şule Şahin; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Morton's neuroma is the fibrous enlargement of the interdigital nerve branches, usually in the second and third interspace between the metatarsal heads where the lateral and medial plantar nerves often join. Specific symptoms are dull or sharp pain, numbness and/or tingling in the third and fourth digits, burning sensation, cramping, and a feeling of "walking on a stone" around the metatarsal heads. Numerous clinical tests for Morton's neuroma have been described, such as thumb index finger squeeze, and Mulder's click and foot squeeze tests. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for confirmation, especially for differential diagnosis, exact localization, and number of neuromas. Further, performing dynamic imaging during the aforementioned tests is paramount and can readily be carried out with ultrasound. The treatment mainly comprises footwear modifications, radiofrequency ablation, physical therapy, local (corticosteroid and anesthetic) injections into the affected webspace, and surgery. Again the use of real-time ultrasound guidance during such interventions is noteworthy. PMID:26815264

  9. MRI and ultrasonography in Morton's neuroma: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Claramunt, R; Ginés, A; Pidemunt, G; Puig, Ll; de Zabala, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Morton's neuroma is based primarily on clinical findings. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are considered complementary diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation and sensitivity of both techniques used to diagnose Morton's neuroma. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients (43 intermetatarsal spaces) with Morton's neuroma operated were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases MRI or ultrasound was performed to complement clinical diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. In all cases, a histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Estimates of sensitivity were made and correlation (kappa statistics) was assessed for both techniques. Results: Twenty seven women and 10 men participated with a mean age of 60 years. Double lesions presented in six patients. The second intermetatarsal space was affected in 10 patients and the third in 33 patients. An MRI was performed in 41 cases and a US in 23 cases. In 21 patients, both an MRI and a US were performed. With regard to the 41 MRIs performed, 34 were positive for Morton's neuroma and 7 were negative. MRI sensitivity was 82.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.679–0.929]. Thirteen out of 23 US performed were positive and 10 US were negative. US sensitivity was 56.5% (95% CI: 0.345–0.768). Relative to the 21 patients on whom both techniques were carried out, the agreement between both techniques was poor (kappa statistics 0.31). Conclusion: Although ancillary studies may be required to confirm the clinical diagnosis in some cases, they are probably not necessary for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. MRI had a higher sensitivity than US and should be considered the technique of choice in those cases. However, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis (false negative 17%). PMID:22719120

  10. Mucocele accompanied by a traumatic neuroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Z; Dehghani Nazhvani, A; Hamzavi, M

    2013-03-01

    Mucocele and traumatic neuroma are two lesions related to the traumatic events; however there is only one reported case in which these two entities were perceived simultaneously. The current study reported a 21-year-old man who complained of painless recurrent swelling, accompanied by paresthesia on his left lower labial mucosa. He had a previous history of similar lesion and had been treated with surgery and cauterization last year. The primary clinical impression was a recurrent mucocele. Microscopic surveys displayed a traumatic neuroma in the vicinity of a mucocele which seems to be arising from the previous surgical treatment. PMID:24724117

  11. Sonographically Guided Alcohol Injection in Painful Stump Neuroma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Kim, Jeong-A

    2012-01-01

    Stump neuroma is a common cause of pain from disorganized proliferation of nerve fascicles occurring after limb amputation. Ultrasound guided alcohol injection in painful stump neuroma has been tried as a new treatment approach. Herein, we report 2 male patients, who had traumatic amputation and claimed severe and diffuse burning pain in the stump area. Neuroma at the distal end of an amputated nerve was clearly identified on sonography. The patients gradually developed increasing severe pain that could not be managed with conservative care. They were treated with neurolysis using alcohol solution. Using ultrasonographical guidance, 1.2 ml of 100% dehydrated alcohol was injected into the nerves proximal to neuroma. No complications occurred. The patients were initially pain free. After a few months, however, their stump pain recurred slightly. Repeat neurolysis was performed using 0.3 ml of 100% dehydrated alcohol. During the three months follow-up period, mild stump pain occurred but the patients did not require any analgesics. PMID:22837978

  12. “Rare or Underdiagnosed?” - Solitary Circumscribed Neuroma of the Lip

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Solitary circumscribed neuroma, also known as palisaded encapsulated neuroma is a benign neural tissue tumour. This is usually an asymptomatic and often misdiagnosed pathology in the head and neck region. Lip lesions have a broad differential diagnosis. Clinician’s awareness and accurate diagnosis are vital for their appropriate management. Here, we present a case report of solitary circumscribed neuroma of the lip, with a one year follow-up. PMID:26393228

  13. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  14. Prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-03-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

  15. Traumatic neuroma of the penis after circumcision--Case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thaís Abrão; dos Santos, Karen Regina; Franzotti, Aline Martinez; Avelar, Juliana Centofanti Dentello; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Pegas, José Roberto Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic neuromas are tumors resulting from hyperplasia of axons and nerve sheath cells after section or injury to the nervous tissue. We present a case of this tumor, confirmed by anatomopathological examination, in a male patient with history of circumcision. Knowledge of this entity is very important in achieving the differential diagnosis with other lesions that affect the genital area such as condyloma acuminata, bowenoid papulosis, lichen nitidus, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, achrochordon and pearly penile papules. PMID:26131873

  16. Traumatic neuroma of the penis after circumcision - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Thaís Abrão; dos Santos, Karen Regina; Franzotti, Aline Martinez; Avelar, Juliana Centofanti Dentello; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Pegas, José Roberto Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic neuromas are tumors resulting from hyperplasia of axons and nerve sheath cells after section or injury to the nervous tissue1. We present a case of this tumor, confirmed by anatomopathological examination, in a male patient with history of circumcision. Knowledge of this entity is very important in achieving the differential diagnosis with other lesions that affect the genital area such as condyloma acuminata, bowenoid papulosis, lichen nitidus, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, achrochordon and pearly penile papules. PMID:26131873

  17. Base Excision Repair and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.; Murphy, Drew L.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair is the system used from bacteria to man to remove the tens of thousands of endogenous DNA damages produced daily in each human cell. Base excision repair is required for normal mammalian development and defects have been associated with neurological disorders and cancer. In this paper we provide an overview of short patch base excision repair in humans and summarize current knowledge of defects in base excision repair in mouse models and functional studies on short patch base excision repair germ line polymorphisms and their relationship to cancer. The biallelic germ line mutations that result in MUTYH-associated colon cancer are also discussed. PMID:22252118

  18. Skin depigmentation along lymph vessels of the lower leg following local corticosteroid injection for interdigital neuroma.

    PubMed

    van Vendeloo, Stefan N; Ettema, Harmen B

    2016-06-01

    Steroid injection is frequently used in the treatment of interdigital neuroma and has a high rate of success. We report the case of a patient who develops skin depigmentation at the injection site and linear streaks of depigmentation over the foot, the ankle and half way up to the knee after a steroid injection for interdigital neuroma. Minor disadvantages such as subcutaneous fat atrophy and depigmentation of the skin at the injection site are well known problems following steroid injection. Depigmentation of the skin with a lymphatic distribution in the foot after steroid injection for interdigital neuroma however, has not yet been reported before. This complication is a serious aesthetic problem and clinicians should be aware of this complication when treating patients with steroid injections for interdigital neuroma. PMID:27301735

  19. Multiple Neuromas Cause Painful "Jumping Stump" in a Transfemoral Amputee: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Pattamapaspong, Nuttaya; Tongprasert, Siam

    2016-09-01

    Painful "jumping stump" is an uncommon but very disturbing complication postamputation. This condition is one of the movement disorder entities resulting from peripheral nerve pathology, often known as "peripherally induced movement disorders." Previously case reports have been written about painful and nonpainful incidence of "jumping stump"; however, only the earliest "jumping stump" article in 1852 suspected that neuromas might influence the involuntary movement. In this study, we describe a 38-year-old man with bilateral transfemoral amputee who suffered from painful "jumping stump" with multiple neuromas confirmed by imaging. He was treated successfully by ultrasound-guided phenol injection into the sciatic neuroma stalks. The pathophysiology of jumping stump and its possible association with neuroma are briefly discussed. PMID:27440797

  20. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  1. Significance of alpha smooth muscle actin expression in traumatic painful neuromas: a pilot study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Weidong; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Dingshen; Gao, Weiyang; Li, Zhijie; Yan, Hede

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of painful neuromas remains a challenge and the mechanism of neuroma-associated pain is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to observe the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in traumatic neuromas and to investigate its possible roles in the cause of neuropathic pain in a rat model. The rat sciatic nerve was used and the experiment was divided into two parts. In part I, our results showed significantly higher levels of α-SMA and the pain marker c-fos in the autotomy group than in the no-autotomy group. In part II, the expression of α-SMA in neuromas was down- and up-regulated using SB-431542 and GW9662, respectively. A significant correlation between autotomy scores and the expression level of α-SMA was found (R = 0.957; p < 0.001) and the expression level of α-SMA was positively related to the autotomy scores (R2 = 0.915, p < 0.001). We concluded that the expression of α-SMA plays certain roles in the neuroma-associated pain, either as a direct cause of pain or as an indirect marker of existence of local mechanical stimuli. Our findings may provide new insights into the development of new treatment modalities for the management of intractable painful neuromas. PMID:27021914

  2. The diagnosis and management of Morton's neuroma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sameer; Mannan, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common condition mainly affecting middle aged women, and there are many proposed etiological theories involving chronic repetitive trauma, ischemia, entrapment, and intermetatarsal bursitis. Incorrect terminology suggests that the underlying pathological process is a nerve tumor, although histological examination reveals the presence of inflammatory tissue-that is, perineural fibrosis. The common digital nerve and its branches in the third planter webspace are most commonly affected. Diagnosis is usually made through history taking and clinical examination but may be aided by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Current nonoperative treatment strategies include shoe-wear modifications, custom made orthoses, and injections of local anesthetic agents, sclerosing agents, and steroids. Operative management options primarily involve either nerve decompression or neurectomy. We have reviewed the published literature to evaluate the outcomes of the available diagnostic modalities and treatment options and present an algorithm for clinical practice. PMID:23811947

  3. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Hydrodissection of a Symptomatic Sural Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fader, Ryan R; Mitchell, Justin J; Chadayammuri, Vivek P; Hill, John; Wolcott, Michelle L

    2015-11-01

    Symptomatic neuromas of the sural nerve are a rare but significant cause of pain and debilitation in athletes. Presentation is usually in the form of chronic pain and dysesthesias or paresthesias of the lateral foot and ankle. Treatment traditionally ranges from conservative measures, such as removing all external compressive forces, to administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin B6, tricyclic antidepressants, antiepileptics, or topical anesthetics. This article reports a case of sural nerve entrapment in a 34-year-old male triathlete with a history of recurrent training-induced right-sided gastrocnemius strains. The patient presented with numbness in the right lateral foot and ankle that had persisted for 3 months, after he was treated unsuccessfully with extensive nonoperative measures, including anti-inflammatory drugs, activity modification, and a dedicated physical therapy program of stretching and strengthening. Orthopedic assessment showed worsening pain with forced passive dorsiflexion and manual pressure applied over the distal aspect of the gastrocnemius. Plain radiographs showed normal findings, but in-office ultrasound imaging showed evidence of sural nerve entrapment with edema and neuromatous scar formation in the absence of gastrocnemius or soleus pathology. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided hydrodissection of the sural nerve at the area of symptomatic neuroma and neural edema was performed the same day. The patient had complete relief of symptoms and full return to the preinjury level of participation in competitive sports. This case report shows that hydrodissection, when performed by an experienced physician, can be an effective, minimally invasive technique for neurolysis in the setting of sural nerve entrapment, resulting in improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:26558670

  4. Mechanisms of Nerve Capping Technique in Prevention of Painful Neuroma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hede; Zhang, Feng; Kolkin, Jon; Wang, Chunyang; Xia, Zhen; Fan, Cunyi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve capping techniques have been introduced as a promising treatment modality for the treatment of painful neuroma with varied outcomes; however, its exact mechanism is still unknown. RhoA is one of the members of the RAS superfamily of GTPases that operate as molecular switches and plays an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Our aim was to investigate the structural and morphologic mechanisms by which the nerve capping technique prevents the formation of painful neuromas after neuroectomy. We also hoped to provide a theoretical basis for this treatment approach. An aligned nanofiber conduit was used for the capping procedure and the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats was selected as the animal model. Behavioral analysis, extent of neuroma formation, histological assessment, expressions of pain markers of substance P and c-fos, molecular biological changes as well as ultrastructural features were investigated and compared with the findings in a no-capping control group. The formation of traumatic neuromas was significantly inhibited in the capping group with relatively “normal” structural and morphological features and no occurrence of autotomy and significantly lower expression of pain markers compared to the no-capping group. The gene expression of RhoA was consistently in a higher level in the capping group within 8 weeks after surgery. This study shows that capping technique will alter the regeneration state of transected nerves and reduce painful neuroma formation, indicating a promising approach for the treatment of painful neuroma. The initiation of the “regenerative brake” induced by structural as well as morphological improvements in the severed nerve is theorized to be most likely a key mechanism for the capping technique in the prevention of painful neuroma formation. PMID:24705579

  5. Postoperative MR imaging of the foot and ankle: tendon repair, ligament repair, and Morton's neuroma resection.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Marco; Saupe, Nadja; Espinosa, Norman

    2010-09-01

    This review article describes the postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) findings relating to surgery after tendon repair, ligament repair, and Morton's neuroma resection. The normal postoperative tendon is commonly thickened, showing signal changes that are most pronounced 3 to 6 months after surgery. Two years after tendon suture, the signal intensity should be low on T2-weighted images. The focus of the postoperative MR imaging after ankle repair is to detect the normal condition after the various surgical procedures (e.g., Broström, Watson-Jones, Evans, or Chrisman-Snook). The repaired ligament has to be visible, low signal intense on T2-weighted MR images, and the shape should be homogeneous. A high rate (26%) of so-called Morton's neuroma recurrences is seen in asymptomatic individuals after Morton's neuroma resection. Postoperatively, intermetatarsal bursitis MR abnormalities are more commonly encountered in symptomatic intermetatarsal spaces than in asymptomatic intermetatarsal spaces. PMID:20539960

  6. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  7. Giant Glomus Tumor and Neuroma in the Fifth Ray A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Valero, José; Gallart, José; González, David; Deus, Javier; Lahoz, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a patient with a glomus tumor that was atypical because of its large size and histologic characteristics. It was located in the dorsal-distal zone of the fifth ray of the left foot and was associated with a neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. Although the pain (of a neurologic type) was attributed to the neuroma, the unknown nature and evolution of the dorsal lesion (glomus tumor) made surgical treatment necessary. Surgery, together with compensating treatment of the functional alterations of the patient's feet (pronation of the subastragalar joint, supination of the forefoot, and fifth metatarsal overload syndrome), resolved the case. PMID:27031555

  8. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  9. Ventricular pressures in phonating excised larynges

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure in the laryngeal ventricle was measured with a beveled needle connected to a pressure transducer in excised canine larynges. Air pressures within the ventricle were obtained for different adduction levels of the true vocal folds (TVFs), false vocal folds (FVFs), and subglottal pressures (Ps). Results indicated that the air pressures in the ventricle appear to be strongly related to the motion of the FVFs rather than to the effects of TVF vibration. Both dc and ac pressures depend on FVF adduction, amplitude of motion of the FVFs, and whether the FVFs touch each other during the vibratory cycle. Mean and peak-to-peak pressures in the ventricle were as high as 65% of the mean and peak-to-peak Ps, respectively, when the FVFs vibrated with large amplitude and contact each cycle. If the glottis was not closed, a medial movement of the FVFs appeared to create a positive pressure pulse on the Ps signal due to an increase in the laryngeal flow resistance. The electroglottograph signal showed evidence of tissue contact for both the TVFs and the FVFs. The study suggests that the laryngeal ventricle acts as a relatively independent aero-acoustic chamber that depends primarily upon the motion of the FVFs. PMID:22894222

  10. Traumatic Neuroma in Continuity Injury Model in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Stephen William Peter; Khu, Kathleen Joy Ong Lopez; Kumar, Ranjan; Webb, Aubrey A.; Midha, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic neuroma in continuity (NIC) results in profound neurological deficits, and its management poses the most challenging problem to peripheral nerve surgeons today. The absence of a clinically relevant experimental model continues to handicap our ability to investigate ways of better diagnosis and treatment for these disabling injuries. Various injury techniques were tested on Lewis rat sciatic nerves. Optimal experimental injuries that consistently resulted in NIC combined both intense focal compression and traction forces. Nerves were harvested at 0, 5, 13, 21, and 65 days for histological examination. Skilled locomotion and ground reaction force (GRF) analysis were performed up to 9 weeks on the experimental (n=6) and crush-control injuries (n=5). Focal widening, disruption of endoneurium and perineurium with aberrant intra- and extrafascicular axonal regeneration and progressive fibrosis was consistently demonstrated in 14 of 14 nerves with refined experimental injuries. At 8 weeks, experimental animals displayed a significantly greater slip ratio in both skilled locomotor assessments, compared to nerve crush animals (p<0.01). GRFs of the crush- injured animals showed earlier improvement compared to the experimental animals, whose overall GRF patterns failed to recover as well as the crush group. We have demonstrated histological features and poor functional recovery consistent with NIC formation in a rat model. The injury mechanism employed combines traction and compression forces akin to the physical forces at play in clinical nerve injuries. This model may serve as a tool to help diagnose this injury earlier and to develop intervention strategies to improve patient outcomes. PMID:22011082

  11. Manual therapy in the management of a patient with a symptomatic Morton's Neuroma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sault, Josiah D; Morris, Matthew V; Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Emerson-Kavchak, Alicia J

    2016-02-01

    Patients with Morton's neuroma are rarely referred to physical therapy. This case reports the resolution of pain, increase in local pressure pain thresholds, and improvement of scores on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure following a course of joint based manual therapy for a patient who had failed standard conservative medical treatment. PMID:25920337

  12. Rare case report of Traumatic neuroma of anterior superior alveolar nerve associated with high frenal attachment

    PubMed Central

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Srilekha, Namala; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    We present an incredible case of traumatic neuroma (TN) in the anterior superior alveolar nerve leading to the swelling in the upper labial mucosa. This paper attempts to highlight the rarity of site of occurrence of this lesion and reports the first case of TN of anterior superior alveolar nerve. PMID:25972959

  13. Outcomes of Ultrasound-Guided Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Painful Stump Neuroma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Jae; Park, Won Yong; Jeon, Jong Hyun; Mun, Jeong Hyeon; Cho, Yoon Soo; Jun, Ah Young; Jang, Ki Un

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on painful stump neuroma. Methods Thirty patients with stump neuroma at the distal end of an amputation site were assigned randomly to the ESWT group (n=15) and the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)+desensitization+pharmacological treatment group (n=15). For 3 weeks, the ESWT group received a weekly session involving 1,500 pulses at 0.10 mJ/mm2, while the control group was treated 10 times each, 40 minutes per day with TENS and desensitization treatment, and daily medication for 3 weeks. ESWT stimulation was given by focusing on the area at the neuroma site clearly identified by ultrasound. Results The changes in the McGill pain questionnaire were 38.8±9.0 prior to treatment and 11.8±3.1 following the treatment. The corresponding values for the control group were 37.2±7.7 and 28.5±10.3. The changes between groups were significantly different (p=0.035). The change in visual analog scale prior to and after treatment was 7.0±1.5 and 2.8±0.8 in the ESWT group, respectively, and 7.2±1.4 and 5.8±2.0 in the control group. These changes between the groups were also significantly different (p=0.010). The outcome in the pain rating scale also showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). Changes in neuroma size and pain pressure threshold (lb/cm2) were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The study findings imply that ESWT for stump neuroma is superior to conventional therapy. PMID:25229031

  14. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  15. Surgical excision of the burn wound.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Michael J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Early excision of the burn eschar has been one of the most significant advances in modern burn care. Historical advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of burn injury and the systemic inflammatory response fueled by the burn wound, and refinements in the techniques of tangential and fascial excision, have led to earlier excision and grafting of the burn wound with improvements in morbidity and mortality. Efforts to control blood loss, and good operative planning and attention to special areas, can lead to the safe excision and grafting of large burns. PMID:19793556

  16. Laparoscopic Excision of Retroperitoneal Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, J S; Anirudh, J R; Akbar, S; Kishore, C M

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumours that arise from the myelin sheath of the nerves. A very unusual location for schwannoma is the retro peritoneal areas (less than 2%). We present herewith a patient who had a 4x5cm Schwannoma arising from the nerve root of L2 on the right side, which presented as a lump in the psoas major muscle. This was treated by total laparoscopic excision after splitting open the psoas major. In the published english medical literature we could find only 16 cases of laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal schwannoma and we believe ours to be the first case that was done through a psoas muscle split technique. Technical and histopathological details are discussed elaborately in this article. PMID:26676094

  17. 27 CFR 70.412 - Excise taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise taxes. 70.412 Section 70.412 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Beer § 70.412 Excise taxes. (a) Collection. Taxes on distilled spirits, wines, and beer are paid...

  18. 27 CFR 26.30 - Excise taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise taxes. 26.30 Section 26.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Into the United States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.30 Excise...

  19. Therapeutic Massage Provides Pain Relief to a Client with Morton’s Neuroma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Background Morton’s neuroma is a common cause of pain that radiates from between the third and fourth metatarsals and which, when symptomatic, creates sensations of burning or sharp pain and numbness on the forefoot. Many conservative and surgical interventions are employed to reduce associated pain, but not enough research has been conducted to recommend patients to any one approach as the most reliable source of pain management. Purpose The objective of this case report is to describe the effect of massage therapy on one woman with symptomatic Morton’s neuroma. Participant A physically active 25-year-old female with diagnosed symptomatic Morton’s neuroma who has not found relief with previous conservative intervention. Intervention Six session of massage therapy once weekly for 60–75 minutes focused on postural alignment and localized foot and leg treatment. The client also completed an at-home exercise each day. Change was monitored each week by the massage therapist reassessing posture and by the client filling out a pain survey based on a Visual Analog Scale. Results The client reported progressive change in the character of the pain from burning and stabbing before the first session to a dull, pulsing sensation after the third session. She also recorded a reduction in pain during exercise from a 5/10 to 0/10 (on a scale where 10 is extreme pain). Conclusion This study describes how massage therapy reduced pain from Morton’s neuroma for one client; however, larger randomized control studies need to be done in order to determine the short- and long-term effects of massage therapy on this painful condition. PMID:22811757

  20. Pulsed radiofrequency under ultrasound guidance for persistent stump-neuroma pain.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Garces, Carlos E; Marinov, Anton; McHardy, Paul; Faclier, Gil; Avila, Arsenio

    2011-01-01

    Limb amputation is a leading cause of pain and disability. Limb amputation can be associated with a myriad of symptoms, including phantom limb sensation, phantom limb pain, and stump pain. Treatment of phantom limb pain and stump pain, remains difficult, therefore optimal management must include a multidisciplinary approach. This case report describes the use of ultrasound for diagnosis and successful management, of persistent stump-neuroma pain, using pulsed radiofrequency ablation. PMID:20642489

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of injected capsaicin for pain in Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Diamond, Eric; Schmidt, William K; Kelly, Margaret; Allen, Robert; Houghton, William; Brady, Kerrie L; Campbell, James N

    2016-06-01

    Intermetatarsal neuroma or Morton's neuroma is a painful condition of the foot resulting from an entrapment of the common digital nerve typically in the third intermetatarsal space. The pain can be severe and especially problematic with walking. Treatment options are limited and surgery may lead to permanent numbness in the toes. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot peppers, produces analgesia by inducing retraction of nociceptive afferents from the area of innervation and is effective in treating certain neuropathic pain disorders. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to test the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a single 0.1 mg dose of capsaicin vs placebo injected into the region of the neuroma. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with Morton's neuroma with foot pain ≥4 (0-10 numerical pain rating scale) were injected with 2 mL of lidocaine into the intermetatarsal space proximal to the neuroma to provide local anesthesia. After 5 minutes, 0.1 mg capsaicin or placebo was injected into the intermetatarsal space containing the painful neuroma. Average foot pain was rated for 2 weeks before through 4 weeks after injection. At weeks 1 and 4, the decrease in pain was significantly greater in the subjects treated with capsaicin (P = 0.021 and P = 0.019, respectively). A trend toward significance was noted at weeks 2 and 3. Improvements in functional interference scores and reductions in oral analgesic use were also seen in the capsaicin-treated group. These findings suggest that injection of capsaicin is an efficacious treatment option for patients with painful intermetatarsal neuroma. PMID:26963851

  2. Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, D A; Smith, S H; Di Giminiani, P; Edwards, S A

    2016-07-01

    Tail docking of neonatal pigs is widely used as a measure to reduce the incidence of tail biting, a complex management problem in the pig industry. Concerns exist over the long-term consequences of tail docking for possible tail stump pain sensitivity due to the development of traumatic neuromas in injured peripheral nerves. Tail stumps were obtained post mortem from four female pigs at each of 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following tail amputation (approximately two-thirds removed) by a gas-heated docking iron on post natal day 3. Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination. Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking. Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain. Traumatic neuroma and neuromatous tissue development was not observed 1 week after tail docking, but was evident 1 month after tail docking. Over time there was marked nerve sheath and axonal proliferation leading to the formation of neuromata, which were either localized and circumscribed or comprised of multiple axons dispersed within granulation tissue. Four months after tail resection, neuroma formation was still incomplete, with possible implications for sensitivity of the tail stump. PMID:27302763

  3. Breast reconstruction following excision of phylloides tumor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y L; Weng, C J; Noordhoff, M S

    1999-08-01

    There are few papers published on breast reconstruction after excision of phylloides tumor. Six patients who had reconstruction of the breast following excision of phylloides tumor are described. All underwent wide excision or subcutaneous mastectomy followed by immediate or delayed reconstruction with implants or autologous tissue. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 2.5-7 years). One patient died of metastases; the others survived without evidence of recurrence. The etiology, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors are discussed. The aesthetic results in these patients is also described. PMID:10454317

  4. Measures of Spectral Slope Using an Excised Larynx Model

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C.; Finnegan, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Spectral measures of the glottal source were investigated using an excised canine larynx model for various aerodynamic and phonatory conditions. These measures included spectral harmonic difference H1-H2 and spectral slope that are highly correlated with voice quality but not reported in a systematic manner using an excised larynx model. It was hypothesized that the acoustic spectra of the glottal source were significantly influenced by the subglottal pressure, glottal adduction, and vocal fold elongation, and the resulting vibration pattern. Canine larynges were prepared, mounted on the bench with and without false vocal folds, and made to oscillate with flow of heated and humidified air. Major control parameters were subglottal pressure, adduction, and elongation. Electroglottograph (EGG), subglottal pressure, flowrate, and audio signals were analyzed using custom software. Results suggest that an increase in subglottal pressure and glottal adduction may change the energy balance between harmonics by increasing the spectral energy of the first few harmonics in an unpredictable manner. It is suggested that changes in the dynamics of vocal fold motion may be responsible for different spectral patterns. The finding that the spectral harmonics do not conform to previous findings was demonstrated through various cases. Results of this study may shed light on phonatory spectral control when the larynx is part of a complete vocal tract system. PMID:22056893

  5. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Hee Choi, Seong; Bless, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method Twenty four 4-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of four experimental groups: Chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100 ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), chronic vocal fold scar treated with saline (sham treatment), and unscarred untreated control. Following tissue harvest, histological and immunohistochemical data were collected to confirm extracellular matrix alteration in the chronic scar group, and acoustic, aerodynamic and high speed digital imaging data were collected using an excised larynx setup in all groups. Phonation threshold pressure (Pth), glottal resistance (Rg), glottal efficiency (Eg), vibratory amplitude and vibratory area were employed as dependent variables. Results Chronically scarred vocal folds were characterized by elevated collagen I and III and reduced hyaluronic acid abundance. Phonation was achieved and data were collected from all control and bFGF treated larynges, however phonation was not achieved with 3 of 6 chronically scarred and 1 of 6 saline treated larynges. Compared to control, the chronic scar group was characterized by elevated Pth, reduced Eg, and intra-larynx vibratory amplitude and area asymmetry. The bFGF group was characterized by Pth below control group levels, Eg comparable to control, and vocal fold vibratory amplitude and area symmetry comparable to control. The sham group was characterized by Pth comparable to control, Eg superior to control, and vocal fold vibratory amplitude and area symmetry comparable to control. Conclusions The excised larynx model reported here demonstrated robust deterioration across phonatory indices under the scar condition and sensitivity to treatment induced change under the bFGF condition. The improvement observed under the sham condition may reflect

  6. Proteomic profiling of neuromas reveals alterations in protein composition and local protein synthesis in hyper-excitable nerves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Lei; Cendan, Cruz-Miguel; Roza, Carolina; Okuse, Kenji; Cramer, Rainer; Timms, John F; Wood, John N

    2008-01-01

    Neuropathic pain may arise following peripheral nerve injury though the molecular mechanisms associated with this are unclear. We used proteomic profiling to examine changes in protein expression associated with the formation of hyper-excitable neuromas derived from rodent saphenous nerves. A two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) profiling strategy was employed to examine protein expression changes between developing neuromas and normal nerves in whole tissue lysates. We found around 200 proteins which displayed a >1.75-fold change in expression between neuroma and normal nerve and identified 55 of these proteins using mass spectrometry. We also used immunoblotting to examine the expression of low-abundance ion channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8 and calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit in this model, since they have previously been implicated in neuronal hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. Finally, S35methionine in vitro labelling of neuroma and control samples was used to demonstrate local protein synthesis of neuron-specific genes. A number of cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes and proteins associated with oxidative stress were up-regulated in neuromas, whilst overall levels of voltage-gated ion channel proteins were unaffected. We conclude that altered mRNA levels reported in the somata of damaged DRG neurons do not necessarily reflect levels of altered proteins in hyper-excitable damaged nerve endings. An altered repertoire of protein expression, local protein synthesis and topological re-arrangements of ion channels may all play important roles in neuroma hyper-excitability. PMID:18700027

  7. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  8. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  9. 29 CFR 794.121 - Exclusion of excise taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of excise taxes. 794.121 Section 794.121 Labor... Exclusion of excise taxes. The computation of the annual gross volume of sales of the enterprise for purposes of section 7(b)(3) is made “exclusive of excise taxes.” It will be noted that the excise...

  10. Sensory nerve conduction in branches of common interdigital nerves: a new technique for normal controls and patients with morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Burhanettin; Tataroglu, Cengiz; Bademkiran, Fikret; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2010-06-01

    In this article, a new electrodiagnostic approach is described for patients with Morton's neuroma. The new method is based on the anatomic fact that the two branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves innervate the lateral side of one toe and the medial side the next one. This study included 20 normal subjects (aged 28-58 years, 10 men and 10 women) and 4 patients with Morton's neuroma (aged 44-52 years, 4 women). The branches of adjacent common plantar interdigital nerves that innerve one toe were stimulated superficially and separately with half of one toe covered with a piece of medical tape. The recordings were obtained on the posterior tibial nerve at the medial malleolus with needle electrodes. Thus, the difference in latencies of obtained sensory nerve action potentials on the posterior tibial nerve with needle electrode was measured. From normal subjects' data, it was determined that a latency difference value of above 0.17 milliseconds (mean +/- 2.5 SD) in one toe was abnormal. All of the patients with Morton's neuroma showed abnormal interlatency difference values. This new method, which we have developed, is more sensitive, simple to use, does not require extra equipment, and does not cause excessive pain. We suggest that interlatency difference between branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves is a useful and sensitive method for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. PMID:20479659

  11. Navigating the Nucleotide Excision Repair Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liren; Lee, Jennifer; Zhou, Pengbo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the primary DNA repair pathway that removes helix-distorting DNA strand damage induced by ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation or chemical carcinogens to ensure genome integrity. While the core NER proteins that carry out damage recognition, excision and repair reactions have been identified and extensively characterized, and the NER pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, the regulatory pathways that govern the threshold levels of NER have not been fully elucidated. This mini-review focuses on recently discovered transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms that specify the capacity of NER, and suggests the potential implications of modulating NER activity in cancer prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:20458729

  12. Blockade of Nerve Sprouting and Neuroma Formation Markedly Attenuates the Development of Late Stage Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mantyh, William G.; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Stake, James I.; Bloom, Aaron P.; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Taylor, Reid N.; Freeman, Katie T.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2010-01-01

    For many patients, pain is the first sign of cancer and, while pain can be present at any time, the frequency and intensity of pain tend to increase with advancing stages of the disease. Thus, between 75 and 90% of patients with metastatic or advanced-stage cancer will experience significant cancer-induced pain. One major unanswered question is why cancer pain increases and frequently becomes more difficult to fully control with disease progression. To gain insight into this question we used a mouse model of bone cancer pain to demonstrate that as tumor growth progresses within bone, Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-expressing sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers undergo profuse sprouting and form neuroma-like structures. To address what is driving the pathological nerve reorganization we administered an antibody to nerve growth factor (anti-NGF). Early sustained administration of anti-NGF, whose cognate receptor is TrkA, blocks the pathological sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers, the formation of neuroma-like structures, and inhibits the development of cancer pain. These results suggest that cancer cells and their associated stromal cells release NGF, which induces a pathological remodeling of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. This pathological remodeling of the peripheral nervous system then participates in driving cancer pain. Similar to therapies that target the cancer itself, the data presented here suggest that the earlier that therapies blocking this pathological nerve remodeling are initiated, the more effective the control of cancer pain. PMID:20851743

  13. Topological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  14. Topological acoustics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-20

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers. PMID:25839273

  15. Outcome of excision of oral erythroplakia.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Lee, Y S; Chang, L C; Hsieh, T Y; Chen, T A

    2015-02-01

    Oral erythroplakia is a precancerous lesion with high malignant potential, and resection is the recommended treatment. We designed a retrospective study to analyse the outcome of treatment in patients who had operations for oral erythroplakia. A total of 84 patients (74 men and 10 women, mean (SD) age 54 (12) years, range 29-83) were enrolled. Histopathologically the diagnoses were invasive carcinoma (n=3), dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (n=61), and squamous hyperplasia (n=20), and all patients were treated by carbon dioxide laser excision. There was no postoperative malignant transformation, but invasive carcinoma found after initial excision (n=3) was treated by further radical excision. The mean (SD) follow-up period was 46 (29) months (range 1-124), The postoperative recurrent rate was 14/84 (16.7%). The area of oral erythroplakia was the only factor associated with postoperative recurrence on univariate analysis, and was also the only independent factor that predicted postoperative recurrence in multivariate logistic regression analysis. An area exceeding 80 mm2 had the best predictive value (sensitivity=0.71, specificity=0.67) with a 5.1 times increased risk (odds ratio=5.1, CI 95% 1.45 to 18.05, p=0.01) of recurrence. Laser excision is effective for oral erythroplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with low morbidity. The area of oral erythroplakia is a predictive factor for postoperative recurrence. PMID:25467247

  16. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of voices before and after surgical excision of vocal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; McGilligan, Clancy; Zhou, Liang; Vig, Mark; Jiang, Jack J.

    2004-05-01

    Phase space reconstruction, correlation dimension, and second-order entropy, methods from nonlinear dynamics, are used to analyze sustained vowels generated by patients before and after surgical excision of vocal polyps. Two conventional acoustic perturbation parameters, jitter and shimmer, are also employed to analyze voices before and after surgery. Presurgical and postsurgical analyses of jitter, shimmer, correlation dimension, and second-order entropy are statistically compared. Correlation dimension and second-order entropy show a statistically significant decrease after surgery, indicating reduced complexity and higher predictability of postsurgical voice dynamics. There is not a significant postsurgical difference in shimmer, although jitter shows a significant postsurgical decrease. The results suggest that jitter and shimmer should be applied to analyze disordered voices with caution; however, nonlinear dynamic methods may be useful for analyzing abnormal vocal function and quantitatively evaluating the effects of surgical excision of vocal polyps.

  17. Promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration and prevention of neuroma formation by PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP conduit: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yixia; Li, Binbin; Yan, Qiongjiao; Dai, Honglian; Wang, Xinyu; Huang, Jifeng; Li, Shipu

    2015-01-01

    In the field of nerve repair, one major challenge is the formation of neuroma. However, reports on both the promotion of nerve regeneration and prevention of traumatic neuroma in the clinical settings are rare in the field of nerve repair. One of the reasons could be the insufficiency in the follow-up system. We have conducted 33 cases of nerve repair using PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP conduit without any sign of adverse reaction, especially no neuroma formation. Among them, we have selected two cases as representatives to report in this article. The first case was a patient with an upper limb nerve wound was bridged by PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP conduit and a plate fixation was given. After nearly 3-years’ follow-up, the examination results demonstrated that nerve regeneration effect was very good. When the reoperation was performed to remove the steel plate we observed a uniform structure of the regenerated nerve without the formation of neuroma, and to our delight, the implanted conduit was completely degraded 23 months after the implantation. The second case had an obsolete nerve injury with neuroma formation. After removal of the neuroma, the nerve was bridged by PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP conduit. Follow-up examinations showed that the structure and functional recovery were improved gradually in the 10-month follow-up; no end-enlargement and any other abnormal reaction associated with the characteristic of neuroma were found. Based on our 33-case studies, we have concluded that PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP nerve conduit could both promote nerve regeneration and prevent neuroma formation; therefore, it is a good alternative for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:26816636

  18. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  19. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... was no invoice or sales slip. In the absence of a sales slip or invoice, the amount of the tax...

  20. Techniques in Total Mesorectal Excision Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lichliter, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the surgical management of rectal cancer have placed the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) as the major predictor in overall survival. A standardized TME technique along with quality increases the percentage of patients undergoing a complete TME. Quality measurements of TME will place increasing demands on surgeons maintaining competence with present and future techniques. These efforts will improve the outcome of the rectal cancer patients. PMID:25733970

  1. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  2. Underwater Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

    It is well underwater established that sound waves, compared to electromagnetic waves, propagate long distances in the ocean. Hence, in the ocean as opposed to air or a vacuum, one uses sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) instead navigation and ranging (SONAR) of radar, acoustic communication instead of radio, and acoustic imaging and tomography instead of microwave or optical imaging or X-ray tomography. Underwater acoustics is the science of sound in water (most commonly in the ocean) and encompasses not only the study of sound propagation, but also the masking of sound signals by interfering phenomenon and signal processing for extracting these signals from interference. This chapter we will present the basics physics of ocean acoustics and then discuss applications.

  3. [Anatomic danger of percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament for the treatment of Morton's neuroma].

    PubMed

    Fabié, F; Accadbled, F; Tricoire, J-L; Puget, J

    2007-11-01

    Certain authors have proposed percutaneous neurolysis of Morton's neuroma. We conducted a human anatomy study to assess the reliability and the iatrogenic effect of percutaneous section of the ligament. Percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament was performed on 16 fresh cadaver specimens via a dorsal approach. The plantar dissection demonstrated that the section was not complete, without associated lesion, in only six cases. Analyzing these failures, we determined the necessary procedure for correct section. PMID:18065883

  4. Coding and reimbursement of primary care debridement and excision procedures.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T J; Purvis, J R

    1992-12-01

    Current medical practice requires physicians to accurately report services provided to patients. Patient billing for debridement and excision procedures involves the selection of specific 1992 Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology codes. Although a site-specific surgical procedure code often yields higher reimbursement than a general procedure code, physicians should select the code that most accurately reflects the procedure performed. This review identifies the codes used to report destruction and excision procedures performed by primary care physicians. Included in this review are skin debridement, burn debridement, excision of benign and malignant lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, cyst and ganglion excision, nail excision, anorectal lesion excision, shave, paring, and skin tag excision procedures, and foreign body removal. The Health Care Financing Administration's relative value units and one state's published Medicaid payment rates are included for each procedure code. Instructions are provided for selecting between multiple coding options when more than one code describes the service provided. PMID:1453151

  5. Tautomerization-dependent recognition and excision of oxidation damage in base-excision DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenxu; Lu, Lining; Zhang, Jun; Yue, Zongwei; Song, Jinghui; Zong, Shuai; Liu, Menghao; Stovicek, Olivia; Gao, Yi Qin; Yi, Chengqi

    2016-07-12

    NEIL1 (Nei-like 1) is a DNA repair glycosylase guarding the mammalian genome against oxidized DNA bases. As the first enzymes in the base-excision repair pathway, glycosylases must recognize the cognate substrates and catalyze their excision. Here we present crystal structures of human NEIL1 bound to a range of duplex DNA. Together with computational and biochemical analyses, our results suggest that NEIL1 promotes tautomerization of thymine glycol (Tg)-a preferred substrate-for optimal binding in its active site. Moreover, this tautomerization event also facilitates NEIL1-catalyzed Tg excision. To our knowledge, the present example represents the first documented case of enzyme-promoted tautomerization for efficient substrate recognition and catalysis in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:27354518

  6. A Systematic Review of Ultrasound-Guided and Non Ultrasound-Guided Therapeutic Injections to treat Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Peter A; Monaghan, Gwendolyn A P; Richards, Simon

    2014-06-24

    Abstract BACKGROUND:Morton's neuroma is a frequently painful condition of the forefoot, causing sufferers to seek medical care to alleviate symptoms. A plethora of therapeutic options are available, some of which include injection therapies. Researchers have investigated injection therapy for Morton's neuroma, and latterly the evidence base has been augmented with methodologies which utilise diagnostic ultrasound (US) as a vehicle to deliver the injectate under image guidance for additional accuracy. There appears to date to be no consensus that US-guided injections provide better therapeutic outcomes than non US-guided (blind) injections for treatment of Morton's neuroma. METHODS:A systematic review was chosen, as this methodology can undertake such a process. The review process identified 13 key papers using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, which then underwent methodological quality assessment using a pre-tested Quality Index. A narrative synthesis of the review findings was presented in light of the heterogeneity of the data from the extraction process. RESULTS:This systematic review provides an argument that ultrasound-guidance can produce better short- and long-term pain relief for corticosteroid injections, can reduce the need for additional procedures in a series of sclerosing alcohol injections, can reduce the surgical referral rate, and adds efficacy to a single injection. PMID:24960551

  7. Morton's Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... that there’s something in the shoe or a sock is bunched up The progression of a Morton’s ... the pressure on the nerve and decreasing the compression when walking. Icing. Placing an icepack on the ...

  8. Morton's Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  9. Laryngeal schwannoma: excision via a laryngofissure approach

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Antonia; Anwar, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve neurogenic tumours and although not common, laryngeal schwannomas can provide a unique challenge in diagnostic and treatment management. There are limited reports in the literature on approaches to management. A 73-year-old lady presented to the otolaryngology department after a MRI scan demonstrated an incidental right supraglottic mass. Further investigations included CT scanning and microlaryngoscopy, which only confirmed the presence of the mass with no histology diagnosis. Excision was undertaken by a laryngofissure approach and tracheostomy. Histology confirmed a benign ancient schwannoma. PMID:26034238

  10. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Verweij, Wim; van Diest, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8%) and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%). Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6%) were indeed benign and 2 (2.4%) were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology. PMID:17257417

  11. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  12. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  13. Base Excision Repair, Aging and Health Span

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guogang; Herzig, Maryanne; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Walter, Christi A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly well studied and shown to increase with age. Spontaneous mutant frequencies also increase with age which suggests that mutagenesis may contribute to aging. It is widely accepted that genetic instability contributes to age-related occurrences of cancer and potentially other age-related pathologies. BER activity decreases with age in multiple tissues. The specific BER protein that appears to limit activity varies among tissues. DNA polymerase-β is reduced in brain from aged mice and rats while AP endonuclease is reduced in spermatogenic cells obtained from old mice. The differences in proteins that appear to limit BER activity among tissues may represent true tissue-specific differences in activity or may be due to differences in techniques, environmental conditions or other unidentified differences among the experimental approaches. Much remains to be addressed concerning the potential role of BER in aging and age-related health span. PMID:18423806

  14. Base Excision Repair in the Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Doublié, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The 16.5 kb human mitochondrial genome encodes for 13 polypeptides, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), unlike its nuclear counterpart, is not packaged into nucleosomes and is more prone to the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during oxidative phosphorylation. The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the number of proteins observed to translocate to the mitochondria for the purposes of mitochondrial genome maintenance. The mtDNA damage produced by ROS, if not properly repaired, leads to instability and can ultimately manifest in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is employed for the removal and consequently the repair of deaminated, oxidized, and alkylated DNA bases. Specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases, which locate and cleave the damaged base, catalyze the first step of this highly coordinated repair pathway. This review focuses on members of the four human BER DNA glycosylase superfamilies and their subcellular localization in the mitochondria and/or the nucleus, as well as summarizes their structural features, biochemical properties, and functional role in the excision of damaged bases. PMID:25754732

  15. Sonographic appearances of Morton's neuroma: differences from other interdigital soft tissue masses.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Rho, Myong-Ho; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Lee, So-Yeon

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristics of Morton's neuroma (MNs) and the usefulness of the "ginkgo leaf sign" for differentiating MNs from other interdigital soft tissue masses. The inclusion criteria were 27 patients with the masses in the intertarsal region with surgical proof. Fourteen masses in the 10 patients (mean age, 46) were MNs and nine cases of nine patients were ganglion cysts, seven cases (seven patients) of epidermoid tumors and one case of fibroma were included. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed by a musculoskeletal radiologist using the HDI 5000 (Philips, Bothell, WA, USA) or the Logiq E9 (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) equipped with a linear 6-15 MHz probe, and the findings were interpreted in consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The ultrasonographic findings such as margin, size, echogenicity and deepness of the MNs were compared with those for other interdigital soft tissue masses. The ginkgo leaf sign was defined as the appearance of a biconcave shape of the mass from compression by adjacent structures. The mean size of the MNs was 5.6 mm. There was a significant difference in incidence between males and females (female dominant, p = 0.003). There was no difference in incidence with regard to age (p = 0.259). All lesions were hypoechoic (100%, 14/14) and 10 cases exhibited the ginkgo leaf sign (71%, 10/14, p < 0.001). The lesions were either well marginated (43%, 6/14) or poorly marginated (57%, 8/14, p = 0.075). None of the lesions abutted adjacent bony structures (p < 0.001). Interdigital MNs are primarily found in middle-aged women and often demonstrate the ginkgo leaf sign. MNs are hypoechoic and do not abut adjacent bony structures. Based on our findings, we believe ultrasound of interdigital soft tissue masses may provide useful information with respect to their location to adjacent soft tissue structures. Detection of our Gingko leaf sign may be specific for Morton

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Tests for Morton's Neuroma Compared With Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Venkatesan, Muralidharan; Bhatt, Raj; Bhatia, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 7 clinical tests for Morton's neuroma (MN) compared with ultrasonography (US). Forty patients (54 feet) were diagnosed with MN using predetermined clinical criteria. These patients were subsequently referred for US, which was performed by a single, experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The clinical test results were compared against the US findings. MN was confirmed on US at the site of clinical diagnosis in 53 feet (98%). The operational characteristics of the clinical tests performed were as follows: thumb index finger squeeze (96% sensitivity, 96% accuracy), Mulder's click (61% sensitivity, 62% accuracy), foot squeeze (41% sensitivity, 41% accuracy), plantar percussion (37% sensitivity, 36% accuracy), dorsal percussion (33% sensitivity, 26% accuracy), and light touch and pin prick (26% sensitivity, 25% accuracy). No correlation was found between the size of MN on US and the positive clinical tests, except for Mulder's click. The size of MN was significantly larger in patients with a positive Mulder's click (10.9 versus 8.5 mm, p = .016). The clinical assessment was comparable to US in diagnosing MN. The thumb index finger squeeze test was the most sensitive screening test for the clinical diagnosis of MN. PMID:25432459

  17. Elasticity of excised dog lung parenchyma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Fung, Y. C.; West, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An optical-electromechanical system is used to measure the force-deformation behavior of biaxially loaded rectangular slabs of excised dog lung parenchyma. In the course of the study, the effects of time, the consistency of reference lengths and areas, the presence of hysteresis, the necessity of preconditioning, the repeatability of results, the effects of lateral load, the effect of strain rate, the effect of pH, the influence of temperature, and the variations among specimens are considered. A new finding is that there is a change in elastic behavior when the tissue undergoes a compressive strain. When the tissue is in tension, increasing the lateral load decreases the compliance, whereas the opposite is true when compressive strain is present.

  18. Base excision repair capacity in informing healthspan

    PubMed Central

    Brenerman, Boris M.; Illuzzi, Jennifer L.; Wilson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is a frontline defense mechanism for dealing with many common forms of endogenous DNA damage, several of which can drive mutagenic or cell death outcomes. The pathway engages proteins such as glycosylases, abasic endonucleases, polymerases and ligases to remove substrate modifications from DNA and restore the genome back to its original state. Inherited mutations in genes related to BER can give rise to disorders involving cancer, immunodeficiency and neurodegeneration. Studies employing genetically defined heterozygous (haploinsufficient) mouse models indicate that partial reduction in BER capacity can increase vulnerability to both spontaneous and exposure-dependent pathologies. In humans, measurement of BER variation has been imperfect to this point, yet tools to assess BER in epidemiological surveys are steadily evolving. We provide herein an overview of the BER pathway and discuss the current efforts toward defining the relationship of BER defects with disease susceptibility. PMID:25355293

  19. Local excision by transanal endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    García-Flórez, Luis J; Otero-Díez, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic surgery (TES) consists of a series of anorectal surgical procedures using different devices that are introduced into the anal canal. TES has been developed significantly since it was first used in the 1980s. The key point for the success of these techniques is how accurately patients are selected. The main indication was the resection of endoscopically unresectable adenomas. In recent years, these techniques have become more widespread which has allowed them to be applied in conservative rectal procedures for both benign diseases and selected cases of rectal cancer. For more advanced rectal cancers it should be considered palliative or, in some controlled trials, experimental. The role of newer endoscopic techniques available has not yet been defined. TES may allow for new strategies in the treatment of rectal pathology, like transanal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery or total mesorectal excision. PMID:26309355

  20. Mammalian Transcription-Coupled Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Wim; Fousteri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional arrest caused by DNA damage is detrimental for cells and organisms as it impinges on gene expression and thereby on cell growth and survival. To alleviate transcriptional arrest, cells trigger a transcription-dependent genome surveillance pathway, termed transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) that ensures rapid removal of such transcription-impeding DNA lesions and prevents persistent stalling of transcription. Defective TC-NER is causatively linked to Cockayne syndrome, a rare severe genetic disorder with multisystem abnormalities that results in patients’ death in early adulthood. Here we review recent data on how damage-arrested transcription is actively coupled to TC-NER in mammals and discuss new emerging models concerning the role of TC-NER-specific factors in this process. PMID:23906714

  1. Laparoscopic excision of abdominal wall desmoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed; Al-Zahrani, Hana; Ewies, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    Open surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for desmoid tumors. Laparoscopic resection is rarely used and not well described in the literature. We report a case of a single, 35-year-old woman who presented with palpable abdominal wall desmoid tumor. The patient had had laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years earlier, and the tumor was at the insertion site of the right upper quadrant trocar. The diagnosis was made by a Tru-Cut biopsy at another institution, after the lesion had increased in size and caused increased discomfort. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic resection of the tumor. This report aimed to promote laparoscopic resection of abdominal wall desmoid tumors, whenever feasible, and describe the laparoscopic technique. We believe this is the second case of laparoscopic excision of desmoid tumor reported in the English-language literature. PMID:26781534

  2. Evaluation of teat dips with excised teats.

    PubMed

    Watts, J L; Boddie, R L; Pankey, J W; Nickerson, S C

    1984-09-01

    Thirty-eight teat dip formulations were evaluated for germicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae with an excised teat model. Twenty-six of 27 iodophor products provided log reductions greater than 3 against Staphylococcus aureus, but only 13 against Streptococcus agalactiae. Log reductions obtained with two .2% quaternary ammonium and .5% cetylpyridium chloride products were greater than 4 against both organisms. A 1% benzyl alcohol formulation provided log reductions of 3.86 and 4.30 against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Germicidal activities of six novel formulations containing sodium chlorite were determined. Two products were effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae with log reductions greater than 4. One product provided a log reduction of 3; three products were ineffective. PMID:6386907

  3. Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Suguru; Takahashi, Ryo; Hida, Koya; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-06-01

    Although laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been gaining acceptance with the gradual accumulation of evidence, it remains a technically demanding procedure in patients with a narrow pelvis, bulky tumors, or obesity. To overcome the technical difficulties associated with laparoscopic rectal dissection and transection, transanal endoscopic rectal dissection, which is also referred to as transanal (reverse, bottom-up) total mesorectal excision (TME), has recently been introduced. Its potential advantages include the facilitation of the dissection of the anorectum, regardless of the patient body habitus, and a clearly defined safe distal margin and transanal extraction of the specimen. This literature review shows that this approach seems to be feasible with regard to the operative and short-term postoperative outcomes. In experienced hands, transanal TME is a promising method for the resection of mid- and low-rectal cancers. Further investigations are required to clarify the long-term oncological and functional outcomes. PMID:26055500

  4. Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419. PMID:23216312

  5. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  6. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  7. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Carrión, I.; Vasset, N.; Novak, J.; Jaramillo, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique.

  8. Flap advancement coverage after excision of large mucous cysts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eon K; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2007-06-01

    Mucous cysts are common problems seen by hand surgeons. Surgical excision of symptomatic cysts is the most commonly accepted treatment. Removal of large mucous cysts often requires simultaneous flap coverage or skin grafting for the resulting defect. We present the use of a dorsal advancement flap to permit excellent skin coverage after cyst excision with a tension-free closure. PMID:17549023

  9. 27 CFR 24.323 - Excise Tax Return form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excise Tax Return form. 24.323 Section 24.323 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.323 Excise Tax Return form. A proprietor...

  10. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  11. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of excise tax. 25.2512-7 Section 25.2512-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax....

  12. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of excise tax. 25.2512-7 Section 25.2512-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax....

  13. Dimer excision in Escherichia coli in the presence of caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.H.

    1980-07-01

    The observation that polA1 and recL152 mutations result in both slow pyrimidine dimer excision and large repair patch size leads to the hypothesis that patch size is directly related to the rate of excision. In this study caffeine, a known inhibitor of excision repair, was used to examine the extent of correlation between excision rate and patch size by measuring patch size in the presence of several concentrations of caffeine. Both the rate of excision and the resistance to ultraviolet radiation were reduced with increasing concentrations of caffeine after irradiation. Caffeine also inhibited the rate at which incisions were made and prolonged the time required to rejoin the discontinuities. Patch size, however, was unaffected by caffeine treatment.

  14. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

  15. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  16. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. PMID:21404164

  18. 76 FR 3584 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... regulations pertaining to the semimonthly payments of excise tax on distilled spirits, wine, beer, tobacco... spirits, wine, beer, tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The temporary rule also reissues... 25 Beer, Claims, Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Exports, Labeling, Packaging...

  19. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  20. Acoustic Tooth Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.

  1. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  2. Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Soyer, Vural; Ersan, Veysel; Aydın, Cemalettin; Karagül, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cysts are rare in adults. Due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, the current standard of care is complete excision of the cyst and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. So far, more than 200 laparoscopic resections have been reported in adults, the majority being from Far Eastern countries over the last five years. Herein, the technique of laparoscopic type I choledochal cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy is presented in a 37-year-old male with an accompanying video. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery are applicable for choledochal cyst excision as well. We believe that teamwork, expertise on intracorporeal suturing and hepatobiliary surgery are central issues for this operation. PMID:27436941

  3. Margins in Skin Excision Biopsies: Principles and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Richa; Singh, Lavleen; Arava, Sudheer K; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Skin biopsies are usually undertaken to confirm a clinical diagnosis, to remove a lesion, and to determine the adequacy of excised tissue margin. A surgical margin is technically defined as the “edge” of the tissue removed. The term is especially pertinent when the tissue excised is suspected of being involved by a malignant process. One of the most important predictive and prognostic factors of a malignant lesion is whether the margins of the resected specimen are involved by the tumor or not. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into grossing of a skin biopsy specimen with emphasis on techniques and reporting of excision biopsy margins. PMID:25484385

  4. Robotic assisted excision of retrovesical angiomyxoma in a male patient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Vipin; Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Durani, Abdul Munan; Chada, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Angiomyxoma is a rare tumour found predominantly in pelvis of young females. Less than 150 cases have been reported, more than 90% in females and only few cases in males. Its surgical excision is a big challenge and usually leads to recurrence due to incomplete excision. We report a case of retrovesical Angiomyxoma in an elderly male. The aim of this report is to highlight the rarity of this disease, especially in males, and robotic assisted excision as an evolving option of treatment. PMID:24761083

  5. Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Soyer, Vural; Ersan, Veysel; Aydın, Cemalettin; Karagül, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cysts are rare in adults. Due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, the current standard of care is complete excision of the cyst and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. So far, more than 200 laparoscopic resections have been reported in adults, the majority being from Far Eastern countries over the last five years. Herein, the technique of laparoscopic type I choledochal cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy is presented in a 37-year-old male with an accompanying video. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery are applicable for choledochal cyst excision as well. We believe that teamwork, expertise on intracorporeal suturing and hepatobiliary surgery are central issues for this operation.

  6. Targeting base excision repair for chemosensitization.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Choudhury, Sujata; Mitra, Partha S; Dubash, Jerita J; Sajankila, Shyama P; Roy, Rabindra

    2008-05-01

    In both bacteria and eukaryotes the alkylated, oxidized, and deaminated bases and depurinated lesions are primarily repaired via an endogenous preventive pathway, i.e. base excision repair (BER). Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are two important modes of cancer treatment. Many of those therapeutic agents used in the clinic have the ability to induce the DNA damage; however, they may also be highly cytotoxic, causing peripheral toxicity and secondary cancer as adverse side effects. In addition, the damage produced by the therapeutic agents can often be repaired by the BER proteins, which in effect confers therapeutic resistance. Efficient inhibition of a particular BER protein(s) may increase the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimes, which minimizes resistance and ultimately decreases the possibility of the aforementioned negative side effects. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of DNA damage repair pathways may be explored as a useful strategy to enhance chemosensitivity. Various agents have shown excellent results in preclinical studies in combination chemotherapy. Early phase clinical trials are now being carried out using DNA repair inhibitors targeting enzymes such as PARP, DNA-PK or MGMT. In the case of BER proteins, elimination of N-Methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) or inhibition of AP-endonuclease (APE) increased sensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating chemotherapeutics. MPG(-/-) embryonic stem cells and cells having MPG knock-down by siRNA are hypersensitive to alkylating agents, whereas inhibition of APE by small molecule inhibitors sensitized cancer cells to alkylating chemotherapeutics. Thus, MPG and other BER proteins could be potential targets for chemosensitization. PMID:18473720

  7. [Face necrotizing fasciitis following spinocellular epithelioma excision].

    PubMed

    Gindre, S; Dellamonica, J; Couadau, E; Carles, M; Vandenbos, F; Delgiudice, P; Grimaud, D; Ichai, C

    2005-06-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a bacterial dermo-hypodermitis with superficial aponevrosis necrosis due to Streptococcus pyogenes. Head and neck region are some rare localization of this infection especially after surgery. We report herein a case of a face necrotizing fasciitis following minor face surgery. A 86 year-old Caucasian male without any antecedents, nor treatment, has been operated for a fronthead spinocellular epithelioma under local anesthesia. Twelve hours later, a severe pain localized to the face occurred, with sleeplessness, followed up with a face orbitary oedema and fever. Twenty-four hours later, an intravenous antibiotherapy was therefore started and surgical treatment was performed as soon as the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was considered. An important inflammatory oedema was noticed, associated to a large necrotic softening of the face, the eyelid and the neck sub-cutaneous tissues. Then, the patient has been transferred in intensive care unit because multi-organ failure clinical and biological signs occurred. Pre-operatory bacteriological samples culture identified Streptococcus pyogenes. Repeated surgical explorations and debridement (excision, cleaning, draining and bandages recovery) were performed daily as needed until all the necrotic tissue was all eradicated. The antibiotherapy was prescribed to totalised 15 days. Our report underlines the importance of an early recognition of the diagnosis of soft tissue infection, because early surgical treatment has a better prognosis and antibiotic treatment alone is inefficient for the recovery. Alert is delivered by the local signs quickly followed up by skin changes. Anti-inflammatory therapy must be avoid in case of any soft tissue infection sign: they may increase the lesions, hide alarm signs and delay surgical treatment. PMID:15963844

  8. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations. Purpose of Review This paper provides an overview of the applications and usefulness of excised (human/animal) specimen and in vivo animal experiments in voice research. These experiments have enabled visualization and analysis of dehydration effects, vocal fold scarring, bifurcation and chaotic vibrations, three-dimensional vibrations, aerodynamic effects, and mucosal wave propagation along the medial surface. Quantitative data will be shown to give an overview of measured laryngeal parameter values. As yet, a full understanding of all existing interactions in voice production has not been achieved, and thus, where possible, we try to indicate areas needing further study. Recent Findings A further motivation behind this review is to highlight recent findings and technologies related to the study of vocal fold dynamics and its applications. For example, studies of interactions between vocal tract airflow and generation of acoustics have recently shown that airflow superior to the glottis is governed by not only vocal fold dynamics but also by subglottal and supraglottal structures. In addition, promising new methods to investigate kinematics and dynamics have been reported recently, including dynamic optical coherence tomography, X-ray stroboscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction with laser projection systems. Finally, we touch on the relevance of vocal fold dynamics to clinical laryngology and to clinically-oriented research. PMID:26581597

  9. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  10. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  11. Excision in algebraic K-theory and Karoubi's conjecture.

    PubMed

    Suslin, A A; Wodzicki, M

    1990-12-15

    We prove that the property of excision in algebraic K-theory is for a Q-algebra A equivalent to the H-unitality of the latter. Our excision theorem, in particular, implies Karoubi's conjecture on the equality of algebraic and topological K-theory groups of stable C*-algebras. It also allows us to identify the algebraic K-theory of the symbol map in the theory of pseudodifferential operators. PMID:11607130

  12. Excision in algebraic K-theory and Karoubi's conjecture.

    PubMed Central

    Suslin, A A; Wodzicki, M

    1990-01-01

    We prove that the property of excision in algebraic K-theory is for a Q-algebra A equivalent to the H-unitality of the latter. Our excision theorem, in particular, implies Karoubi's conjecture on the equality of algebraic and topological K-theory groups of stable C*-algebras. It also allows us to identify the algebraic K-theory of the symbol map in the theory of pseudodifferential operators. PMID:11607130

  13. Base excision repair: A critical player in many games

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person’s view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field. PMID:24780558

  14. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  15. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  16. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  17. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  18. Exploration of Acoustic Features for Automatic Vowel Discrimination in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Na'im R.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand what acoustic/auditory feature sets motivated transcribers towards certain labeling decisions, I built machine learning models that were capable of discriminating between canonical and non-canonical vowels excised from the Buckeye Corpus. Specifically, I wanted to model when the dictionary form and the transcribed-form…

  19. Two-dimensional measurement of the nonlinearity parameter B/A in excised biological samples.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigemi; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2011-06-01

    The method previously developed for measuring the acoustic nonlinearity parameter B/A in a liquid sample with a volume as small as 0.1 ml [S. Saito, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 51(2010)] has been automated and applied to two-dimensional measurements of excised biological samples using a LabVIEW program. The focus of the sound beam is laterally shifted on the 3 × 3 mm(2) area of the sample while measuring the B/A successively. By displaying the result of 256 time repeated measurements with an interval of 0.2 mm in two dimensions, a C-mode image was generated for B/A. The images of linear properties such as density, sound speed, and attenuation coefficient are also obtained. The image, whose pattern can be different from those of the density and sound speed, has the capability to reveal the detailed structure of the B/A, which varies from region to region in a single biological sample. The application of the method to small samples is also demonstrated by measuring a thermally coagulated biological sample. PMID:21721718

  20. Mode excision adaptive beamforming for source detection in an uncertain shallow-water waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premus, Vincent E.

    2003-04-01

    Passive sonar detection is uniquely characterized by the fact that the acoustic clutter distribution is generally confined to the ocean's surface. There is considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that surfaced and submerged sources are well separated in acoustic mode space, and that shallow-water waveguide normal modes are relatively robust to imperfect environmental knowledge. In this work, the use of mode physics is explored for the purpose of identifying an improved adaptive subspace for submerged source detection in the presence of surface interference. The basic premise is to perform adaptive weight computation in a mode subspace that is weakly excited by the submerged source of interest, yet well coupled to the surface interference. The rationale is to excise as much of the target signature as possible from the sample covariance without excessively compromising the measurement of the interference spatial spectrum. This enables more aggressive nulling of the surface clutter spectrum for a given level of signal gain degradation on the submerged source of interest. In this paper, the algorithm for adaptive mode subspace identification will be discussed, and the theoretical performance as a function of imprecise environmental knowledge and array calibration will be examined for a number of different apertures, including vertical line arrays, horizontal line arrays, and volumetric arrays. [Work sponsored in part by DARPA, under Air Force Contract No. F19628-00-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the U.S. Air Force.

  1. Excision of plastid marker genes using directly repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Elisabeth A; Madesis, Panagiotis; Avila, Elena Martin; Day, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Excision of marker genes using DNA direct repeats makes use of the predominant homologous recombination pathways present in the plastids of algae and plants. The method is simple, efficient, and widely applicable to plants and microalgae. Marker excision frequency is dependent on the length and number of directly repeated sequences. When two repeats are used a repeat size of greater than 600 bp promotes efficient excision of the marker gene. A wide variety of sequences can be used to make the direct repeats. Only a single round of transformation is required, and there is no requirement to introduce site-specific recombinases by retransformation or sexual crosses. Selection is used to maintain the marker and ensure homoplasmy of transgenic plastid genomes. Release of selection allows the accumulation of marker-free plastid genomes generated by marker excision, which is spontaneous, random, and a unidirectional process. Positive selection is provided by linking marker excision to restoration of the coding region of an herbicide resistance gene from two overlapping but incomplete coding regions. Cytoplasmic sorting allows the segregation of cells with marker-free transgenic plastids. The marker-free shoots resulting from direct repeat-mediated excision of marker genes have been isolated by vegetative propagation of shoots in the T0 generation. Alternatively, accumulation of marker-free plastid genomes during growth, development and flowering of T0 plants allows the collection of seeds that give rise to a high proportion of marker-free T1 seedlings. The simplicity and convenience of direct repeat excision facilitates its widespread use to isolate marker-free crops. PMID:24599849

  2. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C....

  3. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence; Beach, Kirk; Carter, Stephen; Chandler, Wayne; Curra, Francesco; Kaczkowski, Peter; Keilman, George; Khokhlova, Vera; Martin, Roy; Mourad, Pierre; Vaezy, Shahram

    2000-07-01

    In cases of severe injury, physicians speak of a "golden hour"—a brief grace period in which quickly applied, proper therapy can save the life of the patient. Much of this mortality results from exsanguination, i.e., bleeding to death—often from internal hemorrhage. The inability of a paramedic to treat breaches in the vascular system deep within the body or to stem the loss of blood from internal organs is a major reason for the high level of mortality associated with blunt trauma. We have undertaken an extensive research program to treat the problem of internal bleeding. Our approach is as follows: (a) We use scanning ultrasound to identify internal bleeding and hemorrhage, (b) we use ultrasound imaging to locate specific breaches in the vascular system, both from damaged vessels and gross damage to the capillary bed, and (c) we use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat the damaged region and to induce hemostasis. We present a general review of this research with some emphasis on the role of nonlinear acoustics.

  4. Uracil excision repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-free extracts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Varshney, Umesh

    2011-05-01

    Uracil excision repair is ubiquitous in all domains of life and initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) which excise the promutagenic base, uracil, from DNA to leave behind an abasic site (AP-site). Repair of the resulting AP-sites requires an AP-endonuclease, a DNA polymerase, and a DNA ligase whose combined activities result in either short-patch or long-patch repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has an increased risk of accumulating uracils because of its G + C-rich genome, and its niche inside host macrophages where it is exposed to reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, two major causes of cytosine deamination (to uracil) in DNA. In vitro assays to study DNA repair in this important human pathogen are limited. To study uracil excision repair in mycobacteria, we have established assay conditions using cell-free extracts of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis (a fast-growing mycobacterium) and oligomer or plasmid DNA substrates. We show that in mycobacteria, uracil excision repair is completed primarily via long-patch repair. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis UdgB, a newly characterized family 5 UDG, substitutes for the highly conserved family 1 UDG, Ung, thereby suggesting that UdgB might function as backup enzyme for uracil excision repair in mycobacteria. PMID:21371942

  5. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V.; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3′- or 5′-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5′-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2–HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1–HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5′-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2–HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1–HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5′ MMR. PMID:26951673

  6. Variant Base Excision Repair Proteins: Contributors to Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Antonia A.; Wallace, Susan S.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Cells sustain endogenous DNA damage at rates greater than 20,000 DNA lesions per cell per day. These damages occur largely as a result of the inherently unstable nature of DNA and the presence of reactive oxygen species within cells. The base excision repair system removes the majority of DNA lesions resulting from endogenous DNA damage. There are several enzymes that function during base excision repair. Importantly, there are over 100 germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that function in base excision repair and that result in non-synonymous amino acid substitutions in the proteins they encode. Somatic variants of these enzymes are also found in human tumors. Variant repair enzymes catalyze aberrant base excision repair. Aberrant base excision repair combined with continuous endogenous DNA damage over time has the potential to lead to a mutator phenotype. Mutations that arise in key growth control genes, imbalances in chromosome number, chromosomal translocations, and loss of heterozygosity can result in the initiation of human cancer or its progression. PMID:20955798

  7. Subungual glomus tumors of the hand: Treated by transungual excision

    PubMed Central

    Jawalkar, Harshad; Maryada, Venkateshwar Reddy; Brahmajoshyula, Venkatramana; Kotha, Guruvardhan Kumar V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glomus tumors are benign hamartomas arising from the glomus body, mostly occurring in the subungual region of the digits. A triad of excruciating pain, localized tenderness and cold sensitivity is the key to diagnosing these tumors. Two surgical approaches are described in the literature for excision of subungual glomus tumors-transungual and periungual. We reviewed retrospectively the results of subungual glomus tumors of the hand treated by transungual excision. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (9 females and 3 males) with histopathologically confirmed subungual glomus tumors of the hand were treated by transungual excision at our institute. The mean age of the patients was 40.5 years (range 28–63 years). All patients presented with pain in the nail bed and cold sensitivity. A bluish-brown discoloration was present in 6 patients. Love's pin test was positive in all and Hildreth's test was positive in 8 patients. The mean duration of followup was 38 months (range 8–72 months). Results: All patients had complete pain relief. There was no new nail deformity and no recurrence till last followup. One patient had deformity of the nail preoperatively due to previous surgery, which persisted after excision of the tumor. All of them returned to their preoperative occupation and regained full function of the hand. Conclusions: The transungual approach provides good access to the entire lesion and facilitates complete excision. Contrary to reported literature, we did not find the development of any new nail deformity with this approach. PMID:26229160

  8. Evaluation of CRE-mediated excision approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marjanac, Gordana; De Paepe, Annelies; Peck, Ingrid; Jacobs, Anni; De Buck, Sylvie; Depicker, Anna

    2008-04-01

    The ability of the CRE recombinase to catalyze excision of a DNA fragment flanked by directly repeated lox sites has been exploited to modify gene expression and proved to function well in particular case studies. However, very often variability in CRE expression and differences in efficiency of CRE-mediated recombination are observed. Here, various approaches were investigated to reproducibly obtain optimal CRE activity. CRE recombination was analyzed either by transforming the CRE T-DNA into plants containing a lox-flanked fragment or by transforming a T-DNA harboring a lox-flanked fragment into plants producing the CRE recombinase. Although somatic CRE-mediated excision of a lox-flanked fragment was obtained in all transformants, a variable amount of germline-transmitted deletions was found among different independent transformants, irrespective of the orientation of transformation. Also, the efficiency of CRE-mediated excision correlated well with the CRE mRNA level. In addition, CRE-mediated fragment excision was compared after floral dip and after root tissue transformation when transforming in a CRE-expressing background. Importantly, less CRE activity was needed to excise the lox-flanked fragment from the transferred T-DNA after root tissue transformation than after floral dip transformation. We hypothesize that this is correlated with the lower T-DNA copy number inserted during root transformation as compared to floral dip transformation. PMID:17541719

  9. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at.... Such excise taxes are levied at the retail level on any liquid fuel sold for use, or used in a...

  10. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  11. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with sound visualization, acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-re verberation methods, both essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?

  12. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with "sound visualization," acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-reverberation methods, both essentialfor visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, "Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?"

  13. Characterizing Tissue with Acoustic Parameters Derived from Ultrasound Data

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    In contrast to standard reflection ultrasound (US), transmission US holds the promise of more thorough tissue characterization by generating quantitative acoustic parameters. We compare results from a conventional US scanner with data acquired using an experimental circular scanner operating at frequencies of 0.3 - 1.5 MHz. Data were obtained on phantoms and a normal, formalin-fixed, excised breast. Both reflection and transmission-based algorithms were used to generate images of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation.. Images of the phantoms demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and quantify acoustic properties such as sound speed and attenuation. The human breast specimen showed full field evaluation, improved penetration and tissue definition. Comparison with conventional US indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of masses, particularly in the complex scattering environments of human breast tissue. The use of morphology, in the context of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation, for characterizing tissue, is discussed.

  14. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  15. Robotic Excision of a Papillary Fibroelastoma of the Mitral Chordae.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Mani; Smith, Robert L; Squiers, John J; Wang, Alex; DiMaio, J Michael; Mack, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Papillary fibroelastomas of the mitral chordae tendineae are rare, primary benign tumors. They are either incidentally diagnosed during echocardiography or discovered after transient ischemic attack, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Removal of papillary fibroelastomas should be considered, given the increased risk for embolization causing cerebrovascular accident or mortality in patients with echocardiographic evidence of papillary fibroelastoma not undergoing surgical procedures. Although fibroelastoma removal can be performed in most cases without disrupting mitral valve competency, sternotomy and minithoracotomy are the typical approaches for excision. Herein, we report the first robotic excision of a mitral chord papillary fibroelastoma. PMID:27211977

  16. Microsurgical technique in excision of intramedullary craniocervical ependymomas. Video report.

    PubMed

    El Refaee, Ehab; Matthes, Marc; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2014-09-01

    We present the microsurgical technique in excision of intramedullary craniocervical ependymomas. A 27-year-old female came presenting with neck pain and parasthesia in her both arms and hands, where MRI was performed showing intramedullary lesion that extend in the medulla just beyond the foramen magnum to the level of C5-6 disc. Tumor was totally excised using irrigation-dissection microscopic technique with favorable outcome. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Yj1yvZOaz58. PMID:25175578

  17. A Technique for Excision of Abdominal and Pelvic Neuroblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Edward

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As neuroblastomas usually envelope major vessels, excision poses a significant technical problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over a 22-year period, 234 infants and children have undergone attempted surgical excision of abdominal or pelvic neuroblastomas using a consistent surgical approach. This entails a systematic dissection of the involved vessels prior to removal of the tumour. RESULTS Macroscopically complete or near complete tumour clearance was achieved in 89% of cases. Three aortic injuries occurred which required repair. CONCLUSION The described technique is safe and reproducible and allows tumour clearance in the majority offfected children. PMID:17535608

  18. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Wide Local Excision Versus Mohs Micrographic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mullen, John T

    2016-10-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare dermal soft tissue sarcoma characterized by a typically indolent clinical course. The greatest clinical challenge in management of DFSP is achieving local control. There is vigorous debate in the literature as to the optimal surgical approach to these tumors. The choice between wide local excision and Mohs micrographic surgery for DFSP should be governed by the attainment of three goals: (1) to completely excise the tumor with negative margins, tantamount to cure; (2) to preserve function, optimize cosmesis, and minimize morbidity of resection; and (3) to minimize cost and inconvenience to the patient and the health care system at large. PMID:27591501

  19. Effect of local application of an antibody against brain-derived neurotrophic factor on neuroma formation after transection of the inferior alveolar nerve in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Valverde Guevara, Yessenia M.; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Isao; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the contributions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at the injury site toward neuroma formation and nerve regeneration after inferior alveolar nerve transection. Histological analysis confirmed neuroma formation at 2 weeks after complete transection of the inferior alveolar nerve. A local administration of an antibody to BDNF inhibited connective tissue proliferation at the injury site and promoted nerve fiber integrity. Fluorogold labeling showed a significantly higher number of labeled cells in the trigeminal ganglion in the anti-BDNF-treated group compared with the vehicle control group. In-situ hybridization histochemistry showed intense signals for tropomyosin receptor kinase B mRNA in the area of the injury site containing fibrous or granular tissue in the anti-BDNF-treated group. In contrast, these signals were close to the detection limit in the area of the perineurium in intact nerve trunks, indicating that the signals were expressed by fibroblasts within the connective tissue. These findings suggest that antagonization of endogenous BDNF induced by nerve injury reduces neuroma formation, without inhibiting damaged axon regeneration. PMID:25055143

  20. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of tobacco use, should not allow

  1. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  2. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  3. The surgical treatment of familial cylindromatosis through subgaleal scalp excision

    PubMed Central

    Karalija, Amar; Andersson, Magnus N.

    2015-01-01

    We treated a 65-year-old woman with familial cylindromatosis, with cylindromas covering the entire scalp. Subgaleal tumor excision and split skin grafting was performed. The graft take was deemed to be excellent, with almost 100% coverage 2.5 weeks after operation, no complications and a satisfying esthetic result.

  4. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 52928) proposing changes to parts 113 and 191 within title 19 of the Code of... the Federal Register (74 FR 52928) on October 15, 2009, so that relevant issues involved in the... Parts 113 and 191 RIN 1505-AC18 Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax AGENCY: Customs and...

  5. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  6. XPA: A key scaffold for human nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Norie; Sivley, Robert M; Perry, Kelly E; Capra, John A; Chazin, Walter J

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is essential for removing many types of DNA lesions from the genome, yet the mechanisms of NER in humans remain poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the structure, biochemistry, interaction partners, mechanisms, and disease-associated mutations of one of the critical NER proteins, XPA. PMID:27247238

  7. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by...-112841-10), Room 5203, Internal Revenue Service, P.O. Box 7604, Ben Franklin Station, Washington,...

  8. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... rulemaking (REG-112841-10) that was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, June 15, 2010 (75 FR 33740... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing...

  9. Estimating allelic diversity generated by excision of different transposon types.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, M; Walbot, V

    1995-05-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the number and type of different DNA sequences generated by base excision and insertion events at a given site in a known DNA sequence. We calculate, for example, that excision of the Mu1 transposon from the bz1::Mu1 allele of maize should generate more than 500,000 unique alleles given the extent of base deletion (up to 34 bases removed) and base insertion (0-5 bases) observed thus far in sequenced excision alleles. Analysis of this universe of potential alleles can, for example, be used to predict the frequency of creation of stop codons or repair-generated duplications. In general, knowledge of the distribution of alleles can be used to evaluate models of both excision and repair by determining whether particular events occur more frequently than expected. Such quantitative analysis complements the qualitative description provided by the DNA sequence of individual events. Similar methods can be used to evaluate the outcome of other cases of DNA breakage and repair such as programmed V(D)J recombination in immunoglobin genes. PMID:24172918

  10. [CIRCUMCISION AND EXCISION: TOWARDS A NON-LAW OF BIOETHICS?].

    PubMed

    Delage, Pierre-Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    This article defines the practices of circumcision and excision, and studies their foundations. Then, it considers some of the conflicts (of rights, laws and cultures) inherent to these practices. Finally, it suggests that the solution to these conflicts may not lie in the law, but in a non-law of bioethics. PMID:27356346

  11. [Methods for postoperative evaluation of complete excision of the mesorectum].

    PubMed

    Sterk, P; Nagel, T; Günter, S; Schubert, F; Klein, P

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed at a more objective evaluation of the specimen after total mesorectal excision [14]. For this reason, a method yielding a simple stained preparation of the totally excised mesorectum was developed. By postoperative injection of 10 ml of an ink solution into the A. rectalis superior of 15 specimens, the arterial mesorectal vascular tree was filled. All specimens had been collected by means of total mesorectal excision. In two specimens, in wich the mesorectal sheath fascia had been injured due to the surgical manipulation, we observed the leakage of ink from the mesorectum even during the injection. In three further specimens, some ink leakage in the form of dots occurred from small opened arterioles after the injection was performed. No ink leakage was observed in the remaining specimens. Prior to the ink injection, thirteen specimens were macroscopically tested and found intact. Three of the fifteen specimens exhibited minor lesions of the mesorectum that would not have been detected macroscopically without ink tagging. The comparison of the findings provided by the surgeon with the histopathological evaluation showed that those specimens in which no ink leakage occurred had an unimpaired mesorectal sheath fascia. These specimens coorespond to the complete excision of the mesorectum and the removal of the tumor in a cancer-sealed package as long as the circumferential rim of the specimen has not been infiltrated by the tumor. PMID:10829318

  12. Structural basis of HIV-1 resistance to AZT by excision

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Xiongying; Das, Kalyan; Han, Qianwei; Bauman, Joseph D.; Clark, Jr., Arthur D.; Hou, Xiaorong; Frenkel, Yulia V.; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.; Boyer, Paul L.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Arnold, Eddy

    2011-11-23

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer terminus and allows reverse transcriptase to continue viral DNA synthesis. The excision product is AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA). We determined five crystal structures: wild-type reverse transcriptase-double-stranded DNA (RT-dsDNA)-AZTppppA; AZT-resistant (AZTr; M41L D67N K70R T215Y K219Q) RT-dsDNA-AZTppppA; AZTr RT-dsDNA terminated with AZT at dNTP- and primer-binding sites; and AZTr apo reverse transcriptase. The AMP part of AZTppppA bound differently to wild-type and AZTr reverse transcriptases, whereas the AZT triphosphate part bound the two enzymes similarly. Thus, the resistance mutations create a high-affinity ATP-binding site. The structure of the site provides an opportunity to design inhibitors of AZT-monophosphate excision.

  13. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  14. Sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers undergo sprouting and neuroma formation in the painful arthritic joint of geriatric mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Although the prevalence of arthritis dramatically increases with age, the great majority of preclinical studies concerning the mechanisms that drive arthritic joint pain have been performed in young animals. One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to arthritic pain is ectopic nerve sprouting; however, neuroplasticity is generally thought to be greater in young versus old nerves. Here we explore whether sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers can undergo a significant ectopic nerve remodeling in the painful arthritic knee joint of geriatric mice. Methods Vehicle (saline) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the knee joint of 27- to 29-month-old female mice. Pain behaviors, macrophage infiltration, neovascularization, and the sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers were then assessed 28 days later, when significant knee-joint pain was present. Knee joints were processed for immunohistochemistry by using antibodies raised against CD68 (monocytes/macrophages), PECAM (endothelial cells), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; sensory nerve fibers), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200; sensory nerve fibers), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve fibers), and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43; nerve fibers undergoing sprouting). Results At 4 weeks after initial injection, CFA-injected mice displayed robust pain-related behaviors (which included flinching, guarding, impaired limb use, and reduced weight bearing), whereas animals injected with vehicle alone displayed no significant pain-related behaviors. Similarly, in the CFA-injected knee joint, but not in the vehicle-injected knee joint, a remarkable increase was noted in the number of CD68+ macrophages, density of PECAM+ blood vessels, and density and formation of neuroma-like structures by CGRP+, NF200+, and TH+ nerve fibers in the synovium and periosteum. Conclusions Sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the aged knee joint clearly maintain the capacity for robust

  15. Slow base excision by human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase limits the rate of formation of AP sites and AP endonuclease 1 does not stimulate base excision.

    PubMed

    Maher, Robyn L; Vallur, Aarthy C; Feller, Joyce A; Bloom, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    The base excision repair pathway removes damaged DNA bases and resynthesizes DNA to replace the damage. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) is one of several damage-specific DNA glycosylases that recognizes and excises damaged DNA bases. AAG removes primarily damaged adenine residues. Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes AP sites produced by DNA glycosylases and incises the phophodiester bond 5' to the damaged site. The repair process is completed by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. If not tightly coordinated, base excision repair could generate intermediates that are more deleterious to the cell than the initial DNA damage. The kinetics of AAG-catalyzed excision of two damaged bases, hypoxanthine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine, were measured in the presence and absence of APE1 to investigate the mechanism by which the base excision activity of AAG is coordinated with the AP incision activity of APE1. 1,N6-ethenoadenine is excised significantly slower than hypoxanthine and the rate of excision is not affected by APE1. The excision of hypoxanthine is inhibited to a small degree by accumulated product, and APE1 stimulates multiple turnovers by alleviating product inhibition. These results show that APE1 does not significantly affect the kinetics of base excision by AAG. It is likely that slow excision by AAG limits the rate of AP site formation in vivo such that AP sites are not created faster than can be processed by APE1. PMID:17018265

  16. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  17. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-05-01

    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. PMID:26627472

  18. Radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas: Early experience

    SciTech Connect

    Linskey, M.E.; Lunsford, L.D.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    We reviewed our early experience with the first 26 patients with acoustic neurinomas (21 unilateral, 5 bilateral) treated by stereotactic radiosurgery using the first North American 201-source cobalt-60 gamma knife. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 19 months (median, 13 months). Serial postoperative imaging showed either a decrease in tumor size (11 patients) or growth arrest (15 patients). Loss of central contrast enhancement was a characteristic change (18 patients). Seven patients had good or serviceable hearing preoperatively. In all 7 the preoperative hearing status was retained immediately after radiosurgery. At follow-up, 3 had preserved hearing, 1 had reduced hearing, and 3 had lost all hearing in the treated ear. Hearing in 1 patient that was nonserviceable preoperatively later improved to a serviceable hearing level. Delayed facial paresis developed in 6 patients, and delayed trigeminal sensory loss developed in 7 patients, none of whom had significant deficits before radiosurgery. Both facial and trigeminal deficits tended to improve within 3 to 6 months of onset with excellent recovery anticipated. Lower cranial nerve dysfunction was not observed. All 26 patients remain at their preoperative employment or functional status. At present, stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative treatment for acoustic neurinomas in patients who are elderly, have significant concomitant medical problems, have a tumor in their only hearing ear, have bilateral acoustic neurinomas, refuse microsurgical excision, or have recurrent tumor despite surgical resection. Although longer and more extensive follow-up is required, the control of tumor growth and the acceptable rate of complications in this early experience testifies to the future expanding role of this technique in the management of selected acoustic neurinomas.

  19. Acoustic Translation of an Acoustically Levitated Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus uses only one acoustic mode to move sample from one region of chamber to another. Sample heated and cooled quickly by translation between hot and cold regions of levitation chamber. Levitated sample is raised into furnace region by raising plunger. Frequency of sound produced by transducers adjusted by feedback system to maintain (102) resonant mode, which levitates sample midway between transducers and plunger regardless of plunger position.

  20. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations) has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection), but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection) administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients. PMID:21138586

  1. Hip Arthroscopy for Excision of Osteoid Osteoma of Femoral Neck

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hatem Galal; Abdulla Babaqi, AbdulRahman; AbdelSalam El-Assal, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is the most commonly seen benign bone-forming lesion. It can occur anywhere, including the metaphyseal regions of small and large bones. We present 2 cases that underwent an arthroscopic technique for removal of OO of the femoral neck. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography in addition to magnetic resonance imaging. The lesions were accessed arthroscopically and excised by unroofing and curettage. The clinical and radiographic findings are presented, along with the surgical management. The patients improved dramatically postoperatively. OO of the femoral neck should be included in the differential diagnosis of hip pain in young patients. Arthroscopic excision and curettage provide a good choice for management, with low morbidity and rapid recovery. PMID:24749036

  2. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  3. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    PubMed Central

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  4. Excision of Thoracic Chondrosarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai V; Wadhwa, Rishi; Theodore, Pierre; Mummaneni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are cartilage-matrix-forming tumors that make up 20-27% of primary malignant bone tumors and are the third most common primary bone malignancy after multiple myelomas and osteosarcomas. Radiographic assessment of this condition includes plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor characterization and delineation of intraosseous and extraosseous involvement. Most chondrosarcomas are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy; therefore, wide en bloc surgical excision offers the best chance for cure. Chondrosarcomas frequently affect the pelvis and upper and lower extremities. In rare instances, the chest wall can be involved, with chondrosarcomas occurring in the ribs, sternum, anterior costosternal junction, and posterior costotransverse junction. In this article, we present a patient with thoracic chondrosarcoma centered at the left T7 costotransverse joint with effacement of the left T7-T8 neuroforamen. We also detail our operative technique of wide en bloc chondrosarcoma excision and review current literature on this topic. PMID:27588229

  5. Endoscopic excision of intraventricular neurocysticercosis blocking foramen of Monro bilaterally

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Harshil Chimanlal; Jain, Kapil; Shah, Jaimin Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infestation of the central nervous system. NCC parasitic infestation can be misdiagnosed as hydatid cyst or intraventricular epidermoid cyst that can cause a diagnostic dilemma. A 23-year-old male patient presented with headache and vomiting for 3–4 days and giddiness for 4–5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was suggestive of a rim-enhancing lesion at the level of the foramen of Monro. Endoscopic excision of the lesion was done, and the patient had relief of a headache and vomiting immediately after the procedure. He is being followed up regularly. Intraventricular NCC occluding both foramen of Monro is a rare entity. Complete endoscopic surgical excision followed by appropriate drug therapy should be given to achieve a cure. PMID:27057236

  6. Excision of Thoracic Chondrosarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Rishi; Theodore, Pierre; Mummaneni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are cartilage-matrix-forming tumors that make up 20-27% of primary malignant bone tumors and are the third most common primary bone malignancy after multiple myelomas and osteosarcomas. Radiographic assessment of this condition includes plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor characterization and delineation of intraosseous and extraosseous involvement. Most chondrosarcomas are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy; therefore, wide en bloc surgical excision offers the best chance for cure. Chondrosarcomas frequently affect the pelvis and upper and lower extremities. In rare instances, the chest wall can be involved, with chondrosarcomas occurring in the ribs, sternum, anterior costosternal junction, and posterior costotransverse junction. In this article, we present a patient with thoracic chondrosarcoma centered at the left T7 costotransverse joint with effacement of the left T7-T8 neuroforamen. We also detail our operative technique of wide en bloc chondrosarcoma excision and review current literature on this topic.

  7. The incision-excision technique in minor auricular deformities.

    PubMed

    Heppt, Werner J

    2004-11-01

    In 1972, in the search for a method to cope with all deformities in protruding ears and other common minor auricular deformities, Claus Walter published a surgical technique based on various incisions and excisions of the cartilage. The procedure consists of a complete separation of the auricle into two parts, combined with remodeling of antihelical, helical, and lobular structures without use of adjusting sutures. Thus, even in patients with stiff and unyielding cartilage and in revisional surgery, pleasing aesthetic results may be achieved. The recurrence rate has found to be reduced markedly. Considering all pros and cons and optional surgical modifications, the incision-excision technique can be adopted for every protruding ear as well as for lop ears, moderate cup ear deformities, and secondary revisions. Because of the extent of cartilage dissection, this technique is not recommended for beginners but should be restricted to experienced surgeons with profound knowledge of basic remodeling procedures. PMID:15778916

  8. Robotic excision of a pre-coccygeal nerve root tumor

    PubMed Central

    Palep, Jaydeep H.; Mistry, Sheetal; Kumar, Abhaya; Munshi, Mihir; Puranik, Meenakshi; Pednekar, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Pre-coccygeal ganglioneuroma is a rare clinical entity that presents incidentally or with non-specific symptoms. We present a case of a 25 year old housewife who was incidentally diagnosed with pre-coccygeal ganglioneuroma while getting investigated for primary infertility. The patient had no specific complaints except for irregular menstruation which had started 8 months back. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of a presacral and pre-coccygeal lesion. Resection of the tumor was done through the anterior approach using the da Vinci Si robotic system. Two robotic arms and one assistant port were used to completely excise the tumor. Robotic excision of such a tumor mass located at a relatively inaccessible area allows enhanced precision and 3-dimentional (3D) view avoiding damage to important surrounding structures. PMID:25598609

  9. Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

  10. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  11. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  12. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  13. Base excision repair and the role of MUTYH

    PubMed Central

    Kairupan, Carla; Scott, Rodney J

    2007-01-01

    The correction of exogenous and endogenous environmental insult to DNA involves a series of DNA repair mechanisms that reduce the likelihood of mutation accumulation and hence an increased probability of tumour development. The mechanisms underlying the process of base excision repair are relatively well understood and are placed in context with how deterioration of this process is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. PMID:19725997

  14. Excising das All: Evolving Maxwell waves beyond Scri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanMeter, James R.; Fiske, David R.; Misner, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    We study the numerical propagation of waves through future null infinity in a conformally compactified spacetime. We introduce an artificial cosmological constant, which allows us some control over the causal structure near null infinity. We exploit this freedom to ensure that all light cones are tilted outward in a region near null infinity, which allows us to impose excision-style boundary conditions in our finite difference code. In this preliminary study we consider electromagnetic waves propagating in a static, conformally compactified spacetime.

  15. [Laryngeal interarytenoid neurilemmoma excised via microlaryngeal endoscopy: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Cheng, Lixin; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Laryngeal interarytenoid neurilemmomas (LIN) is a benign encapsulated tumor originating from the schwann cells lining nerve fibers. Even though LINs are extremely rare in incidence, they could present with potential threat to the airway and thus requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Here, we report two cases of LINs. Both patients underwent excision of the tumor via microlaryngeal endoscopic procedures and recovered well postoperatively without complications. No recurrence was observed postoperatively on routine follow-up after 14 months. PMID:27101688

  16. Volar wrist ganglion excision through the flexor carpi radialis sheath.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Gregory A; DaSilva, Manuel F; Akelman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Volar wrist ganglions are much less frequent than their dorsal counterparts but provide much more surgical trepidation due to their proximity to the radial artery. With the majority arising from the radiocarpal joint, we have found that entering the flexor carpi radialis sheath and accessing the ganglion through the floor of the sheath allows for a relatively safe excision of these benign hand tumors. PMID:22913995

  17. Staged Excision for Lentigo Maligna and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joshua B.; Walling, Hobart W.; Scupham, Richard K.; Bean, Andrew K.; Ceilley, Roger I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Lentigo maligna is a form of in situ melanoma that occurs commonly on sun-exposed skin of middle-aged to elderly adults. Margin-control surgery offers the highest cure rate for lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma. Materials and methods: Charts from the authors’ private office from the 20-year period from January 1986 to December 2005 were reviewed to identify patients with histologically confirmed lentigo maligna or lentigo maligna melanoma treated by staged excision. Results: Sixty-eight patients (39 men, 29 women; mean age at diagnosis 67.4±10.2 years, range 48-87 years) with 68 tumors were treated in the authors’ office for lentigo maligna (58) or lentigo maligna melanoma (10) between January 1986 and December 2005. After excision, patients were followed clinically for a minimum of three years. The mean follow-up duration was 138 months (median 139 months; range 37-330 months). The overall margin for tumor clearance was 7.0±0.55mm with a recurrence rate of 5.9 percent. Limitations: The limitations of this study include the retrospective nature of the authors’ review, and data collected from a single, private practice setting. Conclusion: The authors’ findings support staged excision as an effective method of treating lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma, offering a high cure rate while maximally preserving normal tissue. PMID:27386048

  18. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

  19. Fluorescence and reflectance spectra of freshly excised cervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenchuk, Alex R.; Oliva, Esther; Kaufman, Howard; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh, Bizhan; Pitts, Jonathan D.

    2002-05-01

    Fluorescence emission and diffuse reflectance spectra of freshly excised cervical tissue were studied with two specially designed contact probes. The objective of the study was to reach a better understanding of the relationship between spectroscopic measurements and cervical tissue morphology. Tissue samples from loop electro-surgical excision and hysterectomy specimens were measured within 20 to 90 minutes of excision. Emission spectra with 337 nm excitation, and reflectance spectra were collected at wavelengths between 370 and 720 nm from different tissue sites. Hematoxylin-eosin stained slides of the measured zones were obtained and compared to the spectra. In one experiment, a contact probe with a central illumination fiber and two concentric rings of detection fibers (radii 0.1 and 1 mm), was placed in contact with the epithelium and used to measure spectra from ectocervix and endocervix. The influence of 5% acetic acid on fluorescence and reflectance spectra was also investigated. In another experiment, a single 100-micron fiber probe was placed perpendicular to a cut edge of tissue and scanned to measure spectra in depth. Depth scans were made over various areas of the cervix

  20. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma Excision

    PubMed Central

    Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Tufek, İlter; Saglican, Yesim; Obek, Can; Kural, Ali Riza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystadenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor of the seminal vesicle. Diagnosis of these tumors and differential diagnosis from malignant ones may be challenging since most of the time symptoms do not occur. Management of these tumors remains debatable due to the limited data in the literature. We present the first robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old man presented with diminished ejaculate volume and a 3.5 cm right seminal vesicle mass, which increased its size at 6 cm after the 3-month period. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed no malignancy. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the tumor was performed. Port placement was the same as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Operative time and estimated blood loss were 240 minutes and 200 mL, respectively. Patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 without any complications. Final histopathologic examination revealed cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Surgical intervention may be considered when a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle is diagnosed and symptoms or tumor growth occurs. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision is an alternative in the management of these rare tumors.

  1. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  2. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  3. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  4. Acoustic dispersive prism.

    PubMed

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  5. Acoustic dispersive prism

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  6. Acoustic dispersive prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  7. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  8. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  9. New insights about excisable pathogenicity islands in Salmonella and their contribution to virulence.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Pamela A; Pardo-Roa, Catalina; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Tobar, Hugo E; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2016-05-01

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are regions of the chromosome of pathogenic bacteria that harbor virulence genes, which were probably acquired by lateral gene transfer. Several PAIs can excise from the bacterial chromosome by site-specific recombination and in this review have been denominated "excisable PAIs". Here, the characteristic of some of the excisable PAIs from Salmonella enterica and the possible role and impact of the excision process on bacterial virulence is discussed. Understanding the role of PAI excision could provide important insights relative to the emergence, evolution and virulence of pathogenic enterobacteria. PMID:26939722

  10. The Therapeutic Effects of Intracavernosal Plaque Excision in Peyronie’s Disease: A None Grafting or Tunical Excising Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Hassan; Kamalati, Ali; Younesi Rostami, Mehdi; Imani, Mohammad Mehdi; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Hariri, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current surgical treatments in Peyronie’s disease are accompanied by complications such as penile shortening, loss of sensation, erectile dysfunction and recurrence of disease. The aim of this study was the evaluation of clinical results of intracavernosal plaque excision in Peyronie’s disease. METHODS The operation was performed on 35 men. It was consisted of incising the tunica albuginea parallel to the plaque and through this incision, and the plaque was removed from the inside surface without excision or replacing the underlying tunica albuginea by grafts. All patients were evaluated before and periodically within 12 months after the surgery with measurement of penile length, curvature angle in the rigidity phase, and sexual satisfaction. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 51.4±5.3 years (range 42-59 years). The angle of penile curvature was 25-45° (mean=35°). Thirty patients (86%) obtained a nearly complete straightening of penis. All patients restored their previous penile length without any disorder of sensation within the glans penis and expressed improvement of sexual activity. CONCLUSION Intracavernosal plaque excision is a simple, easy and minimal invasive method that does not result in penile shortening, loss of sensation or erectile dysfunction. In properly selected patients, this technique can lead to acceptable elimination of penile curvature and sexual satisfaction. PMID:27308243

  11. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  12. The challenge of acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, P.

    1981-01-01

    The various applications of acoustics, including sonar, ultrasonic examination of unborn foetuses and architectural applications, are briefly reviewed. Problems in traffic and industrial noise, auditorium design and explosive noise are considered in more detail. The educational aspects of acoustical science and technology are briefly considered.

  13. Highly directional acoustic receivers.

    PubMed

    Cray, Benjamin A; Evora, Victor M; Nuttall, Albert H

    2003-03-01

    The theoretical directivity of a single combined acoustic receiver, a device that can measure many quantities of an acoustic field at a collocated point, is presented here. The formulation is developed using a Taylor series expansion of acoustic pressure about the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system. For example, the quantities measured by a second-order combined receiver, denoted a dyadic sensor, are acoustic pressure, the three orthogonal components of acoustic particle velocity, and the nine spatial gradients of the velocity vector. The power series expansion, which can be of any order, is cast into an expression that defines the directivity of a single receiving element. It is shown that a single highly directional dyadic sensor can have a directivity index of up to 9.5 dB. However, there is a price to pay with highly directive sensors; these sensors can be significantly more sensitive to nonacoustic noise sources. PMID:12656387

  14. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  15. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  16. Acoustic integrated extinction

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time-dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency. PMID:27547100

  17. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  18. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  19. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giovanna Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of {>=}8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level ({<=}3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level.

  20. Flexor Tendon Sheath Ganglions: Results of Surgical Excision

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Edwin E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to review the clinical features and determine the results following surgical excision of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion. A retrospective analysis of 24 consecutive patients (25 ganglions) who underwent excision of a painful flexor tendon sheath ganglion by the same surgeon was performed. The patient’s medical and operative records were reviewed. Each patient was invited to return for an evaluation, which consisted of a clinical interview, completion of a questionnaire, and physical examination. Those patients that were unable to return underwent a detailed telephone interview. Sixteen patients returned for a clinical evaluation, while eight patients underwent a telephone interview. There were 15 women and nine men, with an average age of 43 years (range, 21–68 years). The dominant hand was involved in 15 patients. The long finger was most commonly involved (11 cases). The ganglion arose from the A1 pulley in 13 cases, between the A1 and A2 pulleys in three cases, and from the A2 pulley in nine cases. At an average follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 5–38 months), all of the patients were satisfied with their final result. No patient developed a recurrence and all returned to their previous functional level. There were two minor complications that resolved uneventfully; one patient experienced mild incisional tenderness, while an additional patient experienced transient digital nerve paresthesias. We conclude that surgical excision is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating a painful ganglion of the digital flexor tendon sheath. PMID:18780066

  1. Management of the Perineal Defect after Abdominoperineal Excision.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Colin; Martin, Sean

    2016-06-01

    The optimal management of the perineal defect following abdominoperineal excision for anorectal malignancy remains a source of debate. The repopularization of extralevator resection means colorectal surgeons are confronted with larger perineal wounds. There are several surgical options available-primary perineal closure and drainage, omentoplasty, biological or synthetic mesh placement, musculocutaneous flap repair, and negative wound pressure therapy. These options are discussed along with the potential benefits and complications of each. There remains no consensus on which management strategy is superior; thus, each case must be tailored for each individual patient. Surgical expertise and availability of a multidisciplinary team approach are important considerations. PMID:27247542

  2. Successful Robotic Excision and Early Chemotherapy for Primary Cardiac Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Moss, Emmanuel; Goldstein, Daniel A; Bradley, Kyle T; Flowers, Christopher R; Murphy, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    We present a 67-year-old patient who underwent robotic excision of a mobile left ventricular mass found incidentally on echocardiography. Intraoperative findings revealed a pedunculated mass infiltrating the interventricular septum, and the results of pathologic examination of the frozen section were consistent with malignancy. The final pathologic examination showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and early chemotherapy was initiated. Follow-up cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed completely normal myocardium without evidence of malignancy. The lateral endoscopic robotic approach across the mitral valve permitted optimal tumor visualization and early chemotherapy initiation without concern for cardiac rupture or related adverse events. PMID:27343500

  3. Microsurgical excision of hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Yayama, Takafumi; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-07-01

    Hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum is a very rare cause of sciatica. A 72-year-old man presented with left-sided sciatica and paresthesia of the lateral aspect of his left foot. From CT and MRI findings, he was diagnosed as having a hematoma embedded in the ligamentum flavum, which compressed the dura mater at the L5/S1 disc level. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the hematoma of the ligamentum flavum could be excised via a unilateral approach and satisfactory decompression of the cauda equina and nerve roots were obtained. PMID:20537575

  4. Transoral excision of a parapharyngeal space tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Rudić, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran

    2012-11-01

    Tumors of the parapharyngeal space are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all head and neck neoplasms. They are mainly salivary gland or neurogenic tumors. Clinical presentation is very variable. Surgical resection by different approaches remains to be the best possible treatment option. We present a case of 45 years old female patient admitted at the ENT Department due to the unilateral hearing loss and swallowing difficulties. Clinical examination revealed the diagnosis of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space. Tumor was surgical (transorally) excised. Two years following the surgery there is no recurrence of the initial symptoms and primary disease. PMID:23397785

  5. Successful excision of a massive bleeding schwannoma by thoracoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Takasaki, Chihiro; Okubo, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    Massive intrathoracic bleeding caused by rupture of a benign schwannoma is extremely rare. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department because of chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed massive pleural effusion and a posterior mediastinal tumor. Chest tube thoracostomy was performed, and the initial blood drainage was 1700 mL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor at the 8th costal level measured 46 × 60 mm. The tumor, located beside the 8th vertebra, had ruptured and caused the bleeding. It was successfully excised by thoracoscopic surgery and diagnosed as a benign schwannoma. PMID:27095705

  6. Ocean seismo-acoustics. Low-frequency underwater acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Akal, T.; berkson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on seismo-acoustic propagation in seawater and sea beds that includes theoretical developments, modelling and experiments, and fluctuations. Boundary scatteiring, seismo-acoustic waves and seismo-acoustic noise are discussed. Technology and new approaches in seismo-acoustic measurements are presented.

  7. 26 CFR 55.4981-1 - Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-1 Imposition of...

  8. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4979-0 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-0 Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions...

  10. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  11. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  12. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diderich, K.; Alanazi, M.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    During past decades the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as ‘disease of the genes’ has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair systems not only protect against cancer but equally against too fast aging has become evident from a systematic, integral analysis of a variety of mouse mutants carrying defects in e.g. transcription-coupled repair with or without an additional impairment of global genome nucleotide excision repair and the corresponding segmental premature aging syndromes in man. A striking correlation between the degree of the DNA repair deficiency and the acceleration of specific progeroid symptoms has been discovered for those repair systems that primarily protect from the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of DNA damage. These observations are explained from the perspective of nucleotide excision repair mouse mutant and human syndromes. However, similar principles likely apply to other DNA repair pathways including interstrand crosslink repair and double strand break repair and genome maintenance systems in general, supporting the notion that DNA damage constitutes an important intermediate in the process of aging. PMID:21680258

  13. Value of histopathologic analysis of skin excisions by GPs

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Chorus, Rob MH; van Diest, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The clinical diagnoses of skin lesions in general practice may sometimes not be very accurate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus final histopathological diagnosis status (benign, pre-malignant/malignant) in 4595 consecutive submissions by GPs. The final diagnosis was pre-malignant or malignant in 215 cases (4.7%). From the 4436 lesions clinically diagnosed as benign, 134 (3.0%) were pre-malignant or malignant on final histological diagnosis. From the 159 lesions clinically diagnosed as pre-malignant or malignant, 78 (49.1%) were in fact benign, and 81 (50.9%) were indeed pre-malignant or malignant on final diagnosis. The sensitivity for a malignant diagnosis was 38%, and the specificity 98%. The proportion of pre-malignancies or malignancies was 0.9% below and 9.2% above the age of 40 years. In conclusion, histopathological investigation of skin excisions by GPs yields a high percentage of unexpected pre-malignancies and malignancies. The number of misdiagnoses was age dependent, with a proportion of 1% and 9% of pre-malignancies/malignancies in patients below and above the age of 40 years, respectively. This indicates that all skin excisions by GPs must undergo routine histopathological investigation to ensure that serious malignancies are not missed. PMID:15970070

  14. Effect of the uvrD mutation on excision repair.

    PubMed Central

    Kuemmerle, N B; Masker, W E

    1980-01-01

    A pair of related Escherichia coli K-12 strains, one of which contains the uvrD101 mutation, were constructed and compared for ability to perform various steps in the excision repair of deoxyribonucleic acid damage inflicted by ultraviolet radiation. The results of this study indicated: (i) ultraviolet sensitivity in the uvrD101 mutant was greater than that of wild type but less than that measured in an incision-deficient uvrA mutant; (ii) host cell reactivation paralleled the survival data; (iii) postirradiation deoxyribonucleic acid degradation was virtually identical in the two strains; (iv) incision, presumably at the sites of pyrimidine dimers, proceeded normally in the uvrD101 strain; (v) excision of pyrimidine dimers was markedly reduced in both rate and extent in the uvrD101 mutant; (vi) the amount of repair resynthesis was the same in both strains, and there was no evidence of abnormally long repair patches in the uvrD mutant; and (vii) rejoining of incision breaks was slow and incomplete in the uvrD strain. These data suggest that the ultraviolet sensitivity conferred by the uvrD mutation arises from inefficient removal of pyrimidine dimers or from failure to close incision breaks. The data are compatible with the notion that the uvrD+ gene produce affects the conformation of incised deoxyribonucleic acid molecules. PMID:6991479

  15. Rules of Engagement for Base Excision Repair in Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Odell, Ian D.; Wallace, Susan S.; Pederson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the DNA in eukaryotes is packaged in tandemly arrayed nucleosomes that, together with numerous DNA- and nucleosome-associated enzymes and regulatory factors, make up chromatin. Chromatin modifying and remodeling agents help regulate access to selected DNA segments in chromatin, thereby facilitating transcription and DNA replication and repair. Studies of nucleotide excision repair (NER), single strand break repair (SSBR), and the homology-directed (HDR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) double strand break repair pathways have led to an ‘access-repair-restore’ paradigm, in which chromatin in the vicinity of damaged DNA is disrupted, thereby enabling efficient repair and the subsequent repackaging of DNA into nucleosomes. When damage is extensive, these repair processes are accompanied by cell cycle checkpoint activation, which provides cells with sufficient time to either complete the repair or initiate apoptosis. It is not clear, however, if base excision repair (BER) of the ~20,000 or more oxidative DNA damages that occur daily in each nucleated human cell can be viewed through this same lens. Until recently, we did not know if BER requires or is accompanied by nucleosome disruption, and it is not yet clear that anything short of overwhelming oxidative damage (resulting in the shunting of DNA substrates into other repair pathways) results in checkpoint activation. This review highlights studies of how oxidatively damaged DNA in nucleosomes is discovered and repaired, and offers a working model of events associated with BER in chromatin that we hope will have heuristic value. PMID:22718094

  16. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy and Bladder Cuff Excision

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, A. T.; Asil, E.; Balbay, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our aim was to show that bladder cuff excision and distal ureterectomy can be safely performed by using the LigaSure device during robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Methods: A 60-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. He was diagnosed with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) on the left side and was scheduled for robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Without changing the patient's position, sealing with the LigaSure atlas for bladder cuff excision and distal ureterectomy was performed. Results: The operating time was 140 minutes from the initial incision to skin closure of all incisions. The estimated blood loss during the surgery was 120mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The Foley drain was removed on day 3 after normal cystographic findings, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the fourth postoperative day. Conclusion: Robot-assisted nephroureterectomy with distal ureterectomy in the same position using a LigaSure device is a safe alternative for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23477188

  17. In vitro chromatin templates to study nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqi

    2015-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA associates with histones and exists in the form of a chromatin hierarchy. Thus, it is generally believed that many eukaryotic cellular DNA processing events such as replication, transcription, recombination and DNA repair are influenced by the packaging of DNA into chromatin. This mini-review covers the current knowledge of DNA damage and repair in chromatin based on in vitro studies. Specifically, nucleosome assembly affects DNA damage formation in both random sequences and sequences with strong nucleosome-positioning signals such as 5S rDNA. At least three systems have been used to analyze the effect of nucleosome folding on nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro: (a) human cell extracts that have to rely on labeling of repair synthesis to monitor DNA repair, due to very low repair efficacy; (b) Xenopus oocyte nuclear extracts, that have very robust DNA repair efficacy, have been utilized to follow direct removal of DNA damage; (c) six purified human DNA repair factors (RPA, XPA, XPC, TFIIH, XPG, and XPF-ERCC1) that have been used to reconstitute excision repair in vitro. In general, the results have shown that nucleosome folding inhibits NER and, therefore, its activity must be enhanced by chromatin remodeling factors like SWI/SNF. In addition, binding of transcription factors such as TFIIIA to the 5S rDNA promoter also modulates NER efficacy. PMID:26531320

  18. Facilitation of base excision repair by chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hinz, John M; Czaja, Wioletta

    2015-12-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) is a conserved, intracellular DNA repair system that recognizes and removes chemically modified bases to insure genomic integrity and prevent mutagenesis. Aberrant BER has been tightly linked with a broad spectrum of human pathologies, such as several types of cancer, neurological degeneration, developmental abnormalities, immune dysfunction and aging. In the cell, BER must recognize and remove DNA lesions from the tightly condensed, protein-coated chromatin. Because chromatin is necessarily refractory to DNA metabolic processes, like transcription and replication, the compaction of the genomic material is also inhibitory to the repair systems necessary for its upkeep. Multiple ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling (ACR) complexes play essential roles in modulating the protein-DNA interactions within chromatin, regulating transcription and promoting activities of some DNA repair systems, including double-strand break repair and nucleotide excision repair. However, it remains unclear how BER operates in the context of chromatin, and if the chromatin remodelling processes that govern transcription and replication also actively regulate the efficiency of BER. In this review we highlight the emerging role of ACR in regulation of BER. PMID:26422134

  19. Photobiomodulatory effects of He-Ne laser on excision wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Satish B. S.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Lakshmi; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2011-03-01

    Presently, great importance has been given to Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) with the intent of promoting wound healing process. The present study was aimed to investigate the promotive effect of LLLT on full thickness excision wounds in Swiss albino mice using optical fiber probe based light device. Circular wounds of diameter 15 mm were illuminated with single exposure of various laser doses 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 J/cm2 along with appropriate controls. Further, an optimal dose of 2 J/cm2 was applied to excision wounds at different post-wounding treatment schedules (0, 24 h and 48 h) to explicate the relations between treatment schedule and its tissue regeneration potential. Wound area, mean wound healing time along with hydroxyproline and glucosamine levels from wound ground tissue was assessed to evaluate the resultant photobiostimulatory outcome. Histological analysis was performed on day 10 of post-wounding. A significant increase in hydroxyproline (P< 0.001) and glucosamine levels (P< 0.01) were observed in 2 J/cm2 irradiation group, which was also substantiated by histological findings. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the immediate irradiation of 2 J/cm2 dose following wounding hasten the healing process compared to the unilluminated control.

  20. Validating Excised Rodent Lungs for Functional Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lilburn, David M. L.; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Stupic, Karl F.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp) 129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp 129Xe. Straightforward hp 129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV) data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp 129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp 129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies. PMID:24023683

  1. Pterygium excision with conjunctival autografting: an effective and safe technique.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, B D; Short, P; Crawford, G J; Barrett, G D; Constable, I J

    1993-01-01

    The optimum mode of treatment for symptomatic pterygia would combine efficacy (a low recurrence rate) with safety (freedom from sight threatening complications), and would not affect visual acuity adversely. The efficacy of pterygium excision with conjunctival autografting in a sun exposed population in which pterygia are prevalent has previously been questioned. A cross sectional review of 93 eyes of 85 patients was carried out by slit-lamp examination a minimum of 6 months (range 6-76 months) after pterygium excision and free conjunctival autografting. Case notes were reviewed to obtain details of complications and visual acuity changes related to surgery. Of six recurrences (6.5%) four of these were asymptomatic with minor recurrences. Two patterns of recurrence were identified: cross graft recurrence (three cases) and outflanking (three cases). Complications (wound dehiscence, three cases; Tenon's granuloma one case; conjunctival cyst, one case) were all corrected by minor surgical revision without sequelae. Unaided acuities were unchanged or improved 3 months after surgery in 86 cases, with a minor diminution (1 Snellen line) in seven cases. This study demonstrates a low recurrence rate for a safe technique in an area in which ongoing ultraviolet light exposure levels are high and pterygia are prevalent. Images PMID:8280682

  2. Some Problems of modern acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character of acoustics is considered and its scientific, technological, economical and social implications, as well as the role of acoustics in creating new machines and equipment and improving the quality of products are outlined. Research beyond audible frequencies, as well as to extremely high acoustic intensities, which requires the development of a nonlinear acoustics is elaborated.

  3. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOEpatents

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  4. Acoustic rotation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Croonquist, A. P.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for acoustically controlled rotation of a levitated object, which avoids deformation of a levitated liquid object. Acoustic waves of the same wavelength are directed along perpendicular directions across the object, and with the relative phases of the acoustic waves repeatedly switched so that one wave alternately leads and lags the other by 90 deg. The amount of torque for rotating the object, and the direction of rotation, are controlled by controlling the proportion of time one wave leads the other and selecting which wave leads the other most of the time.

  5. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  6. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  7. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  8. Phyllodes tumor diagnosed after ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision: should it be followed by surgical excision?

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of ultrasound (US)-guided vacuum-assisted excision (US-VAE) of phyllodes tumors (PTs). A total of 41 PTs diagnosed at US-VAE followed by surgery (n = 27) or at least 2 y of US monitoring (n = 14) were included. By comparison of US-VAE pathology with surgical histology or follow-up US results, cases were divided into upgraded (malignant) and non-upgraded (benign) groups. These two groups were compared with respect to clinical, procedural and US features. Among 27 surgical cases, 2 (8.7%) of 23 benign PTs were upgraded to malignant PTs. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category was retrospectively assigned as 4a (50%) or 4b (50%) in the upgraded group (n = 2) and 3 (64%) or 4a (36%) in the non-upgraded group (n = 39) (p = 0.018). Residual tumor was observed at the site of US-VAE in 15 of 27 surgical cases and 0 of 14 US follow-up cases (36.6%, 15/41). Given the rates of upgrade to malignancy (8.7%) and residual tumor (36.6%), PTs diagnosed after US-VAE should be surgically excised. PMID:25619780

  9. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  10. Acoustic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  11. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  12. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  13. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  14. Vocal power and pressure–flow relationships in excised tiger larynges

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J.; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L.; McGee, JoAnn; Walsh, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure–flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed ‘vocal pads’ in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0–2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s–1 per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure. PMID:21037066

  15. Vocal power and pressure-flow relationships in excised tiger larynges.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L; McGee, Joann; Walsh, Edward J

    2010-11-15

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure-flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed 'vocal pads' in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0-2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s(-1) per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure. PMID:21037066

  16. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  17. Excision of Sleeping Beauty transposons: parameters and applications to gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Geyi; Aronovich, Elena L.; Cui, Zongbin; Whitley, Chester B.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in gene therapy is the determination of the rates at which gene transfer has occurred. Our work has focused on applications of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system as a non-viral vector for gene therapy. Excision of a transposon from a donor molecule and its integration into a cellular chromosome are catalyzed by SB transposase. In this study, we used a plasmid-based excision assay to study the excision step of transposition. We used the excision assay to evaluate the importance of various sequences that border the sites of excision inside and outside the transposon in order to determine the most active sequences for transposition from a donor plasmid. These findings together with our previous results in transposase binding to the terminal repeats suggest that the sequences in the transposon-junction of SB are involved in steps subsequent to DNA binding but before excision, and that they may have a role in transposase–transposon interaction. We found that SB transposons leave characteristically different footprints at excision sites in different cell types, suggesting that alternative repair machineries operate in concert with transposition. Most importantly, we found that the rates of excision correlate with the rates of transposition. We used this finding to assess transposition in livers of mice that were injected with the SB transposon and transposase. The excision assay appears to be a relatively quick and easy method to optimize protocols for delivery of genes in SB transposons to mammalian chromosomes in living animals. PMID:15133768

  18. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  19. Acoustic communication by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Many ant species communicate acoustically by stridulating, i.e., running a scraper over a washboard-like set of ridges. Ants appear to be insensitive to airborne sound. Consequently, myrmecologists have concluded that the stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. This has tended to diminish the importance of acoustic communication, and it is currently believed that ant communication is based almost exclusively on pheromones, with acoustic communication assigned an almost nonexistent role. However, it can be shown that acoustic communication between ants is effective only if the medium is air and not the substrate. How, then, is it possible for ants to appear deaf to airborne sound and yet communicate through the air? An explanation is provided in a paper [R. Hickling and R. L. Brown, ``Analysis of acoustic communication by ants,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1920-1929 (2000)]. Ants are small relative to the wavelengths they generate. Hence, they create a near field, which is characterized by a major increase in sound velocity (particle velocity of sound) in the vicinity of the source. Hair sensilla on the ants' antennae respond to sound velocity. Thus, ants are able to detect near-field sound from other ants and to exclude extraneous airborne sound.

  20. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (<2000 Hz) acoustic methods for medical diagnosis. Several candidate methods of pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (p<0.0001). The ratio of acoustic energy between low (<220 Hz) and mid (550-770 Hz) frequency bands was significantly different in the control (healthy) and pneumothorax states (p<0.0001). The second approach measured breath sounds in the absence of an external acoustic input. Pneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (p<0.01 for each). Finally, chest percussion was implemented. Pneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  1. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  2. Treatment Options Summary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  3. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a sign of hearing loss , multiple sclerosis , acoustic neuroma , or stroke. Abnormal results may also be ... PA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2012:chap 32A. Read More Acoustic neuroma Central pontine myelinolysis Hearing loss Multiple sclerosis ...

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Read More Acoustic neuroma Brain tumor - primary - adults Cerebral arteriovenous malformation ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Acoustic Neuroma Arteriovenous Malformations Brain Tumors Childhood Brain Tumors ...

  5. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat the following types of cancer: Brain ( acoustic neuroma , childhood brain tumors ) Eye ( ocular melanoma , retinoblastoma ) ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap 27. Read More Acoustic neuroma Bone tumor Brain tumor - children Melanoma of ...

  6. Stereotactic Radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve that connects the ear to the brain ( acoustic neuroma ) Pituitary tumors Tumors that are not cancer ( ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Acoustic Neuroma Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  7. Sensorineural deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... or dizzy (more common with Meniere's disease and acoustic neuromas ) Ringing or buzzing sound in the ears ( ... a long time Meniere's disease Tumor, such as acoustic neuroma Use of certain medicines Working around loud ...

  8. Laparoscopic excision of mesenteric cyst of sigmoid mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H; Tayade, Mukund B; Borisa, Ashok D; Kasat, Gaurav V

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumours. They are found in the mesentery of small bowel (66%) and mesentery of large intestine (33%), usually in the right colon. Very few cases have been reported of tumours found in mesentery of descending colon, sigmoid or rectum. Mesenteric cysts do not show classical clinical findings and are detected incidentally during imaging due to absent or non-specific clinical presentation or during management of one of their complications. Ultrasonography (USG)/computed tomography (CT)/ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in diagnosing mesenteric cyst but they cannot determine the origin of cyst. Laparoscopy not only helps in diagnosing the site and origin of the mesenteric cyst but also has a therapeutic role. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cyst is a safe, preferred method of treatment and is a less-invasive surgical technique. Here, we present an unusual case of mesenteric cyst arising from the sigmoid mesocolon treated by laparoscopic excision. PMID:23626420

  9. Transanal total mesorectal excision: A valid option for rectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Nicholson, Gary A; Ris, Frederic; Mortensen, Neil J; Hompes, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Low anterior resection can be a challenging operation, especially in obese male patients and in particular after radiotherapy. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) might offer technical advantages over laparoscopic or open approaches particularly for tumors in the distal third of the rectum. The aim of this article is to review the current experience with TaTME. The limits and future developments are also explored. Although the experience with TaTME is still limited, it might be a promising alternative to laparoscopic TME, especially for difficult cases where laparoscopy is too demanding. The preliminary data on complications and short-term oncological outcomes are good, but also emphasize the importance of careful patient selection. Finally, there is a need for large-scale trials focusing on long-term outcomes and oncological safety before widespread adoption can be recommended. PMID:26556997

  10. Nucleotide excision repair deficient mouse models and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Niedernhofer, Laura J

    2008-07-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly conserved mechanism to remove helix-distorting DNA base damage. A major substrate for NER is DNA damage caused by environmental genotoxins, most notably ultraviolet radiation. Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy are three human diseases caused by inherited defects in NER. The symptoms and severity of these diseases vary dramatically, ranging from profound developmental delay to cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. All three syndromes include neurological disease, indicating an important role for NER in protecting against spontaneous DNA damage as well. To study the pathophysiology caused by DNA damage, numerous mouse models of NER-deficiency were generated by knocking-out genes required for NER or knocking-in disease-causing human mutations. This review explores the utility of these mouse models to study neurological disease caused by NER-deficiency. PMID:18272436

  11. Endoscopic excision of a fibroadenoma breast: trans axillary approach.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, S; Sood, S; Dhungel, K; Rajbanshi, S; Shakya, V; Khaniya, S

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast lumps affect 10% of females in their lifetime. Surveillance, assurance, medications and surgical excision are options available to surgeons. Avoiding scars on the breast is an inherent feminine desire. Numerous minimal invasive approaches have evolved due to this concern. The time honoured circumareolar incisions camouflages the scar to a large extent, yet the incision still remains on the breast tissue and unfortunately the scar undergoes the same old sequelae as with any other scars both aesthetically or psychosocially. The close by anatomical space; axilla provides an easy access for endoscopic breast surgery. We utilized this area and applied our expertise to remove a fibroadenoma in a teenager which spared her breast from the scar. The technique was safe and effective. It conserved aesthetics and led to a better compliance. PMID:23132489

  12. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  13. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal paracaval tumor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tzu-Chun; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex T L; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2013-12-01

    During the past few years, robotic surgical systems have been rapidly developed. The progress and advantages of these systems include three-dimensional vision and enhanced ergonomics. These advantages have helped a new generation of minimally invasive surgery to evolve. The da Vinci Surgical System seems to greatly resolve problems (e.g., wide exposure and retraction of peritoneal organs) that are confronted by traditional laparoscopic surgeries for retroperitoneal tumors that are near great vessels. There have been few reported cases concerning laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal tumors situated between the inferior vena cava, the right renal vessel, and the kidney. We report the use of a robotic surgical system for this type of treatment. A 54-year-old female patient had a hypoechoic lesion near the inferior vena cava and superior to the right renal vessels. It was incidentally found by ultrasound during a health check-up examination. The computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a heterogeneous contrast-enhanced retroperitoneal mass approximately 4.4 cm medial to the right kidney with the inferior vena cava slightly deviated to the left. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the retroperitoneal tumor was performed on October 15, 2010 with an operation time of 135 minutes and an estimated blood loss of less than 30 mL. The J-Vac drainage tube was removed on postoperative Day 3, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition the following day. The pathology of the tumor was retroperitoneal schwannoma. A re-evaluation was arranged postoperatively for the 15-month ambulatory visit. No local recurrence or distal metastasis was present. PMID:24079977

  14. Accuracy of lesion boundary tracking in navigated breast tumor excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Emily; Ungi, Tamas; Vaughan, Thomas; Pezeshki, Padina; Lasso, Andras; Gauvin, Gabrielle; Rudan, John; Engel, C. Jay; Morin, Evelyn; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: An electromagnetic navigation system for tumor excision in breast conserving surgery has recently been developed. Preoperatively, a hooked needle is positioned in the tumor and the tumor boundaries are defined in the needle coordinate system. The needle is tracked electromagnetically throughout the procedure to localize the tumor. However, the needle may move and the tissue may deform, leading to errors in maintaining a correct excision boundary. It is imperative to quantify these errors so the surgeon can choose an appropriate resection margin. METHODS: A commercial breast biopsy phantom with several inclusions was used. Location and shape of a lesion before and after mechanical deformation were determined using 3D ultrasound volumes. Tumor location and shape were estimated from initial contours and tracking data. The difference in estimated and actual location and shape of the lesion after deformation was quantified using the Hausdorff distance. Data collection and analysis were done using our 3D Slicer software application and PLUS toolkit. RESULTS: The deformation of the breast resulted in 3.72 mm (STD 0.67 mm) average boundary displacement for an isoelastic lesion and 3.88 mm (STD 0.43 mm) for a hyperelastic lesion. The difference between the actual and estimated tracked tumor boundary was 0.88 mm (STD 0.20 mm) for the isoelastic and 1.78 mm (STD 0.18 mm) for the hyperelastic lesion. CONCLUSION: The average lesion boundary tracking error was below 2mm, which is clinically acceptable. We suspect that stiffness of the phantom tissue affected the error measurements. Results will be validated in patient studies.

  15. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  16. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  17. Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G.; Meyyappan, A.

    1988-07-01

    The technology for "seeing" with sound has an important and interesting history. Some of nature's creatures have been using sound waves for many millenia to image otherwise unobservable objects. The human species, lacking this natural ability, have overcome this deficiency by developing several different ultrasonic imaging techniques. acoustic microscopy is one such technique, which produces high resolution images of detailed structure of small objects in a non-destructive fashion. Two types of acoustic microscopes have evolved for industrial exploitation. They are the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). In this paper, we review the principles of SLAM and describe how we use elements of SLAM to realize the scanning tomographic acoustic microscope (STAM). We describe the data acquisition process and the image reconstruction procedure. We also describe techniques to obtain projection data from different angles of wave incidence enabling us to reconstruct different planes of a complex specimen tomo-graphically. Our experimental results show that STAM is capable of producing high-quality high-resolution subsurface images.

  18. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators. PMID:24455161

  19. Surgical Site Infection After Skin Excisions in Children: Is Field Sterility Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Nuzzi, Laura C; Greene, Arin K; Meara, John G; Taghinia, Amir; Labow, Brian I

    2016-03-01

    Skin excisions are common procedures in children. They may be performed in the clinic using field sterility or the operating room with strict sterile technique. We compared the effect of these locations and the use of antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after skin excisions. Patients ages 0-18 years presenting to our department for the excision of lesions from 2006 to 2010 with complete medical records were included in our study. Records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, presentation, perioperative conditions, and postoperative SSI and other wound complications. Analyses were performed to estimate the costs associated with sterility technique and perioperative antibiotic use. We identified 700 patients with a mean age of 9.1 years. Of 872 lesions excised, 0.3% resulted in SSI and 1.8% had other wound complications. The incidence of SSI did not vary according to sterility technique, antibiotic usage, surgeon, age, or lesion size, type, or location. The equipment costs to excise a lesion in the operating room were 200% greater than in the clinic. The incidence of SSI after excision of benign lesions in children did not differ between those performed using clinic field sterility and those using the standard aseptic sterile technique in the operating room. A considerable cost savings could be realized by adopting field sterility for simple excisions performed in the operating room and avoiding routine perioperative antibiotics in pediatric skin excisions. PMID:25727412

  20. 77 FR 43157 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... the Federal Register on June 25, 2012 (77 FR 37806) relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. DATES: This correction is... Excise Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting...

  1. Posterior Endoscopic Excision of Os Trigonum in Professional National Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Moez S; Roche, Andy; Brodrick, Anna; Williams, R Lloyd; Calder, James D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the outcomes after open and endoscopic excision of an os trigonum in patients of mixed professions. No studies have compared the differences in outcomes between the 2 procedures in elite ballet dancers. From October 2005 to February 2010, 35 professional ballet dancers underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum of the ankle after a failed period of nonoperative treatment. Of the 35 patients, 13 (37.1%) underwent endoscopic excision and 22 (62.9%) open excision. We compared the outcomes, complications, and time to return to dancing. The open excision group experienced a significantly greater incidence of flexor hallucis longus tendon decompression compared with the endoscopic group. The endoscopic release group returned to full dance earlier at a mean of 9.8 (range 6.5 to 16.1) weeks and those undergoing open excision returned to full dance at a mean of 14.9 (range 9 to 20) weeks (p = .001). No major complications developed in either group, such as deep infection or nerve or vessel injury. We have concluded that both techniques are safe and effective in the treatment of symptomatic os trigonum in professional ballet dancers. Endoscopic excision of the os trigonum offers a more rapid return to full dance compared with open excision. PMID:27289219

  2. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940... section 4940(c) and paragraph (c) of this section) of a tax-exempt private foundation (as defined in... the foundation is required to file under section 6033 for the taxable year and will be paid...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940... section 4940(c) and paragraph (c) of this section) of a tax-exempt private foundation (as defined in... the foundation is required to file under section 6033 for the taxable year and will be paid...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940... section 4940(c) and paragraph (c) of this section) of a tax-exempt private foundation (as defined in... the foundation is required to file under section 6033 for the taxable year and will be paid...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940... section 4940(c) and paragraph (c) of this section) of a tax-exempt private foundation (as defined in... the foundation is required to file under section 6033 for the taxable year and will be paid...

  6. Oesophageal pseudodiverticulum after foregut duplication cyst excision: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bobanga, Iuliana D.; Redline, Raymond W.; DeRoss, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal pseudodiverticula rarely occur after excision of benign oesophageal neoplasms. While management and outcomes have been reported in the adult leiomyoma literature, sparse data exist on the occurrence and management of pseudodiverticula after foregut duplication cyst excision. We discuss our experience with a paediatric patient and review relevant literature regarding operative techniques and surgical outcomes. PMID:27251526

  7. Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase and Excision Nuclease (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Sancar, Aziz

    2016-07-18

    Ultraviolet light damages DNA by converting two adjacent thymines into a thymine dimer which is potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, or lethal to the organism. This damage is repaired by photolyase and the nucleotide excision repair system in E. coli by nucleotide excision repair in humans. The work leading to these results is presented by Aziz Sancar in his Nobel Lecture. PMID:27337655

  8. Cell death caused by excision of centromeric DNA from a chromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Akihiro; Yanamoto, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Hatano, Takushi; Matsuzaki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    If genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are spread through the natural environment, it might affect the natural environment. To help prevent the spread of GMOs, we examined whether it is possible to introduce conditional lethality by excising centromeric DNA from a chromosome by site-specific recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model organism. First, we constructed haploid cells in which excision of the centromeric DNA from chromosome IV can occur due to recombinase induced by galactose. By this excision, cell death can occur. In diploid cells, cell death can also occur by excision from both homologous chromosomes IV. Furthermore, cell death can occur in the case of chromosome V. A small number of surviving cells appeared with excision of centromeric DNA, and the diploid showed greater viability than the haploid in both chromosomes IV and V. The surviving cells appeared mainly due to deletion of a recombination target site (RS) from the chromosome. PMID:24018677

  9. Correlation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channel expression with neuropathic pain in human subjects with lingual nerve neuromas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are expressed preferentially in small diameter sensory neurons, and are thought to play a role in the generation of ectopic activity in neuronal cell bodies and/or their axons following peripheral nerve injury. The expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 has been quantified in human lingual nerves that have been previously injured inadvertently during lower third molar removal, and any correlation between the expression of these ion channels and the presence or absence of dysaesthesia investigated. Results Immunohistochemical processing and quantitative image analysis revealed that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed in human lingual nerve neuromas from patients with or without symptoms of dysaesthesia. The level of Nav1.8 expression was significantly higher in patients reporting pain compared with no pain, and a significant positive correlation was observed between levels of Nav1.8 expression and VAS scores for the symptom of tingling. No significant differences were recorded in the level of expression of Nav1.9 between patients with or without pain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are present in human lingual nerve neuromas, with significant correlations between the level of expression of Nav1.8 and symptoms of pain. These data provide further evidence that changes in expression of Nav1.8 are important in the development and/or maintenance of nerve injury-induced pain, and suggest that Nav1.8 may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24144460

  10. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  11. Total mesorectal excision for the treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zedan, Ali; Salah, Tareq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the surgical treatment of rectal cancer, a clear circumferential resection margin and distal resection margin should be obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the morbidity, mortality, survival outcome, and local failure after total mesorectal excision (TME) in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on 101 patients treated for rectal cancer using low anterior resection (LAR), abdominoperinial resection (APR), or Hartmaan’s technique. In all operative procedures, total mesorectal excisions (TMEs) were done. The patients were treated from November 2000 to April 2011 in the South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI) of Assuit University (Egypt). Neo-adjuvant therapy was given to those patients with serosalin filtration, lymph node involvement, and sexual and urinary function impairment. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21, and survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results One hundred one patients were evaluable (61 males, 40 females). Regarding the operative procedure used, it was: (APR), LAR, Hartmaan’s technique in 15.8%, 71.3%, and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Operation-related mortality during the 30 days after surgery was 3%. The operations resulted in morbidity in 25% of the patients, anastomotic site leak in 5.9% of the patients, urinary dysfynction in 9.9% of the patients, and erectile dysfunction in 15.8% of the male patients. Regarding safety margin, the median distances were distal/radial margin, 23/12 mm, distal limit 7 cm. Median lymph nodes harvest 19 nodes. Primary tumor locations were anteriorly 23.8%, laterally 13.9%, posteriorly 38.6%, and circumferential 23.8%. Protective stoma 16.8%. Primary Tumor TNM classification (T1, T2, T3, and T4; 3, 28.7, 55.4, and 12.9%, respectively). Nodes Metastases (N0, N1, and N2; 57.4, 31.7, and 10.9%, respectively). TNM staging (I, II, III, and IV; 15.8, 29.7, 46.5, and 7.9%, respectively). Chemotherapy was

  12. Acoustic energy shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A suspended mass is shaped by melting all or a selected portion of the mass and applying acoustic energy in varying amounts to different portions of the mass. In one technique for forming an optical waveguide slug, a mass of oval section is suspended and only a portion along the middle of the cross-section is heated to a largely fluid consistency. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite edges of the oval mass to press the unheated opposite edge portions together so as to form bulges at the middle of the mass. In another technique for forming a ribbon of silicon for constructing solar cells, a cylindrical thread of silicon is drawn from a molten mass of silicon, and acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the molten thread to flatten it into a ribbon.

  13. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.

  15. Latticed pentamode acoustic cloak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    We report in this work a practical design of pentamode acoustic cloak with microstructure. The proposed cloak is assembled by pentamode lattice made of a single-phase solid material. The function of rerouting acoustic wave round an obstacle has been demonstrated numerically. It is also revealed that shear related resonance due to weak shear resistance in practical pentamode lattices punctures broadband feature predicted based on ideal pentamode cloak. As a consequence, the latticed pentamode cloak can only conceal the obstacle in segmented frequency ranges. We have also shown that the shear resonance can be largely reduced by introducing material damping, and an improved broadband performance can be achieved. These works pave the way for experimental demonstration of pentamode acoustic cloak. PMID:26503821

  16. Seamount acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  17. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  18. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  19. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  20. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  1. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  2. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  3. Acoustic and electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Douglas Samuel

    Theoretical models of EM and acoustic wave propagation are presented in an introductory text intended for intermediate-level science and engineering students. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical representation of acoustic and EM fields, the special theory of relativity, radiation, resonators, waveguide theory, refraction, surface waves, scattering by smooth objects, diffraction by edges, and transient waves. The mathematical tools required for the analysis (Bessel, Legendre, Mathieu, parabolic-cylinder, and spheroidal functions; tensor calculus; and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals) are covered in appendices.

  4. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  5. Electromechanical acoustic liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Cattafesta, III, Louis N. (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikazu (Inventor); Horowitz, Stephen Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-resonator-based system responsive to acoustic waves includes at least two resonators, each including a bottom plate, side walls secured to the bottom plate, and a top plate disposed on top of the side walls. The top plate includes an orifice so that a portion of an incident acoustical wave compresses gas in the resonators. The bottom plate or the side walls include at least one compliant portion. A reciprocal electromechanical transducer coupled to the compliant portion of each of the resonators forms a first and second transducer/compliant composite. An electrical network is disposed between the reciprocal electromechanical transducer of the first and second resonator.

  6. Acoustic loading in straight pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on linear one-dimensional acoustics, a geometrically perfect elastic waveguide would respond to an oscillatory internal pressure only in the presence of path deflectors (elbows and branches). In practice, a significant elasto-acoustic interaction results even in straight conduits as a result of manufacturing tolerances. A theoretical model of the linear acoustic loading in straight pipes is developed that considers the acoustic wave distortion due to perimeter, axial, and wall thickness nonuniformities.

  7. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher; Chu, S. Reynold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles to ensure compliance with acoustic requirements and thus provide a safe and habitable acoustic environment for the crews, and to validate developed models via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements.

  8. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  9. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  10. Acoustical Environment of School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzroy, Dariel; Reid, John L.

    A field study was made of the acoustical environment of schools designed for increased flexibility to meet the spatial requirements of new teaching methods. The object of the study was to define all the criteria for the acoustical design of this type of classroom including the determination of--(1) minimum acoustical separation required for…

  11. ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITZROY, DARIEL; REID, JOHN L.

    A FIELD STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOLS DESIGNED FOR INCREASED FLEXIBILITY TO MEET THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS OF NEW TEACHING METHODS. THE OBJECT OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEFINE ALL THE CRITERIA FOR THE ACOUSTICAL DESIGN OF THIS TYPE OF CLASSROOM INCLUDING THE DETERMINATION OF--(1) MINIMUM ACOUSTICAL SEPARATION REQUIRED FOR…

  12. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  13. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun; Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  14. Total Humeral Endoprosthetic Replacement following Excision of Malignant Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Suhel; Moon, Bryan; Lin, Patrick; Satcher, Robert; Lewis, Valerae

    2016-01-01

    Humerus is a common site for malignant tumors. Advances in adjuvant therapies and reconstructive methods provide salvage of the upper limb with improved outcomes. Reports of limb salvage with total humeral replacement in extensive humeral tumors are sparse. We undertook a retrospective study of 20 patients who underwent total humeral endoprosthetic replacement as limb salvage following excision of extensile malignant tumor from 1990 to 2011. With an average followup of 42.9, functional and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Ten patients were still alive at the time of review. Mean estimated blood loss was 1131 mL and duration of surgery was 314 minutes. Deep infection was encountered in one patient requiring debridement while mechanical loosening of ulnar component was identified in one patient. Subluxation of prosthetic humeral head was noted in 3 patients. Mean active shoulder abduction was 12.5° and active flexion was 15°. Incompetence of abduction mechanism was the major determinant of poor active functional outcome. Mean elbow flexion was 103.5° with 30.5° flexion contracture in 10 patients with good and useful hand function. Average MSTS score was 71.5%. Total humeral replacement is a reliable treatment option in restoring mechanical stability and reasonable functional results without compromising patient survival, with low complication rate. PMID:27042158

  15. Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Fol, Hosam A; Kamel, Mahmoud M; Soliman, Ahmed S A; Mahdi, Emad A; El-Gammal, Ahmed S; Mahran, Taha Z M

    2016-08-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC. PMID:27155943

  16. Central to peripheral sound propagation in excised lung.

    PubMed

    Rice, D A; Rice, J C

    1987-10-01

    The time it takes audible sound to travel from the trachea to the pleura in five intact, excised horse lungs and one dog lung inflated with several gases was measured. Regression estimates of sound speed at total lung capacity (TLC) using straight line distance from the carina to the pleura are: helium, 775 +/- 60.5 m/s (means +/- 95% confidence limits); air, 282 +/- 23.5; carbon dioxide, 219 +/- 25.5; sulfur hexafluoride, 142 +/- 43.5. With the exception of sulfur hexafluoride, these speeds are 15%-20% less than the free-field speed of sound in each gas. Total airway length did not predict time delay any better or worse than straight line distance, but the high correlation between these two predictors (r = 0.94) prevents showing either to be the more predictive. In one lung, airway length was partitioned according to airway diameter. A regression using partitioned airway lengths significantly improved time delay prediction (p less than 0.001) over an unpartitioned model. Sound speed in the trachea equals free-field sound speed. Sound speed in air-filled airways 1 to 25 mm in diameter equals 268 +/- 44 m/s. We conclude that the first sound to reach the surface travels in the airways for at least 90% of the distance, spending at least 87% of the total travel time there. PMID:3680773

  17. Base excision repair intermediates are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Valeria; Narciso, Laura; Dogliotti, Eugenia; Fortini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway for repair of DNA damage in mammalian cells. This pathway leads to the formation of DNA repair intermediates which, if still unsolved, cause cell lethality and mutagenesis. To characterize mutations induced by BER intermediates in mammalian cells, an SV-40 derived shuttle vector was constructed carrying a site-specific lesion within the recognition sequence of a restriction endonuclease. The mutation spectra of abasic (AP) sites, 5′-deoxyribose-5-phosphate (5′dRp) and 3′-[2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxy-ribose] (3′ddR5p) single-strand breaks (ssb) in mammalian cells was analysed by RFLP/PCR and mutation frequency was estimated by quantitative PCR. Point mutations were the predominant events occurring at all BER intermediates. The AP site-induced mutation spectrum supports evidence for the ‘A-rule’ and is also consistent with the use of the 5′ neighbouring base to instruct nucleotide incorporation (5′-rule). Preferential adenine insertion was also observed after in vivo replication of 5′dRp or 3′ddR5p ssb. We provide original evidence that not only the abasic site but also its derivatives ‘faceless’ BER intermediates are mutagenic, with a similar mutation frequency, in mammalian cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that unattended BER intermediates could be a constant threat for genome integrity as well as a spontaneous source of mutations. PMID:16077026

  18. Voiding Dysfunction after Total Mesorectal Excision in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Noh, Tae Il; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Jae Young; Lee, Jeong Gu; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung Wook

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the voiding dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods This was part of a prospective study done in the rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery with TME between November 2006 and June 2008. Consecutive uroflowmetry, post-voided residual volume, and a voiding questionnaire were performed at preoperatively and postoperatively. Results A total of 50 patients were recruited in this study, including 28 male and 22 female. In the comparison of the preoperative data with the postoperative 3-month data, a significant decrease in mean maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume were found. In the comparison with the postoperative 6-month data, however only the maximal flow rate was decreased with statistical significance (P=0.02). In the comparison between surgical methods, abdominoperineal resection patients showed delayed recovery of maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume. There was no significant difference in uroflowmetry parameters with advances in rectal cancer stage. Conclusions Voiding dysfunction is common after rectal cancer surgery but can be recovered in 6 months after surgery or earlier. Abdominoperineal resection was shown to be an unfavorable factor for postoperative voiding. Larger prospective study is needed to determine the long-term effect of rectal cancer surgery in relation to male and female baseline voiding condition. PMID:22087426

  19. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2–12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in ‘designed’ nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  20. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2-12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in 'designed' nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  1. Pseudoaneurysm after arthroscopic subacromial decompression and distal clavicle excision.

    PubMed

    Webb, Brian G; Elliott, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery is considered a safe and effective method of treating a variety of shoulder pathologies and is associated with a low complication rate. The type and rate of complications can vary, depending on the procedure, positioning, surgical time, and anesthesia. Fortunately, neurovascular injuries occur infrequently. Numerous studies have described the proximity of neurovascular structures to portals placed in shoulder arthroscopy, in both the beach chair and the lateral decubitus positions. Accurate portal placement is important to avoid damage to adjacent neurovascular structures. Inaccurate placement of portals can lead to inadvertent damage to these structures and create more difficulty with visualization and angle of instrumentation, possibly compromising the success of the procedure. This article describes a 50-year-old man who underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression and distal clavicle excision for persistent subacromial impingement and acromioclavicular arthritis. During postoperative follow-up, the patient had a small, bulging area located near the anterior portal site. Examination showed a well-healed anterior portal site with a small (approximately 2×2 cm), nontender, immobile mass located within the deep soft tissues just below the anterior portal incision. Ultrasound evaluation showed a pseudoaneurysm of a branch off the axillary artery. The patient underwent successful embolization of the pseudoaneurysm, with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:24972444

  2. Transanal total mesorectal excision: Towards standardization of technique

    PubMed Central

    Wolthuis, Albert M; Bislenghi, Gabriele; de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; D’Hoore, André

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the role of Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) in minimally invasive rectal cancer surgery, to examine the differences in patient selection and in reported surgical techniques and their impacts on postoperative outcomes and to discuss the future of TaTME. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched through the 1st of March 2015 using a predefined search strategy. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies with 323 patients were included. Most studies were single-arm prospective studies with fewer than 100 patients. Multiple transanal access platforms were used, and the laparoscopic approach was either multi- or single port. The procedure was initiated transanally or transabdominally. If a simultaneous approach with 2 operating surgeons was chosen, the operative time was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: TaTME was also associated with better TME specimens and a longer distal resection margin. TaTME is thus feasible in expert hands, but the learning curve and safety profile are not well defined. Long-term follow-up regarding anal function and oncological outcomes should be performed in the future. PMID:26640346

  3. Thyroglossal duct cyst excision with hyoid bone preservation.

    PubMed

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmed Abdel Fattah

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to assess complete removal of the thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and its tract(s) to the base of the tongue with sparing of the hyoid bone. This is a prospective cohort study. Tertiary hospital (Zagazig university hospital). This prospective study was carried out on 21 patients who had been diagnosed preoperatively as TGDC or fistula. All patients were managed by dissection and removal of the TGDC and its tract(s) to the base of the tongue with sparing of the hyoid bone. The study was conducted on 12 males (57.14 %) and 9 females (42.85 %) with mean age 6.8 years (4-20 years). After histopathological examination; 16 patients (9 male and 7 female) were proved to have TGDC and 5 patients (3 male and 2 female) were proved to have dermoid cyst. The hyoid bone could be preserved in all cases except in two cases for whom the middle third of the hyoid bone was removed with the specimen. Multiple tracts were found in three cases and could be identified and dissected successfully with sparing of the hyoid bone. Identification, dissection, and complete excision of the TGDC with its attaching tract(s) could be performed without hyoid bone resection with no recurrence and minimal minor complication. The impacts of this hyoid bone preservation versus removal on the pattern of swallowing and retroglossal space need to be studied. PMID:25859938

  4. Effect of pulley excision on flexor tendon biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Bollinger, B A; Lesker, P A; McCarthy, J A

    1986-01-01

    Flexor tendon function following excision of various portions of the fibro-osseous pulley system was measured biomechanically using a tensile testing machine. The biomechanical parameters measured were tendon excursion (the excursion of the tendon required to fully flex the digit) and work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve, representing all the forces that resist tendon flexion). In this experiment, work of flexion included the forces necessary to accomplish full digital flexion against a 15-g counter-weight, as well as the frictional forces that resist tendon gliding. The results indicate that the work of flexion was affected to a greater degree by pulley loss than was tendon excursion, suggesting that it is a more sensitive measurement of tendon function. A2 was found to be the single most important pulley for flexor tendon function, followed by A4. However, both A2 and A4 had to be present if near-normal hand function was to be achieved; sacrificing the A1 pulley was not associated with a significant loss of flexion. The "pulley effect" of the skin and soft tissue as a supplement to the fibro-osseous pulleys in reducing tendon bow-stringing was also noted. Although the parameters of tendon excursion and work of flexion were used in this study to determine the effect of pulley loss on tendon function, they can also be used to evaluate other flexor tendon studies, such as pulley reconstruction. PMID:3950813

  5. HMGB1 is a cofactor in mammalian base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Liu, Yuan; Deterding, Leesa J; Poltoratsky, Vladimir P; Kedar, Padmini S; Horton, Julie K; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Hou, Esther W; Khodyreva, Svetlana N; Lavrik, Olga I; Tomer, Kenneth B; Yasui, Akira; Wilson, Samuel H

    2007-09-01

    Deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) removal by DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is a pivotal step in base excision repair (BER). To identify BER cofactors, especially those with dRP lyase activity, we used a Pol beta null cell extract and BER intermediate as bait for sodium borohydride crosslinking. Mass spectrometry identified the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) as specifically interacting with the BER intermediate. Purified HMGB1 was found to have weak dRP lyase activity and to stimulate AP endonuclease and FEN1 activities on BER substrates. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed interactions of HMGB1 with known BER enzymes, and GFP-tagged HMGB1 was found to accumulate at sites of oxidative DNA damage in living cells. HMGB1(-/-) mouse cells were slightly more resistant to MMS than wild-type cells, probably due to the production of fewer strand-break BER intermediates. The results suggest HMGB1 is a BER cofactor capable of modulating BER capacity in cells. PMID:17803946

  6. Evaluation of 57 teat sanitizers using excised cow teats.

    PubMed

    Murdough, P A; Pankey, J W

    1993-07-01

    Fifty-seven teat dip formulations were tested for germicidal activity with an excised teat assay. Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 27956), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29740), and Escherichia coli+ (a wild strain isolated from an Ohio cow 2956RR during the dry period) were used. Log reductions ranged from 5.6480 to 1.8330 for Strep. agalactiae compared with undipped controls. Staphylococcus aureus were reduced from 4.8972 to 1.0102. Escherichia coli were reduced from 5.8677 to 1.1450. The percentages of the products tested that had log reductions < 3 against Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, and E. coli were 24, 30, and 61. Four teat dip formulations contained 4% sodium hypochlorite; all were effective against Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, and E. coli. The three formulations containing glutaraldehyde were effective against the three mastitis pathogens. Formulations containing 1 and .5% iodine were not consistently effective against Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, or E. coli. Teat sanitizers containing .5% chlorhexidine also showed inconsistency. Variations in formulation for products containing iodine or chlorhexidine affected germicidal activity. PMID:8345130

  7. Germicidal persistence of teat dips by modified excised teat procedure.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A L; Oliver, S P; Fydenkevez, M E

    1985-01-01

    An excised teat protocol was modified to evaluate persistence of germicidal activity of teat dips over 8 h. Five teat dip formulations, iodophor (1%), chlorhexidine gluconate (.55%), linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%), sodium chlorite-lactic acid in a water base, and sodium chlorite-lactic acid in a gel base were tested against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Iodophor and chlorhexidine had high germicidal activity throughout 8 h, whereas dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid had little activity. Germicidal activity of both sodium chlorite-lactic acid teat dips was high initially but declined with time. The gel base dip, however, remained more germicidal than the water base dip. Results were similar for either organism for most teat dips. However, chlorhexidine was less effective and the gel base dip more effective against Klebsiella oxytoca than Escherichia coli. Standard errors often appeared higher for Klebsiella oxytoca than for Escherichia coli. These assays may prove useful for laboratory screening of teat dips to determine germicidal persistence over time. PMID:3884679

  8. Oncologic Safety of Local Excision Compared With Total Mesorectal Excision for ypT0-T1 Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Min; Yu, Chang Sik; Park, In Ja; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Good oncologic outcomes, demonstrated by a complete pathologic response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT), have led to local excision (LE) in selected patients with rectal cancer. We evaluated the oncologic safety of LE compared with total mesorectal excision (TME) in patients with ypT0-T1 rectal cancer. A retrospective review of 304 patients who underwent PCRT, followed by LE or TME, for ypT0-T1 rectal cancer was performed. Propensity scores were computed and used to match groups (LE:TME = 1:1), and analysis of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was made by comparing patients who underwent LE or TME. Prognostic factors of relapse were analyzed for all patients. Tumor categories were ypT0 in 25 (61.9%) cases, ypTis in 6 (14.3%) cases, and ypT1 in 11 (26.2%) cases for the LE group, and ypT0 in 28 (66.7%) cases, ypTis in 4 (9.5%) cases, and ypT1 in 10 (23.8%) cases for the matched TME patients. There was no significant difference between the matched LE and TME groups in relapse (4.8% and 7.14%, respectively; P = 0.646), 5-year DFS (95.2% vs 91.6%; P = 0.33) and 5-year OS (96.6% vs 88.0%; P = 0.238). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, tumor distance from the anal verge (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.616–0.992) and the tumor grade (HR = 4.29; 95% CI = 1.430–12.886) were significantly associated with the recurrence risk. LE results in oncologic outcomes that are comparable to those achieved by TME in selected patients with ypT0-T1 rectal cancer after PCRT. PMID:27196490

  9. Microfiber interferometric acoustic transducers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxin; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-04-01

    Acoustic and ultrasonic transducers are key components in biomedical information technology, which has been applied in medical diagnosis, photoacoustic endoscopy and photoacoustic imaging. In this paper, an acoustic transducer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fabricated in a microscaled optical fiber is demonstrated. The transducer is fabricated by forming two wavelength-matched Bragg gratings into the microfiber by means of side illumination with a 193nm excimer laser. When placing the transducer in water, the applied acoustic signal periodically changes the refractive index (RI) of the surrounding liquid and modulates the transmission of the FPI based on the evanescent-field interaction between the liquid and the transmitting light. As a result, the acoustic signal can be constructed with a tunable laser whose output wavelength is located at the slope of the inteferometric fringes. The transducer presents a sensitivity of 10 times higher than the counterparts fabricated in conventional singlemode fibers and has great potential to achieve higher resolution for photoacoustic imaging due to its reduced diameter. PMID:24718189

  10. Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

  11. Acoustics in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Miriam J.

    This paper explores the issues associated with poor acoustics within schools. Additionally, it suggests remedies for existing buildings and those under renovation, as well as concerns for new construction. The paper discusses the effects of unwanted noise on students in terms of physiological, motivational, and cognitive influences. Issues are…

  12. Teaching acoustics online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    We teach an introductory course in musical acoustics using a Blackboard. Students in this course can access audio and video materials as well as printed materials on our course website. All homework is submitted online, as are tests and examinations. The students also have the opportunity to use synchronous and asynchronous chat rooms to discuss the course with each other or with the instructors.

  13. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  14. COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...

  15. Psychrometric Field Measurement of Water Potential Changes following Leaf Excision 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    In situ measurement of sudden leaf water potential changes has not been performed under field conditions. A laboratory investigation involving the measurement of leaf water potential prior to and 2 to 200 minutes after excision of citrus leaves (Citrus jambhiri) showed good linear correlation (r = 0.99) between in situ leaf psychrometer and Scholander pressure chamber measurements. Following this, a field investigation was conducted which involved psychrometric measurement prior to petiole excision and 1 minute after excision. Simultaneous pressure chamber measurements were performed on neighboring leaves prior to the time of excision and then on the psychrometer leaf about 2 minutes after excision. These data indicate that within the first 2 minutes after excision, psychrometer and pressure chamber measurements were linearly correlated (r = 0.97). Under high evaporative demand conditions, the rate of water potential decrease was between 250 and 700 kilopascals in the first minute after excision. These results show that the thermocouple psychrometer can be used as a dynamic and nondestructive field technique for monitoring leaf water potential. PMID:16663394

  16. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, the sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.

  17. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, themore » sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.« less

  18. Recurrence Rates of Benign Phyllodes Tumors After Surgical Excision and Ultrasonography-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Excision.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Ram; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-06-01

    The recurrence rates of benign phyllodes tumors diagnosed through surgery and ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision (US-VAE) were evaluated. A total of 146 benign phyllodes tumors diagnosed by surgery (n = 126) or US-VAE (n = 20) in 144 patients who had further follow-up after surgery or US-VAE were included (median follow-up period, 32.3 months; range, 6.7-142.5 months). Comparisons of recurrence rate, interval to recurrence, patient age, initial tumor size, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category, or follow-up interval were performed between the surgery and VAE groups and between groups with and without recurrence. Three cases (2.1%, 3/146) had recurrence and all were in the surgery group (2.4%, 3/126). The surgery group demonstrated larger size than the VAE group (median, 25 vs 16 mm; P < 0.001). The median age of women in the surgery group was older than those in the VAE group (39 vs 33 years, P = 0.509). The median age of women with recurrence (n = 3) was older than those without recurrence (n = 143, 49 vs 38 years, P = 0.023). In conclusion, when benign phyllodes tumor is unexpectedly diagnosed at US-VAE, if there is no residual lesion at US, clinical follow-up rather than further surgery might be recommended. PMID:27233071

  19. Use of Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Videoangiography to Guide Cutaneous Angiosarcoma Excision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Teresa; Mo, Kevin W. L.; Wong, Pauline S. Y.; Chiu, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Complete excision of cutaneous angiosarcoma, which is a rare, vascular, and aggressive tumor, is challenging. Its multifocal nature and propensity for lateral spread make the gross assessment of surgical margins difficult. Neither the use of frozen section analysis nor Mohs surgery consistently improves the probability of margin-free excision. Recent studies have advocated the use of indocyanine green to evaluate the vascular system perioperatively. We describe the intraoperative use of indocyanine green to help define the excision margin of a locally extensive scalp angiosarcoma in an elderly man. PMID:27536487

  20. Effects of tobacco excise taxes on the use of smokeless tobacco products in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ohsfeldt, R L; Boyle, R G; Capilouto, E

    1997-01-01

    Data from the September 1985 Current Population Survey are used to estimate the effects of tobacco excise taxes and state laws restricting smoking in public places on the likelihood of current use of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco (ST) products (moist snuff or chewing tobacco) among males in the USA. The results indicate that higher ST excise tax rates are associated with a reduced probability of ST use, whereas higher cigarette excise tax rates are associated with an increased probability of ST use, holding other factors constant. State laws restricting smoking have no apparent effect on ST use. PMID:9353656

  1. Polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes predict melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Yin, Ming; Wang, Li-E; Amos, Christopher I; Zhu, Dakai; Lee, Jeffrey E; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Wei, Qingyi

    2013-07-01

    Melanoma is the most highly malignant skin cancer, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in melanoma susceptibility. In this analysis of 1,042 melanoma patients, we evaluated whether genetic variants of NER genes may predict survival outcome of melanoma patients. We used genotyping data of 74 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in eight core NER genes from our genome-wide association study (including two in XPA, 14 in XPC, three in XPE, four in ERCC1, 10 in ERCC2, eight in ERCC3, 14 in ERCC4, and 19 in ERCC5) and evaluated their associations with prognosis of melanoma patients. Using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found a predictive role of XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871 SNPs in the prognosis of melanoma patients (rs28720291: AG vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR)=11.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-40.9, P=0.0003; rs4150314: AG vs. GG, adjHR=4.76, 95% CI 1.09-20.8, P=0.038; rs2470458: AA vs. AG/GG, adjHR=2.11, 95% CI 1.03-4.33, P=0.040; and rs50871: AA vs. AC/CC adjHR=2.27, 95% CI 1.18-4.35, P=0.015). Patients with an increasing number of unfavorable genotypes had markedly increased death risk. Genetic variants of NER genes, particularly XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871, may independently or jointly modulate survival outcome of melanoma patients. Because our results were based on a median follow-up of 3 years without multiple test corrections, additional large prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:23407396

  2. Radiation induced base excision repair (BER): a mechanistic mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, Shirin; Taleei, Reza; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a mechanistic model of base excision repair (BER) pathway for the repair of single-stand breaks (SSBs) and oxidized base lesions produced by ionizing radiation (IR). The model is based on law of mass action kinetics to translate the biochemical processes involved, step-by-step, in the BER pathway to translate into mathematical equations. The BER is divided into two subpathways, short-patch repair (SPR) and long-patch repair (LPR). SPR involves in replacement of single nucleotide via Pol β and ligation of the ends via XRCC1 and Ligase III, while LPR involves in replacement of multiple nucleotides via PCNA, Pol δ/ɛ and FEN 1, and ligation via Ligase I. A hallmark of IR is the production of closely spaced lesions within a turn of DNA helix (named complex lesions), which have been attributed to a slower repair process. The model presented considers fast and slow component of BER kinetics by assigning SPR for simple lesions and LPR for complex lesions. In the absence of in vivo reaction rate constants for the BER proteins, we have deduced a set of rate constants based on different published experimental measurements including accumulation kinetics obtained from UVA irradiation, overall SSB repair kinetic experiments, and overall BER kinetics from live-cell imaging experiments. The model was further used to calculate the repair kinetics of complex base lesions via the LPR subpathway and compared to foci kinetic experiments for cells irradiated with γ rays, Si, and Fe ions. The model calculation show good agreement with experimental measurements for both overall repair and repair of complex lesions. Furthermore, using the model we explored different mechanisms responsible for inhibition of repair when higher LET and HZE particles are used and concluded that increasing the damage complexity can inhibit initiation of LPR after the AP site removal step in BER. PMID:25117268

  3. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  4. Modeling expiratory flow from excised tracheal tube laws.

    PubMed

    Aljuri, N; Freitag, L; Venegas, J G

    1999-11-01

    Flow limitation during forced exhalation and gas trapping during high-frequency ventilation are affected by upstream viscous losses and by the relationship between transmural pressure (Ptm) and cross-sectional area (A(tr)) of the airways, i.e., tube law (TL). Our objective was to test the validity of a simple lumped-parameter model of expiratory flow limitation, including the measured TL, static pressure recovery, and upstream viscous losses. To accomplish this objective, we assessed the TLs of various excised animal tracheae in controlled conditions of quasi-static (no flow) and steady forced expiratory flow. A(tr) was measured from digitized images of inner tracheal walls delineated by transillumination at an axial location defining the minimal area during forced expiratory flow. Tracheal TLs followed closely the exponential form proposed by Shapiro (A. H. Shapiro. J. Biomech. Eng. 99: 126-147, 1977) for elastic tubes: Ptm = K(p) [(A(tr)/A(tr0))(-n) - 1], where A(tr0) is A(tr) at Ptm = 0 and K(p) is a parametric factor related to the stiffness of the tube wall. Using these TLs, we found that the simple model of expiratory flow limitation described well the experimental data. Independent of upstream resistance, all tracheae with an exponent n < 2 experienced flow limitation, whereas a trachea with n > 2 did not. Upstream viscous losses, as expected, reduced maximal expiratory flow. The TL measured under steady-flow conditions was stiffer than that measured under expiratory no-flow conditions, only if a significant static pressure recovery from the choke point to atmosphere was assumed in the measurement. PMID:10562643

  5. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  6. The effect of vocal fold adduction on the acoustic quality of phonation: ex vivo investigations

    PubMed Central

    Regner, Michael F.; Tao, Chao; Ying, Di; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vocal fold adduction on voice quality in an ex vivo larynx model. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, repeated-measures experiments. METHODS Ten excised canine larynges were mounted on an excised larynx phonation system and measurements were recorded for three different vocal fold adduction levels. Acoustic perturbation measurements of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated from recorded radiated sound histories. RESULTS Ex vivo experiments indicated that statistically significant increases in the means of jitter (p=0.005), shimmer (p=0.002), and SNR (p=0.011) measures decreased with respect to vocal fold adduction as the independent variable. Theoretical results showed that the DC and AC component of glottal area increased monotonically with prephonatory glottal area. CONCLUSIONS Acoustic perturbation increased with the degree of vocal fold abduction. Ex vivo larynx measurements suggested that a hyperadducted state may be acoustically best. This may be explained theoretically by an increase in DC/AC ratio as the prephonatory area is increased. PMID:22578437

  7. On the Incidence of Excise Taxes on a Monopolist's Price: A Pedagogical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that intermediate level undergraduate microeconomic theory texts mislead by their treatment of the effect of an excise tax on a monopolist's price and output. Offers a simple demonstration of the correct approach. (Author/JDH)

  8. Recurrent sialoliths after excision of the bilateral submandibular glands for sialolithiasis treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YING, XIAOXIA; KANG, JIANAN; ZHANG, FUYIN; DONG, HUI

    2016-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease that is characterized by the obstruction of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis mainly affects the submandibular glands and the Wharton's duct. However, bilateral sialolithiasis is a rare condition. In addition, recurrence of sialoliths subsequent to surgical excision of the submandibular gland for the treatment of sialolithiasis has been rarely reported. The present study reported a case presenting with recurrent sialoliths with sialadenitis in the residual Wharton's duct following the excision of bilateral submandibular glands. An 81-year-old man presented with a solid and painful mass in the left submandibular area. The patient had a history of bilateral submandibular sialolithiasis, and had undergone excision of bilateral submandibular glands with the right Wharton's duct 4 years earlier. Computed tomography scans demonstrated two calculi in the residual Wharton's duct, which were surgically removed without any complications. The present study discussed the mechanisms underlying sialolith formation subsequent to the excision of submandibular glands. PMID:26889264

  9. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  10. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  11. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  12. Radiosurgery of acoustic neurinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, J.C.; Lunsford, L.D.; Coffey, R.J.; Linskey, M.E.; Bissonette, D.J.; Maitz, A.H.; Kondziolka, D. )

    1991-01-15

    Eighty-five patients with acoustic neurinomas underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with the gamma unit at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA) during its first 30 months of operation. Neuroimaging studies performed in 40 patients with more than 1 year follow-up showed that tumors were smaller in 22 (55%), unchanged in 17 (43%), and larger in one (2%). The 2-year actuarial rates for preservation of useful hearing and any hearing were 46% and 62%, respectively. Previously undetected neuropathies of the trigeminal (n = 12) and facial nerves (n = 14) occurred 1 week to 1 year after radiosurgery (median, 7 and 6 months, respectively), and improved at median intervals of 13 and 8 months, respectively, after onset. Hearing loss was significantly associated with increasing average tumor diameter (P = 0.04). No deterioration of any cranial nerve function has yet developed in seven patients with average tumor diameters less than 10 mm. Radiosurgery is an important treatment alternative for selected acoustic neurinoma patients.

  13. Acoustic methodology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  14. Acoustic tractor beam.

    PubMed

    Démoré, Christine E M; Dahl, Patrick M; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system. PMID:24836252

  15. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  16. Alaskan river environmental acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Peter H.; Pfisterer, Carl; Geiger, Harold J.

    2005-04-01

    Sonars are used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to obtain daily and hourly estimates of at least four species of migratory salmon during their seasonal migration which lasts from June to beginning of September. Suspended sediments associated with a river's sediment load is an important issue for ADF&G's sonar operations. Acoustically, the suspended sediments are a source of both volume reverberation and excess attenuation beyond that expected in fresh water. Each can impact daily protocols for fish enumeration via sonar. In this talk, results from an environmental acoustic study conducted in the Kenai River (June 1999) using 420 kHz and 200 kHz side looking sonars, and in the Yukon River (July 2001) using a 120 kHz side looking sonar, are discussed. Estimates of the volume scattering coefficient and attenuation are related to total suspended sediments. The relative impact of bubble scattering and sediment scattering is also discussed.

  17. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  18. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    PubMed

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions. PMID:27586767

  19. Books on acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil A.

    2001-05-01

    The legacy of a man is not limited to just his projects. His writings in many cases are a more lasting, and a definitely more accessible, monument. For 60 years, Leo L. Beranek has produced books on acoustics, acoustic measurements, sound control, music and architecture, noise and vibration control, concert halls, and opera houses in addition to teaching and consulting. His books are standard references and still cited in other books and in technical and professional articles. Many of his books were among, if not, the first comprehensive modern treatment of the subject and many are still foremost. A review of Dr. Beranek's many books as well as some anecdotes about the circumstances and consequences of same will be presented.

  20. Regeneration of excised mantle tissue by the silver-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima (Jameson).

    PubMed

    Mamangkey, N Gustaf F; Southgate, Paul C

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the capacity for mantle regeneration in the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima. Oysters were anaesthetised with 2.5 mL L(-1) prophylene phenoxetol prior to a piece of tissue (approximately 10 x 30 mm(2)) being excised from the ventral region of the mantle. In the first experiment, 56 oysters with mean (+/-SD) dorso-ventral measurement (DVM) of 125.5 +/- 8.9 mm had tissue excised from either the right mantle lobe, left mantle lobe or both mantle lobes. Following a further three month period in suspended culture, oyster survival was recorded and two oysters were selected arbitrarily from each group to be sacrificed for histological examination of healed mantle. In the second experiment 36 oysters with mean (+/-SD) DVM of 151.6 +/- 13.4 mm were used for excision of the distal part of the ventral region of the left mantle lobe. Two oysters were sampled at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 120 h (5 days) after mantle excision, and then at 12, 24, 45, 72 and 90 d after mantle excision for histological and histochemical analysis of mantle regeneration. There was almost 100 percent survival in both experiments. Healing and regeneration of mantle tissue in oysters subject to excision from the left, right or both mantle lobes was evident, with regenerated mantle appearing similar to non-regenerated mantle. All external and internal components of non-regenerated mantle were present in regenerated mantle tissue. Epithelization signifying wound healing occurred within 36-72 h and was characterised by a reduced wound area, haemocyte infiltration and accumulation, and cell dedifferentiation. Within 48 h of mantle excision, the latero-ventral edges of the wound flexed dorsally and attached to the dorsal edge of the wound reducing the wound area. Between five and twelve days after excision, the distal part of the mantle had divided into three small lobes which developed into the outer, middle and inner mantle folds two weeks later. Ninety days after excision the

  1. Theory on acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theory is described for the radiation emission emission from acoustic multipole sources. The sources can be stationary or moving at speeds including supersonic and experience stationary or moving disturbances. The effect of finite source distributions and disturbances is investigated as well as the manner in which they interact. Distinction is made between source distributions that responsed as a function of time and those that respond as a function of space.

  2. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  3. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  4. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  5. Control of excision frequency of maize transposable element Ds in Petunia protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, D; Lütticke, R; Li, M; Starlinger, P

    1992-01-01

    The complete coding region of maize transposable element Ac and truncated but active derivatives of it were placed under the control of promoters of different strength and tested for the ability to excise transposable element Ds from a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in a cotransfection assay in Petunia protoplasts. The highest excision values (5% of the protoplasts able to express the beta-glucuronidase gene in a control experiment) were observed with a truncated version of the Ac coding region under the control of the 2' promoter. The weak Ac promoter is sufficient to give rise to excision values not much lower than those found with much stronger promoters such as the 2' and nos promoters. A decrease in excision frequency was observed when translation of the Ac coding region was hindered by out-of-frame ATG codons in addition to the use of weak promoters. Increasing the level of Ac transposase thus does not seem to be sufficient to raise the level of Ds excision observed in this system and possibly also in maize. Therefore another factor limits the excision of Ds elements. Previously, it was reported that in tobacco cells the deletion of Ds sequence between base pairs 186 and 245 led to a decrease of the Ds excision frequency by the full-length but not by the truncated Ac product. In the Petunia assay system, however, deletion of these sequences decreased the excision rate with both the full length and the truncated Ac coding region. A cDNA construct was found similarly active as the corresponding genomic DNA. PMID:11607300

  6. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases. PMID:26861186

  7. Excision repair and patch size in UV-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Yarosh, D.B.; Rosenstein, B.S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-11-01

    We determined the average size of excision repair patches in repair of UV lesions in bacteriophage T4 by measuring the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair. The average patch was small, approximately four nucleotides long. In control experiments with the denV1 excision-deficient mutant, we encountered an artifact, a protein(s) which remained bound to phenol-extracted DNA and prevented nicking by the UV-specific endonucleases of Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4.

  8. Excision repair and patch size in UV-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Yarosh, D.B.; Rosenstein, B.S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-11-01

    We determined the average size of excision repair patches in repair of UV lesions in bacteriophage T4 by measuring the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair. The average patch was small, approximately four nucleotides long. In control, experiments with the denV/sub 1/ excision-deificient mutant, we encountered an artifact, a protein(s) which remained bound to phenol-extracted DNA and prevented nicking by the UV-specific endonucleases of Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4.

  9. Fast wideband acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Hald, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Patch near-field acoustical holography methods like statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography and equivalent source method are limited to relatively low frequencies, where the average array-element spacing is less than half of the acoustic wavelength, while beamforming provides useful resolution only at medium-to-high frequencies. With adequate array design, both methods can be used with the same array. But for holography to provide good low-frequency resolution, a small measurement distance is needed, whereas beamforming requires a larger distance to limit sidelobe issues. The wideband holography method of the present paper was developed to overcome that practical conflict. Only a single measurement is needed at a relatively short distance and a single result is obtained covering the full frequency range. The method uses the principles of compressed sensing: A sparse sound field representation is assumed with a chosen set of basis functions, a measurement is taken with an irregular array, and the inverse problem is solved with a method that enforces sparsity in the coefficient vector. Instead of using regularization based on the 1-norm of the coefficient vector, an iterative solution procedure is used that promotes sparsity. The iterative method is shown to provide very similar results in most cases and to be computationally much more efficient. PMID:27106299

  10. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  11. Scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hua

    2002-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of the scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy (STAM). This research effort spans over a period of more than 12 years, which successfully elevated the acoustic microscopy from the traditional intensity-mapping mode to the level of holographic and tomographic imaging. The tomographic imaging capability of STAM was developed on the platform of the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM), which operates in a coherent transmission mode with plane-wave illumination and scanning laser wavefield detection. The image formation techniques were based on the backward propagation method implemented in the plane-to-plane format. In this paper, the key elements of the design and development, including the modification of the data-acquisition hardware, implementation of image reconstruction algorithms for multiple-frequency and multiple-angle tomography, and the high-precision phase-correction and image registration techniques for the superposition of coherent sub-images, will be discussed. Results of full-scale experiments will also be included to demonstrate the capability of holographic and tomographic image formation in microscopic scale.

  12. Acoustically enhanced heat transport.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10(6) Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ∼ 10(-9) m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ∼ 10(-8) m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10(-8) m with 10(6) Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation. PMID:26827343

  13. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  14. Spatiotemporally resolved granular acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic techniques provide a non-invasive method of characterizing granular material properties; however, there are many challenges in formulating accurate models of sound propagation due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of granular materials. In order to quantify acoustic responses in space and time, we perform experiments in a photoelastic granular material in which the internal stress pattern (in the form of force chains) is visible. We utilize two complementary methods, high-speed imaging and piezoelectric transduction, to provide particle-scale measurements of the amplitude of the acoustic wave. We observe that the average wave amplitude is largest within particles experiencing the largest forces. The force-dependence of this amplitude is in qualitative agreement with a simple Hertzian-like model for contact area. In addition, we investigate the power spectrum of the propagating signal using the piezoelectric sensors. For a Gaussian wave packet input, we observe a broad spectrum of transmitted frequencies below the driving frequency, and we quantify the characteristic frequencies and corresponding length scales of our material as the system pressure is varied.

  15. The effect of alcoholic beverage excise tax on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities.

    PubMed

    Son, Chong Hwan; Topyan, Kudret

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the effect of state excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine, and beer) on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities--deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, and falls--in the United States between 1995 and 2004, using state-level panel data. There is evidence that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to changes in state excise taxes on alcohol-specific beverages. This study examines the direct relationship between injury deaths and excise taxes without testing the degree of the association between excise taxes and alcohol consumption. The study finds that beer taxes are negatively related to motor vehicle accident mortality, while wine taxes are negatively associated with suicides and falls. The positive coefficient of the spirit taxes on falls implies a substitution effect between spirits and wine, suggesting that an increase in spirit tax will cause spirit buyers to purchase more wine. This study finds no evidence of a relationship between homicides and state excise taxes on alcohol. Thus, the study concludes that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to the excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:20306111

  16. Impact of Unplanned Excision on Prognosis of Patients with Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Hafiz Muhammad; Umer, Masood; Qadir, Irfan; Abbasi, Nadeem; Masood, Nehal

    2013-01-01

    Unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) outside comprehensive tumor management centers necessitates the need for wide reexcision to achieve adequate margins. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 135 patients with STS operated at our hospital with the goal of examining outcomes, in terms of local recurrence (LR) and metastasis rate (MR), of reexcision following unplanned excision of STS and comparing results with those of first-time planned surgery. Eighty-four patients had their first-time surgery and 51 patients had come to us following unplanned excision at prereferral hospital. Mean age of all patients was 41.8 ± 21.9 years. The LR and MR was 14.3% and 8.3%, respectively, in patients undergoing first resection, whereas it was 21.4% and 13.7%, respectively, in patients undergoing revision surgery. Average duration from previous unplanned excision was 8 months. Twelve patients were referred immediately after excised specimen revealed STS, while 39 patients presented after evident local recurrence. Wide reexcision was attempted in 48 patients while three patients need amputation. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered in all patients undergoing limb-sparing surgery. Ten patients needed adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that wide reexcision of STS has poorer outcomes compared to planned excision. Therefore, patients with soft tissue masses should be managed by multidisciplinary oncology team at specialized cancer centers. PMID:23737702

  17. Confocal mosaicing microscopy in skin excisions: a demonstration of rapid surgical pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, D.S.; Patel, Y.G.; Li, Y.; Aranda, I.; Halpern, A.C.; Nehal, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Precise micro-surgical removal of tumour with minimal damage to the surrounding normal tissue requires a series of excisions, each guided by an examination of frozen histology of the previous. An example is Mohs surgery for the removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in skin. The preparation of frozen histology is labour-intensive and slow. Confocal microscopy may enable rapid detection of tumours directly in surgical excisions with minimal need for frozen histology. Mosaicing of images enables observation of nuclear and cellular morphology in large areas of surgically excised tissue. In skin, the use of 10–1% acetic acid as a reflectance contrast agent brightens nuclei in 0.5–5 min and enhances nuclear-to-dermis contrast and detectability of BCCs. A tissue fixture was engineered for precisely mounting surgical excisions to enable mosaicing of 36 × 36 images to create a field of view of 12 × 12 mm. This large field of view displays the excision at 2× magnification, similar to that routinely used by Mohs surgeons when examining frozen histology. Comparison of mosaics to histology demonstrates detectability of BCCs. Confocal mosaicing presently requires 9 min, instead of 20–45 min per excision for preparing frozen histology, and thus may provide a means for rapid pathology-at-the-bedside to expedite and guide surgery. PMID:19196421

  18. A Pilot Feasibility Multicenter Study of Patients After Excision of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Frank; Bajzak, Krisztina; Lamvu, Georgine; Guzovsky, Olga; Agnelli, Rob; Peavey, Mary; Winer, Wendy; Albee, Robert; Sinervo, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To serve as a pilot feasibility study for a randomized study of excision versus ablation in the treatment of endometriosis by (1) estimating the magnitude of change in symptoms after excision only at multiple referral centers and (2) determining the proportion of women willing to participate in a randomized trial. Methods: We performed a multicenter prospective study of women undergoing excision for endometriosis (Canadian Task Force class II-3) at Duke University Center for Endometriosis Research & Treatment (currently the Saint Louis University Center for Endometriosis), Center for Endometriosis Care, Northshore University Health System, Memorial University (Canada), and Florida Hospital. The study comprised 100 female patients, aged 18 to 55 years, with endometriosis-suspected pelvic pain. The intervention was laparoscopic excision only of the abnormal peritoneum suspicious for endometriosis. The main outcome measures were quality of life, pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and bowel and bladder symptoms. Results: The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. Excision of endometriosis showed a significant reduction in all pain scores except bowel symptoms, as well as significant improvement in quality of life. Of the patients, 84% were willing to participate in a randomized study. Conclusions: Quality of life is a needed primary outcome for any randomized study comparing excision versus ablation. A multicenter comparative trial is feasible, although quality assurance would have to be addressed. Patients were willing to be randomized even at surgical referral centers. PMID:23743377

  19. No Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) with Ligation and Excision: A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, K; Ali, I; Sarma, G; Das, U

    2015-12-01

    No scalpel vasectomy (NSV) has proved to be a safe and simple procedure for permanent sterilization for men. Ligation and excision of the vas deferens followed by fascial interposition is the procedure of choice. It is believed that vas excision without fascial interposition has a risk of failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technique of NSV with ligation and excision only. No scalpel vasectomy performed in an urban centre was taken for this prospective study. Only ligation and excision procedure was applied in its execution. It was demonstrated and performed under the supervision of an expert. Information regarding early and late complications including failure was gathered. A total number of 3,392 NSVs were performed in an urban training centre between Apr' 2009 to Mar' 2013. The procedure applied was only excision and ligation of the vas deferens. The fascial interposition was not included in the procedure. Haematoma (1), bleeding (3), foreign body granuloma (1), scrotal pain (3), epididymitis (1) and sinus formations (1) were encountered. There was only one failure in the whole group of acceptors. NSV with ligation and excision is a simple and easy procedure to learn and perform. Complications and failures are negligible. The additional fascial interposition needs more surgical skill and is time-consuming, hence can be avoided where a large number of acceptors need to undergo NSV in a rural camp. PMID:27011506

  20. Excision of periocular basal cell carcinoma guided by en face frozen section.

    PubMed

    Tullett, Mark; Sagili, Suresh; Barrett, Andrew; Malhotra, Raman

    2013-09-01

    We describe a technique for monitoring excision margins in periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) using en face frozen sections and report outcomes. We excised periocular BCC with 3mm margins. An outer 1mm sliver of the perimeter of the specimen was mapped and sent for evaluation by en face frozen section. The central tumour mass was processed using routine paraffin sections. A further 3mm level was excised at the site of any affected margin and the outer 1mm sliver was again evaluated by frozen section. We identified 78 patients from November 2003 to July 2009; 67 had primary tumours and 11 (14%) had recurrent BCC of which 52 (66%) were located on the lower eyelid. Growth patterns were nodular (n=34, 43%), infiltrative (n=25, 32%), micronodular (n=12, 16%), and superficial (n=7, 9%). A third of BCC with a clinically nodular appearance showed additional histological patterns including infiltrative and micronodular growth patterns. Of 30 clinically nodular carcinomas, 29 were excised completely with one level, and one required 2 levels of excision for clearance after evaluation by frozen section. Mean follow-up was 23 months (range 2-60). There was one recurrence (1%). Excision of margins guided by en face frozen section is justified by the low rates of recurrence, and it can easily be taught or imported into hospital practice. Clinically nodular BCC have subclinical extensions that can be missed on bread loaf sectioning, which makes the sampling of margins a standard for periocular BCC. PMID:23219018

  1. Acoustic properties of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N.; Ramaekers, J.; Trevino, J.; Rassoul, H.; Lucia, R. J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic signatures from rocket-triggered lightning are measured by a 15m long, one-dimensional microphone array consisting of 16 receivers situated 90 meters from the lightning channel. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2014. The linear array was oriented in an end-fire position so that the peak acoustic reception pattern can be steered vertically along the channel with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution, enabling us to sample the acoustic signatures from different portions along the lightning channel. We report on the characteristics of acoustic signatures associated with several return strokes in 6 measured flashes (total of 29 return strokes). In addition, we study the relationship between the amplitude, peak frequency, and inferred energy input of each stroke acoustic signature and the associated measured lightning parameters. Furthermore, challenges of obtaining acoustic measurements in thunderstorm harsh conditions and their countermeasures will also be discussed.

  2. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of thermal damage in excised liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemmerer, Jeremy P.; Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a novel approach for characterizing tissue microstructure and changes in tissue microstructure due to therapy. In this report, we discuss changes in QUS parameters in liver tissues after being exposed to thermal insult. Effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC) from the normalized backscattered power spectrum were examined in rat liver specimens heated in a degassed saline bath. Individual liver samples were bisected, with half of each sample heated to a therapeutic temperature of 60°C for 10 minutes and the other half held at 37°C. The ultrasonic backscatter and attenuation coefficient were then estimated at 37°C from both halves. ESD was observed to decrease by an average of 34% in exposed compared to unexposed sample sections, EAC increased by 18 dB, and the attenuation coefficient increased by 70%. Histological slides from these samples indicate cell size and/or concentration may be affected by heating. This work was supported by NIH R01-EB008992.

  3. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  4. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  5. Acoustic nonlinearity in dispersive solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation to consider the effects of dispersion on the generation of the static acoustic wave component is presented. It is considered that an acoustic toneburst may be modeled as a modulated continuous waveform and that the generated initial static displacement pulse may be viewed as a modulation-confined disturbance. A theoretical model for the generation of the acoustic modulation solitons evolved is developed and experimental evidence in samples of vitreous silica demonstrating the essential validity of the model is provided.

  6. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Allen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles. The use of such a model will help ensure compliance with acoustic requirements. Also, this project includes modeling validation and development feedback via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements to compare with the predictions.

  7. Truck acoustic data analyzer system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2006-07-04

    A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

  8. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-10-28

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation.

  9. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  10. Rare embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external acoustic canal: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Eksan, M S; Noorizan, Y; Chew, Y K; Noorafidah, M D; Asma, A

    2014-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external ear canal is very rare, even in the pediatric population. We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external acoustic canal, occurring in a 12-year-old Chinese girl who presented with left ear canal mass. Wide local excision of the mass was done under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis. She then underwent 20 cycles of radiotherapy. CECT scan post treatment showed clearance of tumor cell. Now, patient is disease free for 5 years. We believe that early diagnosis followed by complete resection of the tumor with clear margin and radiotherapy improves the prognosis of the disease. PMID:25128187

  11. Characterizing the stiffness of Human Prostates using Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Liang; Madden, John; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Polascik, Thomas J.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has been previously reported to portray normal anatomic structures and pathologies in ex vivo human prostates with good contrast and resolution. These findings were based on comparison with histological slides and McNeal’s zonal anatomy. In ARFI images, the central zone (CZ) appears darker (smaller displacement) than other anatomic zones, and prostate cancer (PCa) is darker than normal tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ). Since displacement amplitudes in ARFI images are determined by both the underlying tissue stiffness and the amplitude of acoustic radiation force which varies with acoustic attenuation, one question that arises is: how are the relative displacements in prostate ARFI images related to the underlying prostatic tissue stiffness? In linear, isotropic elastic materials and in tissues that are relatively uniform in acoustic attenuation (e.g. liver), relative displacement in ARFI images has been shown to be correlated with underlying tissue stiffness. However, the prostate is known to be heterogeneous. Variations in acoustic attenuation of prostatic structures could confound the interpretation of ARFI images due to the associated variations in the applied acoustic radiation force. Therefore, in this study, co-registered three-dimensional (3D) ARFI datasets and quantitative shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) datasets were acquired in freshly excised human prostates to investigate the relationship between displacement amplitudes in ARFI prostate images and the matched reconstructed shear moduli. The lateral time-to-peak (LTTP) algorithm was applied to the SWEI data to compute the shear wave speed and reconstruct the shear moduli. Five types of prostatic tissue (PZ, CZ, transition zone (TZ) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PCa, and atrophy) were identified, whose shear moduli were quantified to be 4.1±0.8 kPa, 9.9±0.9 kPa, 4.8±0.6 kPa, 10.0±1.0 kPa and 8.0 kPa, respectively. Linear regression was

  12. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  13. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Lift-Off Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janie D.

    2011-01-01

    The lift-off acoustic (LOA) environment is an important design factor for any launch vehicle. For the Ares I vehicle, the LOA environments were derived by scaling flight data from other launch vehicles. The Ares I LOA predicted environments are compared to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) preliminary results.

  14. Beyond the excised ensemble: modelling elliptic curve L-functions with random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, I. A.; Morris, Patrick W.; Snaith, N. C.

    2016-02-01

    The ‘excised ensemble’, a random matrix model for the zeros of quadratic twist families of elliptic curve L-functions, was introduced by Dueñez et al (2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 115207) The excised model is motivated by a formula for central values of these L-functions in a paper by Kohnen and Zagier (1981 Invent. Math. 64 175-98). This formula indicates that for a finite set of L-functions from a family of quadratic twists, the central values are all either zero or are greater than some positive cutoff. The excised model imposes this same condition on the central values of characteristic polynomials of matrices from {SO}(2N). Strangely, the cutoff on the characteristic polynomials that results in a convincing model for the L-function zeros is significantly smaller than that which we would obtain by naively transferring Kohnen and Zagier’s cutoff to the {SO}(2N) ensemble. In this current paper we investigate a modification to the excised model. It lacks the simplicity of the original excised ensemble, but it serves to explain the reason for the unexpectedly low cutoff in the original excised model. Additionally, the distribution of central L-values is ‘choppier’ than the distribution of characteristic polynomials, in the sense that it is a superposition of a series of peaks: the characteristic polynomial distribution is a smooth approximation to this. The excised model did not attempt to incorporate these successive peaks, only the initial cutoff. Here we experiment with including some of the structure of the L-value distribution. The conclusion is that a critical feature of a good model is to associate the correct mass to the first peak of the L-value distribution.

  15. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  16. Guidelines for the excision of cutaneous squamous cell cancers in the United Kingdom: the best cut is the deepest.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Potter, M; Cubitt, J J; Khoda, B J; Smith, J; Wright, E H; Scerri, G; Crick, A; Cassell, O C; Budny, P G

    2013-04-01

    Surgical excision remains the gold standard for the management of cutaneous squamous cell cancers (SCC) and national guidelines for operative radial margins predict 95% oncological clearance with a margin of 4 mm for low-risk and 6 mm for high-risk tumours. We retrospectively analysed all cutaneous SCC excisions performed across 4 regional Plastic surgical units in England over a consecutive 24-month period and collected data on tumour characteristics, operative and histological margins and completeness of excision. We identified 633 eligible SCC excisions of which 265 (42%) were over 2 cm in diameter with 37 recurrent tumours (5.8%). The mean radial operative margin was 6.5 mm across all tumours and 8.4 mm for tumours greater than 2 cm. The mean histological tumour diameter was 21 mm. The overall incomplete excision rate was 7.6% (7.9% for tumours >2 cm). Ninety-four percent (45/48) of incomplete excisions involved the deep margin and only 3 out of 633 excisions (0.47%) were incomplete at a radial margin only. No differences were observed in tumour size or excision margin between incompletely and completely excised tumours. Incomplete excisions were most common on the ear, nose and cheek. In summary our analysis demonstrates that despite adherence to recommended surgical margins for cutaneous SCCs the incomplete excision rate remains higher than expected. We believe that this is because most incomplete excisions are incomplete at the deep margin and question the utility of performing increasingly wide excisions, and, the generalisability of the evidence upon which recommendations for radial margins are based. PMID:23352886

  17. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  18. The acoustics of snoring.

    PubMed

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (<500 Hz) and corresponds to a fundamental frequency with associated harmonics. The pitch of snoring is determined by vibration of the soft palate, while nonpalatal snoring is more 'noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as

  19. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  20. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  1. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  2. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Peter F; Spindel, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    A series of long-range acoustic propagation experiments have been conducted in the North Pacific Ocean during the last 15 years using various combinations of low-frequency, wide-bandwidth transmitters and horizontal and vertical line array receivers, including a 2-dimensional array with a maximum vertical aperture of 1400 m and a horizontal aperture of 3600 m. These measurements were undertaken to further our understanding of the physics of low-frequency, broadband propagation and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. In this volume some of the results are presented. In the present paper the central issues these experiments have addressed are briefly summarized. PMID:15810685

  3. Acoustic microscopy of living cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, J A; Rugar, D; Johnston, R N; Quate, C F

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of the observation by acoustic microscopy of living cells in vitro. The scanning acoustic microscope uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images with submicrometer resolution. The contrast observed in acoustic micrographs of living cells depends on the acoustic properties (i.e., density, stiffness, and attenuation) and on the topographic contour of the cell. Variation in distance separating the acoustic lens and the viewed cell also has a profound effect on the image. When the substratum is located at the focal plane, thick regions of the cell show a darkening that can be related to cellular acoustic attenuation (a function of cytoplasmic viscosity). When the top of the cell is placed near the focal plane, concentric bright and dark rings appear in the image. The location of the rings can be related to cell topography, and the ring contrast can be correlated to the stiffness and density of the cell. In addition, the character of the images of single cells varies dramatically when the substratum upon which they are grown is changed to a different material. By careful selection of the substratum, the information content of the acoustic images can be increased. Our analysis of acoustic images of actively motile cells indicates that leading lamella are less dense or stiff than the quiescent trailing processes of the cells. Images PMID:6940179

  4. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  5. Acoustical Environment for Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie, L.J.

    Discussion of the parameters governing noise control and room acoustics are followed by a demonstration on how to achieve a good acoustical environment. Topics emphasized include--(1) design and control objectives, (2) noise sources and propagation, (3) reverberation parameters, (4) noise control factors and parameters, and (5) sound systems. Also…

  6. Acoustic Emissions Reveal Combustion Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, D. N. R.; Seshan, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent-flame acoustic emissions change with air/fuel ratio variations. Acoustic emissions sensed and processed to detect inefficient operation; control system responds by adjusting fuel/air mixture for greater efficiency. Useful for diagnosis of combustion processes and fuel/air control.

  7. Electronic dummy for acoustical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, B. B.; Di Mattia, A. L.; Rosencheck, A. J.; Stern, M.; Torick, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic Dummy /ED/ used for acoustical testing represents the average male torso from the Xiphoid process upward and includes an acoustic replica of the human head. This head simulates natural flesh, and has an artificial voice and artificial ears that measure sound pressures at the eardrum or the entrance to the ear canal.

  8. Sound Advice on Classroom Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of acoustic standards in classroom design, presenting an interview with the Acoustical Society of America's (ASA's) standards manager which focuses on reasons for the new ASA standards, the standards document (which was written for K-12 classroom but applies to college classrooms), the need to avoid echo and be able to…

  9. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  10. Investigation of pulmonary acoustic simulation: comparing airway model generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Brian; Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable spectral, spatial and/or temporal changes in lung sound production and transmission. These changes, if properly quantified, might provide additional information about the etiology, severity and location of trauma, injury, or pathology. With this in mind, the authors are developing a comprehensive computer simulation model of pulmonary acoustics, known as The Audible Human Project™. Its purpose is to improve our understanding of pulmonary acoustics and to aid in interpreting measurements of sound and vibration in the lungs generated by airway insonification, natural breath sounds, and external stimuli on the chest surface, such as that used in elastography. As a part of this development process, finite element (FE) models were constructed of an excised pig lung that also underwent experimental studies. Within these models, the complex airway structure was created via two methods: x-ray CT image segmentation and through an algorithmic means called Constrained Constructive Optimization (CCO). CCO was implemented to expedite the segmentation process, as airway segments can be grown digitally. These two approaches were used in FE simulations of the surface motion on the lung as a result of sound input into the trachea. Simulation results were compared to experimental measurements. By testing how close these models are to experimental measurements, we are evaluating whether CCO can be used as a means to efficiently construct physiologically relevant airway trees.

  11. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-02-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  12. ICE Afe 1, an actively excising genetic element from the biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Paula; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Levicán, Gloria; Katz, Assaf; Tapia, Pablo; Holmes, David; Quatrini, Raquel; Orellana, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transferred mobile genetic elements that contribute to horizontal gene transfer. An ICE (ICEAfe1) was identified in the genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270. Excision of the element and expression of relevant genes under normal and DNA-damaging growth conditions was analyzed. Bioinformatic tools and DNA amplification methods were used to identify and to assess the excision and expression of genes related to the mobility of the element. Both basal and mitomycin C-inducible excision as well as expression and induction of the genes for integration/excision are demonstrated, suggesting that ICEAfe1 is an actively excising SOS-regulated mobile genetic element. The presence of a complete set of genes encoding self-transfer functions that are induced in response to DNA damage caused by mitomycin C additionally suggests that this element is capable of conjugative transfer to suitable recipient strains. Transfer of ICEAfe1 may provide selective advantages to other acidophiles in this ecological niche through dissemination of gene clusters expressing transfer RNAs, CRISPRs, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis enzymes, probably by modification of translation efficiency, resistance to bacteriophage infection and biofilm formation, respectively. These data open novel avenues of research on conjugative transformation of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. PMID:23486178

  13. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  14. The Hobo Transposable Element Excises and Has Related Elements in Tephritid Species

    PubMed Central

    Handler, A. M.; Gomez, S. P.

    1996-01-01

    Function of the Drosophila melanogaster hobo transposon in tephritid species was tested in transient embryonic excision assays. Wild-type and mutant strains of Anastrepha suspensa, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, Ceratitis capitata, and Toxotrypana curvicauda all supported hobo excision or deletion both in the presence and absence of co-injected hobo transposase, indicating a permissive state for hobo mobility and the existence of endogenous systems capable of mobilizing hobo. In several strains hobo helper reduced excision. Excision depended on hobo sequences in the indicator plasmid, though almost all excisions were imprecise and the mobilizing systems appear mechanistically different from hobo. hobo-related sequences were identified in all species except T. curvicauda. Parsimony analysis yielded a subgroup including the B. cucurbitae and C. capitata sequences along with hobo and Hermes, and a separate, more divergent subgroup including the A. suspensa and B. dorsalis sequences. All of the sequences exist as multiple genomic elements, and a deleted form of the B. cucurbitae element exists in B. dorsalis. The hobo-related sequences are probably members of the hAT transposon family with some evolving from distant ancestor elements, while others may have originated from more recent horizontal transfers. PMID:8807305

  15. Opto-acoustic thrombolysis

    DOEpatents

    Celliers, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz; Glinsky, Michael; London, Richard; Maitland, Duncan; Matthews, Dennis; Fitch, Pat

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a catheter-based device for generating an ultrasound excitation in biological tissue. Pulsed laser light is guided through an optical fiber to provide the energy for producing the acoustic vibrations. The optical energy is deposited in a water-based absorbing fluid, e.g. saline, thrombolytic agent, blood or thrombus, and generates an acoustic impulse in the fluid through thermoelastic and/or thermodynamic mechanisms. By pulsing the laser at a repetition rate (which may vary from 10 Hz to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus or treating vasospasm. The catheter can also incorporate thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it can be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control and with optical sensors for characterization of thrombus type and consistency.

  16. Musical acoustics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekje, P. L.

    2003-10-01

    The ASA Musical Acoustics Demonstrations website (trial version at http://www.bw.edu/~phoekje) includes sound files, video clips, program code listings, and other material for demonstrations related to musical acoustics. Many of the sound demonstrations may be experienced either as expositions, in which the phenomena are explained before they are presented, or as experiments, in which the explanation comes after listeners have had the opportunity to draw their own conclusions. Suggestions are provided for apparatus construction and classroom experiments, as well as for building simple musical instruments. Software is recommended if it is available free and compatible with multiple personal computer operating systems. For example, Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforce.net) is a sound file editor and analyzer that can be used to visually represent sounds and manipulate them. Source files are included for the synthesized sound examples, which were created in Csound (http://csounds.com), so that interested users may create their own variations. Source code is also included for visual demonstrations created in Visual Python and Python (http://www.python.org), an efficient, high level programming language. Suggestions, criticisms, and contributions are always welcome! [Work supported by ASA and Baldwin-Wallace College.

  17. Acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tribikram

    2014-01-01

    In this article different techniques for localizing acoustic sources are described and the advantages/disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Some source localization techniques are restricted to isotropic structures while other methods can be applied to anisotropic structures as well. Some techniques require precise knowledge of the direction dependent velocity profiles in the anisotropic body while other techniques do not require that knowledge. Some methods require accurate values of the time of arrival of the acoustic waves at the receivers while other techniques can function without that information. Published papers introducing various techniques emphasize the advantages of the introduced techniques while ignoring and often not mentioning the limitations and weaknesses of the new techniques. What is lacking in the literature is a comprehensive review and comparison of the available techniques; this article attempts to do that. After reviewing various techniques the paper concludes which source localization technique should be most effective for what type of structure and what the current research needs are. PMID:23870388

  18. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  19. Acoustic particle acceleration sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, J.B.; Barry, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    A crossed dipole array provides a directional receiving capability in a relatively small sensor package and is therefore very attractive for many applications in acoustics. Particle velocity measurements on two axes perpendicular to each other are required to provide the dipole signals. These can be obtained directly using particle velocity sensors or via simple transfer functions using acceleration and displacement sensors. Also, the derivative of the acoustic pressure with respect to space provides a signal proportional to the particle acceleration and gives rise to the pressure gradient sensor. Each of these sensors has strengths and drawbacks depending on the frequency regime of interest, the noise background, and whether a point or a line configuration of dipole sensors is desired. In this paper, the performance of acceleration sensors is addressed using a sensor concept developed at DREA. These sensors exploit bending stresses in a cantilever beam of piezoelectric material to obtain wide bandwidth and high sensitivity. Models which predict the acceleration sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, and natural frequency for this type of sensor are described. Experimental results obtained using several different versions of these sensors are presented and compared with theory. The predicted performance of acceleration sensors are compared with that of pressure gradient arrays and particle velocity sensors. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Opto-acoustic thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; Silva, L. Da; Glinsky, M.; London, R.; Maitland, D.; Matthews, D.; Fitch, P.

    2000-02-08

    This invention is a catheter-based device for generating an ultrasound excitation in biological tissue. Pulsed laser light is guided through an optical fiber to provide the energy for producing the acoustic vibrations. The optical energy is deposited in a water-based absorbing fluid, e.g. saline, thrombolytic agent, blood or thrombus, and generates an acoustic impulse in the fluid through thermoelastic and/or thermodynamic mechanisms. By pulsing the laser at a repetition rate (which may vary from 10 Hz to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus or treating vasospasm. The catheter can also incorporate thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it can be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control and with optical sensors for characterization of thrombus type and consistency.

  1. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  2. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  3. The Fanconi Anaemia Components UBE2T and FANCM Are Functionally Linked to Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kelsall, Ian R.; Langenick, Judith; MacKay, Craig; Patel, Ketan J.; Alpi, Arno F.

    2012-01-01

    The many proteins that function in the Fanconi anaemia (FA) monoubiquitylation pathway initiate replicative DNA crosslink repair. However, it is not clear whether individual FA genes participate in DNA repair pathways other than homologous recombination and translesion bypass. Here we show that avian DT40 cell knockouts of two integral FA genes – UBE2T and FANCM are unexpectedly sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. Comprehensive genetic dissection experiments indicate that both of these FA genes collaborate to promote nucleotide excision repair rather than translesion bypass to protect cells form UV genotoxicity. Furthermore, UBE2T deficiency impacts on the efficient removal of the UV-induced photolesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Therefore, this work reveals that the FA pathway shares two components with nucleotide excision repair, intimating not only crosstalk between the two major repair pathways, but also potentially identifying a UBE2T-mediated ubiquitin-signalling response pathway that contributes to nucleotide excision repair. PMID:22615860

  4. S-shaped wide excision with primary closure for extensive chronic pilonidal sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Kerem; Ozturk, Safak; Tugmen, Cem; Kebapcı, Eyup; Dogan, Sait Murat; Unver, Mutlu; Olmez, Mustafa; Aydin, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Background. The management of complex pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) with multiple pits on and beside the natal cleft is variable, contentious, and problematic. Wide excision of the sinus and reconstruction of the defect using different flap techniques have become more popular in recent years. Case Report. We report a case with a complex chronic PSD to which we applied primary closure after S-shaped wide excision. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and at the end of one-year followup he is now disease-free and comes for routine checkups. Conclusion. The simplicity of the technique and the promising results support the applicability of the S-shaped wide excision in chronic bilaterally extended large PSDs. Further studies entailing large patient populations are needed to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:24987541

  5. S-Shaped Wide Excision with Primary Closure for Extensive Chronic Pilonidal Sinus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Kerem; Ozturk, Safak; Kebapcı, Eyup; Dogan, Sait Murat; Unver, Mutlu; Olmez, Mustafa; Aydin, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Background. The management of complex pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) with multiple pits on and beside the natal cleft is variable, contentious, and problematic. Wide excision of the sinus and reconstruction of the defect using different flap techniques have become more popular in recent years. Case Report. We report a case with a complex chronic PSD to which we applied primary closure after S-shaped wide excision. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and at the end of one-year followup he is now disease-free and comes for routine checkups. Conclusion. The simplicity of the technique and the promising results support the applicability of the S-shaped wide excision in chronic bilaterally extended large PSDs. Further studies entailing large patient populations are needed to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:24987541

  6. Management of carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix by selective local excision.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, M; Lindberg, L G; Nordqvist, S R

    1977-01-01

    Local excision of severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix by punch biopsies was the treatment in 366 cases. In 61%, cervical cytology reverted to negative or slight atypia. 153 patients have been followed from 1 to 7 years. Failures to remove the entire lesion were discovered within the first year of follow-up in all cases but 10. Complications were negligible and no patients have subsequently developed invasive cancer of the cervix. Selective local excision as an alternative to other minimally traumatic techniques, e.g. cryotherapy is discussed. Although the failure rate is slightly higher with local excision, an obvious advantage is the availability of all removed tissue for histopathologic diagnosis. Thus, the risk of overlooking microinvasive disease is reduced to a minimum. PMID:602726

  7. Local excision for early rectal cancer: transanal endoscopic microsurgery and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of treatment for early stage rectal cancer is to optimize oncologic control while minimizing the long-term impact of treatment on quality of life. The standard of care treatment for most stage I and II rectal cancers is radical surgery alone, specifically total mesorectal excision (TME). For early rectal cancers, this procedure is usually curative but can have a substantial impact on quality of life, including the possibility of permanent colostomy and the potential for short and long-term bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Given the morbidity associated with radical surgery, alternative approaches to management of early rectal cancer have been explored, including local excision (LE) via transanal excision (TAE) or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Compared to the gold standard of radical surgery, local procedures for strictly selected early rectal cancers should lead to identical oncological results and even better outcomes regarding morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. PMID:26029457

  8. The influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenland, D. M.; Brown, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a system to study the influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves by means of clinorotation. The use of excised leaves in our clinostat studies offered a number of advantages over the use of whole plants, most important of which were minimization of exogenous mechanical stress and a greater amount of carbohydrate accumulation during the time of treatment. We found that horizontal clinorotation of excised wheat leaves resulted in significant reductions in the accumulation of fructose, sucrose, starch and fructan relative to control, vertically clinorotated leaves. Photosynthesis, dark respiration and the extractable activities of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27), sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.4.14), sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99), and fructan hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.80) were unchanged due to altered gravity treatment.

  9. Observations of the incidence of metastasis following laser hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy, PDT, and excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mianjing; Gao, Menglin; Gao, Jin; Xue, Kexun; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Li, Qongru; Geng, Zifan; Gong, Zhuo; Ye, Qing; Gu, Pei; Xao, Jing-Lian

    1993-03-01

    Our early observations have confirmed that laser hyperthermia or PDT alone does not promote the tumor metastasis. In order to evaluate the combined effect of local tumor laser hyperthermia on the distant metastasis, transplantable forestomach carcinoma (Fc) in 615 line mice was treated by Nd:YAG laser hyperthermia (45 degree(s)C/20 min) combined with PDT (HpD 5 mg/kg, 480 J/cm2, 20 min), chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide 28.8 mg/kg) and excision, respectively. The results show that (1) the tumor growth inhibition by various treatment was significant compared with a control group; (2) no statistics different in metastasis rate were observed in laser hyperthermia combined with PDT, chemotherapy, or scalpel excision separately. It is suggested that laser hyperthermia combined with PDT, chemotherapy, or excision does not increase the incidence of the tumor metastasis.

  10. New technique of transanal proctectomy with completely robotic total mesorrectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez Ruiz, Marcos; Palazuelos, Carlos Manuel; Martín Parra, José Ignacio; Alonso Martín, Joaquín; Cagigas Fernández, Carmen; del Castillo Diego, Julio; Gómez Fleitas, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision is the standard method of rectal cancer resection. However, this procedure remains technically difficult in mid and low rectal cancer. A robotic transanal proctectomy with total mesorectal excision and laparoscopic assistance is reported in a 57 year old male with BMI 32 kg/m2 and rectal adenocarcinoma T2N1M0 at 5 cm from the dentate line. Operating time was 420 min. Postoperative hospital stay was 6 days and no complications were observed. Pathological report showed a 33 cm specimen with ypT2N0 adenocarcinoma at 2 cm from the distal margin, complete TME and non affected circumferential resection margin. Robotic technology might reduce some technical difficulties associated with TEM/TEO or SILS platforms in transanal total mesorectal excision. Further clinical trials will be necessary to assess this technique. PMID:24589418

  11. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  12. Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma: Treatment outcomes with surgical excision and full thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, I; Robert, N; Revol, M

    2016-02-01

    Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease. An often missed or delayed diagnosis, the affected finger could result in an amputation. Our aim is to focus on the results of surgical excision of fingertips squamous cell carcinoma. Between 2005 and 2011, eighteen fingers on eight patients with a mean age of 62.5 years underwent surgery. The surgical excision margin was 5mm and the defect was covered by a full thickness skin graft. Three fingers were revised for having a non-secure margin with an enlarged excision and two fingers were amputated at the distal phalange. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, resulting in an amputation of the affected finger. Aesthetic outcomes range from very good to good satisfaction except for one, which was bad. PMID:25301287

  13. The acoustic vector sensor: a versatile battlefield acoustics sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bree, Hans-Elias; Wind, Jelmer W.

    2011-06-01

    The invention of the Microflown sensor has made it possible to measure acoustic particle velocity directly. An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) measures the particle velocity in three directions (the source direction) and the pressure. The sensor is a uniquely versatile battlefield sensor because its size is a few millimeters and it is sensitive to sound from 10Hz to 10kHz. This article shows field tests results of acoustic vector sensors, measuring rifles, heavy artillery, fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. Experimental data shows that the sensor is suitable as a ground sensor, mounted on a vehicle and on a UAV.

  14. Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocat, Noemie

    The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation

  15. Unplanned Excision of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on a Claims Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seungcheol; Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu

    2015-01-01

    Unplanned excision of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is common and has detrimental effects not only on patients’ oncologic outcomes but also on functional and economic issues. However, no study has analyzed a nationwide population-based database. To estimate the incidence and treatment pattern of unplanned excision in extremity STS in the Korean population, a nationwide epidemiologic study was performed using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, a centralized nationwide healthcare claims registry of Korea that covers the entire Korean population. Among 1,517 patients with extremity STS in the 4-year study period, 553 (36.5%) underwent unplanned excision (unplanned group). About 80% of unplanned excisions were performed in tertiary or general hospitals. Of the unplanned group, 240 (43.4%) underwent re-excision with or without radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, and 51 (9.2%) did not undergo re-excision but were treated with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy; whereas, 262 (47.4%) did not undergo any further treatment following unplanned excision. This study is the first nationwide population-based study on the unplanned excision of extremity STS. The results may have implications in establishing preventive or therapeutic measures to reduce the burden of unplanned excision of extremity STS. PMID:26237049

  16. Green and non-green callus induction from excised rice (Oryza sativa) embryos: effects of exogenous plant growth regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Calli were induced either from excised rice embryos or from whole seeds in the presence of 1 to 5 mg l-1 NAA. After 12 days of culture, calli were induced only from excised rice embryos. We found that excised embryos accumulated NAA up to 6 times higher concentration than did whole seeds. In the presence of 1 to 5 mg l-1 NAA and 2 to 10 mg l-1 kinetin, chlorophyllous calli were induced from excised rice embryos. Chlorophyll contents in the callus tissue increased with increasing kinetin concentration while percent callus induction decreased. The total chlorophyll content was linearly correlated with the ratio of kinetin to NAA in the medium.

  17. The impact of use of an intraoperative margin assessment device on re-excision rates.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Molly; Akbari, Stephanie; Anglin, Beth; Lin, Erin H; Police, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Historically there has been a high rate of surgical interventions to obtain clear margins for breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving local therapy. An intraoperative margin assessment tool (MarginProbe) has been approved for use in the US since 2013. This study is the first compilation of data from routine use of the device, to assess the impact of device utilization on re-excision rates. We present a retrospective, observational, review from groups of consecutive patients, before and after the implementation of intraoperative use of the device during lumpectomy procedures. Lesions were localized by standard methods. The intraoperative margin assessment device was used on all circumferential margins of the main specimen, but not on any additional shavings. A positive reading by the device led to an additional shaving of the corresponding cavity location. Specimens were also, when feasible, imaged intra-operatively by X-ray, and additional shavings were taken if needed based on clinical assessment. For each surgeon, historical re-excision rates were established based on a consecutive set of patients from a time period proximal to initiation of use of the device. From March 2013 to April 2014 the device was routinely used by 4 surgeons in 3 centers. In total, 165 cases lumpectomy cases were performed. Positive margins resulted in additional re-excision procedures in 9.7% (16/165) of the cases. The corresponding historical set from 2012 and 2013 consisted of 186 Lumpectomy cases, in which additional re-excision procedures were performed in 25.8% (48/186) of the cases. The reduction in the rate of re-excision procedures was significant 62% (P < 0.0001). Use of an intraoperative margin assessment device contributes to achieving clear margins and reducing re-excision procedures. As in some cases positive margins were found on shavings, future studies of interest may include an analysis of the effect of using the device on the shavings intra

  18. Clinicopathological correlation of an excised choroidal neovascular membrane in pseudotumour cerebri

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, A.; Sugino, I.; Nasir, M.; Zarbin, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—To correlate the histopathology of an excised choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) with the clinical and angiographic findings in a 32-year-old woman with pseudotumour cerebri and a peripapillary CNV with subfoveal extension.
METHODS—The patient's visual acuity was assessed by individuals experienced in low vision refraction and who were not members of the surgical team. The CNV was excised via a conventional three port vitrectomy with subretinal dissection. The excised tissue was studied with light and electron microscopy. Preoperative and serial postoperative fluorescein angiograms (FAs) and fundus photographs were obtained to study the dissection bed.
RESULTS—One week after surgery, the FA showed mottled subfoveal choriocapillaris perfusion. Three weeks after surgery, this area showed retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy clinically, and the FA showed choriocapillaris non-perfusion. Six months after surgery, the area of RPE atrophy and the corresponding area of choriocapillaris non-perfusion had expanded. Histologically, the excised CNV disclosed hyperplastic RPE, fibrovascular tissue, and no choriocapillaris. Fragments of RPE basement were present along the external edge of the specimen. The patient's visual acuity did not improve significantly after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS—Choriocapillaris non-perfusion can develop even in young patients following CNV excision. In this particular case, it is believed that choriocapillaris atrophy was caused by incomplete ingrowth of RPE into the dissection bed following RPE removal with CNV excision. As far as is known, this is the first report describing the results of surgery for CNV secondary to papilloedema associated with pseudotumour cerebri.

 PMID:9505826

  19. Scar-Saving Flap during Serial Excision by Borrowing from the Opposite Side

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Song, Won Keun

    2008-01-01

    Background Congenital melanocytic nevi may have various shapes according to the anatomic location. Therefore, it is desirable to apply proper surgical designs to the diverse forms considering the characteristics of the sites as well as the shape and size. Objective The purpose of this article is to introduce a new scar-saving flap design for semicircular defects after removing congenital melanocytic nevi without excising additional normal skin. Methods In most cases to excise semicircular nevi, normal skin should be excised to prevent dog ear, resulting in the long length of the scar. So we use a new scar-saving flap design by borrowing a partial length from the opposite side. Results We used this new technique for 4 cases of large semicircular skin defects. In all cases, this method had some advantages from this perspective: (1) it does not require excision of normal adjacent skin to convert a semicircular defect into a crescent shape or to remove dog-ears (2) the final suture line is not much longer than the diameter of the original defect and (3) it makes the removal of a much larger volume possible in one procedure rather than using the classic serial excision technique, which consists of a central elliptical excision within the confines of the nevus. In this way the frequency of procedures and discomfort to the patient can be reduced. Conclusion We think that a scar-saving flap design by borrowing a partial length from the opposite side can be a good strategy for a semicircular skin defect. PMID:27303174

  20. Determination of Strain Field on the Superior Surface of Excised Larynx Vocal Folds Using DIC

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Hani; Young, Jonathan; Yang, Justin C. W.; Mongeau, Luc; Miri, Amir K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective/Hypothesis The objective of the present study was to quantify the mechanical strain and stress in excised porcine larynges during self-oscillation using digital image correlation (DIC) method. The use of DIC in the excised larynx setup may yield accurate measurements of the vocal fold displacement field. Study Design Ex vivo animal larynx. Methods Measurements were performed using excised porcine larynges on a humidified flow bench, equipped with two high-speed cameras and a commercially available DIC software. Surface deformations were calculated from digital images recorded at 3000 frames per second during continuous self-oscillation for four excised porcine larynges. Larynx preparation consisted of removing the supraglottal wall and the false folds. DIC yielded the deformation field on the superior visible surface of the vocal folds. Measurement data for adducted and freely suspended vocal folds were also used to estimate the distribution of the initial prephonatory strain field. An isotropic constitutive law, the polymer eight-chain model, was used to estimate the surface distributions of planar stresses from the strain data. Results The Lagrangian normal strain values were between ~16% and ~29% along the anterior-posterior direction. The motion of material points on the vocal fold surface described an elliptical trajectory during oscillation. A phase difference was observed between the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral component of the displacement. The strain data and eight-chain model yielded a maximum stress of ~4 kPa along the medial-lateral direction on the superior surface. Conclusion DIC allowed the strain field over the superior surface of an excised porcine larynx to be quantified during self-oscillation. The approach allowed the determination of the trajectory of specific points on the vocal fold surface. The results for the excised larynx were found to be significantly different than previous results obtained using

  1. Impact of Margin Assessment Method on Positive Margin Rate and Total Volume Excised

    PubMed Central

    Moo, Tracy-Ann; Choi, Lydia; Culpepper, Candice; Olcese, Cristina; Heerdt, Alexandra; Sclafani, Lisa; King, Tari A.; Reiner, Anne S.; Patil, Sujata; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Background For breast-conserving surgery (BCS), the method of margin assessment that most frequently achieves negative margins without increasing volume of tissue excised is uncertain. We examined our institutional experience with 3 different margin assessment methods used by 6 experienced breast surgeons. Methods Patients undergoing BCS for invasive carcinoma during July-December of a representative year during which each method was performed (Perpendicular, 2003; Tangential, 2004; Cavity-Shave, 2011) were included. Effect of margin method on positive margin rate at first excision, and total volume excised to achieve negative margins, were evaluated by multivariable analysis, by surgeon, and by tumor size and presence of extensive intraductal component (EIC). Results 555 patients were identified: Perpendicular, 140; Tangential, 124; Cavity-Shave, 291. Tangential method had a higher rate of positive margins at first excision than Perpendicular and Cavity-Shave methods (49%, 15%, 11%, respectively; p<0.0001). Median volumes to achieve negative margins were similar (55ml, Perpendicular; 64ml Tangential; 62ml Cavity-Shave, p=0.24). Four of 6 surgeons had the lowest rate of positive margins with Cavity-Shave method—significant when compared to Tangential (p<0.0001), but not Perpendicular (p=0.37). Comparison of volume excised using the 3 methods was variable by surgeon (p<0.0001). Perpendicular method was optimal for T1 tumors without EIC; Cavity-Shave tended to be superior for T2/3 tumors and/or EIC. Conclusions While the Cavity-Shave method may decrease rates of positive margins, its effect on volume is variable among surgeons and may result in an increase in total volume excised for some surgeons, and for small tumors without EIC. PMID:24046114

  2. Source versus content memory in patients with a unilateral frontal cortex or a temporal lobe excision.

    PubMed

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2003-05-01

    It has been suggested previously that patients with a frontal lobe lesion might have a specific impairment in the retrieval of the source of information despite adequate memory for facts. Patients with an anterior temporal excision are known to have impairments in memory for facts and the question arises as to whether they are also impaired in source memory. The present study compared memory for facts and their source in patients with a unilateral frontal cortical or an anterior temporal excision in a situation in which both types of information were encoded explicitly. Patients with a unilateral frontal cortex or a temporal lobe excision watched videos of a game show and were instructed to attend to both the trivia facts and their source (the identity of the speaker or the relative time of presentation). Patients with a frontal cortex excision were not impaired on either fact or source memory. This was true even when a subgroup of patients with an excision involving the dorsolateral frontal cortex was examined. In contrast, patients with a left temporal lobe excision were impaired in both fact and identity source memory and right temporal lobe patients were impaired in identity source memory. All patients performed similarly to normal controls in temporal source memory. The present results are consistent with the view that source information is part of an associative network of information about an episode and that the medial temporal region is critical for both source and content memory. Furthermore, if source information is encoded explicitly, the frontal cortex does not appear to be necessary for its retrieval. Instead, it is proposed that the frontal cortex plays a metacognitive role in memory retrieval. PMID:12690051

  3. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-07-20

    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  4. Turbofan Acoustic Propagation and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    2000-01-01

    This document describes progress in the development of finite element codes for the prediction of near and far field acoustic radiation from the inlet and aft fan ducts of turbofan engines. The report consists of nine papers which have appeared in archival journals and conference proceedings, or are presently in review for publication. Topics included are: 1. Aft Fan Duct Acoustic Radiation; 2. Mapped Infinite Wave Envelope Elements for Acoustic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving Medium; 3. A Reflection Free Boundary Condition for Propagation in Uniform Flow Using Mapped Infinite Wave Envelope Elements; 4. A Numerical Comparison Between Multiple-Scales and FEM Solution for Sound Propagation in Lined Flow Ducts; 5. Acoustic Propagation at High Frequencies in Ducts; 6. The Boundary Condition at an Impedance Wall in a Nonuniform Duct with Potential Flow; 7. A Reverse Flow Theorem and Acoustic Reciprocity in Compressible Potential Flows; 8. Reciprocity and Acoustics Power in One Dimensional Compressible Potential Flows; and 9. Numerical Experiments on Acoustic Reciprocity in Compressible Potential Flows.

  5. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  6. Arthroscopic Excision of Intra-Articular Hip Osteoid Osteoma: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nehme, Alexandre H.; Bou Ghannam, Alaa G.; Imad, Joseph P.; Jabbour, Fouad C.; Moucharafieh, Ramzi; Wehbe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Intra-articular osteoid osteoma is uncommon accounting for approximately 12% of all osteoid osteomas. It presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges since several traumatic or degenerative pathologies of the joint can be simulated with delay in the diagnosis. We report the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings in 2 cases of intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck and of the acetabulum. Technical aspects of arthroscopic excision and results of surgery are discussed. Arthroscopy allowed complete excision of the osteoid osteomas, with a short postoperative rehabilitation and excellent functional results. PMID:23304593

  7. Misguided phylogenetic comparisons using DGGE excised bands may contaminate public sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Kalks, Karlos Henrique Martins; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Hirsch, Penny R; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Yotoko, Karla

    2016-07-01

    Controversy surrounding bacterial phylogenies has become one of the most important challenges for microbial ecology. Comparative analyses with nucleotide databases and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amplified 16S rRNA genes from DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) excised bands have been used by several researchers for the identification of organisms in complex samples. Here, we individually analyzed DGGE-excised 16S rRNA gene bands from 10 certified bacterial strains of different species, and demonstrated that this kind of approach can deliver erroneous outcomes to researchers, besides causing/emphasizing errors in public databases. PMID:27109483

  8. Laparoscopic Excision of Large Intra-Abdominal Cysts in Children: Needle Hitch Technique

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Brice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Feargal

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has both diagnostic and therapeutic advantages in the management of intra-abdominal cysts in children. Large cysts in small children pose technical challenges during laparoscopic surgery, requiring multiple incisions and advanced laparoscopic skills. This paper describes a novel laparoscopic technique using minimal manipulation for both aspiration and excision of the cyst. This simple, safe, and effective approach was used to achieve traction and facilitate excision of a large intra-abdominal cyst in a neonate and a young child. PMID:26798349

  9. Innovative use of the octopus stabilizer in the excision of a cardiac hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Musleh, Mohammud; Abuhussein, Nadia; Musleh, Ghassan; Waterworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused through Echinococcus granulosus infection. Hydatid disease remains endemic in developing countries. The majority of cases involve the lungs or liver. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with concurrent mediastinal and cardiac cysts. In this patient, the Octopus IV cardiac stabilizer was used to rotate the heart after the excision of the mediastinal cyst, enabling the excision of a cyst adherent to left ventricle through a single median sternotomy incision. To date, there have been no reports of the application of the Octopus IV cardiac stabilizer in such a way. PMID:26921611

  10. Electromagnetic acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Alers, George A.; Burns, Jr., Leigh R.; MacLauchlan, Daniel T.

    1988-01-01

    A noncontact ultrasonic transducer for studying the acoustic properties of a metal workpiece includes a generally planar magnetizing coil positioned above the surface of the workpiece, and a generally planar eddy current coil between the magnetizing coil and the workpiece. When a large current is passed through the magnetizing coil, a large magnetic field is applied to the near-surface regions of the workpiece. The eddy current coil can then be operated as a transmitter by passing an alternating current therethrough to excite ultrasonic waves in the surface of the workpiece, or operated as a passive receiver to sense ultrasonic waves in the surface by measuring the output signal. The geometries of the two coils can be varied widely to be effective for different types of ultrasonic waves. The coils are preferably packaged in a housing which does not interfere with their operation, but protects them from a variety of adverse environmental conditions.

  11. Acoustic effects of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Maciej Z.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

    1994-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, it has been known that realistic combustion models for liquid fuel rocket engines should contain at least a rudimentary treatment of atomization and spray physics. This is of particular importance in transient operations. It has long been recognized that spray characteristics and droplet vaporization physics play a fundamental role in determining the stability behavior of liquid fuel rocket motors. This paper gives an overview of work in progress on design of a numerical algorithm for practical studies of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors. For flexibility, the algorithm is composed of semi-independent solution modules, accounting for different physical processes. Current findings are report and future work is indicated. The main emphasis of this research is the development of an efficient treatment to interactions between acoustic fields and liquid fuel/oxidizer sprays.

  12. Progress in acoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    The theory underlying the methods used in acoustic holography (the real-time liquid surface levitation and the scanning holography methods) and in electromagnetic holography, which uses electromagnetic impulses (radar) or electromagnetic waves (eddy current) is developed. These holographic techniques are illustrated with experimental results, including the use of the liquid surface levitation method for inspecting fiberglass laminate tubes, and examples of the time-of-flight holographic images, the coherent ultrasonic images, multifrequency ultrasonic images, and the synthetic aperture holography images obtained by the use of the scanning holography methodology. Other examples illustrate applications of radar holography and eddy current holography. These examples are used to refute some traditional negative comments on nonoptical holography.

  13. Wind turbine acoustic standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise standards for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used to design specifications. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of acoustic criteria/standards are described.

  14. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  15. Detachable acoustic electric feedthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Scott; Skippen, Jeremy; Konak, Michael; Powlesland, Ian; Galea, Steve

    2010-04-01

    This paper outlines the development and characterisation of a detachable acoustic electric feedthrough (DAEF) to transfer power and data across a metal (or composite) plate. The DAEF approach is being explored as a potential means of wirelessly powering in-situ structural health monitoring systems embedded within aircraft and other high value engineering assets. The DAEF technique operates via two axially aligned piezoelectric-magnet structures mounted on opposite sides of a plate. Magnetic force is used to align the two piezoelectric-magnet structures, to create an acoustic path across a plate. The piezoelectric-magnet structures consisted of Pz26 piezoelectric disk elements bonded to NdFeB magnets, with a standard ultrasonic couplant (High-Z) used between the magnet and plate to facilitate the passage of ultrasound. Measured impedance curves are matched to modeled curves using the Comsol multi-physics software coupled with a particle-swarm approach, allowing optimised Pz26 material parameters to be found (i.e. stiffness, coupling and permittivity matrices). The optimised Pz26 parameters are then used in an axi-symmetric Comsol model to make predictions about the DAEF power transfer, which is then experimentally confirmed. With an apparent input power of 1 VA and 4.2 MHz drive frequency, the measured power transfer efficiency across a 1.6 mm Al plate is ~34%. The effect of various system parameters on power transfer is explored, including bondline thickness and plate thickness. DAEF data communication is modelled using LTspice with three-port one-dimensional piezoelectric models, indicating that data rates of 115 kBit/s are feasible.

  16. DETECTING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-02-20

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) are a feature imprinted in the galaxy distribution by acoustic waves traveling in the plasma of the early universe. Their detection at the expected scale in large-scale structures strongly supports current cosmological models with a nearly linear evolution from redshift z Almost-Equal-To 1000 and the existence of dark energy. In addition, BAOs provide a standard ruler for studying cosmic expansion. In this paper, we focus on methods for BAO detection using the correlation function measurement {xi}-hat. For each method, we want to understand the tested hypothesis (the hypothesis H{sub 0} to be rejected) and the underlying assumptions. We first present wavelet methods which are mildly model-dependent and mostly sensitive to the BAO feature. Then we turn to fully model-dependent methods. We present the method used most often based on the {chi}{sup 2} statistic, but we find that it has limitations. In general the assumptions of the {chi}{sup 2} method are not verified, and it only gives a rough estimate of the significance. The estimate can become very wrong when considering more realistic hypotheses, where the covariance matrix of {xi}-hat depends on cosmological parameters. Instead, we propose to use the {Delta}l method based on two modifications: we modify the procedure for computing the significance and make it rigorous, and we modify the statistic to obtain better results in the case of varying covariance matrix. We verify with simulations that correct significances are different from the ones obtained using the classical {chi}{sup 2} procedure. We also test a simple example of varying covariance matrix. In this case we find that our modified statistic outperforms the classical {chi}{sup 2} statistic when both significances are correctly computed. Finally, we find that taking into account variations of the covariance matrix can change both BAO detection levels and cosmological parameter constraints.

  17. System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

  18. Acoustic sensors using microstructures tunable with energy other than acoustic energy

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.

    2005-06-07

    A sensor for detecting acoustic energy includes a microstructure tuned to a predetermined acoustic frequency and a device for detecting movement of the microstructure. A display device is operatively linked to the movement detecting device. When acoustic energy strikes the acoustic sensor, acoustic energy having a predetermined frequency moves the microstructure, where the movement is detected by the movement detecting device.

  19. Acoustic sensors using microstructures tunable with energy other than acoustic energy

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.

    2003-11-25

    A sensor for detecting acoustic energy includes a microstructure tuned to a predetermined acoustic frequency and a device for detecting movement of the microstructure. A display device is operatively linked to the movement detecting device. When acoustic energy strikes the acoustic sensor, acoustic energy having a predetermined frequency moves the microstructure, where the movement is detected by the movement detecting device.

  20. Acoustic/Magnetic Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Namkung, M.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution sensor fast, portable, does not require permanent bonding to structure. Sensor measures nondestructively type (compressive or tensile) and magnitude of stresses and stress gradients present in class of materials. Includes precise high-resolution acoustic interferometer, sending acoustic transducer, receiving acoustic transducer, electromagnet coil and core, power supply, and magnetic-field-measuring device such as Hall probe. This measurement especially important for construction and applications where steel is widely used. Sensor useful especially for nondestructive evaluation of stress in steel members because of portability, rapid testing, and nonpermanent installation.