Science.gov

Sample records for acoustic noise generated

  1. Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by electron acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dubouloz, N.; Pottelette, R.; Malingre, M. ); Treumann, R.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) bursts whose amplitude sometimes reaches about 100 mV m{sup {minus}1} have been observed by the Viking satellite in the dayside auroral zone. These emissions have been shown to be greatly influenced by nonlinear effects and to occur simultaneously with the observation of particle distributions favouring the destabilization of the electron acoustic mode. It is shown that electron acoustic solitons passing by the satellite would generate spectra that can explain the high-frequency part of BEN, above the electron plasma frequency.

  2. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  3. Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generated by an Airbreathing, Beam-Powered Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, W. C.; Van Laak, P.; Scarton, H. A.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2005-04-01

    A simple acoustic model is developed for predicting the noise signature vs. power level for advanced laser-propelled lightcraft — capable of single-stage flights into low Earth orbit. This model predicts the noise levels generated by a pulsed detonation engine (PDE) during the initial lift-off and acceleration phase, for two representative `tractor-beam' lightcraft designs: a 1-place `Mercury' vehicle (2.5-m diameter, 900-kg); and a larger 5-place `Apollo' vehicle (5-m diameter, 5555-kg) — both the subject of an earlier study. The use of digital techniques to simulate the expected PDE noise signature is discussed, and three examples of fly-by noise signatures are presented. The reduction, or complete elimination of perceptible noise from such engines, can be accomplished by shifting the pulse frequency into the supra-audible or sub-audible range.

  4. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    PubMed

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (<15 min) acoustic exposure, but at extremes of use, may generate sufficient noise to warrant ear protection with prolonged (>8 h) exposure. PMID:24582370

  5. Estimates of acoustic noise generated by supply vessels working with oil-drilling platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenko, A. N.; Ushchipovskii, V. G.

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents results on spatial measurements of acoustic noise generated by two types of tugs during their movement near the Molikpaq platform and in a dynamic positioning mode during operation with the PA-B platform. Based on the results of these measurements with the aid of simulation and preliminary research of the loss function conducted on acoustic profiles spanning from the platforms to the nearshore Piltun gray whale summer—fall feeding area, the spectra of equivalent point sources are constructed, which make it possible to construct the 1/3-octave spectra of anthropogenic noise at any point of the western profile and estimate the value of their level in a given frequency band with an accuracy of up to 2 dB. Field measurements have shown that in the dynamic positioning mode, the tugs generate 10 dB more noise than during movement; in fact, a diesel electric tug in both modes produced approximately 5 dB less noise than a diesel tug.

  6. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  7. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    PubMed

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz. PMID:24116520

  8. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  9. NASA powered lift facility internally generated noise and its transmission to the acoustic far field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    Noise tests of NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility (PLF) were performed to determine the frequency content of the internally generated noise that reaches the far field. The sources of the internally generated noise are the burner, elbows, valves, and flow turbulence. Tests over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.2 to 3.5 using coherence analysis revealed that low frequency noise below 1200 Hz is transmitted through the nozzle. Broad banded peaks at 240 and 640 Hz were found in the transmitted noise. Aeroacoustic excitation effects are possible in this frequency range. The internal noise creates a noise floor that limits the amount of jet noise suppression that can be measured on the PLF and similar facilities.

  10. Acoustic noise generation by the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of measurements taken over the past year of the acoustic emissions from the DOE/NASA MOD-1 Wind Turbine show the maximum acoustic energy is concentrated in the low frequency range, often below 100 Hz. The temporal as well as the frequency characteristics of the turbine sounds have been shown to be important since the MOD-1 is capable of radiating both coherent and incoherent noise. The coherent sounds are usually impulsive and are manifested in an averaged frequency domain plot as large numbers of discrete energy bands extending from the blade passage frequency to beyond 50 Hz on occasion. It is these impulsive sounds which are identified as the principal source of the annoyance to a dozen families living within 3 km of the turbine. The source of the coherent noise appears to be the rapid, unsteady blade loads encountered as the blade passes through the wake of the tower structure. Annoying levels are occasionally reached at nearby homes due to the interaction of the low frequency, high energy peaks in the acoustic impulses and the structural modes of the homes as well as by direct radiation outdoors. The peak levels of these impulses can be enhanced or subdued through complete propagation.

  11. Program in acoustics. [aeroacoustics, aircraft noise, and noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Relevant research projects conducted by faculty and graduate students in the general area of aeroacoustics to further the understanding of noise generation by aircraft and to aid in the development of practical methods for noise suppression are listed. Special activities summarized relate to the nonlinear acoustic wave theory and its application to several cases including that of the acoustic source located at the throat of a near-sonic duct, a computer program developed to compute the nonlinear wave theory, and a parabolic approximation for propagation of sounding in moving stratified media.

  12. Cabin acoustical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Using a hand-held sound pressure level meter the crew made one octave band and A-weight sound level measurements at four locations in the Orbiter on Mission Day 1. The data were voice recorded and transmitted to the ground prior to the first inflight sleep period. The data obtained are summarized. From a physiological point of view the noise levels measured on STS-1 were not hazardous to the crewmens' hearing.

  13. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.; Kiang, Nelson Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 μPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager’s permanent magnet and the room air handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions. PMID:11051496

  14. Acoustical scale modeling of roadway traffic noise

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.S.

    1980-03-01

    During the planning and design of any federally assisted highway project, noise levels must be predicted for the highway in its operational mode. The use of an acoustical scale modeling technique to predict roadway traffic noise is described. Literature pertaining to acoustical scale modeling of outdoor noise propagation, particularly roadway noise, is reviewed. Field and laboratory measurements validated the predictions of the acoustical scale modeling technique. (1 photo)

  15. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  16. Acoustically swept rotor. [helicopter noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.; Vause, R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Impulsive noise reduction is provided in a rotor blade by acoustically sweeping the chord line from root to tip so that the acoustic radiation resulting from the summation of potential singularities used to model the flow about the blade tend to cancel for all times at an observation point in the acoustic far field.

  17. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  18. Loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James L; Pettersson, David; Palmisano, Sadie; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Edwards, Colin G; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Bergenheim, Tommy; Florentzson, Rut; Harder, Henrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Siesjö, Peter; Feychting, Maria

    2014-07-01

    The results from studies of loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma are conflicting. A population-based case-control study of 451 acoustic neuroma patients and 710 age-, sex-, and region-matched controls was conducted in Sweden between 2002 and 2007. Occupational exposure was based on historical measurements of occupational noise (321 job titles summarized by a job exposure matrix) and compared with self-reported occupational noise exposure. We also evaluated self-reported noise exposure during leisure activity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. There was no statistically significant association between acoustic neuroma and persistent occupational noise exposure, either with or without hearing protection. Exposure to loud noise from leisure activity without hearing protection was more common among acoustic neuroma cases (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.03). Statistically significant odds ratios were found for specific leisure activities including attending concerts/clubs/sporting events (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.04) and participating in workouts accompanied by loud music (odds ratio = 2.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 5.89). Our findings do not support an association between occupational exposure to loud noise and acoustic neuroma. Although we report statistically significant associations between leisure-time exposures to loud noise without hearing protection and acoustic neuroma, especially among women, we cannot rule out recall bias as an alternative explanation. PMID:24786799

  19. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction - Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity to the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from the community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Green's function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Green's function decreases with increasing source frequency and/or jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Green's function in the absence of the surface, and flight effects are also investigated

  20. Acoustic analysis of explosions in high noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2008-04-01

    Explosion detection and recognition is a critical capability to provide situational awareness to the war-fighters in battlefield. Acoustic sensors are frequently deployed to detect such events and to trigger more expensive sensing/sensor modalities (i.e. radar, laser spectroscope, IR etc.). Acoustic analysis of explosions has been intensively studied to reliably discriminate mortars, artillery, round variations, and type of blast (i.e. chemical/biological or high-explosive). One of the major challenges is high level of noise, which may include non-coherent noise generated from the environmental background and coherent noise induced by possible mobile acoustic sensor platform. In this work, we introduce a new acoustic scene analysis method to effectively enhance explosion classification reliability and reduce the false alarm rate at low SNR and with high coherent noise. The proposed method is based on acoustic signature modeling using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Special frequency domain acoustic features characterizing explosions as well as coherent noise are extracted from each signal segment, which forms an observation vector for HMM training and test. Classification is based on a unique model similarity measure between the HMM estimated from the test observations and the trained HMMs. Experimental tests are based on the acoustic explosion dataset from US ARMY ARDEC, and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Acoustic Noise in Belugas.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Korneva, Svetlana M; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Mukhametov, Lev M

    2016-01-01

    To date, most research on the adverse effects of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals has focused on auditory and behavioral responses. Other responses have received little attention and are often ignored. In this study, the effect of acoustic noise on heart rate was examined in captive belugas. The data suggest that (1) heart rate can be used as a measure of physiological response (including stress) to noise in belugas and other cetaceans, (2) cardiac response is influenced by parameters of noise and adaptation to repeated exposure, and (3) cetacean calves are more vulnerable to the adverse effect of noise than adults. PMID:26611017

  3. Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods for the prediction of jet noise are described. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy, whereas the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all of the approaches, some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation using a kappa-sigma turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach, but instead is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. In conclusion, a proposal is presented for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms, as is a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  4. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k-epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  5. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k - epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  6. Ancient noise generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio; Menchaca, Rolando; Velazquez, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    There has been found a whole family of similar artifacts which produce singing noises. These noises sometimes resemble those sounds generated by some animals and/or naturally produced by strong winds passing through holes and edges. It means that these sounds have wide frequency spectrums and very often some clear tones are identified. The original purpose of these artifacts is unknown, but some researchers think that some were used in mortuary ceremonies and employed by H-men. The Olmecan whistle previously presented belongs to this family, and now it is compared with a bone or wooden instrument shown in the Florentine codex.

  7. Considerations on the acoustic energy radiated by toothed gears. [model for calculating noise intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinceanu, N. G.; Kremmer, I.

    1974-01-01

    A mechano-acoustic model is reported for calculating acoustic energy radiated by a working gear. According to this model, a gear is an acoustic coublet formed of the two wheels. The wheel teeth generate cylindrical acoustic waves while the front surfaces of the teeth behave like vibrating pistons. Theoretical results are checked experimentally and good agreement is obtained with open gears. The experiments show that the air noise effect is negligible as compared with the structural noise transmitted to the gear box.

  8. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not

  9. Modeling and adaptive control of acoustic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Ravinder

    Active noise control is a problem that receives significant attention in many areas including aerospace and manufacturing. The advent of inexpensive high performance processors has made it possible to implement real-time control algorithms to effect active noise control. Both fixed-gain and adaptive methods may be used to design controllers for this problem. For fixed-gain methods, it is necessary to obtain a mathematical model of the system to design controllers. In addition, models help us gain phenomenological insights into the dynamics of the system. Models are also necessary to perform numerical simulations. However, models are often inadequate for the purpose of controller design because they involve parameters that are difficult to determine and also because there are always unmodeled effects. This fact motivates the use of adaptive algorithms for control since adaptive methods usually require significantly less model information than fixed-gain methods. The first part of this dissertation deals with derivation of a state space model of a one-dimensional acoustic duct. Two types of actuation, namely, a side-mounted speaker (interior control) and an end-mounted speaker (boundary control) are considered. The techniques used to derive the model of the acoustic duct are extended to the problem of fluid surface wave control. A state space model of small amplitude surfaces waves of a fluid in a rectangular container is derived and two types of control methods, namely, surface pressure control and map actuator based control are proposed and analyzed. The second part of this dissertation deals with the development of an adaptive disturbance rejection algorithm that is applied to the problem of active noise control. ARMARKOV models which have the same structure as predictor models are used for system representation. The algorithm requires knowledge of only one path of the system, from control to performance, and does not require a measurement of the disturbance nor

  10. Fluid dynamic aspects of jet noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The location of the noise sources within jet flows, their relative importance to the overall radiated field, and the mechanisms by which noise generation occurs, are studied by detailed measurements of the level and spectral composition of the radiated sound in the far field. Directional microphones are used to isolate the contribution to the radiated sound of small regions of the flow, and for cross-correlation between the radiated acoustic field and either the velocity fluctuations or the pressure fluctuations in the source field. Acquired data demonstrate the supersonic convection of the acoustic field and the resulting limited upstream influence of the signal source, as well as a possible increase of signal strength as it propagates toward the centerline of the flow.

  11. Analysis of Vibration and Acoustic Noise in Permanent Magnet Motors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sangmoon

    The drive motor is a frequent source of vibration and acoustic noise in many precision spindle motors. One of the electromagnetic sources of vibration in permanent magnet motors is the torque ripple, consisting of the reluctance torque and electromagnetic torque fluctuation. This type of vibration is becoming more serious with the advent of new high-grade magnets with increased flux density. Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin is difficult to predict and its exact mechanism is unclear. The mechanism of noise generation should be revealed to design a quieter motor which is the modern customer's demand. For motor operation at low speeds and loads, torque ripple due to the reluctance torque is often a source of vibration and control difficulty. The reluctance torque in a motor was calculated from the flux density by a finite element method and the Maxwell stress method. Effects of design parameters, such as stator slot width, permanent slot width, airgap length and magnetization direction, were investigated. Magnet pole shaping, by gradually decreasing the magnet thickness toward edges, yields a sinusoidal shape of the reluctance torque with reduced harmonics, thus reducing the vibration. This dissertation also presents two motor design techniques: stator tooth notching and rotor pole skewing with magnet pole shaping, and the effect of each method on the output torque. The analysis shows that the reluctance torque can be nearly eliminated by the suggested designs, with minimal sacrifice of the output torque. In permanent magnet DC motors, the most popular design type is the trapezoidal back electro-motive force (BEMF), for switched DC controllers. It is demonstrated that the output torque profile of one phase energized is qualitatively equivalent to the BEMF profile for motors with reduced reluctance torque. It implies that design of BEMF profile is possible by magnetic modeling of a motor, without expensive and time-consuming experiments for different designs

  12. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 2: Computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a package of computer programs developed to calculate the in duct acoustic mods excited by a fan/stator stage operating at subsonic tip speed is described. The following three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotor blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the velocity deficits in the mean wakes of the rotor blades. The computations for three different noise mechanisms are coded as three separate computer program packages. The computer codes are described by means of block diagrams, tables of data and variables, and example program executions; FORTRAN listings are included.

  13. Noise correction of turbulent spectra obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-02

    Accurately estimated auto-spectral density functions are essential for characterization of turbulent flows, and they also have applications in computational fluid dynamics modeling, site and inflow characterization for hydrokinetic turbines, and inflow turbulence generation. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) provides single-point temporally resolved data, that are used to characterize turbulent flows in rivers, seas, and oceans. However, ADV data are susceptible to contamination from various sources, including instrument noise, which is the intrinsic limit to the accuracy of acoustic velocity measurements. Due to the presence of instrument noise, the spectra obtained are altered at high frequencies. The focus of this study is to develop a robust and effective method for accurately estimating auto-spectral density functions from ADV data by reducing or removing the spectral contribution derived from instrument noise. For this purpose, the “Noise Auto-Correlation” (NAC) approach was developed, which exploits the correlation properties of instrument noise to identify and remove its contribution from spectra. The spectra estimated using the NAC approach exhibit increased fidelity and a slope of -5/3 in the inertial range, which is typically observed for turbulent flows. Finally, this study also compares the effectiveness of low-pass Gaussian filters in removing instrument noise with that of the NAC approach. For the data used in this study, both the NAC and Gaussian filter approaches are observed to be capable of removing instrument noise at higher frequencies from the spectra. However, the NAC results are closer to the expected frequency power of -5/3 in the inertial sub-range.

  14. Aircraft acoustics. I - Exterior noise of subsonic passenger aircraft and helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Problems related to the effect of the exterior noise produced by subsonic aircraft and helicopters on the environment and man are examined. The principal sources of noise produced by aircraft and helicopters are identified, and the physical pattern of noise generation is examined. Various method of reducing the noise of aircraft and helicopters are discussed, and methods are presented for predicting the acoustic environment at airports with allowance for the size of the aircraft park and the dynamics of flight operations.

  15. Identifying Potential Noise Sources within Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Victoria; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    We test a new algorithm for its ability to detect sources of noise within random background. The goal of these tests is to better understand how to identify sources within acoustic signals while simultaneously determining the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm in question. Unlike previously published algorithms, the antenna method does not pinpoint events by looking for the most energetic portions of a signal. The algorithm searches for the ideal lag combinations between three signals by taking excerpts of possible events. The excerpt with the lowest calculated minimum distance between possible events is how the algorithm identifies sources. At the minimum distance, the events are close in time and frequency. This method can be compared to the cross correlation and denoising methods to better understand its effectiveness. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL, as well as the Syracuse University MAE department.

  16. Multiple pure tone noise generation and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzakein, M. J.; Kazin, S. B.; Savell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The generation of multiple pure tones in supersonic fans is discussed. The theoretical results of Kurasaka are reviewed and compared with experimental data obtained on a 36-in. diameter, 1550 ft/sec, 1.6 pressure ratio fan. Detailed measurements on bow shock locations taken with pressure transducers indicate that blade to blade discrepancies are the source of MPT generation. The paper presents some experimental results on an attempt to reduce the shock strength, and subsequently the MPT's, through blade modifications. Other attempts at reducing the MPT's through wall treatment, high inlet flow Mach number, acoustically treated splitters - are discussed. Experimental data is presented on the validity of these noise reduction methods.

  17. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals.

    PubMed

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Samarra, Filipa I P; Beerens, S Peter; Miller, Patrick J O

    2016-08-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the tag reflects the speed of the animal, but hinders ambient noise measurement. Here, we describe a correlation-based method for stereo acoustic tags to separate the relative contributions of flow and ambient noise. The uncorrelated part of the noise measured in digital acoustic recording tag (DTAG) recordings related well to swim speed of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), thus providing a robust measure of flow noise over a wide frequency bandwidth. By removing measurements affected by flow noise, consistent ambient noise estimates were made for two killer whales (Orcinus orca) with DTAGs attached simultaneously. The method is applicable to any multi-channel acoustic tag, enabling application to a wide range of marine species. PMID:27229472

  18. Acoustic Investigation of Jet Mixing Noise in Dual Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Dahl, Milo D.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier study, a prediction model for jet noise in dual stream jets was proposed that is founded on velocity scaling laws in single stream jets and similarity features of the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy in dual stream flows. The model forms a composite spectrum from four component single-stream jets each believed to represent noise-generation from a distinct region in the actual flow. While the methodology worked effectively at conditions considered earlier, recent examination of acoustic data at some unconventional conditions indicate that further improvements are necessary in order to expand the range of applicability of the model. The present work demonstrates how these predictions compare with experimental data gathered by NASA and industry for the purpose of examining the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of such nozzles for a wide range of core and fan stream conditions. Of particular interest are jets with inverted velocity and temperature profiles and the appearance of a second spectral peak at small aft angles to the jet under such conditions. It is shown that a four-component spectrum succeeds in modeling the second peak when the aft angle refraction effects are properly incorporated into the model. A tradeoff of noise emission takes place between two turbulent regions identified as transition and fully mixed regions as the fan stream velocity exceeds that of the core stream. The effect of nozzle discharge coefficients will also be discussed.

  19. Acoustical measurement separates core noise and jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Measuring technique discriminates between jet noise and core noise of jet engine. Results of experimentation confirmed that core noise and jet noise can be separated by examining cross-correlation of far-field microphone signals and that crossover point between core noise and jet noise moves toward higher velocities at higher angles with respect to jet axis.

  20. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.

  1. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Greens function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Greens function decreases with increasing source frequency andor jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Greens function in the absence of the surface, and flight effect are also investigated.

  2. Noise Generation in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    A prediction method based on the generalized acoustic analogy is presented, and used to evaluate aerodynamic noise radiated from high speed hot jets. The set of Euler equations are split into their respective non-radiating and residual components. Under certain conditions, the residual equations are rearranged to form a wave equation. This equation consists of a third-order wave operator, plus a number of nonlinear terms that are identified with the equivalent sources of sound and their statistical characteristics are modeled. A specialized RANS solver provides the base flow as well as turbulence quantities and temperature fluctuations that determine the source strength. The main objective here is to evaluate the relative contribution from various source elements to the far-field spectra and to show the significance of temperature fluctuations as a source of aerodynamic noise in hot jets.

  3. Impulse noise generated by starter pistols

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Finan, Donald S.; Soendergaard, Jacob; Flamme, Gregory A.; Murphy, William J.; Lankford, James E.; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes signals generated by .22 and .32 caliber starter pistols in the context of noise-induced hearing loss risk for sports officials and athletes. Design Acoustic comparison of impulses generated from typical .22 and .32 caliber starter pistols firing blanks were made to impulses generated from comparable firearms firing both blanks and live rounds. Acoustic characteristics are described in terms of directionality and distance from the shooter in a simulated outdoor running track. Metrics include peak sound pressure levels (SPL), A-weighted equivalent 8-hour level (LeqA8), and maximum permissible number of individual shots, or maximum permissible exposures (MPE) for the unprotected ear. Results Starter pistols produce peak SPLs above 140 dB. The numbers of MPEs are as few as five for the .22-caliber starter pistol, and somewhat higher (≤25) for the .32-caliber pistol. Conclusion The impulsive sounds produced by starter pistols correspond to MPE numbers that are unacceptably small for unprotected officials and others in the immediate vicinity of the shooter. At the distances included in this study, the risk to athletes appears to be low (when referencing exposure criteria for adults), but the sound associated with the starter pistol will contribute to the athlete’s overall noise exposure. PMID:23373743

  4. Acoustic noise from volcanoes - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woulff, G.; Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses some theoretical aspects of acoustic investigation of volcanoes and describes a field experiment involving the recording, analysis, and interpretation of acoustic radiation from energetic fumaroles at Volcan Acatenango, Guatemala, during mid-January 1973. Particular attention is given to deriving information about the flow velocity of the erupting medium from acoustics as a means to study eruption dynamics. Theoretical considerations suggest that acoustic power radiated during gaseous volcanic eruptions may be related to gas exit velocity according to appropriate power laws. Eruption acoustics proves useful as a means of quantitative monitoring of volcanic activity.

  5. The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

  6. Acoustic and electromagnetic noise from lighting in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Charles A.; Lashin, Jonathan; Hodgson, Murray R.

    2005-04-01

    Following complaints by hard-of-hearing students using assistive-listening devices, and their teachers, the hum-like noise generated by fluorescent lighting was investigated in classrooms and the school library in a typical school. This hum is caused by vibrations in the core of the magnetic ballasts. Measurements were made in several rooms without students present. Noise levels increased between 7 and 15 dB when fixtures using magnetic ballasts were switched on. Spectral analysis showed the presence of 30, 60, 120, and 240 Hz components. In rooms where electronic ballasts were installed, there was no increase in noise level when the lights were switched on. Since hearing aids and assistive-listening devices worn by students may also be influenced by magnetic fields, these were also surveyed in these classrooms. The magnetic fields generated by the lights were not significant, but near some wiring and electrical panels the interference was strong. In rooms with electronic ballasts some infrared assistive-listening devices picked up strong high-frequency hum. It is recommended that the effect of lighting fixtures and the electrical-distribution system be taken into account in the acoustical and communication design of classrooms.

  7. Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

  8. Single stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 3: Acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Mishler, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec). The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise is accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. Predicted unsuppressed and suppressed fore and aft maximum perceived noise levels indicate that the cutback condition is the most critical with respect to the goal, which is probably unattainable for that condition. This is also true for aft radiated noise in the approach condition.

  9. Investigation of the acoustic parameters that influence traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Alejandro A.; Iasi, Federico M.

    2002-11-01

    Here, we analyze the behavior of the acoustic parameters Leq, L1, L10, L50, L90, L99, Lmin, and Lmax of vehicular noise, which were measured in controlled laboratory conditions, for various traffic noise simulations. For that, sound recordings were created of equal duration but different composition, based on real recordings of the passage of different types of vehicles (cars, motorbikes, trucks, and buses) and using pink noise as background noise. This study is based on the necessity of finding the most appropriate parameters for the characterization of the traffic noise in the cities. The study began with the test of a measurement methodology that uses the equivalent continuous sound level, the main acoustical parameter applied in the city of La Plata, Argentina. However, Leq was shown insufficient and inadequate in certain situations, especially those that didn't exhibit intense traffic noise, as found in certain residential areas. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  10. Modeling of Turbulence Generated Noise in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2004-01-01

    A numerically calculated Green's function is used to predict jet noise spectrum and its far-field directivity. A linearized form of Lilley's equation governs the non-causal Green s function of interest, with the non-linear terms on the right hand side identified as the source. In this paper, contributions from the so-called self- and shear-noise source terms will be discussed. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution yields the required mean flow as well as time- and length scales of a noise-generating turbulent eddy. A non-compact source, with exponential temporal and spatial functions, is used to describe the turbulence velocity correlation tensors. It is shown that while an exact non-causal Green's function accurately predicts the observed shift in the location of the spectrum peak with angle as well as the angularity of sound at moderate Mach numbers, at high subsonic and supersonic acoustic Mach numbers the polar directivity of radiated sound is not entirely captured by this Green's function. Results presented for Mach 0.5 and 0.9 isothermal jets, as well as a Mach 0.8 hot jet conclude that near the peak radiation angle a different source/Green's function convolution integral may be required in order to capture the peak observed directivity of jet noise.

  11. Environmental noise-a challenge for an acoustical engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    People live in a landscape full of noises which are composed of both natural environmental noises and technically created sounds. Regarding environmental noise, more and more people feel heavily annoyed by noises. Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence or an intentional sound listening or leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters such as the A-weighted sound pressure level or the equivalent continuous sound pressure level. The question of whether a sound is judged as noise can only be made after the transformation from the sound event into an auditory event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psycho-acoustical features of the human ear, as well as on the psychological aspects of man. For the acoustical design of environmental noise and in order to create a better soundscape the acoustical engineer has to consider these aspects. That means a specific challenge for the sound engineering.

  12. Acoustic Array Development for Wind Turbine Noise Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, S.; Roadman, J.; Moriarty, P.; Palo, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report discusses the design and use of a multi-arm, logarithmic spiral acoustic array by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for measurement and characterization of wind turbine-generated noise. The array was developed in collaboration with a team from the University of Colorado Boulder. This design process is a continuation of the elliptical array design work done by Simley. A description of the array system design process is presented, including array shape design, mechanical design, design of electronics and the data acquisition system, and development of post-processing software. System testing and calibration methods are detailed. Results from the initial data acquisition campaign are offered and discussed. Issues faced during this initial deployment of the array are presented and potential remedies discussed.

  13. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  14. Sediment-generated noise (SGN): Laboratory determination of measurement volume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive acoustic technology has the potential to allow continuous measurement of bedload moving through streams by recording Sediment-Generated Noise (SGN) from interactions between coarse bedload particles. The technology is relatively economical and is amenable to automated operation. While the ...

  15. Fdtd Calculation of Linear Acoustic Phenomena and Its Application to Architectural Acoustics and Environmental Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, S.

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is widely used as an effective and powerful tool for analyzing acoustic problems. In architectural acoustics, impulse response is the most important quantity and therefore the FDTD method, by which the physical quantities are obtained in time domain, is more advantageous than other wave-based analysis methods, by many of which the calculation is performed in frequency domain. This paper reports application of the FDTD method to room acoustics and outdoor noise assessment.

  16. Publications in acoustic and noise control from NASA Langley Research Center during 1940-1979. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, B. A. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Reference lists of approximately 900 published Langley Research Center reports in various areas of acoustics and noise control for the period 1940-1979 are presented. Specific topic areas covered include: duct acoustics; propagation and operations; rotating blade noise; jet noise; sonic boom; flow surface interaction noise; structural response/interior noise; human response; and noise prediction.

  17. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  18. Acoustic Communication in Fishes and Potential Effects of Noise.

    PubMed

    Mann, David A

    2016-01-01

    Many soniferous fishes such as cods and groupers are commercially important. Sounds are produced during courtship and spawning, and there is the potential for aquatic noise to interfere with critical behaviors and affect populations. There are few data on the response of wild populations of sound-producing fishes to acoustic noise. New motion and sound exposure fish tags could be used to assess the behavioral responses of large numbers of fish to noise exposure. Many factors, such as fishing mortality and environmental variability in prey supply, could also affect populations and potentially interact with the behavioral responses to noise. PMID:26611018

  19. The electrical properties of a planar coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer and their implications for noise performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seher, Matthias; Challis, Richard

    2016-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the electrical properties of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) formed of a flat spiral coil coupled to steel sheet components and operating over a narrow band of frequencies around 50 kHz, well below significant resonances. The electromagnetic skin effect is a significant contributor to the terminal impedance of the EMAT and hence to signal sensitivity, Johnson noise generation and the achievable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). A transformer model is developed to simulate these effects and to assist in the optimization of the SNR. In this analysis Johnson noise in the system is compared to the unknown emf generated in the eddy current path by an incident acoustic wave to yield a fundamental SNR. The attainable SNR of the whole system is normalized to this in the form of a noise figure.

  20. Method and apparatus for generating acoustic energy

    DOEpatents

    Guerrero, Hector N.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating and emitting amplified coherent acoustic energy. A cylindrical transducer is mounted within a housing, the transducer having an acoustically open end and an acoustically closed end. The interior of the transducer is filled with an active medium which may include scattering nuclei. Excitation of the transducer produces radially directed acoustic energy in the active medium, which is converted by the dimensions of the transducer, the acoustically closed end thereof, and the scattering nuclei, to amplified coherent acoustic energy directed longitudinally within the transducer. The energy is emitted through the acoustically open end of the transducer. The emitted energy can be used for, among other things, effecting a chemical reaction or removing scale from the interior walls of containment vessels.

  1. The Acoustic Analogy and the Prediction of the Noise of Rotating Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    The acoustic analogy was introduced into acoustics by Lighthill in 1952 to understand and predict the noise generated by the jet of an aircraft turbojet engine. The idea behind the acoustic analogy is simple but powerful. The entire noise generation process is mathematically reduced to the study of wave propagation in a quiescent medium with the effect of flow replaced by quadrupole sources. In jet noise theory, Lighthill was able to obtain significant and useful qualitative results from the acoustic analogy. The acoustic analogy has influenced the theoretical and experimental research on jet noise since the early 1950s. This paper, however, focuses on another area in which the acoustic analogy has had a significant impact, namely, the prediction of the noise of rotating machinery. The governing equation for this problem was derived by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings in 1969. This equation is a wave equation for perturbation density with three source terms, which have become known as thickness, loading, and the quadrupole source terms, respectively. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been used for the successful prediction of the noise of helicopter rotors, propellers, and fans. Several reasons account for the success and popularity of the acoustic analogy. First, the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics are separated. Second, because the FW-H equation is linear, powerful analytical methods from linear operator theory can be used to obtain closed-form solutions. Third, advances in digital computers and computational fluid dynamics algorithms have resulted in high-resolution near-field aerodynamic calculations that are suitable for noise prediction. We present some of the mathematical results for noise prediction based on the FW-H equation, including examples for helicopter rotors. In particular, we discuss the prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise and high-speed impulsive noise of helicopter rotors. For high-speed propellers, we briefly discuss

  2. Beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) passive acoustic detection in increasing ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica; Jarvis, Susan; Moretti, David; Morrissey, Ronald; Dimarzio, Nancy; Johnson, Mark; Tyack, Peter; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago

    2011-02-01

    Passive acoustic detection is being increasingly used to monitor visually cryptic cetaceans such as Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) that may be especially sensitive to underwater sound. The efficacy of passive acoustic detection is traditionally characterized by the probability of detecting the animal's sound emissions as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. The probability of detection can be predicted using accepted, but not necessarily accurate, models of the underwater acoustic environment. Recent field studies combining far-field hydrophone arrays with on-animal acoustic recording tags have yielded the location and time of each sound emission from tagged animals, enabling in-situ measurements of the probability of detection. However, tagging studies can only take place in calm seas and so do not reflect the full range of ambient noise conditions under which passive acoustic detection may be used. Increased surface-generated noise from wind and wave interaction degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of animal sound receptions at a given distance leading to a reduction in probability of detection. This paper presents a case study simulating the effect of increasing ambient noise on detection of M. densirostris foraging clicks recorded from a tagged whale swimming in the vicinity of a deep-water, bottom-mounted hydrophone array. PMID:21361425

  3. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  4. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the Viryd CS8 is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  5. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine in Boulder, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and utilized binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  6. The uses and abuses of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of noise by helicopter rotor blades is considered theoretically, reviewing recent analyses based on the acoustic analogy (where the effect of fluid motion is replaced by fictitious sources in an undisturbed fluid). The fundamental principles of the acoustic approach are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the governing Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equations are written with a reformulated quadrupole term; and the directivity of noise produced (1) by regions with steep gradients (such as shock surfaces) and (2) by boundary-layer quadrupoles (tip-vortex and blade wakes) is shown to be the same as that of thickness noise. The need to include both (1) and (2) in acoustic-analogy computations is indicated.

  7. Acoustics, Noise, and Buildings. Revised Edition 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, P. H.; Humphreys, H. R.

    The fundamental physical concepts needed in any appreciation of acoustical problems are discussed by a scientist and an architect. The major areas of interest are--(1) the nature of sound, (2) the behavior of sound in rooms, (3) the design of rooms for speech, (4) the design of rooms for music, (5) the design of studios, (6) the design of high…

  8. Aeroacoustic Analysis of Turbofan Noise Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.; Envia, Edmane

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an updated version of analytical documentation for the V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It presents the theoretical derivation of the equations used in the code and, where necessary, it documents the enhancements and changes made to the original code since its first release. V072 is a package of FORTRAN computer programs which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stage operating in a subsonic mean flow. Sound is generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean wakes of the rotor blades. In this updated version, only the tonal noise produced at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, is described. The broadband noise component analysis, which was part of the original report, is not included here. The code provides outputs of modal pressure and power amplitudes generated by the rotor-wake/stator interaction. The rotor/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. The amplitude of each propagating mode is computed and summed to obtain the harmonics of sound power flux within the duct for both upstream and downstream propagating modes.

  9. Perceptual Learning of Acoustic Noise by Individuals with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agus, Trevor R.; Carrión-Castillo, Amaia; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Ramus, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A phonological deficit is thought to affect most individuals with developmental dyslexia. The present study addresses whether the phonological deficit is caused by difficulties with perceptual learning of fine acoustic details. Method: A demanding test of nonverbal auditory memory, "noise learning," was administered to both…

  10. Development of an acoustic actuator for launch vehicle noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Benjamin K; Lane, Steven A; Gussy, Joel; Griffin, Steve; Farinholt, Kevin M

    2002-01-01

    In many active noise control applications, it is necessary that acoustic actuators be mounted in small enclosures due to volume constraints and in order to remain unobtrusive. However, the air spring of the enclosure is detrimental to the low-frequency performance of the actuator. For launch vehicle noise control applications, mass and volume constraints are very limiting, but the low-frequency performance of the actuator is critical. This work presents a novel approach that uses a nonlinear buckling suspension system and partial evacuation of the air within the enclosure to yield a compact, sealed acoustic driver that exhibits a very low natural frequency. Linear models of the device are presented and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the advantages of this design concept. An experimental prototype was built and measurements indicate that this design can significantly improve the low-frequency response of compact acoustic actuators. PMID:11831792

  11. An Application of the Acoustic Similarity Law to the Numerical Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wan-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo; Rhee, Huinam

    Centrifugal fans, which are frequently used in our daily lives and various industries, usually make severe noise problems. Generally, the centrifugal fan noise consists of tones at the blade passing frequency and its higher harmonics. These tonal sounds come from the interaction between the flow discharged from the impeller and the cutoff in the casing. Prediction of the noise from a centrifugal fan becomes more necessary to optimize the design to meet both the performance and noise criteria. However, only some limited studies on noise prediction method exist because there are difficulties in obtaining detailed information about the flow field and casing effect on noise radiation. This paper aims to investigate the noise generation mechanism of a centrifugal fan and to develop a prediction method for the unsteady flow and acoustic pressure fields. In order to do this, a numerical analysis method using acoustic similarity law is proposed, and it is verified that the method can predict the noise generation mechanism very well by comparing the predicted results with available experimental results.

  12. Field-Deployable Acoustic Digital Systems for Noise Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Wright, Kenneth D.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Smith, Charlie D.

    2000-01-01

    Langley Research Center (LaRC) has for years been a leader in field acoustic array measurement technique. Two field-deployable digital measurement systems have been developed to support acoustic research programs at LaRC. For several years, LaRC has used the Digital Acoustic Measurement System (DAMS) for measuring the acoustic noise levels from rotorcraft and tiltrotor aircraft. Recently, a second system called Remote Acquisition and Storage System (RASS) was developed and deployed for the first time in the field along with DAMS system for the Community Noise Flight Test using the NASA LaRC-757 aircraft during April, 2000. The test was performed at Airborne Airport in Wilmington, OH to validate predicted noise reduction benefits from alternative operational procedures. The test matrix was composed of various combinations of altitude, cutback power, and aircraft weight. The DAMS digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone site and can be located up to 2000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 10 microphones is recorded on a Jaz disk and is analyzed post-test by microcomputer system. The RASS digitizes and stores acoustic inputs at the microphone site that can be located up to three miles from the base station and can compose a 3 mile by 3 mile array of microphones. 16-bit digitized data from the microphones is stored on removable Jaz disk and is transferred through a high speed array to a very large high speed permanent storage device. Up to 30 microphones can be utilized in the array. System control and monitoring is accomplished via Radio Frequency (RF) link. This paper will present a detailed description of both systems, along with acoustic data analysis from both systems.

  13. Airframe noise measurements by acoustic imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the noise produced by flow past wind tunnel models are presented. The central objective of these is to find the specific locations within a flow which are noisy, and to identify the fluid dynamic processes responsible, with the expectation that noise reduction principles will be discovered. The models tested are mostly simple shapes which result in types of flow that are similar to those occurring on, for example, aircraft landing gear and wheel cavities. A model landing gear and a flap were also tested. Turbulence has been intentionally induced as appropriate in order to simulate full-scale effects more closely. The principal technique involves use of a highly directional microphone system which is scanned about the flow field to be analyzed. The data so acquired are presented as a pictorial image of the noise source distribution. An important finding is that the noise production is highly variable within a flow field and that sources can be attributed to various fluid dynamic features of the flow. Flow separation was not noisy, but separation closure usually was.

  14. Near-field acoustical holography of military jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Alan T.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne; Krueger, David W.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; James, Michael M.

    2010-10-01

    Noise radiated from high-performance military jet aircraft poses a hearing-loss risk to personnel. Accurate characterization of jet noise can assist in noise prediction and noise reduction techniques. In this work, sound pressure measurements were made in the near field of an F-22 Raptor. With more than 6000 measurement points, this is the most extensive near-field measurement of a high-performance jet to date. A technique called near-field acoustical holography has been used to propagate the complex pressure from a two- dimensional plane to a three-dimensional region in the jet vicinity. Results will be shown and what they reveal about jet noise characteristics will be discussed.

  15. Oceanic ambient noise as a background to acoustic neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurahashi, Naoko; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-11-01

    Ambient noise measured in the deep ocean is studied in the context of a search for signals from ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray neutrinos. The spectral shape of the noise at the relevant high frequencies is found to be very stable for an extensive data set collected over several months from 49 hydrophones mounted near the bottom of the ocean at {approx}1600 m depth. The slopes of the ambient noise spectra above 15 kHz are found to roll off faster than the -6 dB/octave seen in Knudsen spectra. A model attributing the source to a uniform distribution of surface noise that includes frequency-dependent absorption at large depth is found to fit the data well up to 25 kHz. This depth-dependent model should therefore be used in analysis methods of acoustic neutrino pulse detection that require the expected noise spectra.

  16. Noise control using a plate radiator and an acoustic resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control subassembly for reducing noise caused by a source (such as an aircraft engine) independent of the subassembly. A noise radiating panel is bendably vibratable to generate a panel noise canceling at least a portion of the source noise. A piezoceramic actuator plate is connected to the panel. A front plate is spaced apart from the panel and the first plate, is positioned generally between the source noise and the panel, and has a sound exit port. A first pair of spaced-apart side walls each generally abut the panel and the front plate so as to generally enclose a front cavity to define a resonator.

  17. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  18. Determination of acoustic attenuation in the Hudson River Estuary by means of ship noise observations.

    PubMed

    Roh, Heui-Seol; Sutin, Alexander; Bunin, Barry

    2008-06-01

    Analysis of sound propagation in a complex urban estuary has application to underwater threat detection systems, underwater communication, and acoustic tomography. One of the most important acoustic parameters, sound attenuation, was analyzed in the Hudson River near Manhattan using measurements of acoustic noise generated by passing ships and recorded by a fixed hydrophone. Analysis of the ship noise level for varying distances allowed estimation of the sound attenuation in the frequency band of 10-80 kHz. The effective attenuation coefficient representing the attenuation loss above cylindrical spreading loss had only slight frequency dependence and can be estimated by the frequency independent value of 0.058 dBm. PMID:18537300

  19. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  20. Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Stringas, E. J.; Brausch, J. F.; Staid, P. S.; Heck, P. H.; Latham, D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a static acoustic and aerodynamic performance, model-scale test program on coannular unsuppressed and multielement fan suppressed nozzle configurations are summarized. The results of the static acoustic tests show a very beneficial interaction effect. When the measured noise levels were compared with the predicted noise levels of two independent but equivalent conical nozzle flow streams, noise reductions for the unsuppressed coannular nozzles were of the order of 10 PNdB; high levels of suppression (8 PNdB) were still maintained even when only a small amount of core stream flow was used. The multielement fan suppressed coannular nozzle tests showed 15 PNdB noise reductions and up to 18 PNdB noise reductions when a treated ejector was added. The static aerodynamic performance tests showed that the unsuppressed coannular plug nozzles obtained gross thrust coefficients of 0.972, with 1.2 to 1.7 percent lower levels for the multielement fan-suppressed coannular flow nozzles. For the first time anywhere, laser velocimeter velocity profile measurements were made on these types of nozzle configurations and with supersonic heated flow conditions. Measurements showed that a very rapid decay in the mean velocity occurs for the nozzle tested.

  1. Acoustic noise improves visual perception and modulates occipital oscillatory states.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Perception is a multisensory process, and previous work has shown that multisensory interactions occur not only for object-related stimuli but also for simplistic and apparently unrelated inputs to the different senses. We here compare the facilitation of visual perception induced by transient (target-synchronized) sounds to the facilitation provided by continuous background noise like sounds. Specifically, we show that continuous acoustic noise improves visual contrast detection by systematically shifting psychometric curves in an amplitude-dependent manner. This multisensory benefit was found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that induced by a transient and target synchronized sound in the same paradigm. Studying the underlying neural mechanisms using electric neuroimaging (EEG), we found that acoustic noise alters occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) power and decreases beta-band (14-20 Hz) coupling of occipital and temporal sites. Task-irrelevant and continuous sounds thereby have an amplitude-dependent effect on cortical mechanisms implicated in shaping visual cortical excitability. The same oscillatory mechanisms also mediate visual facilitation by transient sounds, and our results suggest that task-related sounds and task-irrelevant background noises could induce perceptually and mechanistically similar enhancement of visual perception. Given the omnipresence of sounds and noises in our environment, such multisensory interactions may affect perception in many everyday scenarios. PMID:24236698

  2. Subwavelength acoustic metamaterial panels for underwater noise isolation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Ashley J; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2015-09-01

    Acoustically thin metamaterial underwater noise isolation panels have been developed that provide as much as 16 dB of noise isolation for a panel with a thickness just 160th of the wavelength in the host medium (fresh water) at 2.5 kHz. The panels are composed of thin layers of neoprene rubber and polyoxymethylene containing air-filled voids. The level of isolation provided by the panels is shown to correlate positively with the volume fraction of air voids within the panel. PMID:26428822

  3. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  4. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  5. Minimizing vehicle noise and weight using panel acoustic contribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    1998-05-01

    Panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is an advanced engineering tool to improve noise, vibration, and harshness quality and minimize weight of vehicles. It is a technique to categorize areas of vehicle body panels as positive (sound level increases as vibration amplitude increases), negative or neutral according to their contribution to the total sound. PACA is a hybrid of computer aided engineering and experimental methods. Computer aided holometry, scanning laser velocimetry, or an accelerometer net is used to experimentally measure structure vibration complex velocities. These velocities are the boundary conditions for a boundary element model of the acoustic cavity. Boundary element analysis is then used to predict the vehicle interior sound and calculate panel acoustic contributions. Experimental results for a welded steel box (validation) and vehicle application are presented.

  6. Acoustical Testing Laboratory Developed to Support the Low-Noise Design of Microgravity Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has designed and constructed an Acoustical Testing Laboratory to support the low-noise design of microgravity space flight hardware. This new laboratory will provide acoustic emissions testing and noise control services for a variety of customers, particularly for microgravity space flight hardware that must meet International Space Station limits on noise emissions. These limits have been imposed by the space station to support hearing conservation, speech communication, and safety goals as well as to prevent noise-induced vibrations that could impact microgravity research data. The Acoustical Testing Laboratory consists of a 23 by 27 by 20 ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive 34-in. fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These criteria, along with very low design background levels, will enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles, up to a full space station rack in size, that produce very little noise. Removable floor wedges will allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi/anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations but, alternatively, may be used as a noise-control enclosure for test articles that require the operation of noise-generating test support equipment.

  7. An Overview of Virtual Acoustic Simulation of Aircraft Flyover Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Methods for testing human subject response to aircraft flyover noise have greatly advanced in recent years as a result of advances in simulation technology. Capabilities have been developed which now allow subjects to be immersed both visually and aurally in a three-dimensional, virtual environment. While suitable for displaying recorded aircraft noise, the true potential is found when synthesizing aircraft flyover noise because it allows the flexibility and freedom to study sounds from aircraft not yet flown. A virtual acoustic simulation method is described which is built upon prediction-based source noise synthesis, engineering-based propagation modeling, and empirically-based receiver modeling. This source-path-receiver paradigm allows complete control over all aspects of flyover auralization. With this capability, it is now possible to assess human response to flyover noise by systematically evaluating source noise reductions within the context of a system level simulation. Examples of auralized flyover noise and movie clips representative of an immersive aircraft flyover environment are made in the presentation.

  8. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  9. Study of thermal and acoustic noise interferences in low stiffness atomic force microscope cantilevers and characterization of their dynamic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Boudaoud, Mokrane; Haddab, Yassine; Le Gorrec, Yann; Lutz, Philippe

    2012-01-15

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for the measurement of forces at the micro/nano scale when calibrated cantilevers are used. Besides many existing calibration techniques, the thermal calibration is one of the simplest and fastest methods for the dynamic characterization of an AFM cantilever. This method is efficient provided that the Brownian motion (thermal noise) is the most important source of excitation during the calibration process. Otherwise, the value of spring constant is underestimated. This paper investigates noise interference ranges in low stiffness AFM cantilevers taking into account thermal fluctuations and acoustic pressures as two main sources of noise. As a result, a preliminary knowledge about the conditions in which thermal fluctuations and acoustic pressures have closely the same effect on the AFM cantilever (noise interference) is provided with both theoretical and experimental arguments. Consequently, beyond the noise interference range, commercial low stiffness AFM cantilevers are calibrated in two ways: using the thermal noise (in a wide temperature range) and acoustic pressures generated by a loudspeaker. We then demonstrate that acoustic noises can also be used for an efficient characterization and calibration of low stiffness AFM cantilevers. The accuracy of the acoustic characterization is evaluated by comparison with results from the thermal calibration.

  10. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  11. Structure borne noise analysis using Helmholtz equation least squares based forced vibro acoustic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    This dissertation presents a structure-borne noise analysis technology that is focused on providing a cost-effective noise reduction strategy. Structure-borne sound is generated or transmitted through structural vibration; however, only a small portion of the vibration can effectively produce sound and radiate it to the far-field. Therefore, cost-effective noise reduction is reliant on identifying and suppressing the critical vibration components that are directly responsible for an undesired sound. However, current technologies cannot successfully identify these critical vibration components from the point of view of direct contribution to sound radiation and hence cannot guarantee the best cost-effective noise reduction. The technology developed here provides a strategy towards identifying the critical vibration components and methodically suppressing them to achieve a cost-effective noise reduction. The core of this technology is Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography method. In this study, the HELS formulations derived in spherical co-ordinates using spherical wave expansion functions utilize the input data of acoustic pressures measured in the nearfield of a vibrating object to reconstruct the vibro-acoustic responses on the source surface and acoustic quantities in the far field. Using these formulations, three steps were taken to achieve the goal. First, hybrid regularization techniques were developed to improve the reconstruction accuracy of normal surface velocity of the original HELS method. Second, correlations between the surface vibro-acoustic responses and acoustic radiation were factorized using singular value decomposition to obtain orthogonal basis known here as the forced vibro-acoustic components (F-VACs). The F-VACs enables one to identify the critical vibration components for sound radiation in a similar manner that modal decomposition identifies the critical natural modes in a structural vibration. Finally

  12. Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Kamil

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.

  13. Propagation of high frequency jet noise using geometric acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, A.; Krejsa, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Spherical directivity of noise radiated from a convecting quadrupole source embedded in an arbitrary spreading jet is obtained by ray-tracing methods of geometrical acoustics. The six propagation equations are solved in their general form in a rectangular coordinate system. The noise directivity in the far field is calculated by applying an iteration scheme that finds the required radiation angles at the source resulting in propagation through a given observer point. Factors influencing the zone of silence are investigated. The caustics of geometrical acoustics and the exact locations where it forms is demonstrated by studying the variation in ray tube area obtained from transport equation. For a ring source convecting along the center-axis of an axisymmetric jet, the polar directivity of the radiated noise is obtained by an integration with respect to azimuthal directivity of compact quadrupole sources distributed on the ring. The Doppler factor is shown to vary slightly from point to point on the ring. Finally the scaling of the directivity pattern with power -3 of Doppler factor is investigated and compared with experimental data.

  14. Development of a Transient Acoustic Boundary Element Method to Predict the Noise Signature of Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Animals have evolved flexible wings and fins to efficiently and quietly propel themselves through the air and water. The design of quiet and efficient bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates three essential features: the fluid mechanics, the elastic structural response, and the noise generation. This study focuses on the development, validation, and demonstration of a transient, two-dimensional acoustic boundary element solver accelerated by a fast multipole algorithm. The resulting acoustic solver is used to characterize the acoustic signature produced by a vortex street advecting over a NACA 0012 airfoil, which is representative of vortex-body interactions that occur in schools of swimming fish. Both 2S and 2P canonical vortex streets generated by fish are investigated over the range of Strouhal number 0 . 2 < St < 0 . 4 , and the acoustic signature of the airfoil is quantified. This study provides the first estimate of the noise signature of a school of swimming fish. Lehigh University CORE Grant.

  15. Robust Distributed Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids with External Acoustic Sensor Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Alexander; Moonen, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The benefit of using external acoustic sensor nodes for noise reduction in hearing aids is demonstrated in a simulated acoustic scenario with multiple sound sources. A distributed adaptive node-specific signal estimation (DANSE) algorithm, that has a reduced communication bandwidth and computational load, is evaluated. Batch-mode simulations compare the noise reduction performance of a centralized multi-channel Wiener filter (MWF) with DANSE. In the simulated scenario, DANSE is observed not to be able to achieve the same performance as its centralized MWF equivalent, although in theory both should generate the same set of filters. A modification to DANSE is proposed to increase its robustness, yielding smaller discrepancy between the performance of DANSE and the centralized MWF. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters such as the DFT size used for frequency domain processing and possible delays in the communication link between nodes is investigated.

  16. Sound Generation in the Presence of Moving Surfaces with Application to Internally Generated Aircraft Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Envia, E.

    2002-01-01

    In many cases of technological interest solid boundaries play a direct role in the aerodynamic sound generation process and their presence often results in a large increase in the acoustic radiation. A generalized treatment of the emission of sound from moving boundaries is presented. The approach is similar to that of Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (1969) but the effect of the surrounding mean flow is explicitly accounted for. The results are used to develop a rational framework for the prediction of internally generated aero-engine noise. The final formulas suggest some new noise sources that may be of practical significance.

  17. Effects of long-chord acoustically treated stator vanes on fan noise. 2: Effect of acoustical treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Scott, J. N.; Leonard, B. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    A set of long chord stator vanes was designed to replace the vanes in an existing fan stage. The long chord stator vanes consisted of a turning section and axial extension pieces, all of which incorporated acoustic damping material. The long chord stator vanes were tested in two lengths, with the long version giving more noise reduction than the short, primarily because of the additional lining material. The noise reduction achieved with the acoustically treated long chord stator vanes was compared with the reduction achieved by an acoustically treated exhaust splitter. The long chord stator was at least as good as the splitter as a method for incorporating acoustic lining material. In addition, comparing an acoustic three ring inlet and an acoustic wall-only inlet discloses that the wall-only inlet could be used in an engine where the noise reduction requirements are not too stringent.

  18. Noise generated by flow through large butterfly valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1987-01-01

    A large butterfly valve (1.37 m diam) was acoustically tested to measure the noise generated and propagating in both the upstream and downstream directions. The experimental investigation used wall mounted pressure transducers to measure the fluctuating component of the pipe static pressure upstream and downstream of the valve. Microphones upstream of the pipe inlet and located in a plenum were used to measure the noise radiated from the valve in the upstream direction. Comparison of the wall pressure downstream of the valve to a prediction were made. Reasonable agreement was obtained with the valve operating at a choked condition. The noise upstream of the valve is 30 dB less than that measured downstream.

  19. Modulation of Radio Frequency Signals by Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Spencer Joseph

    Acousto-electromagnetic scattering is a process in which an acoustic excitation is utilized to induce modulation on an electromagnetic (EM) wave. This phenomenon can be exploited in remote sensing and detection schemes whereby target objects are mechanically excited by high powered acoustic waves resulting in unique object characterizations when interrogated with EM signals. Implementation of acousto-EM sensing schemes, however, are limited by a lack of fundamental understanding of the nonlinear interaction between acoustic and EM waves and inefficient simulation methods in the determination of the radiation patterns of higher order scattered acoustic fields. To address the insufficient simulation issue, a computationally efficient mathematical model describing higher order scattered sound fields, particularly of third-order in which a 40x increase in computation speed is achieved, is derived using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) expansion that expresses the sound field of any arbitrary axially symmetric beam as a series of Gaussian base functions. The third-order intermodulation (IM3) frequency components are produced by considering the cascaded nonlinear second-order effects when analyzing the interaction between the first- and second-order frequency components during the nonlinear scattering of sound by sound from two noncollinear ultrasonic baffled piston sources. The theory is extended to the modeling of the sound beams generated by parametric transducer arrays, showing that the MGB model can be efficiently used to calculate both the second- and third-order sound fields of the array. Additionally, a near-to-far-field (NTFF) transformation method is developed to model the far-field characteristics of scattered sound fields, extending Kirchhoff's theorem, typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in the near-field by including the higher order sound fields generated by the

  20. A multi-band spectral subtraction-based algorithm for real-time noise cancellation applied to gunshot acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, António L. L.; Holm, Sverre; Gudvangen, Sigmund; Otterlei, Ragnvald

    2013-06-01

    Acoustical sniper positioning is based on the detection and direction-of-arrival estimation of the shockwave and the muzzle blast acoustical signals. In real-life situations, the detection and direction-of-arrival estimation processes is usually performed under the influence of background noise sources, e.g., vehicles noise, and might result in non-negligible inaccuracies than can affect the system performance and reliability negatively, specially when detecting the muzzle sound under long range distance and absorbing terrains. This paper introduces a multi-band spectral subtraction based algorithm for real-time noise reduction, applied to gunshot acoustical signals. The ballistic shockwave and the muzzle blast signals exhibit distinct frequency contents that are affected differently by additive noise. In most real situations, the noise component is colored and a multi-band spectral subtraction approach for noise reduction contributes to reducing the presence of artifacts in denoised signals. The proposed algorithm is tested using a dataset generated by combining signals from real gunshots and real vehicle noise. The noise component was generated using a steel tracked military tank running on asphalt and includes, therefore, the sound from the vehicle engine, which varies slightly in frequency over time according to the engine's rpm, and the sound from the steel tracks as the vehicle moves.

  1. Acoustic confort at home: Noise emitted by house installations. Recommendations in order to avoid such noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Santiago

    2002-11-01

    The present survey consists of the analysis and the study of the solutions used at present in the installations of water supply and elevators. It has been carried out from the acoustic point of view. In order to achieve a thorough study a pilot plant was built in the Laboratory of Acoustics of the School of Industrial Engineering of Terrassa. This pilot plant reproduced different kinds of installations of the water supply in houses. And it has allowed us to systematize the measures and also to determine the optimum solutions from the acoustic perspective. In accordance with the objectives and the process of the survey, the solutions regularly employed in the facilities of water supply and elevators in houses have been analyzed, and levels of noise associated to these facilities have been also presented. A summary of the results obtained in the plant has been included, according to diverse variables. Both the conclusions of the analysis of the data obtained in the laboratory and those of the installations of the houses have been also compared, which has allowed us to describe a series of suggestions with the purpose of reducing the acoustic emission of this type of installations, and increase the acoustic comfort at home. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  2. Publications in acoustics and noise control from the NASA Langley Research Center during 1940-1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, B. A. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Reference lists are presented of published research papers in various areas of acoustics and noise control for the period 1940-1976. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Duct acoustics; (2) propagation and operations; (3) rotating blade noise; (4) jet noise; (5) sonic boom; (6) flow-surface interaction noise; (7) human response; (8) structural response; (9) prediction; and (10) miscellaneous.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Target Range Estimation Using Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuyoshi Mori,; Hanako Ogasawara,; Toshiaki Nakamura,; Takenobu Tsuchiya,; Nobuyuki Endoh,

    2010-07-01

    In ambient noise imaging (ANI), each pixel of a target image is mapped by either monochrome or pseudo color to represent its acoustic intensity in each direction. This intensity is obtained by measuring the target object’s reflecting or scattering wave, with ocean background noise serving as the sound source. In the case of using an acoustic lens, the ANI system creates a C-mode-like image, where receivers are arranged on a focal plane and each pixel’s color corresponds to the intensity of each receiver output. There is no consideration for estimating a target range by this method, because it is impossible to measure the traveling time between a transducer and a target by a method like an active imaging sonar. In this study, we tried to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens. Here, we conducted a numerical simulation of sound propagation based on the principle of the time reversal mirror. First, instead of actual ocean measurements in the forward propagation, we calculated the scattering wave from a rigid target object in an acoustic noise field generated by a large number of point sources using the two-dimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The time series of the scattering wave converged by the lens was then recorded on each receiver. The sound pressure distribution assuming that the time-reversed wave of the scattering wave was reradiated from each receiver position was also calculated using the 2D FDTD method in the backward propagation. It was possible to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens, because the maximum position of the reradiated sound pressure field was close to the target position.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Target Range Estimation Using Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2010-07-01

    In ambient noise imaging (ANI), each pixel of a target image is mapped by either monochrome or pseudo color to represent its acoustic intensity in each direction. This intensity is obtained by measuring the target object's reflecting or scattering wave, with ocean background noise serving as the sound source. In the case of using an acoustic lens, the ANI system creates a C-mode-like image, where receivers are arranged on a focal plane and each pixel's color corresponds to the intensity of each receiver output. There is no consideration for estimating a target range by this method, because it is impossible to measure the traveling time between a transducer and a target by a method like an active imaging sonar. In this study, we tried to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens. Here, we conducted a numerical simulation of sound propagation based on the principle of the time reversal mirror. First, instead of actual ocean measurements in the forward propagation, we calculated the scattering wave from a rigid target object in an acoustic noise field generated by a large number of point sources using the two-dimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The time series of the scattering wave converged by the lens was then recorded on each receiver. The sound pressure distribution assuming that the time-reversed wave of the scattering wave was reradiated from each receiver position was also calculated using the 2D FDTD method in the backward propagation. It was possible to estimate a target range using the ANI system with an acoustic lens, because the maximum position of the reradiated sound pressure field was close to the target position.

  5. An active structural acoustic control approach for the reduction of the structure-borne road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.

  6. Acoustical and perceptual assessment of water sounds and their use over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Ali, Tahrir T

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physical and perceptual properties of water sounds generated by small to medium sized water features that have applications for road traffic noise masking. A large variety of water sounds were produced in the laboratory by varying design parameters. Analysis showed that estimations can be made on how these parameters affect sound pressure levels, frequency content, and psychoacoustic properties. Comparisons with road traffic noise showed that there is a mismatch between the frequency responses of traffic noise and water sounds, with the exception of waterfalls with high flow rates, which can generate large low frequency levels comparable to traffic noise. Perceptual assessments were carried out in the context of peacefulness and relaxation, where both water sounds and noise from dense road traffic were audible. Results showed that water sounds should be similar or not less than 3 dB below the road traffic noise level (confirming previous research), and that stream sounds tend to be preferred to fountain sounds, which are in turn preferred to waterfall sounds. Analysis made on groups of sounds also indicated that low sharpness and large temporal variations were preferred on average, although no acoustical or psychoacoustical parameter correlated well with the individual sound preferences. PMID:23297897

  7. Effects of Classroom Acoustics and Self-Reported Noise Exposure on Teachers' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg

    2013-01-01

    Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…

  8. Spin noise spectroscopy from acoustic to GHz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Performing perturbation free measurements on semiconductor quantum systems has long been banished to textbooks on quantum mechanics. The emergent technique of spin noise spectroscopy is challenging this restriction. Empowered only by the ever present intrinsic spin fluctuation dynamics in thermal equilibrium, spin noise spectroscopy is capable to directly deduce several physical properties of carriers spins in semiconductors from these fluctuations. Originating from spin noise measurements on alkali metal vapors in quantum optics [1] the method has become a powerful technique to unravel the intrinsic spin dynamics in semiconductors [2]. In this talk I will present the recent progress of spin noise spectroscopy and how it is used to monitor the spin dynamic in semiconductor quantum wells at thermal equilibrium and as a consequence thereof directly detect the spatial dynamics of the carriers being marked with their own spin on a microscopic scale [3]. Further I will present measurements of how the non-perturbative nature of spin noise spectroscopy gives valuable insight into the delicate dependence of the spin relaxation time of electrons on doping density and temperature in semiconductors n-doped in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition where hyperfine and intra-band depolarization compete [4]. Also the measurement bandwidth can be extended to GHz frequencies by ultrafast optical probing [5] yielding in conjunction with depth resolved spin noise measurements insights into the origin of inhomogeneous spin dephasing effects at high magnetic fields [5]. Additionally I will present how spin noise spectroscopy can be employed to spatially depth resolve doping profiles with optical resolution [6] and give a summary on easy to implement techniques of spin noise spectroscopy at acoustic frequencies in alkali metal vapors. [4pt] [1] E. Aleksandrov and V. Zapassky, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132 (1981); S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith

  9. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (<70 dB) small-scale animal imager. Results serve as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  10. Computational AeroAcoustics for Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed; Hixon, Ray; Dyson, Rodger; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the current state-of-the-art in computational aeroacoustics as applied to fan noise prediction at NASA Glenn is presented. Results from recent modeling efforts using three dimensional inviscid formulations in both frequency and time domains are summarized. In particular, the application of a frequency domain method, called LINFLUX, to the computation of rotor-stator interaction tone noise is reviewed and the influence of the background inviscid flow on the acoustic results is analyzed. It has been shown that the noise levels are very sensitive to the gradients of the mean flow near the surface and that the correct computation of these gradients for highly loaded airfoils is especially problematic using an inviscid formulation. The ongoing development of a finite difference time marching code that is based on a sixth order compact scheme is also reviewed. Preliminary results from the nonlinear computation of a gust-airfoil interaction model problem demonstrate the fidelity and accuracy of this approach. Spatial and temporal features of the code as well as its multi-block nature are discussed. Finally, latest results from an ongoing effort in the area of arbitrarily high order methods are reviewed and technical challenges associated with implementing correct high order boundary conditions are discussed and possible strategies for addressing these challenges ore outlined.

  11. Advanced techniques for noise source identification on a large generator unit

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.D. ); Yang, S.J. )

    1993-03-01

    Power station acoustic noise assessment, which has experienced increased environmental awareness and subsequently more stringent legislation for a number of years, has received and added stimulus due to the recent advent of powerful measurement and analysis techniques including sound intensity and coherence. These experimental techniques are explained and results, for a generator unit, illustrate their value in providing a unique, correlated insight into noise problems. This includes noise quantification, full explanation of site sound pressure level in terms of the various influences and major noise source identification. These techniques are widely applicable and an invaluable aid to any industrial noise problem.

  12. Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by a Train-Car Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Fumio; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Takeshi; Kato, Chisachi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    To investigate the mechanism of noise generation by a train-car gap, which is one of a major source of noise in Shinkansen trains, experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel using a 1/5-scale model train. We measured velocity profiles of the boundary layer that approaches the gap and confirmed that the boundary layer is turbulent. We also measured the power spectrum of noise and surface pressure fluctuations around the train-car gap. Peak noise and broadband noise were observed. It is found that strong peak noise is generated when the vortex shedding frequency corresponds to the acoustic resonance frequency determined by the geometrical shape of the gap, and that broadband noise is generated at the downstream edge of the gap where vortexes collide. It is estimated that the convection velocity of the vortices in the gap is approximately 45% of the uniform flow velocity.

  14. Effects of Geometric Details on Slat Noise Generation and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockard, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of geometric details to the generation and propagation of noise from leading-edge slats is considered. Typically, such details are omitted in computational simulations and model-scale experiments thereby creating ambiguities in comparisons with acoustic results from flight tests. The current study uses two-dimensional, computational simulations in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) solver to investigate the effects of previously neglected slat "bulb" and "blade" seals on the local flow field and the associated acoustic radiation. The computations show that the presence of the "blade" seal at the cusp in the simulated geometry significantly changes the slat cove flow dynamics, reduces the amplitudes of the radiated sound, and to a lesser extent, alters the directivity beneath the airfoil. Furthermore, the computations suggest that a modest extension of the baseline "blade" seal further enhances the suppression of slat noise. As a side issue, the utility and equivalence of FW-H methodology for calculating far-field noise as opposed to a more direct approach is examined and demonstrated.

  15. Effects of Geometric Details on Slat Noise Generation and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of geometric details to the generation and propagation of noise from leading-edge slats is considered. Typically, such details are omitted in computational simulations and model-scale experiments thereby creating ambiguities in comparisons with acoustic results from flight tests. The current study uses two-dimensional, computational simulations in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) solver to investigate the effects of previously neglected slat "bulb" and "blade" seals on the local flow field and the associated acoustic radiation. The computations clearly show that the presence of the "blade" seal at the cusp significantly changes the slat cove flow dynamics, reduces the amplitudes of the radiated sound, and to a lesser extent, alters the directivity beneath the airfoil. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a modest extension of the baseline "blade" seal further enhances the suppression of slat noise. As a side issue, the utility and equivalence of FW-H methodology for calculating far-field noise as opposed to a more direct approach is examined and demonstrated.

  16. Weather observations through oceanic acoustic noise recorded by gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchy, Pierre; Testor, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Gervaise, Cedric; Di Oro, Lucia; Ioana, Cornel; Mortier, Laurent; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Beguery, Laurent; Klein, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Offshore estimates of the meteorological parameters are unfortunately spurious when considering in-situ observtions only due to obvious observational limitations while their use would allow to calibrate satellite observations and to have better weather forecasts, if assimilated in numerical weather forecasting systems. The WOTAN (Weather Observations through Acoustic Noise) approach may be used to fill these gaps if coupled to the Global Ocean Observing Sytem which has now a global coverage thanks to many autonomous observing platforms. In this study we show first results from acoustic records collected by gliders deployed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of MOOSE. We show that using 3 descriptors at 5kHz, 8kHz, and 20kHz allows to extract the intensity of the wind and the precipitation when the glider is at depth. This approach based on the method presented by Barry & Nuysten (2004) is compared with meterological data from coastal weather stations and the offshore meteorological buoys from Meteo-France. We also show that there is a vane effect with the tail of the glider while at surface which allows to estimate the direction of the wind every so often. These observations coupled with the in-situ profiles on temperature and salinity profiles can allow to better study air-sea interactions.

  17. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  18. A Numerical Investigation of Turbine Noise Source Hierarchy and Its Acoustic Transmission Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. The investigation relies on highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flowfield inside a modern high-pressure turbine (HPT). The simulations are developed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code capable of multi-stage simulations. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to determine an estimate of the relative importance of the contributions to the coherent part of the acoustic signature of a turbine from the three potential sources of turbine noise generation, namely, blade-row viscous interaction, potential field interaction, and entropic source associated with the interaction of the blade rows with the temperature nonuniformities caused by the incomplete mixing of the hot fluid and the cooling flow. Second, to develop an understanding of the turbine acoustic transmission characteristics and to assess the applicability of existing empirical and analytical transmission loss models to realistic geometries and flow conditions for modern turbine designs. The investigation so far has concentrated on two simulations: (1) a single-stage HPT and (2) a two-stage HPT and the associated inter-turbine duct/strut segment. The simulations are designed to resolve up to the second harmonic of the blade passing frequency tone in accordance with accepted rules for second order solvers like TURBO. The calculations include blade and vane cooling flows and a radial profile of pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet. The calculation can be modified later to include the combustor pattern factor at the

  19. Prediction of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongkyu

    This work aims at the development of a numerical method for the analysis of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise. This purpose is achieved by developing two independent methods: (1) an analytical formulation of the pressure gradient for an arbitrary moving source and (2) a time-domain moving equivalent source method. First, the analytical formulation for the pressure gradient is developed to fulfill the boundary condition on a scattering surface to account for arbitrary moving incident sources. A semi-analytical formulation was derived from the gradient of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This formulation needs to calculate the observer time differentiation outside the integrals numerically. A numerical algorithm is developed to implement this formulation in an aeroacoustic prediction code. A new analytical formulation is presented in the thesis. In this formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. This formulation avoids the numerical time differentiation with respect to the observer time, which is computationally more efficient. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these two formulations is validated through comparison with available exact solutions for a stationary and moving monopole sources. The agreement between the predictions and exact solutions is excellent. One of the advantages of this analytic formulation is that it efficiently provides the boundary condition for the acoustic scattering of sound generated from an arbitrary moving source, such as rotating blades, which undergoes rotation, flapping and lead-lag motions. The formulation is applied to the rotor noise problems for two model rotors (UH-1H and HART-I). For HART-I rotor, CFD/CSD coupling was used to provide unsteady aerodynamics and trim solutions of the blade motion. A purely numerical approach is compared with the analytical formulations. The agreement between the analytical formulations and

  20. Effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation on dust acoustic waves: generation of dust acoustic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M R; Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Debnath, M; Khan, M

    2001-04-01

    The effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation arising due to small nonzero values of tau(ch)/tau(d) has been studied where tau(ch) and tau(d) are the dust charging and dust hydrodynamical time scales on the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves. Analytical investigation shows that the propagation of a small amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burger equation. Notwithstanding the soliton decay, the "soliton mass" is conserved, but the dissipative term leads to the development of a noise tail. Nonadiabaticity generated dissipative effect causes the generation of a dust acoustic shock wave having oscillatory behavior on the downstream side. Numerical investigations reveal that the propagation of a large amplitude dust acoustic shock wave with dust density enhancement may occur only for Mach numbers lying between a minimum and a maximum value whose dependence on the dusty plasma parameters is presented. PMID:11308955

  1. Fluids and Combustion Facility Acoustic Emissions Controlled by Aggressive Low-Noise Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Young, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a dual-rack microgravity research facility that is being developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) for the International Space Station (ISS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. As an on-orbit test bed, FCF will host a succession of experiments in fluid and combustion physics. The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) must meet ISS acoustic emission requirements (ref. 1), which support speech communication and hearing-loss-prevention goals for ISS crew. To meet these requirements, the NGIT acoustics team implemented an aggressive low-noise design effort that incorporated frequent acoustic emission testing for all internal noise sources, larger-scale systems, and fully integrated racks (ref. 2). Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ref. 3) provided acoustical testing services (see the following photograph) as well as specialized acoustical engineering support as part of the low-noise design process (ref. 4).

  2. Impulse noise generator--design and operation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, H

    1991-01-01

    In the seventies PFANDER (Pfander, 1975) proposed a screening test with an impulse noise simulator to check the particular responsivity of soldiers on vulnerability of the inner ear concerning the impulse noise-induced hearing loss. According to a system developed at the University of Oldenburg (Germany) (Klug & Radek, 1987), we have constructed an impulse noise generator designed for our specific requirements that will be presented. The simulator consists of an electrical ignited impulse noise spark gap which is supplied by a 3.5 kV high voltage source. At a distance of 1.10 m from the center of the impulse noise spark gap a peak pressure level of 155 dB with a C-Duration (Pfander, 1975) of .2 msec and with the main energy in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 2 kHz was good reproducible. It would be preferable to shift the impulse noise spectrum to lower frequencies but experimental effort has failed so far. PMID:1842469

  3. Military jet noise source imaging using multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; McKinley, Richard L; James, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The identification of acoustic sources is critical to targeted noise reduction efforts for jets on high-performance tactical aircraft. This paper describes the imaging of acoustic sources from a tactical jet using near-field acoustical holography techniques. The measurement consists of a series of scans over the hologram with a dense microphone array. Partial field decomposition methods are performed to generate coherent holograms. Numerical extrapolation of data beyond the measurement aperture mitigates artifacts near the aperture edges. A multisource equivalent wave model is used that includes the effects of the ground reflection on the measurement. Multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (M-SONAH) is used to reconstruct apparent source distributions between 20 and 1250 Hz at four engine powers. It is shown that M-SONAH produces accurate field reconstructions for both inward and outward propagation in the region spanned by the physical hologram measurement. Reconstructions across the set of engine powers and frequencies suggests that directivity depends mainly on estimated source location; sources farther downstream radiate at a higher angle relative to the inlet axis. At some frequencies and engine powers, reconstructed fields exhibit multiple radiation lobes originating from overlapped source regions, which is a phenomenon relatively recently reported for full-scale jets. PMID:27106340

  4. Noise Generation by Fans with Supersonic Tip Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart; Envia, Edmane (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Fan noise continues to be a significant issue for commercial aircraft engines and there still exists a requirement for improved understanding of the fundamental issues associated with fan noise source mechanisms. At the present time, most of the prediction methods identify the dominant acoustic sources to be associated with the stator vanes or blade trailing edges which are downstream of the fan face. However recent studies have shown that acoustic waves are significantly attenuated as they propagate upstream through a rotor, and if the appropriate corrections are applied, sound radiation from the engine inlet is significantly underpredicted. The prediction models can only be applied to fans with subsonic tip speeds. In contrast, most aircraft engines have fan tip speeds which are transonic and this implies an even higher attenuation for upstream propagating acoustic waves. Consequently understanding how sound propagates upstream through the fan is an important, and not well understood phenomena. The objective of this study is to provide improved insight into the upstream propagation effects through a rotor which are relevant to full scale engines. The focus of this study is on broadband fan noise generated by boundary layer turbulence interacting with the trailing edges of the fan blades. If this source mechanism is important upstream of the fan, the sound must propagate upstream through a transonic non uniform flow which includes large gradients and non linearities. Developing acoustic propagation models in this type of flow is challenging and currently limited to low frequency applications, where the frequency is of the same order as the blade passing frequency of the fan. For trailing edge noise, much higher frequencies are relevant and so a suitable approach needs to be developed, which is not limited by an unacceptably large computational effort. In this study we are in the process of developing a computational method which applies for the high frequencies of

  5. Active Control of Fan-Generated Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.

  6. Signal-to-noise ratio for acoustic detection in the deep ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, T.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method is presented for studying the thermoacoustic wave generated by a heat pulse. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is then calculated for a typical hadronic-electromagnetic cascade in the deep ocean where low frequencies are masked by surface noise. It is found that a maximum useful range of about 16 km is found for typical conditions at 5 km depth. It is shown that in order to obtain useful signals with S/N greater than 100 at distances of 1 to 16 km, the cascade energy must be 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 18th eV. Finally, attention is given to further refinements of the theory of acoustic detection which remain to be investigated.

  7. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  8. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Ronald J; Nowlin, Scott R; Hahn, Ila L; Eaton, Frank D; McCrae, Kim A

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence. PMID:12558258

  9. Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and noise conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure level, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their level in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble noise. PMID:26723357

  10. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  11. Automated acoustic intensity measurements and the effect of gear tooth profile on noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, William J.; Pintz, Adam; Lewicki, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic intensity measurements were made at NASA Lewis Research Center on a spur gear test apparatus. The measurements were obtained with the Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System developed by Cleveland State University. This system provided dense spatial positioning, and was calibrated against a high quality acoustic intensity system. The measured gear noise compared gearsets having two different tooth profiles. The tests evaluated the sound field of the different gears for two speeds and three loads. The experimental results showed that gear tooth profile had a major effect on measured noise. Load and speed were found to have an effect on noise also.

  12. Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and noise conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure level, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their level in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble noise. PMID:26723357

  13. Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Thode, Aaron M; Kim, Katherine H; Norman, Robert G; Blackwell, Susanna B; Greene, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1 km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15 dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones. PMID:27106345

  14. Acoustic signals generated in inclined granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Danielle S.; Jenkins, James T.; Keast, Stephen C.; Sachse, Wolfgang H.

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous avalanching in specific deserts produces a low-frequency sound known as "booming." This creates a puzzle, because avalanches down the face of a dune result in collisions between sand grains that occur at much higher frequencies. Reproducing this phenomenon in the laboratory permits a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the generation of such lower frequency acoustic emissions, which may also be relevant to other dry granular flows. Here we report measurements of low-frequency acoustical signals, produced by dried "sounding" sand (sand capable of booming in the desert) flowing down an inclined chute. The amplitude of the signal diminishes over time but reappears upon drying of the sand. We show that the presence of this sound in the experiments may provide supporting evidence for a previously published "waveguide" explanation for booming. Also, we propose a model based on kinetic theory for a sheared inclined flow in which the flowing layer exhibits "breathing" modes superimposed on steady shearing. The predicted oscillation frequency is of a similar order of magnitude as the measurements, indicating that small perturbations can sustain oscillations of a low frequency. However, the frequency is underestimated, which indicates that the stiffness has been underestimated. Also, the model predicts a discrete spectrum of frequencies, instead of the broadband spectrum measured experimentally.

  15. Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise using airloads generated by a finite-difference technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, Hormoz; Hassan, Ahmed A.; Charles, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical finite-difference scheme for helicopter blade-load prediction during realistic, self-generated three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions (BVI) derives the velocity field through a nonlinear superposition of the rotor flow-field yielded by the full potential rotor flow solver RFS2 for BVI, on the one hand, over the rotational vortex flow field computed with the Biot-Savart law. Despite the accurate prediction of the acoustic waveforms, peak amplitudes are found to have been persistently underpredicted. The inclusion of BVI noise source in the acoustic analysis significantly improved the perceived noise level-corrected tone prediction.

  16. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (< 1m sampling) surface wave data in the context of infrastructure monitoring over significant spatial domains (10s of km). Infrastructure monitoring is particularly crucial in the context of high-latitude installations where a changing global climate can trigger reductions in soil strength due to permafrost thaw. DAS surface wave monitoring systems, particularly those installed in/near transport corridors and coupled to ambient noise inversion algorithms, could be a critical "early warning" system to detect zones of decreased shear strength before failure. We present preliminary ambient noise tomography results from a 1.3 km continuously recording subsurface DAS array used to record traffic noise next to an active road in Fairbanks, AK. The array, depolyed at the Farmer's Loop Permafrost Test Station, was designed as a narrow 2D array and installed via trenching at ~30 cm. We develop a pre-processing and QC approach to analyze the large resulting volume of data, equivalent to a 1300 geophone array sampled at 1 khz. We utilize automated dispersion analysis and a quasi-2D MC inversion to generate a shear wave velocity profile underneath the road in a region of discontinuous permafrost. The results are validated against a high-resolution ERT survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  17. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  18. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. Initializing a flicker-noise generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of the stationary process, y(s), resulting from a particular Barnes-Jarvis (1971) flicker-noise generator filter initialization is analyzed along with that of the usual output, y(p), and the results are compared to those derived from the theory of true nonstationary flicker noise. A computer simulation and theoretical analysis indicates that though y(s) and y(p) two-sample variances are almost the same, they have significantly different time-interval errors (TIE). As time increases, up to the useful life of the generator output, more and more of the y(s) TIE is found to be due to the transient part.

  2. Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogey, Christophe; Barré, Sébastien; Juvé, Daniel; Bailly, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    A coaxial jet originating from parallel coplanar pipe nozzles is computed by a compressible large eddy simulation (LES) using low-dissipation and low-dispersion schemes in order to determine its acoustic field and to study noise generation mechanisms. The jet streams are at high velocities, the primary stream is heated, and the Reynolds number based on the primary velocity and the secondary diameter is around 106. High levels of turbulence intensity are also specified at the nozzle exit. The jet aerodynamic field and the near-pressure field are both obtained directly from the LES. The far-field noise is calculated by solving the linear acoustic equations, from the unsteady LES data on a cylindrical surface surrounding the jet. A good agreement is observed in terms of directivity, levels, and narrow-band spectra with noise measurements carried out during the EU project CoJeN for a coaxial jet displaying same stream velocities and temperatures, coplanar nozzle outlets with identical area ratio, and a high Reynolds number. However, certainly due to differences in the properties of the nozzle-exit boundary layers with respect to the experiment, some unexpected peaks are noticed in the simulation spectra. They are attributed to the development of a Von Kármán street in the inner mixing layer and to vortex pairings in the outer shear layer. High correlation levels are also calculated between the pressure waves radiated in the downstream direction and flow quantities such as axial velocity, vorticity norm, density, and temperature, taken around the end of the primary and secondary potential cores. Noise generation in the coaxial jet therefore appears significant around the end of the two potential cores. These flow regions are characterized by intermittency, a dominant Strouhal number, and variations in the convection velocity as similarly found in single jets. The use of density or temperature to compute flow-noise correlations finally seems appropriate for a heated

  3. Cylindrical acoustical holography applied to full-scale jet noise.

    PubMed

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Krueger, David W; James, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250 Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated. PMID:25190387

  4. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  5. Acoustic lens for marine seismic data multiple reflection noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.H.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for use in gathering seismic data in an area covered by a body of water having a surface, comprising: a seismic vessel; a seismic source towed by the seismic vessel for generating in the body of water an acoustic wave which will penetrate to and be reflected from at least one reflective horizon located below the body of water; a streamer towed by the seismic vessel in the body of water below its surface, including at least one hydrophone for detecting the acoustic wave reflected from at least one reflective horizon; a first gas dispensing tube and a second gas dispensing tube disposed in the water adjacent the vessel, the tubes each having a side wall and a plurality of perforations through the side wall for permitting gas bubbles to escape into the water; a first paravane attached to the first tube; a second paravane attached to the second tube; and control means connected to the first paravane and to the second paravane for controlling the position of the paravanes relative to the streamer.

  6. Analysis of tonal noise generating mechanisms in low-speed axial-flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepa, Edward; Cattanei, Andrea; Zecchin, Fabio Mazzocut

    2016-08-01

    The present paper reports a comparison of experimental SPL spectral data related to the tonal noise generated by axial-flow fans. A nine blade rotor has been operated at free discharge conditions and in four geometrical configurations in which different kinds of tonal noise generating mechanisms are present: large-scale inlet turbulent structures, tip-gap flow, turbulent wakes, and rotor-stator interaction. The measurements have been taken in a hemi-anechoic chamber at constant rotational speed and, in order to vary the acoustic source strength, during low angular acceleration, linear speed ramps. In order to avoid erroneous quantitative evaluations if the acoustic propagation effects are not considered, the acoustic response functions of the different test configurations have been computed by means of the spectral decomposition method. Then, the properties of the tonal noise generating mechanisms have been studied. To this aim, the constant-Strouhal number SPL, obtained by means of measurements taken during the speed ramps, have been compared with the propagation function. Finally, the analysis of the phase of the acoustic pressure has allowed to distinguish between random and deterministic tonal noise generating mechanisms and to collect information about the presence of important propagation effects.

  7. Publications in acoustics and noise control from the NASA Langley Research Center during 1940 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. C. (Compiler); Laneave, J. N. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    This document contains reference lists of published Langley Research Center papers in various areas of acoustics and noise control for the period 1940-1974. The research work was performed either in-house by the center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Duct acoustics, (2) Propagation and operations, (3) Rotating blade noise, (4) Jet noise, (5) Sonic boom, (6) Flow-surface interaction noise, (7) Human response, and (8) Structural response.

  8. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 1: FanB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Acoustical tests of full scale fans for jet engines are presented. The fans are described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of one third octave band analysis are presented in tabular form. Power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels are included.

  9. Directional acoustic measurements by laser Doppler velocimeters. [for jet aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Overbey, R. L.; Testerman, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDVs) were used as velocity microphones to measure sound pressure level in the range of 90-130 db, spectral components, and two-point cross correlation functions for acoustic noise source identification. Close agreement between LDV and microphone data is observed. It was concluded that directional sensitivity and the ability to measure remotely make LDVs useful tools for acoustic measurement where placement of any physical probe is difficult or undesirable, as in the diagnosis of jet aircraft noise.

  10. Flight Acoustic Testing and Data Acquisition For the Rotor Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the Acoustics Week flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  11. Flight Acoustic Testing and For the Rotorcraft Noise Data Acquisition Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.; Conner, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the "Acoustics Week" flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  12. On an acoustic field generated by subsonic jet at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Arndt, R. E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic field generated by subsonic jets at low Reynolds numbers was investigated. This work is motivated by the need to increase the fundamental understanding of the jet noise generation mechanism which is essential to the development of further advanced techniques of noise suppression. The scope of this study consists of two major investigation. One is a study of large scale coherent structure in the jet turbulence, and the other is a study of the Reynolds number dependence of jet noise. With this in mind, extensive flow and acoustic measurements in low Reynolds number turbulent jets (8,930 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 220,000) were undertaken using miniature nozzles of the same configuration but different diameters at various exist Mach numbers (0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.9).

  13. Aircraft interior noise prediction using a structural-acoustic analogy in NASTRAN modal synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Marulo, Francesco

    1988-01-01

    The noise induced inside a cylindrical fuselage model by shaker excitation is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The NASTRAN modal-synthesis program is used in the theoretical analysis, and the predictions are compared with experimental measurements in extensive graphs. Good general agreement is obtained, but the need for further refinements to account for acoustic-cavity damping and structural-acoustic interaction is indicated.

  14. Vessel Noise Affects Beaked Whale Behavior: Results of a Dedicated Acoustic Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022

  15. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022

  16. Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.

  17. Parallel feedback active noise control of MRI acoustic noise with signal decomposition using hybrid RLS-NLMS adaptive algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anshuman; Krishna Vemuri, Sri Hari; Panahi, Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-effective adaptive feedback Active Noise Control (FANC) method for controlling functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise by decomposing it into dominant periodic components and residual random components. Periodicity of fMRI acoustic noise is exploited by using linear prediction (LP) filtering to achieve signal decomposition. A hybrid combination of adaptive filters-Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) are then used to effectively control each component separately. Performance of the proposed FANC system is analyzed and Noise attenuation levels (NAL) up to 32.27 dB obtained by simulation are presented which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed FANC method. PMID:25570676

  18. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  19. Objective approach for analysis of noise source characteristics and acoustic conditions in noisy computerized embroidery workrooms.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Mansoorizadeh, Muharram

    2014-03-01

    It is highly important to analyze the acoustic properties of workrooms in order to identify best noise control measures from the standpoint of noise exposure limits. Due to the fact that sound pressure is dependent upon environments, it cannot be a suitable parameter for determining the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise pollution. This paper aims to empirically analyze noise source characteristics and acoustic properties of noisy embroidery workrooms based on special parameters. In this regard, reverberation time as the special room acoustic parameter in 30 workrooms was measured based on ISO 3382-2. Sound power quantity of embroidery machines was also determined based on ISO 9614-3. Multiple linear regression was employed for predicting reverberation time based on acoustic features of the workrooms using MATLAB software. The results showed that the measured reverberation times in most of the workrooms were approximately within the ranges recommended by ISO 11690-1. Similarity between reverberation time values calculated by the Sabine formula and measured values was relatively poor (R (2) = 0.39). This can be due to the inaccurate estimation of the acoustic influence of furniture and formula preconditions. Therefore, this value cannot be considered representative of an actual acoustic room. However, the prediction performance of the regression method with root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.23 s and R (2) = 0.69 is relatively acceptable. Because the sound power of the embroidery machines was relatively high, these sources get the highest priority when it comes to applying noise controls. Finally, an objective approach for the determination of the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise could facilitate the identification of cost-effective noise controls. PMID:24214295

  20. Concurrent identification of aero-acoustic scattering and noise sources at a flow duct singularity in low Mach number flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovardi, Carlo; Jaensch, Stefan; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    A numerical method to concurrently characterize both aeroacoustic scattering and noise sources at a duct singularity is presented. This approach combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with techniques of System Identification (SI): In a first step, a highly resolved LES with external broadband acoustic excitation is carried out. Subsequently, time series data extracted from the LES are post-processed by means of SI to model both acoustic propagation and noise generation. The present work studies the aero-acoustic characteristics of an orifice placed in a duct at low flow Mach numbers with the "LES-SI" method. Parametric SI based on the Box-Jenkins mathematical structure is employed, with a prediction error approach that utilizes correlation analysis of the output residuals to avoid overfitting. Uncertainties of model parameters due to the finite length of times series are quantified in terms of confidence intervals. Numerical results for acoustic scattering matrices and power spectral densities of broad-band noise are validated against experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the duct.

  1. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Design: Recordings of the output of 4 hearing aids for speech in…

  2. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  3. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  4. Passive acoustic observations of tide height in the Iroise Sea using ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Kinda, G Bazile; Bonnel, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Considering a broadband motionless source in a waveguide with a depth that varies with time, the time-frequency representation of the acoustic intensity shows a striation pattern than can be explained using the depth-frequency waveguide invariant. This phenomenon is used here to describe acoustic data recorded in the Iroise Sea, where intense tides occur. The originality of this study is that the acoustic data consist of only ambient noise. The best hypothesis is that these striations are created by distant marine traffic in the Bay of Brest, and the results suggest that tide height can be monitored using long-term passive acoustics. PMID:26428830

  5. A First Look at the DGEN380 Engine Acoustic Data from a Core-Noise Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    This work is a first look at acoustic data acquired in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory using the Price Induction DGEN380 small turbofan engine, with particular emphasis on broadband combustor (core) noise. Combustor noise is detected by using a two-signal source separation technique employing one engine-internal sensor and one semi-far-field microphone. Combustor noise is an important core-noise component and is likely to become a more prominent contributor to overall airport community noise due to turbofan design trends, expected aircraft configuration changes, and advances in fan-noise-mitigation techniques. This work was carried out under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Fixed Wing Project, Quiet Performance Subproject

  6. Investigation and control of noise generated during coal cutting. Open File report, September 1978-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    The report presents the results of an extensive research and development program to reduce the noise generated during coal cutting. The characteristics and magnitude of continuous miner coal-cutting noise sources are defined. This work consisted of development of a simulated coal seam to facilitate above-ground coal cutting tests, noise measurements in a reverberant acoustic chamber during simulated mining operations of a continuous miner (cutting the simulated coal seam), and noise measurements in an underground coal mine during continuous miner operation. Methods to reduce coal cutting noise are presented. These methods take full advantage of the dynamic characteristics of the forces generated during coal cutting. Dynamic cutting force isolation was shown to be a very effective technique.

  7. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises: Testing the Reliability of Acoustic Tag Recordings.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta M; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Lee A; Siebert, Ursula; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several sound and movement recording tags have been developed to sample the acoustic field experienced by cetaceans and their reactions to it. However, little is known about how tag placement and an animal's orientation in the sound field affect the reliability of on-animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that flow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has been found for frequencies of 2-20 kHz. PMID:26611092

  8. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1996-01-01

    The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

  9. Selective optical generation of a coherent acoustic nanocavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual Winter, M. F.; Rozas, G.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Fainstein, A.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Saravanan, S.

    2007-04-01

    We report the first experimental evidence of selective generation of a confined acoustic mode in a Ga0.85In0.15As nanocavity enclosed by two Ga0.85In0.15As/AlAs phonon Bragg mirrors. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments reveal the generation of a cavity mode within the acoustic mini-gap of the mirrors, in addition to their folded acoustic modes. Selective generation of the confined mode alone is achievable for certain energies below the absorption of the quantum wells in the phonon mirrors. These energies are experimentally identified with the cavity spacer electronic transitions. The amplitude of the acoustic nanocavity mode can be controlled by detuning the excitation from the spacer transitions. The present work finds a direct interest in the seek of monochromatic MHz-THz acoustic sources.

  10. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 5: Fan acoustics. Section 2: One-third octave data tabulations and selected narrowband traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The raw-acoustic data corrected to standard day, from acoustic tests performed on a 0.508-scale fan vehicle of a 111,300 newton thrust, full-size engine, which has application on an advanced transport aircraft, are presented. The single-stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec to achieve the desired pressure ratio in a single-stage fan with low radius ratio, and to maintain adequate stall margin. The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise was accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels. The suppression goal of FAR 36-20 was not reached, but improvements in the technology of both front and aft fan-noise suppression were realized.

  11. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  12. Acoustical Specification of New Equipment with Respect to Noise Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Biľová, Monika; Lumnitzer, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, the Slovakian and European occupational health and safety legislation requires designers, manufacturers and suppliers of industrial plants and equipment to minimise hazards, such as excessive noise associated with their products, and to provide information about potential hazards. Even so, noise is still often overlooked with the result that the working environment is needlessly noisy. The purpose of this paper is to: - provide guidelines for the preparation of noise specifications; - show how to calculate the maximum acceptable noise level for new equipment; - show how to interpret noise information provided by suppliers.

  13. Experimental study of coaxial nozzle exhaust noise. [acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J. H.; Stone, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for static acoustic model tests of various geometrical configurations of coaxial nozzles operating over a range of flow conditions. The geometrical configurations consisted of nozzles with coplanar and non-coplanar exit planes and various exhaust area ratios. Primary and secondary nozzle flows were varied independently over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.4 to 3.0 and gas temperatures from 280 to 1100 K. Acoustic data are presented for the conventional mode of coaxial nozzle operation as well as for the inverted velocity profile mode. Comparisons are presented to show the effect of configuration and flow changes on the acoustic characteristics of the nozzles.

  14. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 3: Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegan, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Schmiedlin, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A family of fans designed with low noise features was acoustically evaluated, and noise results are documented for a 1.6-pressure-ratio, 472-m/sec (155-ft/sec) tip speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured over a range of operating conditions for a variety of configurations having different arrangements of sound absorbing material in the flow ducts. Complete results of 1.3 octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are acoustic power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Representative 1/3 octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow band spectra are also provided.

  15. Modal content of noise generated by a coaxial jet in a pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerschen, E. J.; Johnston, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Noise generated by air flow through a coaxial obstruction in a long, straight pipe was investigated with concentration on the modal characteristics of the noise field inside the pipe and downstream of the restriction. Two measurement techniques were developed for separation of the noise into the acoustic duct modes. The instantaneous mode separation technique uses four microphones, equally spaced in the circumferential direction, at the same axial location. The time-averaged mode separation technique uses three microphones mounted at the same axial location. A matrix operation on time-averaged data produces the modal pressure levels. This technique requires the restrictive assumption that the acoustic modes are uncorrelated with each other. The measured modal pressure spectra were converted to modal power spectra and integrated over the frequency range 200-6000 Hz. The acoustic efficiency levels (acoustic power normalized by jet kinetic energy flow), when plotted vs. jet Mach number, showed a strong dependence on the ratio of restriction diameter to pipe diameter. The acoustic energy flow analyses based on the thermodynamic energy equation and on the results of Mohring both resulted in orthogonality properties for the eigenfunctions of the radial mode shape equation. These orthogonality relationships involve the eigenvalues and derivatives of the radial mode shape functions.

  16. A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

    1982-05-01

    An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

  17. Acoustical model and theory for predicting effects of environmental noise on people.

    PubMed

    Kryter, Karl D

    2009-06-01

    The Schultz [(1978). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 377-405]; Fidell et al. [(1991). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 221-233] and Finegold et al. [(1994). Noise Control Eng. 42, 25-30] curves present misleading research information regarding DENL/DENL levels of environmental noises from transportation vehicles and the impact of annoyance and associated adverse effects on people living in residential areas. The reasons are shown to be jointly due to (a) interpretations of early research data, (b) plotting of annoyance data for noise exposure from different types of transportation vehicles on a single set of coordinates, and (c) the assumption that the effective, as heard, levels of noise from different sources are proportional to day, night level (DNL)/day, evening night level (DENL) levels measured at a common-point outdoors. The subtraction of on-site attenuations from the measured outdoor levels of environmental noises used in the calculation of DNL/DENL provides new metrics, labeled EDNL/EDENL, for the calculation of the effective exposure levels of noises perceived as equaling annoying. Predictions of judged annoyance in residential areas from the noises of transportation vehicles are made with predicted errors of <1 dB EDNL/EDENL, compared to errors ranging from approximately 6 to approximately 14 dB by DNL/DENL. A joint neurological, physiological, and psychological theory, and an effective acoustical model for the prediction of public annoyance and related effects from exposures to environment noises are presented. PMID:19507953

  18. Interaction of acoustic waves generated by coupled plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    When two substructures are coupled, the acoustic field generated by the motion of each of the substructures will interact with the motion of the other substructure. This would be the case of a structure enclosing an acoustic cavity. A technique to model the interaction of the generated sound fields from the two components of a coupled structure, and the influence of this interaction on the vibration of the structural components is presented. Using a mobility power flow approach, each element of the substructure is treated independently both when developing the structural response and when determining the acoustic field generated by this component. The presence of the other substructural components is introduced by assuming these components to be rigid baffles. The excitation of one of the substructures is assumed to be by an incident acoustic wave which is dependent of the motion of the substructure. The sound field generated by the motion of the substructure is included in the solution of the response.

  19. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  20. Analysis of the effect on combustor noise measurements of acoustic waves reflected by the turbine and combustor inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral analyses of static pressure fluctuations measured in turbine engine combustors at low engine speed show good agreement with theory. At idle speed the high pressure turbine is unchoked. Above idle speed the turbine chokes and a significant change in the shape of the measured combustor pressure spectrum is observed. A simplified theoretical model of the acoustic pressure generated in the combustor due to the turbulence-flame front interaction did not account for acoustic waves reflected from the turbine. By retaining this simplified combustion noise source model and adding a partial reflecting plane at the turbine and combustor inlet, a simple theoretical model was developed that reproduces the undulations in the combustor fluctuating pressure spectra. Plots of the theoretical combustor fluctuating pressure spectra are compared to the measured pressure spectra obtained from the CF6-50 turbofan engine over a range of engine operating speeds. The simplified combustion noise theory when modified by a simple turbine reflecting plane adequately accounts for the changes in measured combustor pressure spectra. It is further concluded that the shape of the pressure spectra downstream of the turbine, neglecting noise generated by the turbine itself, will be the combustion noise spectra unchanged except for the level reduction due to the energy blocked by the turbine.

  1. Analysis of the effect on combustor noise measurements of acoustic waves reflected by the turbine and combustor inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, R. G.

    Spectral analyses of static pressure fluctuations measured in turbine engine combustors at low engine speed show good agreement with theory. At idle speed the high pressure turbine is unchoked. Above idle speed the turbine chokes and a significant change in the shape of the measured combustor pressure spectrum is observed. A simplified theoretical model of the acoustic pressure generated in the combustor due to the turbulence-flame front interaction did not account for acoustic waves reflected from the turbine. By retaining this simplified combustion noise source model and adding a partial reflecting plane at the turbine and combustor inlet, a simple theoretical model was developed that reproduces the undulations in the combustor fluctuating pressure spectra. Plots of the theoretical combustor fluctuating pressure spectra are compared to the measured pressure spectra obtained from the CF6-50 turbofan engine over a range of engine operating speeds. The simplified combustion noise theory when modified by a simple turbine reflecting plane adequately accounts for the changes in measured combustor pressure spectra. It is further concluded that the shape of the pressure spectra downstream of the turbine, neglecting noise generated by the turbine itself, will be the combustion noise spectra unchanged except for the level reduction due to the energy blocked by the turbine.

  2. Analysis of the effect on combustor noise measurements of acoustic waves reflected by the turbine and combustor inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-10-01

    Spectral analyses of static pressure fluctuations measured in turbine engine combustors at low engine speed show good agreement with theory. At idle speed the high pressure turbine is unchoked. Above idle speed the turbine chokes and a significant change in the shape of the measured combustor pressure spectrum is observed. A simplified theoretical model of the acoustic pressure generated in the combustor due to the turbulence-flame front interaction did not account for acoustic waves reflected from the turbine. By retaining this simplified combustion noise source model and adding a partial reflecting plane at the turbine and combustor inlet, a simple theoretical model was developed that reproduces the undulations in the combustor fluctuating pressure spectra. Plots of the theoretical combustor fluctuating pressure spectra are compared to the measured pressure spectra obtained from the CF6-50 turbofan engine over a range of engine operating speeds. The simplified combustion noise theory when modified by a simple turbine reflecting plane adequately accounts for the changes in measured combustor pressure spectra. It is further concluded that the shape of the pressure spectra downstream of the turbine, neglecting noise generated by the turbine itself, will be the combustion noise spectra unchanged except for the level reduction due to the energy blocked by the turbine.

  3. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-04-20

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment. PMID:20368461

  4. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment. PMID:20368461

  5. Experimental validation of numerical simulations for an acoustic liner in grazing flow: Self-noise and added drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Pastouchenko, Nikolai N.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2014-06-01

    A coordinated experimental and numerical simulation effort is carried out to improve our understanding of the physics of acoustic liners in a grazing flow as well our computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method prediction capability. A numerical simulation code based on advanced CAA methods is developed. In a parallel effort, experiments are performed using the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube at the NASA Langley Research Center. In the experiment, a liner is installed in the upper wall of a rectangular flow duct with a 2 in. by 2.5 in. cross section. Spatial distribution of sound pressure levels and relative phases are measured on the wall opposite the liner in the presence of a Mach 0.3 grazing flow. The computer code is validated by comparing computed results with experimental measurements. Good agreements are found. The numerical simulation code is then used to investigate the physical properties of the acoustic liner. It is shown that an acoustic liner can produce self-noise in the presence of a grazing flow and that a feedback acoustic resonance mechanism is responsible for the generation of this liner self-noise. In addition, the same mechanism also creates additional liner drag. An estimate, based on numerical simulation data, indicates that for a resonant liner with a 10 percent open area ratio, the drag increase would be about 4 percent of the turbulent boundary layer drag over a flat wall.

  6. A simplified approach for the calculation of acoustic emission in the case of friction-induced noise and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soobbarayen, K.; Besset, S.; Sinou, J.-. J.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic response associated with squeal noise radiations is a hard issue due to the need to consider non-linearities of contact and friction, to solve the associated nonlinear dynamic problem and to calculate the noise emissions due to self-excited vibrations. In this work, the focus is on the calculation of the sound pressure in free space generated during squeal events. The calculation of the sound pressure can be performed by the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The inputs of this method are a boundary element model, a field of normal velocity characterized by a unique frequency. However, the field of velocity associated with friction-induced vibrations is composed of several harmonic components. So, the BEM equation has to be solved for each frequency and in most cases, the number of harmonic components is significant. Therefore, the computation time can be prohibitive. The reduction of the number of harmonic component is a key point for the quick estimation of the squeal noise. The proposed approach is based on the detection and the selection of the predominant harmonic components in the mean square velocity. It is applied on two cases of squeal and allows us to consider only few frequencies. In this study, a new method will be proposed in order to quickly well estimate the noise emission in free space. This approach will be based on an approximated acoustic power of brake system which is assumed to be a punctual source, an interpolated directivity and the decrease of the acoustic power levels. This method is applied on two classical cases of squeal with one and two unstable modes. It allows us to well reconstruct the acoustic power levels map. Several error estimators are introduced and show that the reconstructed field is close to the reference calculated with a complete BEM.

  7. Acoustic and vibration response of a structure with added noise control treatment under various excitations.

    PubMed

    Rhazi, Dilal; Atalla, Noureddine

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of the acoustic performance of noise control treatments is of great importance in many engineering applications, e.g., aircraft, automotive, and building acoustics applications. Numerical methods such as finite- and boundary elements allow for the study of complex structures with added noise control treatment. However, these methods are computationally expensive when used for complex structures. At an early stage of the acoustic trim design process, many industries look for simple and easy to use tools that provide sufficient physical insight that can help to formulate design criteria. The paper presents a simple and tractable approach for the acoustic design of noise control treatments. It presents and compares two transfer matrix-based methods to investigate the vibroacoustic behavior of noise control treatments. The first is based on a modal approach, while the second is based on wave-number space decomposition. In addition to the classical rain-on-the-roof and diffuse acoustic field excitations, the paper also addresses turbulent boundary layer and point source (monopole) excitations. Various examples are presented and compared to a finite element calculation to validate the methodology and to confirm its relevance along with its limitations. PMID:25234878

  8. Experimental investigation of shock-cell noise reduction for dual-stream nozzles in simulated flight comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Hoerst, D. J.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters which contribute to supersonic jet shock noise were investigated for the purpose of determining means to reduce such noise generation to acceptable levels. Six dual-stream test nozzles with varying flow passage and plug closure designs were evaluated under simulated flight conditions in an anechoic chamber. All nozzles had combined convergent-divergent or convergent flow passages. Acoustic behavior as a function of nozzle flow passage geometry was measured. The acoustic data consist primarily of 1/3 octave band sound pressure levels and overall sound pressure levels. Detailed schematics and geometric characteristics of the six scale model nozzle configurations and acoustic test point definitions are presented. Tabulation of aerodynamic test conditions and a computer listing of the measured acoustic data are displayed.

  9. Neural underpinnings of background acoustic noise in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Sinanaj, Indrit; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Herrmann, François; Santini, Francesco; Haller, Sven; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-12-01

    Previous contributions in younger cohorts have revealed that reallocation of cerebral resources, a crucial mechanism for working memory (WM), may be disrupted by parallel demands of background acoustic noise suppression. To date, no study has explored the impact of such disruption on brain activation in elderly individuals with or without subtle cognitive deficits. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in 23 cases (mean age=75.7 y.o., 16 men) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 elderly healthy controls (HC, mean age=70.1 y.o., three men) using a 2-back WM task, under two distinct MRI background acoustic noise conditions (louder vs. lower noise echo-planar imaging). General linear models were used to assess brain activation as a function of group and noise. In both groups, lower background noise is associated with increased activation of the working memory network (WMN). A decrease of the normally observed deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) is found under louder noise in both groups. Unlike HC, MCI cases also show decreased deactivation of the DMN under both louder and lower background noise. Under louder noise, this decrease is observed in anterior parts of the DMN in HC, and in the posterior cingulate cortex in MCI cases. Our results suggest that background acoustic noise has a differential impact on WMN activation in normal aging as a function of the cognitive status. Only louder noise has a disruptive effect on the usually observed DMN deactivation during WM task performance in HC. In contrast, MCI cases show altered DMN reactivity even in the presence of lower noise. PMID:26391923

  10. Acoustic wave generation by microwaves and applications to nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hosten, Bernard; Bacon, Christophe; Guilliorit, Emmanuel

    2002-05-01

    Although acoustic wave generation by electromagnetic waves has been widely studied in the case of laser-generated ultrasounds, the literature on acoustic wave generation by thermal effects due to electromagnetic microwaves is very sparse. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the phenomenon of microwave generation, i.e. radiation pressure, electrostriction or thermal expansion. Now it is known that the main cause is the thermal expansion due to the microwave absorption. This paper will review the recent advances in the theory and experiments that introduce a new way to generate ultrasonic waves without contact for the purpose of nondestructive evaluation and control. The unidirectional theory based on Maxwell's equations, heat equation and thermoviscoelasticity predicts the generation of acoustic waves at interfaces and inside stratified materials. Acoustic waves are generated by a pulsed electromagnetic wave or a burst at a chosen frequency such that materials can be excited with a broad or narrow frequency range. Experiments show the generation of acoustic waves in water, viscoelastic polymers and composite materials shaped as rod and plates. From the computed and measured accelerations at interfaces, the viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of materials such as polymers and composites can be evaluated (NDE). Preliminary examples of non-destructive testing applications are presented. PMID:12159977

  11. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  12. Arousal from sleep by noises from aircraft with and without acoustically treated nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukas, J. S.; Peeler, D. J.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The electroencephalographic and behavioral responses during sleep of four subjects, aged 46 to 58 years, to three types of noises were tested over 14 consecutive nights. The stimuli were two DC-8 jet landing noises (each 30 seconds in duration and coming from DC-8 aircraft with and without acoustical treatment on the engine nacelles) and a 4-second burst of pink noise. Each of the noises was tested at nominal intensities of 61 and 79 dBA. Other physical descriptors of the noises were measured or computed. The results indicate that for an equivalent degree of sleep disruption, noise form the jet aircraft with untreated nacelles must be about 6 dBA less intense than the jet with acoustically treated nacelles. Predictions of the effects of noise on sleep appear, tentatively, to attain the highest accuracy when the physical descriptor of noise intensity includes information about the impulsive characteristics of that noise as well as its long-term spectral content.

  13. Frequency-space prediction filtering for acoustic clutter and random noise attenuation in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Frequency-space prediction filtering (FXPF), also known as FX deconvolution, is a technique originally developed for random noise attenuation in seismic imaging. FXPF attempts to reduce random noise in seismic data by modeling only real signals that appear as linear or quasilinear events in the aperture domain. In medical ultrasound imaging, channel radio frequency (RF) signals from the main lobe appear as horizontal events after receive delays are applied while acoustic clutter signals from off-axis scatterers and electronic noise do not. Therefore, FXPF is suitable for preserving only the main-lobe signals and attenuating the unwanted contributions from clutter and random noise in medical ultrasound imaging. We adapt FXPF to ultrasound imaging, and evaluate its performance using simulated data sets from a point target and an anechoic cyst. Our simulation results show that using only 5 iterations of FXPF achieves contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements of 67 % in a simulated noise-free anechoic cyst and 228 % in a simulated anechoic cyst contaminated with random noise of 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our findings suggest that ultrasound imaging with FXPF attenuates contributions from both acoustic clutter and random noise and therefore, FXPF has great potential to improve ultrasound image contrast for better visualization of important anatomical structures and detection of diseased conditions.

  14. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Jet Noise Using an Acoustic Analogy and Steady RANS Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed to predict the noise from jet flows. It contains two source models that independently predict the noise from turbulence and shock wave shear layer interactions. The acoustic analogy is based on the Euler equations and separates the sources from propagation. Propagation effects are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. The sources are modeled following the work of Tam and Auriault, Morris and Boluriaan, and Morris and Miller. A statistical model of the two-point cross-correlation of the velocity fluctuations is used to describe the turbulence. The acoustic analogy attempts to take into account the correct scaling of the sources for a wide range of nozzle pressure and temperature ratios. It does not make assumptions regarding fine- or large-scale turbulent noise sources, self- or shear-noise, or convective amplification. The acoustic analogy is partially informed by three-dimensional steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions that include the nozzle geometry. The predictions are compared with experiments of jets operating subsonically through supersonically and at unheated and heated temperatures. Predictions generally capture the scaling of both mixing noise and BBSAN for the conditions examined, but some discrepancies remain that are due to the accuracy of the steady RANS turbulence model closure, the equivalent sources, and the use of a simplified vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations.

  15. Acoustic-optic spectrometer. 1: Noise contributions and system consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.

    1984-01-01

    An acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS) used as an IF spectrometer to a heterodyne receiver is modeled as a total power multi-channel integrating receiver. Systematic noise contributions common to all total power, time integrating receivers, as well as noise terms unique to the use of optical elements and photo-detectors in an AOS are identified and discussed. In addition, degradation of signal-to-noise ratio of an unbalanced Dicke receiver compared to a balanced Dicke receiver is found to be due to gain calibration processing and is not an instrumental effect.

  16. Acoustic Aspects of Photoacoustic Signal Generation and Detection in Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper photoacoustic signal generation and detection in gases is investigated and discussed from the standpoint of acoustics. Four topics are considered: the effect of the absorption-desorption process of modulated and pulsed light on the heat power density released in the gas; the generation of the primary sound by the released heat in an unbounded medium; the excitation of an acoustic resonator by the primary sound; and finally, the generation of the measurable PA signal by a microphone. When light is absorbed by a molecule and the excess energy is relaxed by collisions with the surrounding molecules, the average kinetic energy, thus also the temperature of an ensemble of molecules (called "particle" in acoustics) will increase. In other words heat energy is added to the energy of the particle. The rate of the energy transfer is characterized by the heat power density. A simple two-level model of absorption-desorption is applied for describing the heat power generation process for modulated and pulsed illumination. Sound generation by a laser beam in an unbounded medium is discussed by means of the Green's function technique. It is shown that the duration of the generated sound pulse depends mostly on beam geometry. A photoacoustic signal is mostly detected in a photoacoustic cell composed of acoustic resonators, buffers, filters, etc. It is not easy to interpret the measured PA signal in such a complicated acoustic system. The acoustic response of a PA detector to different kinds of excitations (modulated cw, pulsed, periodic pulse train) is discussed. It is shown that acoustic resonators respond very differently to modulated cw excitation and to excitation by a pulse train. The microphone for detecting the PA signal is also a part of the acoustic system; its properties have to be taken into account by the design of a PA detector. The moving membrane of the microphone absorbs acoustic energy; thus, it may influence the resonance frequency and

  17. Background noise cancellation for improved acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2005-06-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of an increase in the number of collisions with boats. A device to alert boaters of the presence of manatees, so that a collision can be avoided, is desired. A practical implementation of the technology is dependent on the hydrophone spacing and range of detection. These parameters are primarily dependent on the manatee vocalization strength, the decay of the signal's strength with distance, and the background noise levels. An efficient method to extend the detection range by using background noise cancellation is proposed in this paper. An adaptive line enhancer (ALE) that can detect and track narrow band signals buried in broadband noise is implemented to cancel the background noise. The results indicate that the ALE algorithm can efficiently extract the manatee calls from the background noise. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the signal can be used to extend the range of detection of manatee vocalizations and reduce the false alarm and missing detection rate in their natural habitat. PMID:16018460

  18. Background noise cancellation for improved acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of an increase in the number of collisions with boats. A device to alert boaters of the presence of manatees, so that a collision can be avoided, is desired. Practical implementation of the technology is dependent on the hydrophone spacing and range of detection. These parameters are primarily dependent on the manatee vocalization strength, the decay of the signal strength with distance, and the background noise levels. An efficient method to extend the detection range by using background noise cancellation is proposed in this paper. An adaptive line enhancer (ALE) that can detect and track narrowband signals buried in broadband noise is implemented to cancel the background noise. The results indicate that the ALE algorithm can efficiently extract the manatee calls from the background noise. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the signal can be used to extend the range of detection of manatee vocalizations and reduce the false alarm and missing detection rate in their natural habitat.

  19. Background noise cancellation for improved acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2005-06-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of an increase in the number of collisions with boats. A device to alert boaters of the presence of manatees, so that a collision can be avoided, is desired. A practical implementation of the technology is dependent on the hydrophone spacing and range of detection. These parameters are primarily dependent on the manatee vocalization strength, the decay of the signal's strength with distance, and the background noise levels. An efficient method to extend the detection range by using background noise cancellation is proposed in this paper. An adaptive line enhancer (ALE) that can detect and track narrow band signals buried in broadband noise is implemented to cancel the background noise. The results indicate that the ALE algorithm can efficiently extract the manatee calls from the background noise. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the signal can be used to extend the range of detection of manatee vocalizations and reduce the false alarm and missing detection rate in their natural habitat. .

  20. Generation of currents in the solar atmosphere by acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riutov, D. D.; Riutova, M. P.

    The novel mechanism presented for current and magnetic field generation by acoustic-wave fluxes in solar plasmas is especially potent in the region where acoustic-wave damping is due to such nonlinear effects as weak-shock formation. An evaluation is made of the significance of this effect for the solar atmosphere, under the proviso that this treatment is restricted to effects due to the usual acoustic waves. Wave absorption is governed by the classical collisional effects of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and ohmic losses.

  1. Numerical analysis of tonal airfoil self-noise and acoustic feedback-loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lloyd E.; Sandberg, Richard D.

    2011-12-01

    In this study the role of acoustic feedback instabilities in the tonal airfoil self-noise phenomenon is investigated. First, direct numerical simulations are conducted of the flow around a NACA-0012 airfoil at Re=1×105 and four angles of attack. At the two lowest angles of attack considered the airfoil self-noise exhibits a clear tonal contribution, whereas at the two higher angles of attack the tonal contribution becomes less significant in comparison to the broadband noise. Classical linear stability analysis of time-averaged boundary layer profiles shows that the tonal noise occurs at a frequency significantly lower than that of the most convectively amplified instability wave. Two-dimensional linear stability analysis of the time-averaged flowfield is then performed, illustrating the presence of an acoustic feedback loop involving the airfoil trailing edge. The feedback loop is found to be unstable only for the cases where tonal self-noise is prominent, and is found to self-select a frequency almost identical to that of the tonal self-noise. The constituent mechanisms of the acoustic feedback loop are considered, which appear to explain why the preferred frequency is lower than that of the most convectively amplified instability wave.

  2. Rotating rake design for unique measurement of fan-generated spinning acoustic modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.

    1993-01-01

    In light of the current emphasis on noise reduction in subsonic aircraft design, NASA has been actively studying the source of and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. NASA/LeRC has developed and tested a unique method of accurately measuring these spinning acoustic modes generated by an experimental fan. This mode measuring method is based on the use of a rotating microphone rake. Testing was conducted in the 9 x 15 Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The rotating rake was tested with the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. This memorandum discusses the design and performance of the motor/drive system for the fan-synchronized rotating acoustic rake. This novel motor/drive design approach is now being adapted for additional acoustic mode studies in new test rigs as baseline data for the future design of active noise control for subsonic fan engines. Included in this memorandum are the research requirements, motor/drive specifications, test performance results, and a description of the controls and software involved.

  3. Source Localization with Acoustic Sensor Arrays Using Generative Model Based Fitting with Sparse Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Jose; Pizarro, Daniel; Macias-Guarasa, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for indoor acoustic source localization using sensor arrays. The proposed solution starts by defining a generative model, designed to explain the acoustic power maps obtained by Steered Response Power (SRP) strategies. An optimization approach is then proposed to fit the model to real input SRP data and estimate the position of the acoustic source. Adequately fitting the model to real SRP data, where noise and other unmodelled effects distort the ideal signal, is the core contribution of the paper. Two basic strategies in the optimization are proposed. First, sparse constraints in the parameters of the model are included, enforcing the number of simultaneous active sources to be limited. Second, subspace analysis is used to filter out portions of the input signal that cannot be explained by the model. Experimental results on a realistic speech database show statistically significant localization error reductions of up to 30% when compared with the SRP-PHAT strategies. PMID:23202021

  4. Turbulence generated by a gas of electron acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dubouloz, N.; Pottelette, R.; Malingre, M.; Treumann, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    The authors consider a gas of electron acoustic solitons propagating in a magnetized plasma, such as the auroral region. They show that such modes can exist, and propagate, and that the velocities and amplitudes of such waves, consistent with measured plasma density and temperature, are capable of explaining the high frequency part of the broadband electrostatic noise observed by the Viking satellite, which is in a spectral region forbidden to linear electrostatic waves.

  5. Relationships between non-acoustic factors and subjective reactions to floor impact noise in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Yang, Kwan Seop; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of how residents in apartment buildings perceive and react to impact sounds coming from the upstairs neighbours' dwellings. Based on existing theoretical and empirical studies on environmental noise, a conceptual model was developed to explain relationships among noise annoyance and non-acoustic factors. The model was then tested using structural equation modelling with survey data from residents living in apartment buildings (N = 487). The findings showed that the conceptual model was consistent with other models developed for environmental noises. The results indicated that annoyance induced by floor impact noise was associated with perceived disturbance, coping, and self-reported health complaints. Noise sensitivity had a direct impact on perceived disturbance and an indirect impact on annoyance, and moderating variables affected the non-acoustic factors. Exposure to footstep noises increased the impact size of noise sensitivity to disturbance. Predictability, marital status, and house ownership were found to influence the relationship between attitudes towards authorities and coping. In addition, a negative attitude towards neighbours (i.e., the noise source) moderated the positive relationship between annoyance and coping. PMID:27036252

  6. Structural sensing of interior sound for active control of noise in structural-acoustic cavities.

    PubMed

    Bagha, Ashok K; Modak, S V

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a method for structural sensing of acoustic potential energy for active control of noise in a structural-acoustic cavity. The sensing strategy aims at global control and works with a fewer number of sensors. It is based on the established concept of radiation modes and hence does not add too many states to the order of the system. Acoustic potential energy is sensed using a combination of a Kalman filter and a frequency weighting filter with the structural response measurements as the inputs. The use of Kalman filter also makes the system robust against measurement noise. The formulation of the strategy is presented using finite element models of the system including that of sensors and actuators so that it can be easily applied to practical systems. The sensing strategy is numerically evaluated in the framework of Linear Quadratic Gaussian based feedback control of interior noise in a rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate with single and multiple pairs of piezoelectric sensor-actuator patches when broadband disturbances act on the plate. The performance is compared with an "acoustic filter" that models the complete transfer function from the structure to the acoustic domain. The sensing performance is also compared with a direct estimation strategy. PMID:26233001

  7. Jet Aeroacoustics: Noise Generation Mechanism and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the third year research effort of the project. The research work focussed on the fine scale mixing noise of both subsonic and supersonic jets and the effects of nozzle geometry and tabs on subsonic jet noise. In publication 1, a new semi-empirical theory of jet mixing noise from fine scale turbulence is developed. By an analogy to gas kinetic theory, it is shown that the source of noise is related to the time fluctuations of the turbulence kinetic theory. On starting with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a formula for the radiated noise is derived. An empirical model of the space-time correlation function of the turbulence kinetic energy is adopted. The form of the model is in good agreement with the space-time two-point velocity correlation function measured by Davies and coworkers. The parameters of the correlation are related to the parameters of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Thus the theory is self-contained. Extensive comparisons between the computed noise spectrum of the theory and experimental measured have been carried out. The parameters include jet Mach number from 0.3 to 2.0 and temperature ratio from 1.0 to 4.8. Excellent agreements are found in the spectrum shape, noise intensity and directivity. It is envisaged that the theory would supercede all semi-empirical and totally empirical jet noise prediction methods in current use.

  8. Wind Turbine Acoustic Investigation: Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Stephen E.; Rand, Robert W.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the…

  9. Flap Side-Edge Noise: Acoustic Analysis of Sen's Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Martin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The two-dimensional flap side-edge flow model developed by Sen is analyzed to reveal the noise production potential of the proposed mechanism. The model assumes that a vortex will form at the equilibrium position off the side edge of the flap. The vortex is then perturbed away from the equilibrium position by incoming turbulence causing it to oscillate and thus radiate sound. The noise field is calculated three-dimensionally by taking the flap to have a finite chord. Spectra and directivity of the farfield sound are presented. In addition, the effect of retarded time differences is evaluated. The parameters in the model are related to typical aircraft parameters and noise reduction possibilities are proposed.

  10. A hybrid SEA/modal technique for modeling structural-acoustic interior noise in rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandran, V.; Bonilha, M. W.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a hybrid technique that combines Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions for structural vibration with acoustic modal summation techniques to predict interior noise levels in rotorcraft. The method was applied for predicting the sound field inside a mock-up of the interior panel system of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. The vibration amplitudes of the frame and panel systems were predicted using a detailed SEA model and these were used as inputs to the model of the interior acoustic space. The spatial distribution of the vibration field on individual panels, and their coupling to the acoustic space were modeled using stochastic techniques. Leakage and nonresonant transmission components were accounted for using space-averaged values obtained from a SEA model of the complete structural-acoustic system. Since the cabin geometry was quite simple, the modeling of the interior acoustic space was performed using a standard modal summation technique. Sound pressure levels predicted by this approach at specific microphone locations were compared with measured data. Agreement within 3 dB in one-third octave bands above 40 Hz was observed. A large discrepancy in the one-third octave band in which the first acoustic mode is resonant (31.5 Hz) was observed. Reasons for such a discrepancy are discussed in the paper. The developed technique provides a method for modeling helicopter cabin interior noise in the frequency mid-range where neither FEA nor SEA is individually effective or accurate.

  11. Aero-acoustic performance comparison of core engine noise suppressors on NASA quiet engine C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The relative aero-acoustic effectiveness of two core engine suppressors, a contractor-designed suppressor delivered with the Quiet Engine, and a NASA-designed suppressor was evaluated. The NASA suppressor was tested with and without a splitter making a total of three configurations being reported in addition to the baseline hardwall case. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of tailpipe pressure loss, corrected net thrust, and corrected specific fuel consumption as functions of engine power setting. The acoustic results are divided into duct and far-field acoustic data. The NASA-designed core suppressor did the better job of suppressing aft end noise, but the splitter associated with it caused a significant engine performance penality. The NASA core suppressor without the spltter suppressed most of the core noise without any engine performance penalty.

  12. Aero-acoustic performance comparison of core engine noise suppressors on NASA quiet engine 'C'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experimental program reported herein was to evaluate and compare the relative aero-acoustic effectiveness of two core engine suppressors, a contractor-designed suppressor delivered with the Quiet Engine, and a NASA-designed suppressor, designed and built subsequently. The NASA suppressor was tested with and without a splitter making a total of three configurations being reported in addition to the baseline hardwall case. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of tailpipe pressure loss, corrected net thrust, and corrected specific fuel consumption as functions of engine power setting. The acoustic results are divided into duct and far-field acoustic data. The NASA-designed core suppressor did the better job of suppressing aft end noise, but the splitter associated with it caused a significant engine performance penalty. The NASA core suppressor without the splitter suppressed most of the core noise without any engine performance penalty.

  13. Listening to the Deep: live monitoring of ocean noise and cetacean acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    André, M; van der Schaar, M; Zaugg, S; Houégnigan, L; Sánchez, A M; Castell, J V

    2011-01-01

    The development and broad use of passive acoustic monitoring techniques have the potential to help assessing the large-scale influence of artificial noise on marine organisms and ecosystems. Deep-sea observatories have the potential to play a key role in understanding these recent acoustic changes. LIDO (Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment) is an international project that is allowing the real-time long-term monitoring of marine ambient noise as well as marine mammal sounds at cabled and standalone observatories. Here, we present the overall development of the project and the use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) techniques to provide the scientific community with real-time data at large spatial and temporal scales. Special attention is given to the extraction and identification of high frequency cetacean echolocation signals given the relevance of detecting target species, e.g. beaked whales, in mitigation processes, e.g. during military exercises. PMID:21665016

  14. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  15. Effects of noise and acoustics in schools on vocal health in teachers.

    PubMed

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of noise and acoustics in the classroom on voice symptoms among teachers have exclusively relied on self-reports. Since self-reported physical conditions may be biased, it is important to determine the role of objective measurements of noise and acoustics in the presence of voice symptoms. To assess the association between objectively measured and self-reported physical conditions at school with the presence of voice symptoms among teachers. In 12 public schools in Bogotα, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 Colombian school workers at 377 workplaces. After signed the informed consent, participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice symptoms in the past month. Short-term environmental measurements of sound levels, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between work-related factors and voice symptoms. High noise levels outside schools (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.99) and self-reported poor acoustics at the workplace (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88-3.53) were associated with voice symptoms. We found poor agreement between the objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions at the workplace. This study indicates that noise and acoustics may play a role in the occurrence of voice symptoms among teachers. The poor agreement between objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions indicate that these are different entities, which argue for inclusion of physical measurements of the working environment in studies on the influence of noise and acoustics on vocal health. PMID:25599754

  16. Effects of noise and acoustics in schools on vocal health in teachers

    PubMed Central

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of noise and acoustics in the classroom on voice symptoms among teachers have exclusively relied on self-reports. Since self-reported physical conditions may be biased, it is important to determine the role of objective measurements of noise and acoustics in the presence of voice symptoms. To assess the association between objectively measured and self-reported physical conditions at school with the presence of voice symptoms among teachers. In 12 public schools in Bogotá, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 Colombian school workers at 377 workplaces. After signed the informed consent, participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice symptoms in the past month. Short-term environmental measurements of sound levels, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between work-related factors and voice symptoms. High noise levels outside schools (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.99) and self-reported poor acoustics at the workplace (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88–3.53) were associated with voice symptoms. We found poor agreement between the objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions at the workplace. This study indicates that noise and acoustics may play a role in the occurrence of voice symptoms among teachers. The poor agreement between objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions indicate that these are different entities, which argue for inclusion of physical measurements of the working environment in studies on the influence of noise and acoustics on vocal health. PMID:25599754

  17. An investigation of acoustic noise requirements for the Space Station centrifuge facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic noise emissions from the Space Station Freedom (SSF) centrifuge facility hardware represent a potential technical and programmatic risk to the project. The SSF program requires that no payload exceed a Noise Criterion 40 (NC-40) noise contour in any octave band between 63 Hz and 8 kHz as measured 2 feet from the equipment item. Past experience with life science experiment hardware indicates that this requirement will be difficult to meet. The crew has found noise levels on Spacelab flights to be unacceptably high. Many past Ames Spacelab life science payloads have required waivers because of excessive noise. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop an understanding of acoustic measurement theory, instruments, and technique, and (2) to characterize the noise emission of analogous Facility components and previously flown flight hardware. Test results from existing hardware were reviewed and analyzed. Measurements of the spectral and intensity characteristics of fans and other rotating machinery were performed. The literature was reviewed and contacts were made with NASA and industry organizations concerned with or performing research on noise control.

  18. The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  19. Extraction of Stoneley and acoustic Rayleigh waves from ambient noise on ocean bottom observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the interferometry, the wavefield propagating between two positions can be retrieved by correlating ambient noise recorded on the two positions. This approach is useful for applying to various kinds of wavefield, such as ultrasonic, acoustic (ocean acoustic), and also seismology. Off the Kii Peninsula, Japan, more than 150 short-period (4.5 Hz) seismometers, in which hydrophone is also cosited, had been deployed for ~2 months on 2012 by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) as a part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. In this study, correlating ambient noise recorded on the sensors and hydrophones, we attempt to investigate characteristics of wavefield relative to the ocean, sediment, and solid-fluid boundary. The observation period is from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2012. Station spacing is around 5 km. For 5 lines off the Kii Peninsula, the 30-40 seismometers are distributed at each line. Sampling interval is 200 Hz for both seismometer and hydrophone. The vertical component is just used in this study for correlation analysis. The instruments are located at 100-4800 m in water depth. In the processing for the both records, we applied a bandpass filter of 1-3 Hz, replaced the amplitude to zero if it exceeds a value that was set in this study, and took one-bit normalization. We calculated cross-correlation function (CCF) by using continuous records with a time length of 600 s, stacked the CCFs over the whole observation period. As a result of the analysis for hydrophone, a strong peak can be seen in the CCF for pairs of stations where the separation distance is ~5 km. Although the peak emerges in the CCFs for the separation distance up to 10 km, it disappears in the case that two stations are greater than 15 km separated. As a next approach, along a line off the Kii Peninsula, we aligned CCFs for two stations with

  20. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  1. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  2. Reduction of gradient acoustic noise in MRI using SENSE-EPI.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Kellman, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H

    2002-08-01

    A new approach to reduce gradient acoustic noise levels in EPI experiments is presented. Using multichannel RF receive coils, combined with SENSE data acquisition and reconstruction, gradient slew-rates in single-shot EPI were reduced fourfold for rate-2 and ninefold for rate-3 SENSE. Multislice EPI experiments were performed on three different scanner platforms. With 3.4 mm in-plane resolution, measuring 6 slices per second (12 slices with 2000 ms TR), this resulted in average sound pressure level reductions of 11.3 dB(A) and 16.5 dB(A) for rate-2 and rate-3 SENSE, respectively. BOLD fMRI experiments, using visually paced finger-tapping paradigms, showed no detrimental effect of the acoustic noise reduction strategy on temporal noise levels and t scores. PMID:12202101

  3. Hunting at the highway: traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in acoustic predators.

    PubMed

    Siemers, Björn M; Schaub, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Noise pollution from human traffic networks and industrial activity impacts vast areas of our planet. While anthropogenic noise effects on animal communication are well documented, we have very limited understanding of noise impact on more complex ecosystem processes, such as predator-prey interactions, albeit urgently needed to devise mitigation measures. Here, we show that traffic noise decreases the foraging efficiency of an acoustic predator, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis). These bats feed on large, ground-running arthropods that they find by listening to their faint rustling sounds. We measured the bats' foraging performance on a continuous scale of acoustically simulated highway distances in a behavioural experiment, designed to rule out confounding factors such as general noise avoidance. Successful foraging bouts decreased and search time drastically increased with proximity to the highway. At 7.5 m to the road, search time was increased by a factor of five. From this increase, we predict a 25-fold decrease in surveyed ground area and thus in foraging efficiency for a wild bat. As most of the bats' prey are predators themselves, the noise impact on the bats' foraging performance will have complex effects on the food web and ultimately on the ecosystem stability. Similar scenarios apply to other ecologically important and highly protected acoustic predators, e.g. owls. Our study provides the empirical basis for quantitative predictions of anthropogenic noise impacts on ecosystem processes. It highlights that an understanding of the effects of noise emissions and other forms of 'sensory pollution' are crucially important for the assessment of environmental impact of human activities. PMID:21084347

  4. Noise reduction of a composite cylinder subjected to random acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Beyer, T.

    1989-04-01

    Interior and exterior noise measurements were conducted on a stiffened composite floor-equipped cylinder, with and without an interior trim installed. Noise reduction was obtained for the case of random acoustic excitation in a diffuse field; the frequency range of interest was 100-800-Hz one-third octave bands. The measured data were compared with noise reduction predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) program and from a statistical energy analysis. Structural model parameters were not predicted well by the PAIN program for the given input parameters; this resulted in incorrect noise reduction predictions for the lower one-third octave bands where the power flow into the interior of the cylinder was predicted on a mode-per-mode basis.

  5. Noise reduction of a composite cylinder subjected to random acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Beyer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Interior and exterior noise measurements were conducted on a stiffened composite floor-equipped cylinder, with and without an interior trim installed. Noise reduction was obtained for the case of random acoustic excitation in a diffuse field; the frequency range of interest was 100-800-Hz one-third octave bands. The measured data were compared with noise reduction predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) program and from a statistical energy analysis. Structural model parameters were not predicted well by the PAIN program for the given input parameters; this resulted in incorrect noise reduction predictions for the lower one-third octave bands where the power flow into the interior of the cylinder was predicted on a mode-per-mode basis.

  6. Numerical simulation of flow generated noise of a hydrofoil at Re = 1.9M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalighi, Yaser; Moin, Parviz; Ham, Frank

    2007-11-01

    The goal of present work is to study the nature of broadband noise generated by flow of practical interest. With this objective, flow over trailing of a hydrofoil at chord Reynolds number of 1.9 Million is considered. This flow configuration includes practical complexities such as turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, turbulent wake and irregular geometry. An incompressible formulation with 2nd order, non-dissipative numerical scheme is applied to calculate the hydrodynamic noise sources. Flow scales are fully resolved in the boundary layers and in the vicinity of the trailing edge resulting in a 100M grid point unstructured computational domain. Lighthill's acoustics analogy with a boundary element formulation is applied to accurately predict the propagation and scattering of acoustics waves. The large unstructured grid is generated by the recursive refinement of a coarser grid, facilitating solution verification of both the flow and noise calculation by a grid convergence study. The results will be validated by comparison to hot-wire flow measurements from Michigan State University as well as acoustics measurements from an anechoic chamber at Notre Dame University.

  7. Acoustic theory of axisymmetric multisectioned ducts. [reduction of turbofan engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are developed for the acoustic field in a duct system which is made up of a number of connected circular and annular ducts. These equations are suitable for finding the acoustic field inside of and radiated from an aircraft turbofan engine. Acoustic modes are used as generalized coordinates in order to develop a set of matrix equations for the acoustic field. Equations for these modes are given for circular and annular ducts with uniform flow. Modal source equations are derived for point acoustic sources. General equations for mode transmission and reflection are developed and detailed equations are derived for ducts with multiple sections of acoustic treatment and for ducts with circumferential splitter rings. The general theory is applied to the special case of a uniform area circular duct with multisection liners and it is shown that the mode reflection effects are proportional to differences of the acoustic admittances of adjacent liners. A numerical example is given which shows that multisection liners may provide greater noise suppression than uniform liners.

  8. Study on predicative evaluation method of noise generated by engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Nobuo; Mihara, Akira; Suwa, Junichi

    1995-12-31

    The engine noise accounts for a relatively large percentage among the noises generated by a motorcycle. Among the Parts of the engine, the cover is important in design as well as a source of the engine noise, being at the end of the vibration transfer path. This paper clarifies that the natural frequency of the cover with a flat surface clearly affects its vibration and noise radiation and by a modal analysis of its vibration characteristics. In addition, the authors confirmed that the calculated value of the radiated noise from the cover agrees well with the measured value.

  9. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  10. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  11. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-04-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  12. Sediment-generated noise (SGN): Comparison with physical bedload measurements in a small semi-arid watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive acoustic techniques for the measurement of Sediment-Generated Noise (SGN) in gravel-bed rivers present a promising alternative to traditional bedload measurement techniques. Where traditional methods are often prohibitively costly, particularly in labor requirements, and produce point-scale ...

  13. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations. PMID:12880062

  14. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of noise-induced acoustic habitat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Jennifer Beissinger

    Anthropogenic threats are facilitating rapid environmental change and exerting novel pressures on the integrity of ecological patterns and processes. Currently, habitat loss is the leading factor contributing to global biodiversity loss. Noise created by human activities is nearly ubiquitous in terrestrial and marine systems, and causes acoustic habitat loss by interfering with species' abilities to freely send and receive critical acoustic biological information. My dissertation investigates how novel sounds from human activities affect ecological and evolutionary processes in space and time in marine and terrestrial systems, and how species may cope with this emerging novel pressure. Using species from both marine and terrestrial systems, I present results from a theoretical investigation, and four acoustic playback experiments combining laboratory studies and field trials, that reveal a range of eco-evolutionary consequences of noiseinduced acoustic habitat loss. First, I use sound propagation modeling to assess how marine shipping noise reduces communication space between mother-calf pairs of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis ), an important unit of an endangered species. I show that shipping noise poses significant challenges for mother-calf pairs, but that vocal compensation strategies can substantially improve communication space. Next, in a series of acoustic playback experiments I show that road traffic noise impairs breeding migration behavior and physiology of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus ). This work reveals the first evidence that traffic noise elicits a physiological stress response and suppresses production of antimicrobial peptides (a component of the innate immune response) in anurans. Further, wood frogs from populations with a history of inhabiting noisy sites mounted reduced physiological stress responses to continuous traffic noise exposure. This research using wood frogs suggests that chronic traffic noise exposure has

  15. Anisotropic Swirling Surface Acoustic Waves from Inverse Filtering for On-Chip Generation of Acoustic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    2015-09-01

    From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.

  16. Ocean acoustic remote sensing using ambient noise: results from the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. G.; Godin, O. A.; Zang, X.; Ball, J. S.; Zabotin, N. A.; Zabotina, L. Y.; Williams, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Noise interferometry is the process by which approximations to acoustic Green's functions, which describe sound propagation between two locations, are estimated by cross-correlating time series of ambient noise measured at those locations. Noise-interferometry-based approximations to Green's functions can be used as the basis for a variety of inversion algorithms, thereby providing a purely passive alternative to active-source ocean acoustic remote sensing. In this paper we give an overview of results from noise interferometry experiments conducted in the Florida Straits at 100 m depth in December 2012, and at 600 m depth in September/October 2013. Under good conditions for noise interferometry, estimates of cross-correlation functions are shown to allow one to perform advanced phase-coherent signal processing techniques to perform waveform inversions, estimate currents by exploiting non-reciprocity, perform time-reversal/back-propagation calculations and investigate modal dispersion using time-warping techniques. Conditions which are favourable for noise interferometry are identified and discussed.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Acoustic Measurements from the NASA-Gulfstream Airframe Noise Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David D.; Humphreys, Willliam M.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Van De Ven, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The NASA-Gulfstream joint Airframe Noise Flight Test program was conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility during October, 2006. The primary objective of the AFN flight test was to acquire baseline airframe noise data on a regional jet class of transport in order to determine noise source strengths and distributions for model validation. To accomplish this task, two measuring systems were used: a ground-based microphone array and individual microphones. Acoustic data for a Gulfstream G550 aircraft were acquired over the course of ten days. Over twenty-four test conditions were flown. The test matrix was designed to provide an acoustic characterization of both the full aircraft and individual airframe components and included cruise to landing configurations. Noise sources were isolated by selectively deploying individual components (flaps, main landing gear, nose gear, spoilers, etc.) and altering the airspeed, glide path, and engine settings. The AFN flight test program confirmed that the airframe is a major contributor to the noise from regional jets during landing operations. Sound pressure levels from the individual microphones on the ground revealed the flap system to be the dominant airframe noise source for the G550 aircraft. The corresponding array beamform maps showed that most of the radiated sound from the flaps originates from the side edges. Using velocity to the sixth power and Strouhal scaling of the sound pressure spectra obtained at different speeds failed to collapse the data into a single spectrum. The best data collapse was obtained when the frequencies were left unscaled.

  18. Efficiency of a Noise Barrier on the Ground with AN Acoustically Soft Cylindrical Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, T.; Fujiwara, K.

    1998-10-01

    It is well known that an absorptive obstacle installed on the edge of a noise barrier improves sound shielding efficiency without increasing the height of the barrier. This paper examines the sound shielding efficiency of a noise barrier with an acoustically “soft” cylindrical edge. “Soft” indicates that the sound pressure at the surface is zero; however, it is difficult to produce a soft surface using traditional materials. The authors previously reported that the “Waterwheel cylinder,” which consists of acoustic tubes arranged radially, approximates a soft surface cylinder. In the present study, a noise barrier with a Waterwheel cylinder installed on the edge of the barrier is investigated. Results of numerical simulations indicated that the Waterwheel cylinder improves the sound shielding efficiency of a noise barrier. The improvement is strongly frequency dependent; it exceeds 10 dB in a certain frequency range of an octave, but the Waterwheel decreases the noise shielding efficiency in another frequency range. The frequency characteristics of the waterwheel's effects are related to its self cross-sectional shape. The Waterwheel improves the efficiency much better in the effective frequency range of an octave as compared with an absorbing cylinder. All numerical calculations were carried out assuming an unrealistic two-dimensional sound field, but results of scale model experiments indicate that the calculations predict very accurately the efficiency of noise barriers in a three-dimensional sound field.

  19. On acoustic wave generation in uniform shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoberidze, G.

    2016-07-01

    The linear dynamics of acoustic waves and vortices in uniform shear flow is studied. For flows with very low shear rates, the dynamics of perturbations is adiabatic and can be described by the WKB approximation. However, for flows with moderate and high shear rates the WKB approximation is not appropriate, and alternative analysis shows that two important phenomena occur: acoustic wave over-reflection and wave generation by vortices. The later phenomenon is a known linear mechanisms for sound generation in shear flows, a mechanism that is related to the continuous spectrum that arises in linear shear flow dynamics. A detailed analytical study of these phenomena is performed and the main quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiated acoustic field are obtained and analyzed.

  20. Nucleosomal promoter variation generates gene expression noise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher R.; Boeger, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Gene product molecule numbers fluctuate over time and between cells, confounding deterministic expectations. The molecular origins of this noise of gene expression remain unknown. Recent EM analysis of single PHO5 gene molecules of yeast indicated that promoter molecules stochastically assume alternative nucleosome configurations at steady state, including the fully nucleosomal and nucleosome-free configuration. Given that distinct configurations are unequally conducive to transcription, the nucleosomal variation of promoter molecules may constitute a source of gene expression noise. This notion, however, implies an untested conjecture, namely that the nucleosomal variation arises de novo or intrinsically (i.e., that it cannot be explained as the result of the promoter’s deterministic response to variation in its molecular surroundings). Here, we show—by microscopically analyzing the nucleosome configurations of two juxtaposed physically linked PHO5 promoter copies—that the configurational variation, indeed, is intrinsically stochastic and thus, a cause of gene expression noise rather than its effect. PMID:25468975

  1. Copula filtration of spoken language signals on the background of acoustic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchenko, Lilia V.; Sinitsyn, Rustem B.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the filtration of acoustic signals on the background of acoustic noise. Signal filtering is done with the help of a nonlinear analogue of a correlation function - a copula. The copula is estimated with the help of kernel estimates of the cumulative distribution function. At the second stage we suggest a new procedure of adaptive filtering. The silence and sound intervals are detected before the filtration with the help of nonparametric algorithm. The results are confirmed by experimental processing of spoken language signals.

  2. Acoustically Generated Flow and Temperature Fields in a Rectangular Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Bakhtier; Oran, Elaine

    1998-11-01

    Flows induced by a vibrating transducer in a gas-filled two-dimensional cavity are investigated by solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The transducer (driver) is located along the left vertical wall of the cavity whereas the right rigid wall acts as an acoustic reflector. Both the left and right vertical walls of the cavity are considered to be conducting (isothermal) walls. The top and the bottom walls are insulated. The frequency of the driver was varied between 10 and 500 kHz. The length of the cavity was adjusted such that standing waves are formed within the cavity, which in turn create well defined vortical flows (acoustic streaming. The characteristics of the two-dimensional acoustically generated flows are studied systematically by varying the frequency and amplitude of the motion of the transducer and the aspect ratio of the cavity. The result exhibit organized flow structures within the cavity and the existence of lateral temperature gradients. Such acoustically induced temperature gradients are essential in the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The effect of cooling or heating the reflector wall on the acoustically generated flows are also investigated. Long time solutions of the governing equations exhibit the existence of pseudo-steady oscillatory flow conditions.

  3. Microfluidic generation of acoustically active nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Martz, Thomas D; Bardin, David; Sheeran, Paul S; Lee, Abraham P; Dayton, Paul A

    2012-06-25

    A microfluidic approach for the generation of perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as the primary emulsion with diameters as small as 300-400 nm is described. The system uses a pressure-controlled delivery of all reagents and increased viscosity in the continuous phase to drive the device into an advanced tip-streaming regime, which results in generation of droplets in the sub-micrometer range. Such nanodroplets may be appropriate for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:22467628

  4. Acoustic background noise variation in Air Force platforms and its effect on noise removal algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafollette, Philip A.

    1991-06-01

    In this study of short-term noise variation in Air Force platforms, we followed two avenues of investigation. First, we applied quantitative measures of variation to individual noise recordings, and compared the results across various aircraft. Some measures used were simple descriptive statistics, but we also measured attenuation obtained by spectral restoration (spectral subtraction), applied to the noise signal alone. The noise attenuation obtained for real aircraft environments was in most cases about the same as predicted theoretically for white Gaussian noise, but in some instances was considerably higher, especially in the presence of propeller noise. Second, we applied the nonparametric Mann-Whitney statistic to test the stationarity of power spectrum estimates on time scales of 200 to 800 ms. There was little or no evidence of nonstationarity in large jet or turboprop aircraft. In fighter aircraft and helicopters, there was some evidence of nonstationarity confined to more or less narrow frequency ranges. The nonstationarity found did not appear to limit the performance of special restoration algorithms. The noise recordings used were taken from the RADC/EEV database of field recordings made in the E-3A, E-4B, EC-135, E-130, P-3C, F-15, F-16, F-4, A-10, HH-53 and Tornado aircraft.

  5. Noise affects the shape of female preference functions for acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The shape of female mate preference functions influences the speed and direction of sexual signal evolution. However, the expression of female preferences is modulated by interactions between environmental conditions and the female's sensory processing system. Noise is an especially relevant environmental condition because it interferes directly with the neural processing of signals. Although noise is therefore likely a significant force in the evolution of communication systems, little is known about its effects on preference function shape. In the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus, female preferences for male calling song characteristics are likely to be affected by noise because its auditory system is sensitive to fine temporal details of songs. We measured female preference functions for variation in male song characteristics in several levels of masking noise and found strong effects of noise on preference function shape. The overall responsiveness to signals in noise generally decreased. Preference strength increased for some signal characteristics and decreased for others, largely corresponding to expectations based on neurophysiological studies of acoustic signal processing. These results suggest that different signal characteristics will be favored under different noise conditions, and thus that signal evolution may proceed differently depending on the extent and temporal patterning of environmental noise. PMID:25546134

  6. The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.

  7. An electro-acoustical technique for the detection of knee joint noise.

    PubMed

    Chu, M L; Gradisar, I A; Railey, M R; Bowling, G F

    1976-01-01

    Distinguishing acoustical signatures of sound emitted by normal and pathological knee joints are picked up using a double microphone-differential amplifier setup. Extraneous background noise is minimized using the principle of "noise cancellation". Two identical sensitive condenser microphones and an F.M. recorder with flat responses in the audio range were used. Preliminary studies covering normal and diseased knee joints showed that their respective waveforms and spectral patterns are unique and proved to be a promising nondestructive diagnostic tool for early detection of knee joint cartilage damage. PMID:957922

  8. Nonlinear acoustic propagation of launch vehicle and military jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Kent L.

    2010-10-01

    The noise from launch vehicles and high-performance military jet aircraft has been shown to travel nonlinearly as a result of an amplitude-dependent speed of sound. Because acoustic pressure compressions travel faster than rarefactions, the waveform steepens and shocks form. This process results in a very different (and readily audible) noise signature and spectrum than predicted by linear models. On-going efforts to characterize the nonlinearity using statistical and spectral measures are described with examples from recent static tests of solid rocket boosters and the F-22 Raptor.

  9. Theoretical vibro-acoustic modeling of acoustic noise transmission through aircraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fully vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission across a multi-pane aircraft window is developed. The proposed model is efficiently applied for a set of window models to perform extensive theoretical parametric studies. The studied window configurations generally simulate the passenger window designs of modern aircraft classes which have an exterior multi-Plexiglas pane, an interior single acrylic glass pane and a dimmable glass ("smart" glass), all separated by thin air cavities. The sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics of three different models, triple-, quadruple- and quintuple-paned windows identical in size and surface density, are analyzed for improving the acoustic insulation performances. Typical results describing the influence of several system parameters, such as the thicknesses, number and spacing of the window panes, on the transmission loss are then investigated. In addition, a comparison study is carried out to evaluate the acoustic reduction capability of each window model. The STL results show that the higher frequencies sound transmission loss performance can be improved by increasing the number of window panels, however, the low frequency performance is decreased, particularly at the mass-spring resonances.

  10. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  11. Computational Aero-acoustics As a Tool For Turbo-machinery Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will provide an overview of the field of computational aero-acoustics and its use in fan noise prediction. After a brief history of computational fluid dynamics, some of the recent developments in computational aero-acoustics will be explored. Computational issues concerning sound wave production, propagation, and reflection in practical turbo-machinery applications will be discussed including: (a) High order/High Resolution Numerical Techniques. (b) High Resolution Boundary Conditions. [c] MIMD Parallel Computing. [d] Form of Governing Equations Useful for Simulations. In addition, the basic design of our Broadband Analysis Stator Simulator (BASS) code and its application to a 2 D rotor wake-stator interaction will be shown. An example of the noise produced by the wakes from a rotor impinging upon a stator cascade will be shown.

  12. Ionospheric signatures of acoustic waves generated by transient tropospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2013-10-01

    Acoustic waves generated by tropospheric sources may attain significant amplitudes in the thermosphere and overlying ionosphere. Although they are weak precursors to gravity waves in the mesosphere below, acoustic waves may achieve temperature and vertical wind perturbations on the order of approximately tens of Kelvin and m/s throughout the E and F regions. Their perturbations to total electron content are predicted to be detectable by ground-based radar and GPS receivers; they also drive field-aligned currents that may be detectable in situ via magnetometers. Although transient and short lived, ionospheric signatures of acoustic waves may provide new and quantitative insight into the forcing of the upper atmosphere from below.

  13. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  14. The design and commissioning of an acoustic liner for propeller noise testing in the ARA transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. E.; Neuman, D. A.

    1991-12-01

    An acoustic liner was designed and manufactured for use in a transonic wind tunnel to provide an acoustically acceptable environment for propeller noise testing up to high subsonic Mach number. Details of the aerodynamic design and development are presented and calibration of the liner with propeller model support systems is included. It is shown how the design of the acoustic treatment was aided by the use of a theoretical model for the tunnel reverberant field. An acoustic development program was undertaken involving horn tests to improve the quality of the liner. The success of this is demonstrated by propeller noise results. These results also provided the basis for definition of the practical acoustic regime of a lined tunnel suitable for the accurate measurement of propeller noise.

  15. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of acoustic signals transmitted through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.; Scott, D.D.

    1993-12-28

    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output. 20 figures.

  16. Predictive Acoustic Modelling Applied to the Control of Intake/exhaust Noise of Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.; Harrison, M. F.

    1997-05-01

    The application of validated acoustic models to intake/exhaust system acoustic design is described with reference to a sequence of specific practical examples. These include large turbocharged diesel generating sets, truck engines and high performance petrol engines. The discussion includes a comparison of frequency domain, time domain and hybrid modelling approaches to design methodology. The calculation of sound emission from open terminations is summarized in an appendix.

  17. Acoustical, sensory, and psychological research data and procedures for their use in predicting effects of environmental noises.

    PubMed

    Kryter, Karl D

    2007-11-01

    A demonstration field-research study reveals that aircraft noise measured at two one-story houses is approximately 9 dB less attenuated from measured outdoor levels than is street traffic noise, and, found in other studies, approximately 14 dB less than railway noise. Comparable differences are found between these noises from the application of basic acoustical formulas for quantifying attenuations that occur on site of one- and two-story houses. Reasonably consistent with those findings are results from attitude surveys showing that daily exposure levels of aircraft must be approximately 8 dB less than levels of street traffic noise, and approximately 13 dB less than levels of railway noise to be perceived as an equal cause of annoyance and related adverse effects. However, USA government guidelines recommend that equal exposure levels of noise measured outdoors from vehicles of transportation should be considered as being equally annoying. Changes in present USA noise-measurement procedures and noise-control guidelines are proposed that provide more accurate predictions of annoyance, related adverse effects, and criteria for setting "tolerable" limits of noise exposure in residential areas. Key acoustical and psycho-acoustical principles and data pertaining to predicting correlations between dosages of environmental noises and its effects on people and land noise zoning in residential communities are examined. PMID:18189552

  18. Fundamental frequency is critical to speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearinga

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeff; Tiaden, Stephanie; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have been shown to benefit from residual low-frequency hearing, specifically in pitch related tasks. It remains unclear whether this benefit is dependent on fundamental frequency (F0) or other acoustic cues. Three experiments were conducted to determine the role of F0, as well as its frequency modulated (FM) and amplitude modulated (AM) components, in speech recognition with a competing voice. In simulated CI listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio was varied to estimate the 50% correct response. Simulation results showed that the F0 cue contributes to a significant proportion of the benefit seen with combined acoustic and electric hearing, and additionally that this benefit is due to the FM rather than the AM component. In actual CI users, sentence recognition scores were collected with either the full F0 cue containing both the FM and AM components or the 500-Hz low-pass speech cue containing the F0 and additional harmonics. The F0 cue provided a benefit similar to the low-pass cue for speech in noise, but not in quiet. Poorer CI users benefited more from the F0 cue than better users. These findings suggest that F0 is critical to improving speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearing. PMID:21973360

  19. Active vibration and noise control of vibro-acoustic system by using PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaojun; Huang, Ren; Qiu, Zhiping

    2015-07-01

    Active control simulation of the acoustic and vibration response of a vibro-acoustic cavity of an airplane based on a PID controller is presented. A full numerical vibro-acoustic model is developed by using an Eulerian model, which is a coupled model based on the finite element formulation. The reduced order model, which is used to design the closed-loop control system, is obtained by the combination of modal expansion and variable substitution. Some physical experiments are made to validate and update the full-order and the reduced-order numerical models. Optimization of the actuator placement is employed in order to get an effective closed-loop control system. For the controller design, an iterative method is used to determine the optimal parameters of the PID controller. The process is illustrated by the design of an active noise and vibration control system for a cavity structure. The numerical and experimental results show that a PID-based active control system can effectively suppress the noise inside the cavity using a sound pressure signal as the controller input. It is also possible to control the noise by suppressing the vibration of the structure using the structural displacement signal as the controller input. For an airplane cavity structure, considering the issue of space-saving, the latter is more suitable.

  20. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  1. Generation of ultra-low-noise optical parametric combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ping P.; Radic, Stojan

    2016-03-01

    Generation of wideband optical frequency combs requires precise balance between nonlinear photon interaction and parasitic effects. While near-octave combs can be generated in both silica and silicon waveguides, it is not always possible to suppress the noise across the operational bandwidth. Principles and challenges of noiseinhibited, tunable frequency comb generation in cavity-free parametric mixers are described and discussed.

  2. Quasi-static acoustic mapping of helicopter blade vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Gaurav

    This research extends the applicability of storage-based noise prediction techniques to slowly maneuvering flight. The quasi-static equivalence between longitudinal decelerating flight and steady-state longitudinal descent flight, and its application to the estimation of BVI noise radiation under slow longitudinal maneuvering flight conditions, is investigated through various orders of flight dynamics modeling. The entire operating state of the helicopter is shown to be similar during equivalent flight conditions at the same flight velocity. This equivalence is also applied to the prediction of control requirements during longitudinal maneuvers. Inverse simulation based flight dynamics models of lower order are seen to capture many important trends associated with slow maneuvers, when compared with higher order modeling. The lower order flight dynamics model is used to design controlled maneuvers that may be practically flown during descent operations or as part of research flight testing. A version of a storage-based acoustic mapping technique, extended to slowly maneuvering longitudinal flight, is implemented for helicopter main rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Various approach trajectories are formulated and analytical estimates of the BVI noise radiation characteristics associated with a full-scale two-bladed rotor are mapped to the ground using this quasi-static mapping approach. Multi-segment decelerating descent approaches are shown to be effective in ground noise abatement. The effects of steady longitudinal winds are investigated on radiated and ground noise. Piloting trim choices are seen to dominate the noise radiation under these flight conditions.

  3. Shock-turbulence interaction and the generation of noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, H S

    1954-01-01

    Interaction of convected field of turbulence with shock wave is analyzed to yield modified turbulence, entropy spottiness, and noise generated downstream of the shock. Analysis is generalization of single-spectrum-wave treatment of NACA-TN-2864. Formulas for spectra and correlations are obtained. Numerical calculations yield curves of rms velocity components, temperature, pressure, and noise in db against Mach number for m = 1 to infinity; both isotropic and strongly axisymmetric (lateral/longitudinal = 36/1) initial turbulence are treated. In either case, turbulence of 0.1 percent longitudinal component generates about 120 dbs of noise.

  4. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    PubMed Central

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

  5. Acoustic noise and pneumatic wave vortices energy harvesting on highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacian, S.; Bot, A.; Zotoiu, D.

    2012-02-01

    This paper is aimed to present the structure and the principle of a energy harvesting system that uses the air movement emanated from passing traffic to produce and accumulate electrical energy. Each of the system's elements consists of a inertial mass panel which oscillate when driving cars pass. The panel is attached to a linear electromagnetic mini generator (or/and some piezo electric micro generators) and at the time of passing, it produces energy which is store it in a supercapacitor or in a rechargeable battery. The concept can be applied to busy roads, and to high-frequented rail networks and it can work with street and road lighting, information panels and monitoring devices.

  6. Characterization of the Acoustic Field in Marine Environments with Anthropogenic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shane

    Most animals inhabit the aquatic environment are acoustical-oriented, due to the physical characteristics of water that favors sound transmission. Many aquatic animals depend on underwater sound to navigate, communicate, find prey, and avoid predators. The degradation of underwater acoustic environment due to human activities is expected to affected these animals' well-being and survival at the population level. This dissertation presents three original studies on the characteristics and behavior of underwater sound fields in three unique marine environments with anthropogenic noises. The first study examines the soundscape of the Chinese white dolphin habitat in Taiwan. Acoustic recordings were made at two coastal shallow water locations, Yunlin and Waisanding, in 2012. Results show that croaker choruses are dominant sound sources in the 1.2--2.4 kHz frequency band for both locations at night, and noises from container ships in the 150--300 Hz frequency band define the relative higher broadband sound levels at Yunlin. Results also illustrate interrelationships among different biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic elements that shape the fine-scale soundscape in a coastal environment. The second study investigates the inter-pulse sound field during an open-water seismic survey in coastal shallow waters of the Arctic. The research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected from one bottom-mounted hydrophone deployed in the Beaufort Sea in summer 2012. Two quantitative methods were developed to examine the inter-pulse sound field characteristics and its dependence on source distances. Results show that inter-pulse sound field could raise the ambient noise floor by as much as 9 dB, depending on ambient condition and source distance. The third study examines the inter-ping sound field of simulated mid-frequency active sonar in deep waters off southern California in 2013 and 2014. The study used drifting acoustic recorder buoys to collect acoustic data during sonar

  7. Jet noise generated by large-scale coherent motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The noise generated by large scale turbulence structures and instability waves of jets is discussed. Emphasis is placed on supersonic jets with moderate to high Reynolds numbers. This is because it is in these jets that unambiguous experimental and theoretical evidence is found indicating that large turbulence structures and instability waves are directly responsible for generating the dominant part of the noise. For subsonic jets similar large turbulence structures and instability waves do play a crucial role in the dynamics, spread, and mixing of the jet fluid. However, at subsonic convection speeds, they do not appear to be efficient noise generators. Many investigators believe that the dominant noise source of subsonic jets is, in fact, the small scale turbulence. As yet, this belief has not yet received universal acceptance. The issues involved are complicated and are not easy to resolve.

  8. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  9. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  10. Design of the Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program: ANOPP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V., Dr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2011-01-01

    The requirements, constraints, and design of NASA's next generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2) are introduced. Similar to its predecessor (ANOPP), ANOPP2 provides the U.S. Government with an independent aircraft system noise prediction capability that can be used as a stand-alone program or within larger trade studies that include performance, emissions, and fuel burn. The ANOPP2 framework is designed to facilitate the combination of acoustic approaches of varying fidelity for the analysis of noise from conventional and unconventional aircraft. ANOPP2 integrates noise prediction and propagation methods, including those found in ANOPP, into a unified system that is compatible for use within general aircraft analysis software. The design of the system is described in terms of its functionality and capability to perform predictions accounting for distributed sources, installation effects, and propagation through a non-uniform atmosphere including refraction and the influence of terrain. The philosophy of mixed fidelity noise prediction through the use of nested Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings surfaces is presented and specific issues associated with its implementation are identified. Demonstrations for a conventional twin-aisle and an unconventional hybrid wing body aircraft configuration are presented to show the feasibility and capabilities of the system. Isolated model-scale jet noise predictions are also presented using high-fidelity and reduced order models, further demonstrating ANOPP2's ability to provide predictions for model-scale test configurations.

  11. Acoustic evaluation and adjustment of an open-plan office through architectural design and noise control.

    PubMed

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2012-11-01

    Arranging office space into a single open room offers advantages in terms of easy exchange of information and interaction among coworkers, but reduces privacy and acoustic comfort. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the acoustic quality of a real open-plan office and to propose changes in the room to improve the acoustic conditioning of this office. The computational model of the office under study was calibrated based on RT and STI measurements. Predictions were made of the RT and STI, which generated the radius of distraction r(D), and the rate of spatial decay of sound pressure levels per distance doubling DL(2) in the real conditions of the office and after modifications of the room. The insertion of dividers between work stations and an increase in the ceiling's sound absorption improved the acoustic conditions in the office under study. PMID:22507599

  12. The convergence of theory and experiment in direct combustion generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Current theories of combustion generated noise are reviewed with regard to their ability to predict the sound power output and spectral characteristics of noise generated by several flame types. New experimental information on open turbulent flames and on gas turbine combustor cans is presented. Available information on gas phase diffusion flames is reviewed. It is concluded that if some of the gross turbulence features of the flame are known and if the acoustical behavior of any flame enclosure is known, then scaling rules for behavior of the sound power output and spectral content may be quite accurately produced by theory. On the other hand, the theory is not sufficiently advanced to make absolute predictions; such predictions must await more detailed knowledge of turbulent flame structure.

  13. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  14. Acoustical analysis and modeling of reciprocating compressors, noise produced by gas pulsation, using four-pole method. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfat, Ali T.; Seel, Robert V.

    2003-04-01

    Presented in Paper II is the noise analysis of reciprocating compressors (such as air conditioning and refrigeration reciprocating compressors) using the four-pole method. The gas pulsation noise inside compressor head cavities, mufflers, and through-valves can be analyzed by applying the FPM. This method formulates the characteristics of acoustic elements by establishing a relationship between their input and output gas pressures and volume flow rates. When the acoustic elements in the system (compressor) are connected at points between them, the FPM allows an easy assembly of element equations to obtain system acoustical model.

  15. Prediction of Acoustic Loads Generated by Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Linamaria; Allgood, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center is one of the nation's premier facilities for conducting large-scale rocket engine testing. As liquid rocket engines vary in size, so do the acoustic loads that they produce. When these acoustic loads reach very high levels they may cause damages both to humans and to actual structures surrounding the testing area. To prevent these damages, prediction tools are used to estimate the spectral content and levels of the acoustics being generated by the rocket engine plumes and model their propagation through the surrounding atmosphere. Prior to the current work, two different acoustic prediction tools were being implemented at Stennis Space Center, each having their own advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. Therefore, a new prediction tool was created, using NASA SP-8072 handbook as a guide, which would replicate the same prediction methods as the previous codes, but eliminate any of the drawbacks the individual codes had. Aside from replicating the previous modeling capability in a single framework, additional modeling functions were added thereby expanding the current modeling capability. To verify that the new code could reproduce the same predictions as the previous codes, two verification test cases were defined. These verification test cases also served as validation cases as the predicted results were compared to actual test data.

  16. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Task 2.1.3.2: Effects on Aquatic Organisms: Acoustics/Noise - Fiscal Year 2011 - Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/ Chinook/CKPUG.cfm). Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study (Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.2: Acoustics) was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m-diameter open-hydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Preliminary results indicate that low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

  17. Simulation and modelling of the waves transmission and generation in a stator blade row in a combustion-noise framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyko, Matthieu; Duran, Ignacio; Moreau, Stéphane; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry

    2014-11-01

    The combustion noise in aero-engines is known to have two different origins. First, the direct combustion noise is directly generated by the flame itself. Second, the indirect combustion noise is caused by the acceleration in the turbine stages of entropy spots generated by the combustion. In both cases, the turbo-machinery is involved in the combustion-noise transmission and generation. Numerical simulations are performed in the present study to assess the global noise for a real aeronautical configuration. On the one hand, the acoustic and entropy transfer functions of an isolated blade row are obtained using two-dimensional unsteady simulations. The transfer functions of the blade row are compared with the model of Cumpsty and Marble that assumes an axially compact configuration. On the other hand, the acoustic and entropy sources coming from a combustion chamber are calculated from a three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). This allows an evaluation of the error introduced by the model for the present combustion chamber using the previous numerical simulations. A significant error is found for the indirect combustion noise, whereas it stays reasonable for the direct one.

  18. Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2D Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2000-01-01

    A thin free shear layer containing an inflection point in the mean velocity profile is inherently unstable. Disturbances in the flow field can excite the unstable behavior of a shear layer, if the appropriate combination of frequencies and shear layer thicknesses exists, causing instability waves to grow. For other combinations of frequencies and thicknesses, these instability waves remain neutral in amplitude or decay in the downstream direction. A growing instability wave radiates noise when its phase velocity becomes supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. This occurs primarily when the mean jet flow velocity is supersonic. Thus, the small disturbances in the flow, which themselves may generate noise, have generated an additional noise source. It is the purpose of this problem to test the ability of CAA to compute this additional source of noise. The problem is idealized such that the exciting disturbance is a fixed known acoustic source pulsating at a single frequency. The source is placed inside of a 2D jet with parallel flow; hence, the shear layer thickness is constant. With the source amplitude small enough, the problem is governed by the following set of linear equations given in dimensional form.

  19. Acoustic noise reduction. January 1970-November 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, devices, and materials for acoustic-noise reduction. Included are noise-reduction techniques for engines, turbines, machinery, motor vehicles, pumps, aircraft cabins, and compressors. (Contains 189 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  1. Coupling of acoustic emission and electrochemical noise measurement techniques in slurry erosion-corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oltra, R.; Chapey, B.; Huet, F.; Renaud, L.

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the measurement and the subsequent signal analysis of acoustic emission and current noise recorded during continuous slurry erosion of a metallic target in a corrosive environment. According to a phenomenologic model, the localized corrosion results from the repetitive damage caused by particle impacts. The fluctuations of the acoustic signal and of the electrochemical signal both can be modeled as a shot-noise-like process. The main purpose of this work is to compare two processing techniques for the fluctuating signals: time analysis (mean value) and spectral analysis (power spectral density [PSD] spectrum) to determine the more suitable signal treatment. Another purpose is also to quantify the balance between the mechanical wear and the corrosive damage of the abraded metallic target. It will be shown that the mean value of the RMS acoustic signal, A(t), and also the PSD of A(t), are related to the mechanical wear of the target and allow real-time measurement of the actual mechanical perturbation in terms of the mass of the ablated material.

  2. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

  3. Noise generation at the side edges of flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, J. C.

    1980-06-01

    The recently observed phenomenon of high noise radiation from the side edges of flaps is investigated by way of a two-dimensional model based upon a physical picture of chordwise boundary layer vorticity being swept around the edge by spanwise flow on the flap. The trajectory and resulting noise radiation for a discrete vortex in such a flow is obtained. Further, a mathematical condition for the vortex to be captured by the flow and swept around the edge is derived. The sound generation depends strongly upon the vortex strength and distance from the edge and can be more intense than trailing edge noise in agreement with experimental observations.

  4. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  5. Modification of computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) for noise-robust acoustic feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Minseok

    While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system

  6. Combustion generated noise in gas turbine combustors. [engine noise/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Shivashankara, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the noise power and spectra emitted from a gas turbine combustor can exhausting to the atmosphere. Limited hot wire measurements were made of the cold flow turbulence level and spectra within the can. The fuels used were JP-4, acetone and methyl alcohol burning with air at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show that for a fixed fuel the noise output is dominated by the airflow rate and not the fuel/air ratio. The spectra are dominated by the spectra of the cold flow turbulence spectra which were invariant with airflow rate in the experiments. The effect of fuel type on the noise power output was primarily through the heat of combustion and not the reactivity. A theory of combustion noise based upon the flame radiating to open surroundings is able to reasonably explain the observed results. A thermoacoustic efficiency for noise radiation as high as .00003 was observed in this program for JP-4 fuel. Scaling rules are presented for installed configurations.

  7. Separation of Main and Tail Rotor Noise Sources from Ground-Based Acoustic Measurements Using Time-Domain De-Dopplerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric II; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2009-01-01

    A new method of separating the contributions of helicopter main and tail rotor noise sources is presented, making use of ground-based acoustic measurements. The method employs time-domain de-Dopplerization to transform the acoustic pressure time-history data collected from an array of ground-based microphones to the equivalent time-history signals observed by an array of virtual inflight microphones traveling with the helicopter. The now-stationary signals observed by the virtual microphones are then periodically averaged with the main and tail rotor once per revolution triggers. The averaging process suppresses noise which is not periodic with the respective rotor, allowing for the separation of main and tail rotor pressure time-histories. The averaged measurements are then interpolated across the range of directivity angles captured by the microphone array in order to generate separate acoustic hemispheres for the main and tail rotor noise sources. The new method is successfully applied to ground-based microphone measurements of a Bell 206B3 helicopter and demonstrates the strong directivity characteristics of harmonic noise radiation from both the main and tail rotors of that helicopter.

  8. Generation and characterization of surface layers on acoustically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Cammenga, Heiko K

    2007-06-15

    Surface layers of natural and technical amphiphiles, e.g., octadecanol, stearic acid and related compounds as well as perfluorinated fatty alcohols (PFA), have been investigated on the surface of acoustically levitated drops. In contrast to Langmuir troughs, traditionally used in the research of surface layers at the air-water interface, acoustic levitation offers the advantages of a minimized and contact-less technique. Although the film pressure cannot be directly adjusted on acoustically levitated drops, it runs through a wide pressure range due to the shrinking surface of an evaporating drop. During this process, different states of the generated surface layer have been identified, in particular the phase transition from the gaseous or liquid-expanded to the liquid-condensed state of surface layers of octadecanol and other related amphiphiles. Characteristic parameters, such as the relative permeation resistance and the area per molecule in a condensed surface layer, have been quantified and were found comparable to results obtained from surface layers generated on Langmuir troughs. PMID:17376468

  9. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: the relationship between ambient noise, hearing thresholds and sound spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L

    2003-04-01

    Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity. PMID:12665991

  10. Flight test of a pure-tone acoustic source. [aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.; Preisser, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Static and flight testing of a pure-tone acoustic source were conducted in order to: (1) determine if a 4-KHz tone radiated by a source in flight and mixed with broadband aircraft flyover noise could be measured on the ground with a high degree of statistical confidence; (2) determine how well a comparison could be made of flight-to-static tone radiation pattern and a static radiation pattern; and (3) determine if there were any installation effects on the radiation pattern due to the flight vehicle. Narrow-band acoustic data were measured and averaged over eight microphones to obtain a high statistical confidence. The flight data were adjusted to an equivalent static condition by applying corrections for retarded time, spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground impedance, instrumentation constraints, convective amplification, and the Doppler shift. The flight-to-static results are in excellent agreement with the measured static data. No installation effects were observed on the radiation pattern.

  11. JAPE 91: Influence of terrain masking of the acoustic propagation of helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naz, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic propagation in the case of a noise source masked by a small element of terrain has been investigated experimentally. These data have been measured during the 'terrain masking' experiment of the NATO JAPE 91 experimental campaign. The main objective of that experiment was to study the acoustic detection of a helicopter masked by a small hill. Microphones have been placed at different locations on the shadow zone of the hill to study the effect of the terrain obstruction on sound propagation. The results presented come from data measured by Atlas Elektronik and by ISL, and have been processed together. The terrain obstruction causes an excess attenuation of the SPL (Sound Pressure Level) for all the frequencies, but this attenuation is more effective for the high frequencies than for the low frequencies. Results typical of diffraction phenomena have been observed; the SPL is minimal at the foot of the hill and is relatively constant beyond it.

  12. Generation mechanism of terahertz coherent acoustic phonons in Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henighan, T.; Trigo, M.; Bonetti, S.; Granitzka, P.; Higley, D.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, M. P.; Kukreja, R.; Gray, A.; Reid, A. H.; Jal, E.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Kozina, M.; Song, S.; Chollet, M.; Zhu, D.; Xu, P. F.; Jeong, J.; Carva, K.; Maldonado, P.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Reis, D. A.; Dürr, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We use femtosecond time-resolved hard x-ray scattering to detect coherent acoustic phonons generated during ultrafast laser excitation of ferromagnetic bcc Fe films grown on MgO(001). We observe the coherent longitudinal-acoustic phonons as a function of wave vector through analysis of the temporal oscillations in the x-ray scattering signal. The width of the extracted strain wave front associated with this coherent motion is ˜100 fs. An effective electronic Grüneisen parameter is extracted within a two-temperature model. However, ab initio calculations show that the phonons are nonthermal on the time scale of the experiment, which calls into question the validity of extracting physical constants by fitting such a two-temperature model.

  13. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  14. Method of representation of acoustic spectra and reflection corrections applied to externally blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    A computer method for obtaining a rational function representation of an acoustic spectrum and for correcting reflection effects is introduced. The functional representation provides a means of compact storage of data and the nucleus of the data analysis method. The method is applied to noise from a full-scale externally blown flap system with a quiet 6:1 bypass ratio turbofan engine and a three-flap wing section designed to simulate the take-off condition of a conceptual STOL aircraft.

  15. Heterodyne signal-to-noise ratios in acoustic mode scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the signal to noise ratio (SNR) obtained in heterodyne detection of radiation scattered from acoustic modes in crystalline solids and the scattered spectral density function is studied. It is shown that in addition to the information provided by the measured frequency shifts and line widths, measurement of the SNR provides a determination of the absolute elasto-optical (Pockel's) constants. Examples are given for cubic crystals, and acceptable SNR values are obtained for scattering from thermally excited phonons at 10.6 microns, with no external perturbation of the sample necessary. The results indicate the special advantages of the method for the study of semiconductors.

  16. Experimental Study of the Acoustic Navigation of a Helicopter by Its Noise Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. P.; Kuz'menko, A. K.; Svet, V. D.; Spitsyn, E. I.

    2000-11-01

    Results of experimental measurements of the coordinates and trajectories of an MI-8 helicopter flight are presented for various types of maneuvers and the landing approach. The current coordinates are measured in real time by acoustic differential navigation methods using the noise radiation of a helicopter. It is shown that, when a measuring base with a microphone spacing of 2 m or less is used, the spatial correlation coefficient for the signals in the frequency band from 200 to 5000 Hz approaches unity. This makes it possible to estimate the position of the helicopter with rms errors less than 0.4 m at all stages of flight and at the landing approach.

  17. Modeling photothermal and acoustical induced microbubble generation and growth.

    PubMed

    Krasovitski, Boris; Kislev, Hanoch; Kimmel, Eitan

    2007-12-01

    Previous experimental studies showed that powerful heating of nanoparticles by a laser pulse using energy density greater than 100 mJ/cm(2), could induce vaporization and generate microbubbles. When ultrasound is introduced at the same time as the laser pulse, much less laser power is required. For therapeutic applications, generation of microbubbles on demand at target locations, e.g. cells or bacteria can be used to induce hyperthermia or to facilitate drug delivery. The objective of this work is to develop a method capable of predicting photothermal and acoustic parameters in terms of laser power and acoustic pressure amplitude that are needed to produce stable microbubbles; and investigate the influence of bubble coalescence on the thresholds when the microbubbles are generated around nanoparticles that appear in clusters. We develop and solve here a combined problem of momentum, heat and mass transfer which is associated with generation and growth of a microbubble, filled with a mixture of non-vaporized gas (air) and water vapor. The microbubble's size and gas content vary as a result of three mechanisms: gas expansion or compression, evaporation or condensation on the bubble boundary, and diffusion of dissolved air in the surrounding water. The simulations predict that when ultrasound is applied relatively low threshold values of laser and ultrasound power are required to obtain a stable microbubble from a single nanoparticle. Even lower power is required when microbubbles are formed by coalescence around a cluster of 10 nanoparticles. Laser pulse energy density of 21 mJ/cm(2) is predicted for instance together with acoustic pressure of 0.1 MPa for a cluster of 10 or 62 mJ/cm(2) for a single nanoparticle. Those values are well within the safety limits, and as such are most appealing for targeted therapeutic purposes. PMID:17910969

  18. Modal content of noise generated by a coaxial jet in a pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerschen, E. J.; Johnston, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the hydrodynamic pressure fluctuation levels showed that, for circular obstructions with a flow passage diameter less than one-half of the pipe diameter, hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations were small compared with the acoustic pressure, at locations greater than ten pipe diameters downstream of the restrictions. Thus, in the study currently reported, which was concentrated on measurement of the modal characteristics of the sound field downstream of the restrictions, special techniques to avoid contamination by hydrodynamic 'noise' were not necessary. The major results obtained in the study are scaling laws for the shape of the modal pressure spectrum and for the overall efficiency of noise generation. The characteristics of the modal pressure spectra are discussed. It is shown that the primary parameter controlling the spectrum shape is the frequency ratio (Helmholtz number/Strouhal number). The efficiency levels when plotted as a function of Mach number show a strong dependence on restriction size

  19. An experimental study of the noise generating mechanisms in supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Flow fluctuation measurements with normal and X-wire hot-wire probes and acoustic measurements with a traversing condenser microphone were carried out in small air jets in the Mach number range from M = 0.9 to 2.5. One of the most successful studies involved a moderate Reynolds number M = 2.1 jet. The large scale turbulence properties in the jet, and the noise radiation were characterized. A parallel study involved similar measurements on a low Reynolds number M = 0.9 jet. These measurements show that there are important differences in the noise generation process of the M = 0.9 jet in comparison with low supersonic Mach number (M = 1.4) jets. Problems encounted while performing X-wire measurements in low Reynolds number jets of M = 2.1 and 2.5, and in installing a vacuum pump are discussed.

  20. The White Noise Generator programed on the Raspberry Pi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Ken; Ham, Katie; Schock, Kris; Dowling, Patrick; Kuzell, Chaz

    2014-03-01

    A Raspberry Pi computer, running a Linux based operating system, was programmed for use as a white noise generator. The program was written to output sine waves at a specific frequency with a randomly generated phase. This function generator was programmed specifically for an ongoing undergraduate research project. This research project involves the calculation of the speed of flow through a cylindrical pipe with 128 transducers equally spaced by 0.4 inches down the length of the pipe. The inputted white noise generated serves as an effective technique to induce multiple sine waves of a given frequency to the pipe, as the sine waves are generated at a random phase. Our research group would like to thank Dr. Ken McGill for all of his help, guidance, and time with this research project. We would also like to thank Georgia College and State University for providing the materials used in this experiment.

  1. Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles: Theory and Practice. Volume 2: Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Flight vehicles and the underlying concepts of noise generation, noise propagation, noise prediction, and noise control are studied. This volume includes those chapters that relate to flight vehicle noise control and operations: human response to aircraft noise; atmospheric propagation; theoretical models for duct acoustic propagation and radiation; design and performance of duct acoustic treatment; jet noise suppression; interior noise; flyover noise measurement and prediction; and quiet aircraft design and operational characteristics.

  2. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system. PMID:24965005

  3. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R.; Díaz Méndez, J. A.

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  4. Acoustic isolation vessel for measurement of the background noise in microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Kim C. T.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1993-01-01

    An acoustic isolation vessel has been developed to measure the background noise in microphones. The test microphone is installed in an inner vessel, which is suspended within an outer vessel, and the intervening air space is evacuated to a high vacuum. An analytical expression for the transmission coefficient is derived, based on a five-media model, and compared to experiment. At an isolation vacuum of 5 x 10 exp -6 Torr the experimental transmission coefficient was found to be lower than -155 dB at frequencies ranging from 40 to 1200 Hz. Measurements of the A-weighted noise levels of commercial condenser microphones of four different sizes show good agreement with published values.

  5. Variations in recorded acoustic gunshot waveforms generated by small firearms.

    PubMed

    Beck, Steven D; Nakasone, Hirotaka; Marr, Kenneth W

    2011-04-01

    Analysis of recorded acoustic gunshot signals to determine firearm waveform characteristics requires an understanding of the impulsive signal events, how the waveforms vary among different sources, and how the waveforms are affected by the environment and the recording system. This paper presents empirical results from waveforms produced by different small firearms and an analysis of their variations under different and controlled conditions. Acoustic signals were generated using multiple firearm makes and models firing different ammunition types. Simultaneous recordings from the microphones located at different distances from the source and at different azimuth angles (from the line-of-fire) were used to study source characteristics and sound propagation effects. The results indicate that recorded gunshot waveforms generally consist of multiple acoustic events, and these are observable depending on the received distance and azimuth angle. The source blast size, microphone distance, and microphone azimuth angle are the primary factors affecting the recorded muzzle blast characteristics. Ground or object reflections and ballistic shockwaves and their reflections can interfere with the muzzle blast waveform and its measurements. This experiment confirmed and quantified the wide range of correlation results between waveforms recorded from different source, microphone distance, and microphone angle configurations. PMID:21476632

  6. The acoustic and perceptual effects of two noise-suppression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Wise, Christi

    2007-01-01

    Internal noise generated by hearing-aid circuits can be audible and objectionable to aid users, and may lead to the rejection of hearing aids. Two expansion algorithms were developed to suppress internal noise below a threshold level. The multiple-channel algorithm's expansion thresholds followed the 55-dB SPL long-term average speech spectrum, while the single-channel algorithm suppressed sounds below 45 dBA. With the recommended settings in static conditions, the single-channel algorithm provided lower noise levels, which were perceived as quieter by most normal-hearing participants. However, in dynamic conditions "pumping" noises were more noticeable with the single-channel algorithm. For impaired-hearing listeners fitted with the ADRO amplification strategy, both algorithms maintained speech understanding for words in sentences presented at 55 dB SPL in quiet (99.3% correct). Mean sentence reception thresholds in quiet were 39.4, 40.7, and 41.8 dB SPL without noise suppression, and with the single- and multiple-channel algorithms, respectively. The increase in the sentence reception threshold was statistically significant for the multiple-channel algorithm, but not the single-channel algorithm. Thus, both algorithms suppressed noise without affecting the intelligibility of speech presented at 55 dB SPL, with the single-channel algorithm providing marginally greater noise suppression in static conditions, and the multiple-channel algorithm avoiding pumping noises. PMID:17297798

  7. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  8. Experiments on the unsteady flow field and noise generation in a centrifugal pump impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Soo; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Thompson, Donald E.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation of large-scale flowfield instabilities in a pump rotor and the process of noise generation by these instabilities. Measurements of the fluctuating components of velocity and surface pressure were made with hot-wire probes and surface mounted pressure transducers on a seven bladed back swept centrifugal water pump impeller operating with air as the working fluid. The impeller was operated without a volute or scroll diffuser, thereby eliminating any sound generation from pressure fluctuations on the volute cutoff. Thus the study focused on flow field and noise components other than the blade passage frequency (and its harmonics). The primary goal of the study was to provide fundamental information on the unsteady flow processes, particularly those associated with the noise generation in the device. It was further anticipated that detailed flow measurements would be useful for the validation of future computational simulations. The measured data at the discharge show a jet-wake type of flow pattern which results in a strong vorticity field. The flow with high velocity found on the pressure side of the impeller tends to move to the low-pressure region present at the suction side of the passage as a form of roll-up around the blade trailing edge. This motion causes an unsteady flow separation at the suction side of the blade and consequently disturbs the flow in the adjacent passage. By interacting with the impeller blades near the trailing edges, this instability flow causes a periodic pressure fluctuation on the blade surface and generates noise by a trailing edge generation mechanism. The spectrum of surface pressure measured at the trailing edge of each blade reveals a cluster of peaks which were identified with azimuthal mode numbers. The correlation between the acoustic farfield pressure and the surface pressure on the impeller blade has proven that the azimuthal modes synchronized with the number of impeller

  9. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression Acoustic and Aerodynamic Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Boyd, Kathleen (Technical Monitor); Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft/s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASK's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude. Sound in the nozzle reference frame was analyzed to understand the source characteristics. Several new concepts, mechanisms and methods are reported for such lobed mixers, such as, "boomerang" scallops, "tongue" mixer, detection of "excess" internal noise sources, and extrapolation of flyover noise data from one flight speed to different flight speeds. Noise reduction of as much as 3 EPNdB was found with a deeply scalloped mixer compared to annular nozzle at net thrust levels of 9500 lb for a 29 in. diameter nozzle after optimizing the nozzle length.

  10. Mechanism of tonal noise generation from circular cylinder with spiral fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Ryo; Hayashi, Hidechito; Okumura, Tetsuya; Hamakawa, Hiromitsu

    2014-12-01

    The pitch of the spiral finned tube influences seriously to the acoustic resonance in the heat exchanger. In this research, the flow characteristics in relating to the aeolian tone from the finned cylinder are studied by the numerical simulation. It is observed that the tonal noise generated from the finned tube at two pitch spaces. The ratio of the fin pitch to the cylinder diameter is changed at 0.11 and 0.27. The tone level increases and the frequency decreases with the pitch shorter. The separation flow from the cylinder generates the span-wise vortices, Karman vortices, and the separation flow from the fin generates the stream-wise vortices. When the fin pitch ratio is small, the stream-wise vortices line up to span-wise and become weak rapidly. Only the Karman vortices are remained and integrate in span. So the Karman vortex became large. This causes the low frequency and the large aeolian tone.

  11. Alternative acoustic environments for the generation of reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Alexander U.

    2001-05-01

    The musicians and engineers who create popular recorded music view reverberation as a signal processing effect to be added to any and all elements of a multitrack production. Devices such as digital reverbs, spring reverbs, and plate reverbs are tools of the recording trade, synthesizing reverblike sounds for performance through loudspeakers. Acoustic reverberation makes its way into recorded music through the use of a reverb chamber. A small room is used to generate reverb. With cubic volume well below that of a performance hall, it works the ``other side'' of the Sabine equation, being built of highly sound reflective materials. A purpose-built room for the generation of reverb is a luxury not many studios can afford. Clever use of stairwells, bathrooms, and basements is easier on the recording studios balance sheet. This work evaluates the repurposing of these alternative spaces for the generation of reverb in popular recorded music.

  12. Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources. I; Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    were processed using software that accounts for the effects of convective and conductive heat transfer. The software was developed under previous NASA sponsored programs. Compensated temperature spectra and compensated time histories corresponding to the dynamic temperature of the gas stream were generated. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses of the data were performed to investigate spectral features, acoustic circumferential mode content, signal coherence, and time delays. The dynamic temperature data exhibit a wideband and fairly flat spectral content. The temperature spectra do not change substantially with operating speed. The pressure spectra in the combustor and ITD exhibit generally similar shapes and amplitudes, making it difficult to identify any features that suggest the presence of indirect combustion noise. Cross-spectral analysis reveal a strong correlation between pressure and temperature fluctuations in the ITD, but little correlation between temperature fluctuations at the entrance of the HPT and pressure fluctuations downstream of it. Temperature fluctuations at the entrance of the low pressure turbine were an order of magnitude smaller than those at the entrance to the high pressure turbine. Time delay analysis of the temperature fluctuations in the combustor was inconclusive, perhaps due to the substantial mixing that occurs between the upstream and downstream locations. Time delay analysis of the temperature fluctuations in the ITD indicate that they convect at the mean flow speed. Analysis of the data did not reveal any convincing indications of the presence of indirect combustion noise. However, this analysis has been preliminary and additional exploration of the data is recommended including the use of more sophisticated signal processing to explore subtle issues that have been revealed but which are not yet fully understood or explained.

  13. Long-term measurements of acoustic background noise in very deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.; NEMO Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km E offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater laboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an underwater high energy neutrino km-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this framework the Collaboration deployed and successfully operated for about two years, starting from January 2005, an experimental apparatus for on-line monitoring of deep-sea noise. The station was equipped with four hydrophones and it is operational in the range 30 Hz-43 kHz. This interval of frequencies matches the range suitable for the proposed acoustic detection technique of high energy neutrinos. Hydrophone signals were digitized underwater at 96 kHz sampling frequency and 24 bits resolution. The stored data library, consisting of more than 2000 h of recordings, is a unique tool to model underwater acoustic noise at large depth, to characterize its variations as a function of environmental parameters, biological sources and human activities (ship traffic, etc.), and to determine the presence of cetaceans in the area.

  14. Validation of the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig for Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2005-01-01

    The development and acoustic validation of the Small Hot Jet Aeroacoustic Rig (SHJAR) is documented. Originally conceived to support fundamental research in jet noise, the rig has been designed and developed using the best practices of the industry. While validating the rig for acoustic work, a method of characterizing all extraneous rig noise was developed. With this in hand, the researcher can know when the jet data being measured is being contaminated and design the experiment around this limitation. Also considered is the question of uncertainty, where it is shown that there is a fundamental uncertainty of 0.5dB or so to the best experiments, confirmed by repeatability studies. One area not generally accounted for in the uncertainty analysis is the variation which can result from differences in initial condition of the nozzle shear layer. This initial condition was modified and the differences in both flow and sound were documented. The bottom line is that extreme caution must be applied when working on small jet rigs, but that highly accurate results can be made independent of scale.

  15. Vibration modes and acoustic noise in a 4-phase switched reluctance motor

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, R.S.; Mottier, F.; Miller, T.J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acoustic noise in the switched reluctance motor is caused primarily by the deformation of the stator lamination stack. Acoustic noise is most severe when the periodic excitation of the SRM phases excites a natural vibration mode of the stack. The natural vibration modes and frequencies of a 4-phase, 8/6 switched reluctance motor are examined. Structural finite element analysis is used to compute the natural modes and frequencies. Impulse tests on the stator stack verify the calculations and show which modes are excited. Heuristic arguments are developed to predict the operating conditions that will excite the natural modes. Measurement of vibration while the machine is under load shows which operating conditions excite the natural modes and verifies the predictions. An approximate formula is derived to predict the frequency of the fundamental vibration mode in terms of lamination dimensions and material properties. The formula is validated by comparison with finite element calculations for several laminations, and hence is shown to be useful in design trade-off studies.

  16. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  17. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters

  18. Data analysis results of the second sea trial of ambient noise imaging with acoustic lens in 2014: Two-dimensional target images affected by direction of field of view and spatial noise distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    An aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m has been designed and fabricated to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). A sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay in November 2010. It was verified that targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps. Recently, we have built a second prototype ANI system using an acoustic lens with a two-dimensional (2D) receiver array with 127 elements corresponding to a field of view (FOV) spanning 15° horizontally by 9° vertically. In this study, we investigated the effects of the direction of the FOV and the spatial noise distribution on the 2D target image obtained by ANI. Here, the noise sources in front of the target are called “front light”, and those at the rear of the target are called “back light”. The second sea trial was conducted to image targets arranged in the FOV and measure the positions of noise sources at Uchiura Bay in November 10–14, 2014. For front light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were greater than those in other directions owing to the dominant target scatterings. Reversely, for back light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were lower than those in other directions owing to the dominant direct noises such as “silhouette”.

  19. Noise generated by a propeller in a wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Propeller performance and noise were measured on two model scale propellers operating in an anechoic flow environment with and without a wake. Wake thickness of one and three propeller chords were generated by an airfoil which spanned the full diameter of the propeller. Noise measurements were made in the relative near field of the propeller at three streamwise and three azimuthal positions. The data show that as much as 10 dB increase in the OASPL results when a wake is introduced into an operating propeller. Performance data are also presented for completeness.

  20. Screech Noise Generation From Supersonic Underexpanded Jets Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    2000-01-01

    Many supersonic military aircraft and some of the modern civilian aircraft (such as the Boeing 777) produce shock-associated noise. This noise is generated from the jet engine plume when the engine nozzle is operated beyond the subsonic operation limit to gain additional thrust. At these underexpanded conditions, a series of shock waves appear in the plume. The turbulent vortices present in the jet interact with the shock waves and produce the additional shock-associated noise. Screech belongs to this noise category, where sound is generated in single or multiple pure tones. The high dynamic load associated with screech can damage the tailplane. One purpose of this study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field was to provide an accurate data base for validating various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes will be used to predict the frequency and amplitude of screech tones. A second purpose was to advance the fundamental physical understanding of how shock-turbulence interactions generate sound. Previously, experiments on shock-turbulence interaction were impossible to perform because no suitable technique was available. As one part of this program, an optical Rayleigh-scattering measurement technique was devised to overcome this difficulty.

  1. Clinical characteristics of acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in mass rifle drills without ear protection.

    PubMed

    Moon, In Seok; Park, Sang-Yong; Park, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Won-Sang

    2011-10-01

    One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises without using any hearing protection. All soldiers had been training on the K2 rifle. We took medical histories; conducted physical examinations and hearing evaluations (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and impedence audiometry); and distributed the Newmann's Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) survey. In addition, we evaluated a normal control group of 64 subjects of similar age who had never fired a rifle. In the patient group, the most common and irritating reported symptom was tinnitus (94.2%), and the average THI score in the patient group was 39.51 ± 14.87, which was significantly higher than the control group score (0.56 ± 3.94) (p < 0.001). Average outcomes of post-exposure air conduction thresholds were 21.33 ± 13.25 dB HL in the affected ears. These levels also were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.16 ± 4.07dB HL) (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was most prominent at high frequencies. An asymmetry of hearing loss related to head position during shooting was not observed. Acoustic trauma induced by gunshot noise can cause permanent tinnitus and hearing loss. Hearing protection (bilateral earplugs) and environmental reform are necessary. PMID:21936701

  2. A prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise for three scale models using a new acoustics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    A new computer program which uses Farassat's most advanced subsonic time domain formulation has been written to predict helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise. A brief description of the program, WOPWOP, is followed by a comparison of predicted and experimentally measured acoustic pressure and spectra for a 1/4 scale UH-1 model rotor blade and a 1/7 scale OLS (AH-1G) model rotor blade. The C81 computer program was used to predict the spanwise loading on the rotor for aerodynamic input into the acoustic prediction. Comparisons are made for different flight conditions and microphone locations with good results. In general the acoustic pressure is underpredicted. The acoustic predictions for a tapered rotor blade and predictions for microphones well below the tip path plane show less underprediction. Finally, in-plane motion of the rotor blade is shown to significantly affect the peak-to-peak amplitude of the acoustic pressure for high advancing tip Mach numbers.

  3. Acoustic evaluation of a novel swept-rotor fan. [noise reduction in turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. G.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Inlet noise and aerodynamic performance are presented for a high tip speed fan designed with rotor blade leading edge sweep that gives a subsonic component of inlet Mach number normal to the edge at all radii. The intent of the design was to minimize the generation of rotor leading edge shock waves thereby minimizing multiple pure tone noise. Sound power level and spectral comparisons are made with several high-speed fans of conventional design. Results show multiple pure tone noise at levels below those of some of the other fans and this noise was initiated at a higher tip speed. Aerodynamic performance of the fan did not meet design goals for this first build which applied conventional design procedures to the swept fan geometry.

  4. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  5. Underwater acoustic wave generation by filamentation of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukna, Vytautas; Jarnac, Amélie; Milián, Carles; Brelet, Yohann; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Guillermin, Régine; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre; Fattaccioli, Dominique; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Houard, Aurélien

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic signals generated by filamentation of ultrashort terawatt laser pulses in water are characterized experimentally. Measurements reveal a strong influence of input pulse duration on the shape and intensity of the acoustic wave. Numerical simulations of the laser pulse nonlinear propagation and the subsequent water hydrodynamics and acoustic wave generation show that the strong acoustic emission is related to the mechanism of superfilamention in water. The elongated shape of the plasma volume where energy is deposited drives the far-field profile of the acoustic signal, which takes the form of a radially directed pressure wave with a single oscillation and a very broad spectrum.

  6. Underwater acoustic wave generation by filamentation of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Jukna, Vytautas; Jarnac, Amélie; Milián, Carles; Brelet, Yohann; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Guillermin, Régine; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre; Fattaccioli, Dominique; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Houard, Aurélien

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic signals generated by filamentation of ultrashort terawatt laser pulses in water are characterized experimentally. Measurements reveal a strong influence of input pulse duration on the shape and intensity of the acoustic wave. Numerical simulations of the laser pulse nonlinear propagation and the subsequent water hydrodynamics and acoustic wave generation show that the strong acoustic emission is related to the mechanism of superfilamention in water. The elongated shape of the plasma volume where energy is deposited drives the far-field profile of the acoustic signal, which takes the form of a radially directed pressure wave with a single oscillation and a very broad spectrum. PMID:27415357

  7. Prediction of interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation was investigated in experiments in which a statistical energy analysis model (VAPEPS) was used to analyze measurements of the acceleration response and sound transmission of flat aluminum, lucite, and graphite/epoxy plates exposed to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation. The noise reduction of the plate, when backed by a shallow cavity and excited by a turbulent boundary layer, was predicted using a simplified theory based on the assumption of adiabatic compression of the fluid in the cavity. The predicted plate acceleration response was used as input in the noise reduction prediction. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the measured noise reduction in the frequency range 315-1000 Hz.

  8. Observation of the fundamental Nyquist noise limit in an ultra-high Q-factor cryogenic bulk acoustic wave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, Maxim Ivanov, Eugene N.; Tobar, Michael E.; Kann, Frank van; Galliou, Serge

    2014-10-13

    Thermal Nyquist noise fluctuations of high-Q bulk acoustic wave cavities have been observed at cryogenic temperatures with a DC superconducting quantum interference device amplifier. High Q modes with bandwidths of few tens of milliHz produce thermal fluctuations with a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 23 dB. The estimated effective temperature from the Nyquist noise is in good agreement with the physical temperature of the device, confirming the validity of the equivalent circuit model and the non-existence of any excess resonator self-noise. The measurements also confirm that the quality factor remains extremely high (Q > 10{sup 8} at low order overtones) for very weak (thermal) system motion at low temperatures, when compared to values measured with relatively strong external excitation. This result represents an enabling step towards operating such a high-Q acoustic device at the standard quantum limit.

  9. The generation of promoter-mediated transcriptional noise in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, Namiko; Dodd, Ian B; Crooks, Michael T; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Noise in the expression of a gene produces fluctuations in the concentration of the gene product. These fluctuations can interfere with optimal function or can be exploited to generate beneficial diversity between cells; gene expression noise is therefore expected to be subject to evolutionary pressure. Shifts between modes of high and low rates of transcription initiation at a promoter appear to contribute to this noise both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, models invoked for eukaryotic promoter noise such as stable activation scaffolds or persistent nucleosome alterations seem unlikely to apply to prokaryotic promoters. We consider the relative importance of the steps required for transcription initiation. The 3-step transcription initiation model of McClure is extended into a mathematical model that can be used to predict consequences of additional promoter properties. We show in principle that the transcriptional bursting observed at an E. coli promoter by Golding et al. (2005) can be explained by stimulation of initiation by the negative supercoiling behind a transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP) or by the formation of moribund or dead-end RNAP-promoter complexes. Both mechanisms are tunable by the alteration of promoter kinetics and therefore allow the optimization of promoter mediated noise. PMID:18617999

  10. Impulse noise and acute acoustic trauma in Finnish conscripts. Number of shots fired and safe distances.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Lehtomäki, K M

    1997-01-01

    This prospective study of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) from exposure to impulse noise during compulsory military service focused on three issues the number of shot or explosion impulses that the conscript was exposed to at the time of AAT, distance of injured ear from causal firearm, and the circumstances under which AAT occurred protected ears. The series includes 449 consecutive, verified cases of AAT seen at the Central Military Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, in the period 1989-1993. AAT usually occurred during combat training (87%) as a result of exposure to impulses from small arms (83%). In 41%. AAT was caused by a single shot or detonation impulse. As many as 92% of all AATs occurred within 2 m of the causal firearm. Fourteen percent were wearing hearing protectors when the accident took place, but every third had badly fitting protectors or had neglected safety regulations and used insufficient protection. Of all AATs caused by one noise impulse in protected ears. 83% were attributable to heavy arms and only 14% to small arms. The results of the study suggest that combined use of earmuffs and earplugs in association with a safe distance of over 5 m from the noise source gives adequate protection against AAT. However, for conscripts using certain heavy arms e.g. hazooka. more effective hearing protection should be developed. PMID:9187006

  11. Noise generated by convected gusts interacting with swept airfoil cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, E.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1986-07-01

    An analysis is developed for the noise generated by the interaction of a rotor viscous wake with a cascade of swept stator vanes. The stator vanes span a channel formed by infinite parallel walls and containing a subsonic mean flow. High frequency interactions, for which the noise generation is concentrated at the vane leading edge, are considered. The analysis utilizes a superposition of the solution to the isolated stator vane problem, presented in an earlier paper, to develop an approximate solution to the cascade problem. The rotor wake model includes the features of wake circumferential lean and a linear spanwise variation of the magnitude of the wake deficit velocity. Calculations are presented which show that, for rotor wakes with moderate circumferential lean, stator sweep produces substantial reductions in noise level. The vane sweep must be oriented to enhance the phase lags along the vane leading edge produced by wake lean. The noise levels are found to be fairly insensitive to spanwise variations in the wake deficit.

  12. Enhancement of Focused Ultrasound Treatment by Acoustically Generated Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Takagi, Ryo; Inaba, Yuta; Yasuda, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Microbubbles, whether introduced from outside the body or ultrasonically generated in situ, are known to significantly enhance the biological effects of ultrasound, including the mechanical, thermal, and sonochemical effects. Phase-change nanodroplets, which selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and whose phase changes to microbubbles can be induced by ultrasonic stimulation, have been proposed for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor treatment with enhanced selectivity and efficiency. In this paper, a purely acoustic approach to generate microbubble clouds in the tissue to be treated is proposed. Short pulses of focused ultrasound with extremely high intensity, named trigger pulses, are used for exposure. They are immediately followed by focused ultrasound for heating with an intensity similar to or less than that of normal HIFU treatment. The localized generation of microbubble clouds by the trigger pulses is observed in a polyarylamide gel by a high-speed camera, and the effectiveness of the generated clouds in accelerating ultrasonically induced thermal coagulation is confirmed in excised chicken breast tissue. The use of second-harmonic superimposed waves as the trigger pulses is also proposed. The highly reproducible initiation of cavitation by waves with the negative peak pressure emphasized and the efficient expansion of the generated microbubble clouds by waves with the positive peak pressure emphasized are also observed by a high-speed camera in partially degassed water.

  13. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.

    PubMed

    Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation. PMID:24880390

  14. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    SciTech Connect

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-05-15

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  15. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  16. Installation effects on the tonal noise generated by axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepa, Edward; Cattanei, Andrea; Mazzocut Zecchin, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments on a low-speed axial-flow fan flush mounted on flat panels typically employed in tests on automotive cooling fans. The experiments have been conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber and were aimed at evaluating the installation effects of the whole test configuration, including chamber floor and size and shape of the mounting panel. The largest panels cause important SPL variations in a narrow, low frequency range. Their effect on the propagation function has been verified by means of parametric BEM computations. A regular wavy trend associated with reflections from the floor is also present. In both cases, the tonal noise is more strongly affected than the broadband one. The analysis is performed by means of an existing spectral decomposition technique and a new one, which allows to consider different noise generating mechanisms and also to separate the emitted tonal and broadband noise from the associated propagation effects. In order to better identify the features of the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) harmonics, the phase of the acoustic pressure is also analysed. Measurements are taken during speed ramps, which allow to obtain both constant-Strouhal number SPL data and constant-speed data. The former data set is employed in the new technique, while the latter may be employed in the standard spectral decomposition techniques. Based on both the similarity theory and the analysis of the Green's function of the problem, a theoretical description of the structure of the received SPL spectrum is given. Then, the possibility of discriminating between tonal and broadband noise generating mechanisms is analysed and a theoretical base for the new spectral decomposition technique is provided.

  17. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research. Final report, July 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.

    1993-01-01

    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  18. Investigation of pulmonary acoustic simulation: comparing airway model generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Brian; Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable spectral, spatial and/or temporal changes in lung sound production and transmission. These changes, if properly quantified, might provide additional information about the etiology, severity and location of trauma, injury, or pathology. With this in mind, the authors are developing a comprehensive computer simulation model of pulmonary acoustics, known as The Audible Human Project™. Its purpose is to improve our understanding of pulmonary acoustics and to aid in interpreting measurements of sound and vibration in the lungs generated by airway insonification, natural breath sounds, and external stimuli on the chest surface, such as that used in elastography. As a part of this development process, finite element (FE) models were constructed of an excised pig lung that also underwent experimental studies. Within these models, the complex airway structure was created via two methods: x-ray CT image segmentation and through an algorithmic means called Constrained Constructive Optimization (CCO). CCO was implemented to expedite the segmentation process, as airway segments can be grown digitally. These two approaches were used in FE simulations of the surface motion on the lung as a result of sound input into the trachea. Simulation results were compared to experimental measurements. By testing how close these models are to experimental measurements, we are evaluating whether CCO can be used as a means to efficiently construct physiologically relevant airway trees.

  19. Surf-generated noise signatures: A comparison of plunging and spilling breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, Steven L.; Heitmeyer, Richard M.

    2002-08-01

    Range-time-frequency distributions of surf-generated noise were measured within the surf zone during the SandyDuck'97 experiment at Duck, NC. A 24-phone, 138-m, bottom-mounted, linear array located along a line perpendicular to the shore at a depth of 1 to 3 m recorded the surf-generated noise. Concurrent video measurements of the location, size, and time-evolution of the individual breaking waves directly above the array were made from a nearby 43-m tower. Source level spectra are obtained by using a modified fast field program to account for water column and geoacoustic propagation from the distributed source region to an individual hydrophone. The length, location, and orientation of the leading edge of breakers are tracked in time from rectified video images. It is observed that the source levels from spilling breakers are lower (approx5-10 dB) than those produced by plunging breakers that occurred during the same time period. Plunging breakers generated time-frequency signatures with a sharp onset while spilling breakers' signatures had a gradual low-frequency precursor. Range-time signatures of plunging breakers indicate a burst of acoustic energy while spilling breakers' signatures depict sound being generated over a longer time period with the source region moving with the breaking surface wave.

  20. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  1. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative. PMID:22740154

  2. Acoustical and noise redesign considerations when trying to increase patient privacy while ensuring comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavetter, Eric

    2005-09-01

    An internal assessment was undertaken to understand the flow of patients to ensure comfort and privacy during their health care experience at Mayo Clinic. A number of different prototypes, work flows, and methodologies were utilized and assessed to determine the ``best experience for our patients.'' A number of prototypes ranging from self-check in to personal pagers were assessed along with creating environments that introduced ``passive distractions'' for acoustical and noise management, which can range from fireplaces, to coffee shops to playgrounds to ``tech corridors.'' While a number of these designs are currently being piloted, the over-reaching goal is to make the patient experience ``like no other'' when receiving their care at Mayo Clinic.

  3. Measurements of the horizontal directionality of the ambient acoustic noise in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, M. J.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of some of the horizontal characteristics of acoustic ambient noise were carried out in the south-eastern parts of Monterey Bay, California, at a limited number of stations and for a limited number of ambient conditions. Directional hydrophones on buoys located at ranges of two to four miles from shore were used which have a steerable, cardioid-shaped pattern. The beam was successively aimed along the four cardinal directions and the frequency spectrum of the output was obtained. The frequency range of the system response was from 10 to 2500 Hz. Results are presented in the form of differences between the spectral energy bins in each direction and the average over all directions. Experimental difficulties with sonobuoy reliability prevented collection of extensive data. Some tentative conclusions are drawn from the results.

  4. Structural Acoustic Characteristics of Aircraft and Active Control of Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of aircraft cabin sound levels to acceptable values still remains a topic of much research. The use of conventional passive approaches has been extensively studied and implemented. However performance limits of these techniques have been reached. In this project, new techniques for understanding the structural acoustic behavior of aircraft fuselages and the use of this knowledge in developing advanced new control approaches are investigated. A central feature of the project is the Aircraft Fuselage Test Facility at Va Tech which is based around a full scale Cessna Citation III fuselage. The work is divided into two main parts; the first part investigates the use of an inverse technique for identifying dominant fuselage vibrations. The second part studies the development and implementation of active and active-passive techniques for controlling aircraft interior noise.

  5. Acoustic noise reduction for vehicle engines. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, devices, and materials to reduce acoustic noise in vehicle engines. Vehicles covered include automobiles, railway locomotives, agricultural tractors, and aircraft. Internal combustion, diesel, and gas turbine engines are covered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. EVIDENCE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF ASSOCIATIVE CONDITIONING IN REFLEX MODIFICATION OF THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE WITH GAPS IN BACKGROUND NOISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experiments reported here were designed to determine the role of associative conditioning in reflex modification of the acoustic startle response using gaps in background noise. xperiments were conducted with independent, naive groups of adult Long Evans hooded rats tested us...

  7. EFFECT OF AGE AND EXPERIENCE ON INHIBITION OF THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE BY GAPS IN BACKGROUND NOISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acoustic startle response (ASR) is inhibited when the eliciting stimulus is preceded by a brief gap in background noise. he present study bed the ontogeny of ASR gap inhibition in the rat and the role of experience on its development. ndependent groups of Long-Evans rats were...

  8. What's All the Noise? Differentiating Dimensions of Acoustic Stress and the Limits to Meta-Analysis: Reply to Smith (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalma, J. L.; Hancock, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Smith (2012) has provided pertinent observations on our recently published meta-analytic review (Szalma & Hancock, 2011) of the effects of acoustic noise on performance. His main points are as follows: (a) our review excluded some areas of research; (b) there were conceptual problems with our moderator analyses; and (c) limitations to…

  9. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  11. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  12. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  13. 21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing... noise generator for audiometric testing. (a) Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an...

  14. Baseline acoustic levels of the NASA Active Noise Control Fan rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Elliott, David M.; Nallasamy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive measurements of the spinning acoustic mode structure in the NASA 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) test rig have been taken. A continuously rotating microphone rake system with a least-squares data reduction technique was employed to measure these modes in the inlet and exhaust. Farfield directivity patterns in an anechoic environment were also measured at matched corrected rotor speeds. Several vane counts and spacings were tested over a range of rotor speeds. The Eversman finite element radiation code was run with the measured in-duct modes as input and the computed farfield results were compared to the experimentally measured directivity pattern. The experimental data show that inlet spinning mode measurements can be made very accurately. Exhaust mode measurements may have wake interference, but the least-squares reduction does a good job of rejecting the non-acoustic pressure. The Eversman radiation code accurately extrapolates the farfield levels and directivity pattern when all in-duct modes are included.

  15. Site effect determination using seismic noise from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador): implications for seismo-acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Pablo; Kendall, J.-Michael; Mader, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    Scattering and refractions that occur in the heterogenous near-surface beneath seismic stations can strongly affect the relative amplitudes recorded by three-component seismometers. Using data from Tungurahua volcano we have developed a procedure to correct these `site effects'. We show that seismic noise signals store site information, and then use their normalized spectral amplitudes as site frequency response functions. The process does not require a reference station (as per the S-wave and coda methods) or assume that the vertical amplitude is constant (the H/V component ratio method). Correcting the site effects has three consequences on data analysis: (1) improvement of the seismic source location and its energy estimation; (2) identification of a strong influence on the volcanic acoustic seismic ratio (VASR) and (3) decoupling the air wave impact on the ground caused by explosions or eruption jets. We show how site effect corrections improve the analysis of an eruption jet on 2006 July 14-15, appearing two periods of strong acoustic energy release and a progressive increase of the seismic energy, reaching the maximum before finishing the eruption.

  16. "Ladder" structure in tonal noise generated by laminar flow around an airfoil.

    PubMed

    Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip

    2012-06-01

    The presence of a "ladder" structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instability noise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop. PMID:22713022

  17. Simulation of Turbine Tone Noise Generation Using a Turbomachinery Aerodynamics Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2010-01-01

    As turbofan engine bypass ratios continue to increase, the contribution of the turbine to the engine noise signature is receiving more attention. Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. As proof-of-concept for this approach, two highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flow field inside the first stage of a modern high-pressure turbine were carried out. The simulations were computed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code capable of multi-stage simulations. Spectral and modal analysis of the unsteady pressure data from the numerical simulation of the turbine stage show a circumferential modal distribution that is consistent with the Tyler-Sofrin rule. Within the high-pressure turbine, the interaction of velocity, pressure and temperature fluctuations with the downstream blade rows are all possible tone noise source mechanisms. We have taken the initial step in determining the source strength hierarchy by artificially reducing the level of temperature fluctuations in the turbine flowfield. This was accomplished by changing the vane cooling flow temperature in order to mitigate the vane thermal wake in the second of the two simulations. The results indicated that, despite a dramatic change in the vane cooling flow, the computed modal levels changed very little indicating that the contribution of temperature fluctuations to the overall pressure field is rather small compared with the viscous and potential field interaction mechanisms.

  18. High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

  19. A Study of Acoustic Reflections in Full-Scale Rotor Low Frequency Noise Measurements Acquired in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha L.; Sim, Ben W.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Goulding, Pat, II

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining full-scale rotor low frequency noise measurements in wind tunnels are addressed via residual sound reflections due to non-ideal anechoic wall treatments. Examples illustrated with the Boeing-SMART rotor test in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel facility demonstrated that these reflections introduced distortions in the measured acoustic time histories that are not representative of free-field rotor noise radiation. A simplified reflection analysis, based on the method of images, is used to examine the sound measurement quality in such "less-than-anechoic" environment. Predictions of reflection-adjusted acoustic time histories are qualitatively shown to account for some of the spurious fluctuations observed in wind tunnel noise measurements

  20. Assessment of Impulse Noise Level and Acoustic Trauma in Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Maryam; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Saedi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Military personnel are usually exposed to high levels of impulse noise (IN) which can lead to hearing loss. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of relatively low level exposure of impulse noise (IN) during shooting practice on hearing using pure tone audiometry (PTA) and transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) in military personnel. Materials and Methods: Forty male soldiers (mean age 20.08 years) were recruited for the study. Prior to their first shooting practice, PTA and TEOAE were recorded. After 15 minutes and one week post- practice PTA and TEOAE were compared. Results: Immediately after shooting practice significant differences in PTA at 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz were observed for the right ear and no significant difference at any frequency for the left ear. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of TEOAE 15 minutes after shooting practice at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in the right ear, while for the left ear the difference was significant at 1000 and 2000 Hz. One week after exposure a significant difference at 500 and 4000 Hz was found only in the right ear and a significant difference in the amplitude of TEOAE was observed at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz. Conclusions: Even exposure lower than permissible levels may lead to acoustic trauma. TEOAE is more sensitive than PTA in detecting early hearing loss after military shooting exercises. Hearing protection equipment and appropriate surveillance programs are recommended. PMID:24749098

  1. Active Structural Acoustic Control of Interior Noise on a Raytheon 1900D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Cabell, Ran; Sullivan, Brenda; Cline, John

    2000-01-01

    An active structural acoustic control system has been demonstrated on a Raytheon Aircraft Company 1900D turboprop airliner. Both single frequency and multi-frequency control of the blade passage frequency and its harmonics was accomplished. The control algorithm was a variant of the popular filtered-x LMS implemented in the principal component domain. The control system consisted of 21 inertial actuators and 32 microphones. The actuators were mounted to the aircraft's ring frames. The microphones were distributed uniformly throughout the interior at head height, both seated and standing. Actuator locations were selected using a combinatorial search optimization algorithm. The control system achieved a 14 dB noise reduction of the blade passage frequency during single frequency tests. Multi-frequency control of the first 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonics resulted in 10.2 dB, 3.3 dB and 1.6 dB noise reductions respectively. These results fall short of the predictions which were produced by the optimization algorithm (13.5 dB, 8.6 dB and 6.3 dB). The optimization was based on actuator transfer functions taken on the ground and it is postulated that cabin pressurization at flight altitude was a factor in this discrepancy.

  2. Direct simulations of trailing-edge noise generation from two-dimensional airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomoaki; Atobe, Takashi; Takagi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    The aeroacoustic sound generated from the flow around two NACA four-digit airfoils is investigated numerically, at relatively low Reynolds numbers that do not prompt boundary-layer transition. By using high-order finite-difference schemes to discretize compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the sound scattered on airfoil surface is directly resolved as an unsteady pressure fluctuation. As the wavelength of an emitted noise is shortened compared to the airfoil chord, the diffraction effect on non-compact chord length appears more noticeable, developing multiple lobes in directivity. The instability mechanism that produces sound sources, or unsteady vortical motions, is quantitatively examined, also by using a linear stability theory. While the evidence of boundary-layer instability waves is captured in the present result, the most amplified frequency in the boundary shear layer does not necessarily agree with the primary frequency of a trailing-edge noise, when wake instability is dominant in laminar flow. This contradicts the observation of other trailing-edge noise studies at higher Reynolds numbers. However, via acoustic disturbances, the boundary-layer instability may become more significant, through the resonance with the wake instability, excited by increasing a base-flow Mach number. Evidence suggests that this would correspond to the onset of an acoustic feedback loop. The wake-flow frequencies derived by an absolute-instability analysis are compared with the frequencies realized in flow simulations, to clarify the effect of an acoustic feedback mechanism, at a low Reynolds number.

  3. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  4. [INVITED] Laser generation and detection of ultrafast shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeril, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the up-to-date findings related to ultrafast shear acoustic waves. Recent progress obtained for the laser generation and detection of picosecond shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids is reviewed. Examples in which the transverse isotropic symmetry of the sample structure is broken in order to permit shear acoustic wave generation through sudden laser heating are described in detail. Alternative photo-induced mechanisms for ultrafast shear acoustic generation in metals, semiconductors, insulators, magnetostrictive, piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are reviewed as well. With reference to key experiments, an all-optical technique employed to probe longitudinal and shear structural dynamics in the GHz frequency range in ultra-thin liquid films is described. This technique, based on specific ultrafast shear acoustic transducers, has opened new perspectives that will be discussed for ultrafast shear acoustic probing of viscoelastic liquids at the nanometer scale.

  5. Acoustic plane waves normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct. [to explain noise reduction curves for reducing interior noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unz, H.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.

  6. Frequency noise and intensity noise of next-generation gravitational-wave detectors with RF/DC readout schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Somiya, K.; Chen, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Mio, N.

    2006-06-15

    The sensitivity of next-generation gravitational-wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and LCGT should be limited mostly by quantum noise with an expected technical progress to reduce seismic noise and thermal noise. Those detectors will employ the optical configuration of resonant-sideband-extraction that can be realized with a signal-recycling mirror added to the Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. While this configuration can reduce quantum noise of the detector, it can possibly increase laser frequency noise and intensity noise. The analysis of laser noise in the interferometer with the conventional configuration has been done in several papers, and we shall extend the analysis to the resonant-sideband-extraction configuration with the radiation-pressure effect included. We shall also refer to laser noise in the case we employ the so-called DC readout scheme.

  7. Social Noise: Generating Random Numbers from Twitter Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Norberto; Quintas, Fernando; Sánchez, Luis; Arias, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Due to the multiple applications of random numbers in computer systems (cryptography, online gambling, computer simulation, etc.) it is important to have mechanisms to generate these numbers. True Random Number Generators (TRNGs) are commonly used for this purpose. TRNGs rely on non-deterministic sources to generate randomness. Physical processes (like noise in semiconductors, quantum phenomenon, etc.) play this role in state of the art TRNGs. In this paper, we depart from previous work and explore the possibility of defining social TRNGs using the stream of public messages of the microblogging service Twitter as randomness source. Thus, we define two TRNGs based on Twitter stream information and evaluate them using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The results of the evaluation confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow past a trailing edge and the associated noise generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Richard D.; Sandham, Neil D.

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted of turbulent flow passing an infinitely thin trailing edge. The objective is to investigate the turbulent flow field in the vicinity of the trailing edge and the associated broadband noise generation. To generate a turbulent boundary layer a short distance from the inflow boundary, high-amplitude lifted streaks and disturbances that can be associated with coherent outer-layer vortices are introduced at the inflow boundary. A rapid increase in skin friction and a decrease in boundary layer thickness and pressure fluctuations is observed at the trailing edge. It is demonstrated that the behaviour of the hydrodynamic field in the vicinity of the trailing edge can be predicted with reasonable accuracy using triple-deck theory if the eddy viscosity is accounted for. Point spectra of surface pressure difference are shown to vary considerably towards the trailing edge, with a significant reduction of amplitude occurring in the low-frequency range. The acoustic pressure obtained from the DNS is compared with predictions from two- and three-dimensional acoustic analogies and the classical trailing-edge theory of Amiet. For low frequencies, two-dimensional theory succeeds in predicting the acoustic pressure in the far field with reasonable accuracy due to a significant spanwise coherence of the surface pressure difference and predominantly two-dimensional sound radiation. For higher frequencies, however, the full three-dimensional theory is required for an accurate prediction of the acoustic far field. DNS data are used to test some of the key assumptions invoked by Amiet for the derivation of the classical trailing-edge theory. Even though most of the approximations are shown to be reasonable, they collectively lead to a deviation from the DNS results, in particular for higher frequencies. Moreover, because the three-dimensional acoustic analogy does not provide significantly improved results, it is suggested that some of the

  9. Signal Analysis of Helicopter Blade-Vortex-Interaction Acoustic Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James C.; Dai, Renshou

    1998-01-01

    Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) produces annoying high-intensity impulsive noise. NASA Ames collected several sets of BVI noise data during in-flight and wind tunnel tests. The goal of this work is to extract the essential features of the BVI signals from the in-flight data and examine the feasibility of extracting those features from BVI noise recorded inside a large wind tunnel. BVI noise generating mechanisms and BVI radiation patterns an are considered and a simple mathematical-physical model is presented. It allows the construction of simple synthetic BVI events that are comparable to free flight data. The boundary effects of the wind tunnel floor and ceiling are identified and more complex synthetic BVI events are constructed to account for features observed in the wind tunnel data. It is demonstrated that improved recording of BVI events can be attained by changing the geometry of the rotor hub, floor, ceiling and microphone. The Euclidean distance measure is used to align BVI events from each blade and improved BVI signals are obtained by time-domain averaging the aligned data. The differences between BVI events for individual blades are then apparent. Removal of wind tunnel background noise by optimal Wiener-filtering is shown to be effective provided representative noise-only data have been recorded. Elimination of wind tunnel reflections by cepstral and optimal filtering deconvolution is examined. It is seen that the cepstral method is not applicable but that a pragmatic optimal filtering approach gives encouraging results. Recommendations for further work include: altering measurement geometry, real-time data observation and evaluation, examining reflection signals (particularly those from the ceiling) and performing further analysis of expected BVI signals for flight conditions of interest so that microphone placement can be optimized for each condition.

  10. Comparing the effects of reverberation and of noise on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic listening

    PubMed Central

    Helms Tillery, Kate; Brown, Christopher A.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant users report difficulty understanding speech in both noisy and reverberant environments. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is known to improve speech intelligibility in noise. However, little is known about the potential benefits of EAS in reverberation, or about how such benefits relate to those observed in noise. The present study used EAS simulations to examine these questions. Sentences were convolved with impulse responses from a model of a room whose estimated reverberation times were varied from 0 to 1 sec. These reverberated stimuli were then vocoded to simulate electric stimulation, or presented as a combination of vocoder plus low-pass filtered speech to simulate EAS. Monaural sentence recognition scores were measured in two conditions: reverberated speech and speech in a reverberated noise. The long-term spectrum and amplitude modulations of the noise were equated to the reverberant energy, allowing a comparison of the effects of the interferer (speech vs noise). Results indicate that, at least in simulation, (1) EAS provides significant benefit in reverberation; (2) the benefits of EAS in reverberation may be underestimated by those in a comparable noise; and (3) the EAS benefit in reverberation likely arises from partially preserved cues in this background accessible via the low-frequency acoustic component. PMID:22280603

  11. Mechanism of noise generation by cavitation in hydraulic relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Kataoka, T.; Takagi, S.; Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of noise generation in a hydraulic relief valve, oil cavitating flows in a half cut model of the valve were observed by means of a high-speed camera and were simulated numerically. As the result of image analysis, the fluctuation of cavitation volume is corresponding to the pressure fluctuation of downstream, and the both fluctuations take peaks at frequencies from 1.5 to 2.5 kHz depending on the back pressure. In addition, as the back pressure increases, the frequency of the pressure fluctuation increases and the peak value decreases. These phenomena were also qualitatively reproduced in the numerical simulation.

  12. Computation of Tone Noises Generated in Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Three benchmark problems from the current and previous CAA workshops involving tone noise generated in viscous flows are investigated using the CE/SE finite volume method. The CE/SE method is first briefly reviewed. Then, the benchmark problems, namely, flow past a single cylinder (CAA Workshop II problem), flow past twin cylinders (from the current CAA Workshop IV, Category 5, Problem 1) and flow past a deep cavity with overhang (CAA Workshop III problem) are investigated. Generally good results are obtained in comparison with the experimental data.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of trailing-edge noise generated by boundary-layer instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, R. D.; Sandham, N. D.; Joseph, P. F.

    2007-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted of noise generated at an infinitely thin trailing edge (TE). The aim is to predict the far-field sound and the near-field hydrodynamics, thereby providing an insight into the physical mechanisms of sound generation at airfoil TEs and potentially helping to validate acoustic theories. One of the theories widely used is the classical inviscid theory of Amiet, where the far-field sound can be evaluated in closed form if the convecting surface pressure spectrum upstream of the TE is known. For the first time, data from DNS including viscous effects are compared to the classical inviscid TE noise theory. In the present investigation, Tollmien-Schlichting waves are introduced close to the inflow boundary. The disturbances propagate downstream producing pressure fluctuations at the TE. In conducting two-dimensional DNS the theoretical method requires modification to account for the radiation of the total pressure difference in two dimensions only, as opposed to the three-dimensional sound radiation originally considered by Amiet. The modified theoretical analysis and a comparison between DNS and theoretical results are presented, scrutinizing the assumptions made in the derivation. Amiet's surface pressure jump transfer function is found to predict the scattered pressure field accurately. Directivity plots of DNS data show that viscous effects appear to smear individual lobes and that a downstream pointing lobe is present at higher Mach number which is attributed to an additional wake source.

  14. Acoustic bubble: Controlled and selective micropropulsion and chemical waveform generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Daniel

    The physics governing swimming at the microscale---where viscous forces dominate over inertial---is distinctly different than that at the macroscale. Devices capable of finely controlled swimming at the microscale could enable bold ideas such as targeted drug delivery, non-invasive microsurgery, and precise materials assembly. Progress has already been made towards such artificial microswimmers using several means of actuation: chemical reactions and applied magnetic, electric or acoustic fields. However, the prevailing goal of selective actuation of a single microswimmer from within a group, the first step towards collaborative, guided action by a group of swimmers, has so far not been achieved. Here I present a new class of microswimmer that accomplishes for the first time selective actuation (Chapter 1). The swimmer design eschews the commonly-held design paradigm that microswimmers must use non-reciprocal motion to achieve propulsion; instead, the swimmer is propelled by oscillatory motion of an air bubble trapped within the swimmer's polymer body. This oscillatory motion is driven by a low-power biocompatible acoustic field to the ambient liquid, with meaningful swimmer propulsion occurring only at resonance frequencies of the bubble. This acoustically-powered microswimmer performs controllable rapid translational and rotational motion even in highly viscous liquid. By using a group of swimmers each with a different bubble size (and thus different resonance frequencies) selective actuation of a single swimmer from among the group can be readily achieved. Cellular response to chemical microenvironments depends on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the stimulus, which is central to many biological processes including gene expression, cell migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and intercellular signaling. To date, studies have been limited to digital (or step) chemical stimulation with little control over the temporal counterparts. Microfluidic approaches

  15. Direct numerical simulations of tonal noise generated by laminar flow past airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, R. D.; Jones, L. E.; Sandham, N. D.; Joseph, P. F.

    2009-03-01

    A numerical investigation is presented of noise generated by flow past symmetric NACA airfoils with different thickness and at various angles of attack at M=0.4 and a Reynolds number based on chord of Re=50,000. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are employed to directly compute both the near-field hydrodynamics and the far-field sound. The DNS data are then used to investigate whether the approach of determining tonal noise radiation based on the surface pressure difference, as done in the classical trailing-edge theory of Amiet, yields satisfactory results for finite thickness airfoils subject to mean loading effects. In addition, the accuracy of Amiet's surface pressure jump function is evaluated. Overall, the modified theory of Amiet appears to be suitable for finite thickness airfoils up to moderate incidence. However, when increasing the airfoil thickness to 12% chord, which corresponds to a trailing-edge angle of 16.8∘, an unexpected phase change between the incident and scattered pressure is found at the frequency of the forced instability waves. This phase change is attributed to the flow oscillating around the trailing edge at a separate wake frequency. For the largest incidence investigated, Amiet's response function does not predict the total surface pressure difference as accurately as for zero or small incidence at the vortex shedding frequency, resulting in a poor prediction of the directivity and amplitude of the acoustic pressure. Moreover, predicting the airfoil self-noise based on the surface pressure difference appears not to be generally applicable at higher angles of attack because the radiated sound is only partly due to classical trailing-edge noise mechanisms. In these cases, it appears as if volume sources in the flow cannot be neglected.

  16. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfei; Shen, Huijie; Zhang, Linke; Su, Yongsheng; Yu, Dianlong

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range.

  17. Cold-flow acoustic evaluation of a small scale, divergent, lobed nozzle for supersonic jet noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A supersonic jet noise suppressor was tested with cold flow for acoustic and thrust characteristics at nozzle- to atmospheric-pressure ratios of 1.5 to 4.0. Jet noise suppression and spectral characteristics of the divergent, lobed, suppressor (DLS) nozzle with and without an ejector are presented. Suppression was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.5 to 4.0. The largest, maximum-lobe, sound pressure level suppression with a hard-wall ejector was 14.6 decibels at a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.5. The thrust loss was 2 percent. In general, low-frequency jet noise was suppressed, leaving higher frequencies essentially unchanged. Without the ejector the nozzle showed a thrust loss of 11 percent together with slightly poorer noise suppression.

  18. Comments on "Effects of Noise on Speech Production: Acoustic and Perceptual Analyses" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988)].

    PubMed

    Fitch, H

    1989-11-01

    The effect of background noise on speech production is an important issue, both from the practical standpoint of developing speech recognition algorithms and from the theoretical standpoint of understanding how speech is tuned to the environment in which it is spoken. Summers et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988]) address this issue by experimentally manipulating the level of noise delivered through headphones to two talkers and making several kinds of acoustic measurements on the resulting speech. They indicate that they have replicated effects on amplitude, duration, and pitch and have found effects on spectral tilt and first-formant frequency (F1). The authors regard these acoustic changes as effects in themselves rather than as consequences of a change in vocal effort, and thus treat equally the change in spectral tilt and the change in F1. In fact, the change in spectral tilt is a well-documented and understood consequence of the change in the glottal waveform, which is known to occur with increased effort. The situation with F1 is less clear and is made difficult by measurement problems. The bias in linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques related to two of the other changes-fundamental frequency and spectral tilt-is discussed. PMID:2808931

  19. Maintaining acoustic communication at a cocktail party: heterospecific masking noise improves signal detection through frequency separation

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, M. E.; Römer, H.; Hartbauer, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined acoustic masking in a chirping katydid species of the Mecopoda elongata complex due to interference with a sympatric Mecopoda species where males produce continuous trills at high amplitudes. Frequency spectra of both calling songs range from 1 to 80 kHz; the chirper species has more energy in a narrow frequency band at 2 kHz and above 40 kHz. Behaviourally, chirper males successfully phase-locked their chirps to playbacks of conspecific chirps under masking conditions at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of −8 dB. After the 2 kHz band in the chirp had been equalised to the level in the masking trill, the breakdown of phase-locked synchrony occurred at a SNR of +7 dB. The remarkable receiver performance is partially mirrored in the selective response of a first-order auditory interneuron (TN1) to conspecific chirps under these masking conditions. However, the selective response is only maintained for a stimulus including the 2 kHz component, although this frequency band has no influence on the unmasked TN1 response. Remarkably, the addition of masking noise at 65 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to threshold response levels of TN1 for pure tones of 2 kHz enhanced the sensitivity of the response by 10 dB. Thus, the spectral dissimilarity between masker and signal at a rather low frequency appears to be of crucial importance for the ability of the chirping species to communicate under strong masking by the trilling species. We discuss the possible properties underlying the cellular/synaptic mechanisms of the ‘novelty detector’. PMID:24307713

  20. Simulation of Ocean-Generated Microseismic Noise Propagation in the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Y.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Faure, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean-generated microseisms are small ground oscillations associated with the occurrence of the interactions between the solid Earth and ocean water waves. Microseismic noise field is mostly composed of surface waves, where the wave energy propagate along the ocean floor predominantly in the form of Rayleigh waves, but some Love waves are also present. Microseisms will pick up some information about the medium on the propagation paths due to the interaction between the seismic waves and the structure. Recently, seismologists become more and more interested in using cross-correlations of continuously recorded microseismic noise to retrieve information about the Earth's structure. In order to use this information well, it's important to identify the rich noise source domain in the ocean and quantify the propagation process of microseism from the origins to the land-based seismic stations. In this work, we try to characterize how a microseism propagates along a fluid-solid interface through numerical simulations, in which a North-East Atlantic Ocean model is adopted and a microseism is generated on the bottom of deep ocean with the expected source mechanism. The spectral element method is used to simulate coupled acoustic/elastic wave propagation in an unstructured mesh, and the coupling between fluid and solid regions is accommodated by using a domain decomposition method. The effects of crustal structure, sediment layer, bathymetry and ocean load on the microseismic wave propagation will be examined, and a special attention will be paid to the fluid-solid coupling. We find that microseismic wave will be highly dispersive propagating in the ocean environment.

  1. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.

  2. Ultrafast strain gauge: Observation of THz radiation coherently generated by acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M; Reed, E; Kim, K; Glownia, J; Howard, W M; Piner, E; Roberts, J

    2008-08-14

    The study of nanoscale, terahertz frequency (THz) acoustic waves has great potential for elucidating material and chemical interactions as well as nanostructure characterization. Here we report the first observation of terahertz radiation coherently generated by an acoustic wave. Such emission is directly related to the time-dependence of the stress as the acoustic wave crosses an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric response. This phenomenon enables a new class of strain wave metrology that is fundamentally distinct from optical approaches, providing passive remote sensing of the dynamics of acoustic waves with ultrafast time resolution. The new mechanism presented here enables nanostructure measurements not possible using existing optical or x-ray approaches.

  3. Advantages from bilateral hearing in speech perception in noise with simulated cochlear implants and residual acoustic hearing.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Tim; Green, Tim; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic simulations were used to study the contributions of spatial hearing that may arise from combining a cochlear implant with either a second implant or contralateral residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in twenty-talker babble. Spatial separation of speech and noise was simulated using a spherical head model. While low-frequency acoustic information contralateral to the implant simulation produced substantially better SRTs there was no effect of spatial cues on SRT, even when interaural differences were artificially enhanced. Simulated bilateral implants showed a significant head shadow effect, but no binaural unmasking based on interaural time differences, and weak, inconsistent overall spatial release from masking. There was also a small but significant non-spatial summation effect. It appears that typical cochlear implant speech processing strategies may substantially reduce the utility of spatial cues, even in the absence of degraded neural processing arising from auditory deprivation. PMID:23363118

  4. Problems in Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and Acoustic Noise Distribution when Designing Wind Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of 10 to 60 m in the area in the Baltic Sea coast in Ventspils and Ainaži. The velocity observations since 2007 have been gathered by measurements complex of the LOGGER 9200 Symphonie type. The results are presented in the form of tables, bar charts and graphs. Extrapolation results of wind velocity and density mean values on heights up to 150 m for the two areas with different terrain types were shown. The distribution of acoustic noise in the vicinity of the WPP was studied and an assessment of its impact on the environment in accordance with the Latvian government requirements was conducted.

  5. Observation of the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism in Microscopic Acoustic Crackling Noises.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, H O; Griffth, W A; Benson, P M; Xia, K; Young, R P

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the fast evolution of microstructural defects is key to understanding "crackling" phenomena during the deformation of solid materials. For example, it has been proposed using atomistic simulations of crack propagation in elastic materials that the formation of a nonlinear hyperelastic or plastic zone around moving crack tips controls crack velocity. To date, progress in understanding the physics of this critical zone has been limited due to the lack of data describing the complex physical processes that operate near microscopic crack tips. We show, by analyzing many acoustic emission events during rock deformation experiments, that the signature of this nonlinear zone maps directly to crackling noises. In particular, we characterize a weakening zone that forms near the moving crack tips using functional networks, and we determine the scaling law between the formation of damages (defects) and the traversal rate across the critical point of transition. Moreover, we show that the correlation length near the transition remains effectively frozen. This is the main underlying hypothesis behind the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) and the obtained power-law scaling verifies the main prediction of KZM. PMID:26876156

  6. Observation of the Kibble–Zurek Mechanism in Microscopic Acoustic Crackling Noises

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffth, W. A.; Benson, P.M.; Xia, K.; Young, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the fast evolution of microstructural defects is key to understanding “crackling” phenomena during the deformation of solid materials. For example, it has been proposed using atomistic simulations of crack propagation in elastic materials that the formation of a nonlinear hyperelastic or plastic zone around moving crack tips controls crack velocity. To date, progress in understanding the physics of this critical zone has been limited due to the lack of data describing the complex physical processes that operate near microscopic crack tips. We show, by analyzing many acoustic emission events during rock deformation experiments, that the signature of this nonlinear zone maps directly to crackling noises. In particular, we characterize a weakening zone that forms near the moving crack tips using functional networks, and we determine the scaling law between the formation of damages (defects) and the traversal rate across the critical point of transition. Moreover, we show that the correlation length near the transition remains effectively frozen. This is the main underlying hypothesis behind the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) and the obtained power-law scaling verifies the main prediction of KZM. PMID:26876156

  7. Potential efficacy of early treatment of acute acoustic trauma with steroids and piracetam after gunshot noise.

    PubMed

    Psillas, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karvelis, Ioannis; Kekes, George; Vital, Victor; Constantinidis, John

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this randomized study was to evaluate the early effect of the treatment of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) with steroids and piracetam in a sample of 52 young soldiers who were exposed to intense gunfire noise (G3 rifle). These patients were divided into three groups: (1) group A (20 patients) in which the treatment began within the first hour after the AAT, (2) group B (17 patients) in which the treatment started more than 1 h later and less than 16 h after the AAT and (3) group C (15 patients) in which the treatment began after 24 h or more. One month after the treatment onset, 36 (69%) patients of all the groups showed hearing improvement (complete-partial recovery) in the pure tone audiometry. The greater number of patients who showed complete recovery after AAT was noted in group A (65%) compared to group B (23.5%) and C (13.3%). Moreover, in group A, in the final audiogram, the averaged hearing threshold was statistically better (P < 0.001) than that of groups B and C. In spite of the lack of control group, our data demonstrated the possible effectiveness of the immediate onset of treatment of AAT. PMID:18463885

  8. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  9. On the precise implications of acoustic analogies for aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    2013-05-01

    We seek a clear statement of the scaling which may be expected with rigour for transportation or other noise at low Mach numbers M, based on Lighthill's and Curle's theories of 1952 and 1955. In the presence of compact solid bodies, the leading term in the acoustic intensity is of order M6. Contrary to the belief held since that time that it is of order M8, the contribution of quadrupoles, in the presence of dipoles, is of order only M7. Retarded-time-difference effects are also of order M7. Curle's widely used approximation based on unsteady forces neglects both effects. Its order of accuracy is thus lower than was thought, and the common estimates of the value of M below which it applies appear precarious. The M6 leading term is modified by powers up to the fourth of (1-Mr), where Mr is the relative Mach number between source and observer; at speeds of interest the effect is several dB. However, this is only one of the corrections of order M7, which makes its value debatable. The same applies to the difference between emission distance and reception distance. The scaling with M6 is theoretically correct to leading order, but this prediction may be so convincing, like the M8 scaling for jet noise, that some authors rush to confirm it when their measurements are in conflict with it. We survey experimental studies of landing-gear noise, and argue that the observed power of M is often well below 6. We also object to comparisons across Mach numbers at fixed frequency; they should be made at fixed Strouhal number St instead. Finally, the compact-source argument does not only require M≪1; it requires MSt≪1. This is more restrictive if the relevant St is well above 1, a situation which can be caused by interference with a boundary or by wake impingement, among other effects. The best length scales to define St for this purpose are discussed.

  10. Noise prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methods for noise abatement are discussed. Noise nuisance, types of noise (continuous, fluctuating, intermittent, pulsed), and types of noise abatement (absorption, vibration damping, isolation) are defined. Rockwool panels, industrial ceiling panels, baffles, acoustic foam panels, vibration dampers, acoustic mats, sandwich panels, isolating cabins and walls, ear protectors, and curtains are presented.

  11. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  12. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  13. Tip Fence for Reduction of Lift-Generated Airframe Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor); Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a unique lift-generated noise reduction apparatus. This apparatus includes a plurality of tip fences that are secured to the trailing and leading assemblies of the high-lift system, as close as possible to the discontinuities where the vortices are most likely to form. In one embodiment, these tip fences are secured to some or all of the outboard and inboard tips of the wing slats and flaps. The tip fence includes a generally flat, or an aerodynamically shaped plate or device that could be formed of almost any rigid material, such as metal, wood, plastic, fiber glass, aluminum, etc. In a preferred embodiment, the tip fences extend below and perpendicularly to flaps and the slats to which they are attached, such that these tip fences are aligned with the nominal free stream velocity of the aircraft. In addition to reducing airframe noise, the tip fence tends to decrease drag and to increase lift, thus improving the overall aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. Another advantage presented by the tip fence lies in the simplicity of its design, its elegance, and its ready ability to fit on the wing components, such as the flaps and the slats. Furthermore, it does not require non-standard materials or fabrication techniques, and it can be readily, easily and inexpensively retrofited on most of the existing aircraft, with minimal design changes.

  14. Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovì, Alessandro; Cattanei, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets and flows in stators and about isolated airfoils. Based on the similarity theory, a clear description of the structure of the power spectrum of the received noise is given and the effect of rotational speed variations is considered as a means to obtain a data set suitable to perform the spectral decomposition. The problem is analyzed in order to clarify possibilities and limitations of the method and then an algorithm is presented which is based on the solution of the derived equations. Particular care is devoted to both the numerical details and the operative aspects. The validation of the algorithm is performed by means of numerically generated input data. Next, in order to verify the ability of the method in separating scattered from emitted sound, an automotive cooling fan has been tested in the DIMSET hemi-anechoic room in a free-field configuration and with a shielded microphone. These two apparently distinct spectra collapse to within less than 2 dB after the spectral decomposition has been performed. The tests prove the ability of the method despite the modest quantity of input data.

  15. Application of an Aligned and Unaligned Signal Processing Technique to Investigate Tones and Broadband Noise in Fan and Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Acoustic Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of noise from a two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper.

  16. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW’s are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin. PMID:25057963

  17. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW's are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin.

  18. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  19. Hierarchical organization of noise generates spontaneous signal in Paramecium cell.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Shunsuke; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2011-08-21

    In many cellular processes, spontaneous activities are often the basis for their functioning. Paramecium cells change their swimming direction under a homogeneous environment, which is induced by a spontaneous signal generation in the membrane electric potential. For such a spontaneous activity, a theoretical model has been proposed by Oosawa (2007) [Biosystems 88, 191-201.], in which intracellular noise is hierarchically organized from thermal fluctuations to spike-like large fluctuations, which induces a signal to change spontaneously the swimming direction. Our analysis of the model shows that the system is a kind of excitable media, in which a spike is induced by a stochastic fluctuation. We show conditions of channels properties to have a spike train. PMID:21620864

  20. Laser induced plane acoustic wave generation, propagation, and interaction with rigid structures in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung H.; Ryu, Sang G.; Misra, Nipun; Pan, Heng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Kladias, Nick; Panides, Elias; Domoto, Gerald A.

    2008-10-01

    Short pulsed laser induced single acoustic wave generation, propagation, interaction with rigid structures, and focusing in water are experimentally and numerically studied. A large area short duration single plane acoustic wave was generated by the thermoelastic interaction of a homogenized nanosecond pulsed laser beam with a liquid-solid interface and propagated at the speed of sound in water. Laser flash schlieren photography was used to visualize the transient interaction of the plane acoustic wave with various submerged rigid structures [(a) a single block, (b) double blocks, (c) 33° tilted single block, and (d) concave cylindrical acoustic lens configurations]. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulation is observed. Our simulation results demonstrate that the laser induced planar acoustic wave can be focused down to several tens of micron size and several bars in pressure.

  1. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  2. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-06-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  3. High signal-to-noise ratio acoustic sensor using phase shifted gratings interrogated by the Pound-Drever-Hall technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.

    2015-03-01

    Optical fiber is made of glass, an insulator, and thus it is immune to strong electromagnetic interference. Therefore, fiber optics is a technology ideally suitable for sensing of partial discharge (PD) both in transformers and generators. Extensive efforts have been used to develop a cost effective solution for detecting partial discharge, which generates acoustic emission, with signals ranging from 30 kHz to 200 kHz. The requirement is similar to fiber optics Hydro Phone, but at higher frequencies. There are several keys to success: there must be at least 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, which will ensure not only PD detection but later on provide diagnostics and also the ability to locate the origin of the events. Defects that are stationary would gradually degrade the insulation and result in total breakdown. Transformers currently need urgent attention: most of them are oil filled and are at least 30 to 50 years old, close to the end of life. In this context, an issue to be addressed is the safety of the personnel working close to the assets and collateral damage that could be caused by a tank explosion (with fire spilling over the whole facility). This paper will describe the latest achievement in fiber optics PD sensor technology: the use of phase shifted-fiber gratings with a very high speed interrogation method that uses the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. More importantly, this is based on a technology that could be automated, easy to install, and, eventually, available at affordable prices.

  4. High signal-to-noise acoustic sensor using phase-shifted gratings interrogated by the Pound-Drever-Hall technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.

    2014-11-01

    Optical fiber is made of glass, an insulator, and thus it is immune to strong electromagnetic interference. Therefore, fiber optics is a technology ideally suitable for sensing of partial discharge (PD) both in transformers and generators. Extensive efforts have been used to develop a cost effective solution for detecting partial discharge, which generates acoustic emission, with signals ranging from 30 kHz to 200 kHz. The requirement is similar to fiber optics Hydro Phone, but at higher frequencies. There are several keys to success: there must be at least 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, which will ensure not only PD detection but later on provide diagnostics and also the ability to locate the origin of the events. Defects that are stationary would gradually degrade the insulation and result in total breakdown. Transformers currently need urgent attention: most of them are oil filled and are at least 30 to 50 years old, close to the end of life. In this context, an issue to be addressed is the safety of the personnel working close to the assets and collateral damage that could be caused by a tank explosion (with fire spilling over the whole facility). This paper will describe the latest achievement in fiber optics PD sensor technology: the use of phase shifted-fiber gratings with a very high speed interrogation method that uses the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. More importantly, this is based on a technology that could be automated, easy to install, and, eventually, available at affordable prices.

  5. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 2: Canceling Noise Source-Design of an Acoustic Plate Radiator Using Piezoceramic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, F. G.; Rajiyah, H.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of using acoustic plate radiators powered by piezoceramic thin sheets as canceling sources for active control of aircraft engine fan noise is demonstrated. Analytical and numerical models of actuated beams and plates are developed and validated. An optimization study is performed to identify the optimum combination of design parameters that maximizes the plate volume velocity for a given resonance frequency. Fifteen plates with various plate and actuator sizes, thicknesses, and bonding layers were fabricated and tested using results from the optimization study. A maximum equivalent piston displacement of 0.39 mm was achieved with the optimized plate samples tested with only one actuator powered, corresponding to a plate deflection at the center of over 1 millimeter. This is very close to the deflection required for a full size engine application and represents a 160-fold improvement over previous work. Experimental results further show that performance is limited by the critical stress of the piezoceramic actuator and bonding layer rather than by the maximum moment available from the actuator. Design enhancements are described in detail that will lead to a flight-worthy acoustic plate radiator by minimizing actuator tensile stresses and reducing nonlinear effects. Finally, several adaptive tuning methods designed to increase the bandwidth of acoustic plate radiators are analyzed including passive, active, and semi-active approaches. The back chamber pressurization and volume variation methods are investigated experimentally and shown to be simple and effective ways to obtain substantial control over the resonance frequency of a plate radiator. This study shows that piezoceramic-based plate radiators can be a viable acoustic source for active control of aircraft engine fan noise.

  6. Emulation of high-frequency substrate noise generation in CMOS digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Shunsuke; Taga, Shota; Makita, Tetsuya; Azuma, Naoya; Miura, Noriyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    A noise emulator is based on the capacitor charging modeling and generates power and substrate noises expected in a CMOS digital integrated circuit. An off-chip near-magnetic-field sensor indirectly characterizes the distribution of clock timing and the adjustability of skews within on-chip digital circuits. An on-chip noise monitor captures power and substrate noise waveforms and evaluates noise frequency components in a wide frequency bandwidth. A 65 nm CMOS prototype demonstrated power and substrate noise generation in a variety of operating scenarios of digital integrated circuits. Power noise generation emulated at 125 MHz exhibits the enhancements of high-order harmonic components after deskewing at a timing resolution of 37.8 ps, as is specifically seen in more than 10 dB enlargement of the substrate noise component at 2.1 GHz.

  7. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  8. Effect of crossflow velocity on the generation of lift fan jet noise in VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Fogg, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical studies based on a turbulent mixing noise prediction technique indicate that jet noise power levels are increased when a jet is situated in a crossflow. V/STOL model transport acoustic test data obtained in the NASA Ames 40 ft. x 80 ft. wind tunnel confirmed this jet noise power level increase due to crossflow. Increases up to 6 db at a Strouhal number of 2.5 and crossflow velocity to jet velocity ratio of 0.58 were observed. The power level increases observed in the experimental data confirm the predicted power level increases.

  9. [Assessment and analysis of the acoustic environment of soldiers exposed to impulse noise].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Wiesław; Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Piotr; Miłoński, Jarosław

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the acoustic environment of soldiers attending a one year basic military service. The study material comprised 13 types of weapons used by this group of soldiers. During the target practice, the following parameters were measured separately for the right ear and the left ear: equivalent sound pressure level A (LA eq, Te); maximum sound pressure level A (LA F max) and peak sound pressure level C (LC peak). The measurements covered several single shots or a shot series. In addition, a spectroanalysis in 1/3-octave band frequency of 40-50,000 Hz, was conducted. There were following values of measurements in the direct vicinity of the ears: LA eq, Te fell within the range of 106.2-119.5 dB (mean, 112.2 dB) for the right ear and 104.2 dB-118.4 dB (mean, 113.2 dB) for the left ear; LA F max within the range of 124.5-132.3 dB (mean, 128.3 dB) for the right ear and 116.3-135.1 dB (mean, 128.1 dB) for the left ear; LC pcak within the range of 151.8-156.5 dB (mean, 154.8 dB/155 dB) for the right ear and 151.9-156.2 dB (mean, 155.4 dB) for the left ear. In the noise spectrum, components of audible frequencies predominated, 160-300 Hz (mainly for high caliber weapon); 1600-6300 Hz for the right ear and 2500-4000 Hz for the left peak (small caliber weapons); 6300-16,000 and ultrasonic 25,000-50,000 Hz. No significant differences were found in the measurements of the right ear and the left ear. PMID:12577807

  10. High frequency direct drive generation using white noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, S.; Sebacher, K.; Lawry, D.; Prather, W.; Hoffer, G.

    1994-12-01

    Damped sinusoid direct drive injection on interconnecting cable bundles between subsystems has long been used as a technique for determining susceptibility to electromagnetic transients in military weapon systems. Questions arise, however, about the adequacy of this method of individually injected, single sinusoids in assuring subsystem strength against broad band threats. This issue has recently been raised in the latest revision of MIL-STD-461 that requires subsystems exhibit no malfunctions when subjected to a repetitive square wave pulse with fast rise and fall time (CS115). An extension to this approach would be to test subsystems using arbitrary waveforms. In recent years arbitrary waveform generators (AWG's) have been used to duplicate, with a high degree of fidelity, the waveforms measured on cable bundles in a system illuminated by fields in a system-level EMP simulator. However, the operating speeds of present AWG's do not allow the extension of this approach to meet new threats such as MIL-STD-2169A. A novel alternative approach for generation of the required signals, being developed in a cooperative effort between the Naval Air Warfare Center and Phillips Laboratory, is the use of white noise signals conditioned in such a manner to produce the desired direct drive waveforms.

  11. Fluid dynamic aspects of jet noise generation. [noise measurement of jet blast effects from supersonic jet flow in convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barra, V.; Panunzio, S.

    1976-01-01

    Jet engine noise generation and noise propagation was investigated by studying supersonic nozzle flow of various nozzle configurations in an experimental test facility. The experimental facility was constructed to provide a coaxial axisymmetric jet flow of unheated air. In the test setup, an inner primary flow exhausted from a 7 in. exit diameter convergent--divergent nozzle at Mach 2, while a secondary flow had a 10 in. outside diameter and was sonic at the exit. The large dimensions of the jets permitted probes to be placed inside the jet core without significantly disturbing the flow. Static pressure fluctuations were measured for the flows. The nozzles were designed for shock free (balanced) flow at Mach 2. Data processing techniques and experimental procedures were developed in order to study induced disturbances at the edge of the supersonic flows, and the propagation of those disturbances throughout the flows. Equipment used (specifications are given) to record acoustic levels (far field noise) is described. Results and conclusions are presented and discussed. Diagrams of the jet flow fields are included along with photographs of the test stand.

  12. Generation of thermo-acoustic waves from pulsed solar/IR radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aowabin

    Acoustic waves could potentially be used in a wide range of engineering applications; however, the high energy consumption in generating acoustic waves from electrical energy and the cost associated with the process limit the use of acoustic waves in industrial processes. Acoustic waves converted from solar radiation provide a feasible way of obtaining acoustic energy, without relying on conventional nonrenewable energy sources. One of the goals of this thesis project was to experimentally study the conversion of thermal to acoustic energy using pulsed radiation. The experiments were categorized into "indoor" and "outdoor" experiments, each with a separate experimental setup. The indoor experiments used an IR heater to power the thermo-acoustic lasers and were primarily aimed at studying the effect of various experimental parameters on the amplitude of sound waves in the low frequency range (below 130 Hz). The IR radiation was modulated externally using a chopper wheel and then impinged on a porous solid, which was housed inside a thermo-acoustic (TA) converter. A microphone located at a certain distance from the porous solid inside the TA converter detected the acoustic signals. The "outdoor" experiments, which were targeted at TA conversion at comparatively higher frequencies (in 200 Hz-3 kHz range) used solar energy to power the thermo-acoustic laser. The amplitudes (in RMS) of thermo-acoustic signals obtained in experiments using IR heater as radiation source were in the 80-100 dB range. The frequency of acoustic waves corresponded to the frequency of interceptions of the radiation beam by the chopper. The amplitudes of acoustic waves were influenced by several factors, including the chopping frequency, magnitude of radiation flux, type of porous material, length of porous material, external heating of the TA converter housing, location of microphone within the air column, and design of the TA converter. The time-dependent profile of the thermo-acoustic signals

  13. Modification of the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel for component acoustic testing for the second generation supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Allmen, J. R.; Soderman, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a large-scale anechoic test facility where large models of engine/airframe/high-lift systems can be tested for both improved noise reduction and minimum performance degradation is described. The facility development is part of the effort to investigate economically viable methods of reducing second generation high speed civil transport noise during takeoff and climb-out that is now under way in the United States. This new capability will be achieved through acoustic modifications of NASA's second largest subsonic wind tunnel: the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. Three major items are addressed in the design of this large anechoic and quiet wind tunnel: a new deep (42 inch (107 cm)) test section liner, expansion of the wind tunnel drive operating envelope at low rpm to reduce background noise, and other promising methods of improving signal-to-noise levels of inflow microphones. Current testing plans supporting the U.S. high speed civil transport program are also outlined.

  14. Coherence between internal and external noise generated by gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Neale, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments and analysis on a gas turbine combustor unit are reported with a view in mind to separate propagated acoustic power from non-propagating 'pseudo-sound'. Analytically, it is suggested that a transition frequency will exist below which the interior pressure fluctuations are non-propagating, whereas above this frequency, of the order of 100 Hz, the noise is dominated by propagating acoustic waves. Coherence measurements are reported which show this concept to be borne out experimentally. Coherence between interior and exterior microphones is measured over a wide range of experimental conditions for a gas turbine combustor exhausting directly to the atmosphere. The purpose is to show that below a certain frequency, measurements of interior noise are not indicative of combustion noise ultimately propagating from an engine.

  15. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong; Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Wu, Junru

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  16. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqi; Song, Dan; Zeng, Deping; Lin, Zhou; He, Min; Lei, Guangrong; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zhibiao

    2015-12-01

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  17. Psycho-acoustic evaluation of the indoor noise in cabins of a naval vessel using a back-propagation neural network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyung-Suk

    2012-12-01

    The indoor noise of a ship is usually determined using the A-weighted sound pressure level. However, in order to better understand this phenomenon, evaluation parameters that more accurately reflect the human sense of hearing are required. To find the level of the satisfaction index of the noise inside a naval vessel such as "Loudness" and "Annoyance", psycho-acoustic evaluation of various sound recordings from the naval vessel was performed in a laboratory. The objective of this paper is to develop a single index of "Loudness" and "Annoyance" for noise inside a naval vessel according to a psycho-acoustic evaluation by using psychological responses such as Noise Rating (NR), Noise Criterion (NC), Room Criterion (RC), Preferred Speech Interference Level (PSIL) and loudness level. Additionally, in order to determine a single index of satisfaction for noise such as "Loudness" and "Annoyance", with respect to a human's sense of hearing, a back-propagation neural network is applied.

  18. Vessel generator noise as a settlement cue for marine biofouling species.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J I; Wilkens, S L; Stanley, J A; Jeffs, A G

    2014-01-01

    Underwater noise is increasing globally, largely due to increased vessel numbers and international ocean trade. Vessels are also a major vector for translocation of non-indigenous marine species which can have serious implications for biosecurity. The possibility that underwater noise from fishing vessels may promote settlement of biofouling on hulls was investigated for the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Spatial differences in biofouling appear to be correlated with spatial differences in the intensity and frequency of the noise emitted by the vessel's generator. This correlation was confirmed in laboratory experiments where C. intestinalis larvae showed significantly faster settlement and metamorphosis when exposed to the underwater noise produced by the vessel generator. Larval survival rates were also significantly higher in treatments exposed to vessel generator noise. Enhanced settlement attributable to vessel generator noise may indicate that vessels not only provide a suitable fouling substratum, but vessels running generators may be attracting larvae and enhancing their survival and growth. PMID:24866988

  19. Generation of acoustic self-bending and bottle beams by phase engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Tongcang; Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Xuefeng; Yang, Sui; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-07-01

    Directing acoustic waves along curved paths is critical for applications such as ultrasound imaging, surgery and acoustic cloaking. Metamaterials can direct waves by spatially varying the material properties through which the wave propagates. However, this approach is not always feasible, particularly for acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate the generation of acoustic bottle beams in homogeneous space without using metamaterials. Instead, the sound energy flows through a three-dimensional curved shell in air leaving a close-to-zero pressure region in the middle, exhibiting the capability of circumventing obstacles. By designing the initial phase, we develop a general recipe for creating self-bending wave packets, which can set acoustic beams propagating along arbitrary prescribed convex trajectories. The measured acoustic pulling force experienced by a rigid ball placed inside such a beam confirms the pressure field of the bottle. The demonstrated acoustic bottle and self-bending beams have potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging, therapeutic ultrasound, as well as acoustic levitations and isolations.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  1. Overlapping frequency coverage and simulated spatial cue effects on bimodal (electrical and acoustical) sentence recognition in noise.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Sentence recognition in 20-talker babble was measured in eight Nucleus cochlear implant (CI) users with contralateral residual acoustic hearing. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured both in standard configurations, with some frequency regions presented both acoustically and electrically, and in configurations with no spectral overlap. In both cases a continuous interleaved sampling strategy was used. Mean SRTs were around 3 dB better with bimodal presentation than with CI alone in overlap configurations. A spherical head model was used to simulate azimuthal separation of speech and noise and provided no evidence of a contribution of spatial cues to bimodal benefit. There was no effect on bimodal performance of whether spectral overlap was present or was eliminated by switching off electrodes assigned to frequencies below the upper limit of acoustic hearing. In a subsequent experiment the CI was acutely re-mapped so that all available electrodes were used to cover frequencies not presented acoustically. This gave increased spectral resolution via the CI as assessed by formant frequency discrimination, but no improvement in bimodal performance compared to the configuration with overlap. PMID:25234893

  2. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.

  3. Sine-wave and noise-vocoded sine-wave speech in a tone language: Acoustic details matter.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Stuart; Hui, Sze Ngar Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Sine-wave speech (SWS) is a highly simplified version of speech consisting only of frequency- and amplitude-modulated sinusoids representing the formants. That listeners can successfully understand SWS has led to claims that speech perception must be based on abstract properties of the stimuli far removed from their specific acoustic form. Here it is shown, in bilingual Cantonese/English listeners, that performance with Cantonese SWS is improved by noise vocoding, with no effect on English SWS utterances. This manipulation preserves the abstract informational structure in the signals but changes its surface form. The differential effects of noise vocoding likely arise from the fact that Cantonese is a tonal language and hence more reliant on fundamental frequency (F0) contours for its intelligibility. SWS does not preserve tonal information from the original speech but does have false tonal information signalled by the lowest frequency sinusoid. Noise vocoding SWS appears to minimise the tonal percept, which thus interferes less in the perception of Cantonese. It has no effect in English, which is minimally reliant on F0 variations for intelligibility. Therefore it is not only the informational structure of a sound that is important but also how its acoustic detail interacts with the phonological structure of a given language. PMID:26723325

  4. Inter-noise 85; Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Munich, West Germany, September 18-20, 1985. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on the problem of noise are presented. The general topics addressed include: sources of noise emission; physical phenomena associated with noise; noise control elements; and the generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction of vibrations. Individual subjects discussed include: regulation and technical standards of noise control; noise-induced health disturbances; principles of machine noise reduction; characteristics and prediction of factory sound propagation; reduction of structure-borne noise; noise prediction and planning; noise emission data of machines and equipment; noise emission from road vehicles; noise from general aviation aircraft; noise emission from jet aircraft during takeoff; damping and acoustical radiation efficiency of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon epoxy plates.

  5. Comparison of Active Noise Control Structures in the Presence of Acoustical Feedback by Using THEH∞SYNTHESIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M. R.; Lin, H. H.

    1997-10-01

    This study compares three control structures of active noise cancellation for ducts: feedback control, feedforward control, and hybrid control. These structures are compared in terms of performance, stability, and robustness by using a general framework of theH∞robust control theory. In addition, theH∞synthesis procedure automatically incorporates the acoustic feedback path that is usually a plaguing problem to feedforward control design. The controllers are implemented by using a digital signal processor and tested on a finite-length duct. In an experimental verification, the proposed controllers are also compared with the well-known filtered-uleast mean square (FULMS) controller. The advantages and disadvantages of each ANC structure as well as the adverse effects due to acoustic feedback are addressed.

  6. Acoustic Performance of Novel Fan Noise Reduction Technologies for a High Bypass Model Turbofan at Simulated Flights Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David M.; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Two novel fan noise reduction technologies, over the rotor acoustic treatment and soft stator vane technologies, were tested in an ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan model in the NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The performance of these technologies was compared to that of the baseline fan configuration, which did not have these technologies. Sideline acoustic data and hot film flow data were acquired and are used to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments. The material used for the over the rotor treatment was foam metal and two different types were used. The soft stator vanes had several internal cavities tuned to target certain frequencies. In order to accommodate the cavities it was necessary to use a cut-on stator to demonstrate the soft vane concept.

  7. Experiments on the acoustic solitary wave generated thermoacoustically in a looped tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dai; Sugimoto, Nobumasa

    2015-10-01

    Emergence of an acoustic solitary wave is demonstrated in a gas-filled, looped tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators connected. The solitary wave is generated thermoacoustically and spontaneously by a pair of stacks positioned diametrically on exactly the opposite side of the loop. The temperature gradient is imposed on both stacks in the same sense along the tube. The stacks made of ceramics and of many square pores are sandwiched by hot and cold heat exchangers. The pressure profile measured and the propagation speed show good agreements with the theoretical ones of the acoustic solitary wave obtained by Sugimoto (J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 99, 1971-1976 (1996)).

  8. Reduction of Noise Generated from Lower Part of Shinkansen Cars by Sound Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Yoshiki; Yamada, Haruo; Ido, Atsushi; Murata, Kaoru; Akiyama, Satoru

    In order to reduce Shinkansen wayside noise at higher speeds, it is necessary to reduce not only pantograph noise but also noise from the lower part of cars. With the aim of absorbing noise from the lower part of the car through a process of multiple sound reflections between the car body and a noise barrier, we developed sound-absorbing panels for the lower part of the car bodies through acoustic tests using a full-scale cut car model and running tests using "FASTECH360S", a high-speed test train of JR-East. In order to assess which sound-absorption areas are more effective in reducing wayside noise coming from the lower part of the cars, we conducted running tests with the sound-absorbing and non-sound-absorbing panels in different layout configurations. As a result, we found that: 1) attaching sound-absorbing panels reduces wayside noise from FASTECH360S running at 320 km/h by approximately 0.9 dB at a point 25 meters from the track, 2) sound-absorbing panels installed to side skirts have the greatest noise reduction effect and 3) the sound-absorbing panels at the front and back ends of the bogie space and on the side beam contribute almost nothing to noise reduction.

  9. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and SVD based acoustic noise reduction and its application in leak detection for natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuchao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Laibin; Jin, Hao; Qiu, Jingwei

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, leak detection for natural gas pipeline has become one of the paramount concerns of pipeline operators and researchers across the globe. However, acoustic wave method has been proved to be an effective way to identify and localize leakage for gas pipeline. Considering the fact that noises inevitably exist in the acoustic signals collected, noise reduction should be enforced on the signals for subsequent data mining and analysis. Thus, an integrated acoustic noise reduction method based on DTCWT and SVD is proposed in this study. The method is put forward based on the idea that noise reduction strategy should match the characteristics of the noisy signal. According to previous studies, it is known that the energy of acoustic signals collected under leaking condition is mainly concentrated in low-frequency portion (0-100 Hz). And ultralow-frequency component (0-5 Hz), which is taken as the characteristic frequency band in this study, can propagate a relatively longer distance and be captured by sensors. Therefore, in order to filter the noises and to reserve the characteristic frequency band, DTCWT is taken as the core to conduct multilevel decomposition and refining for acoustic signals and SVD is employed to eliminate noises in non-characteristic bands. Both simulation and field experiments show that DTCWT-SVD is an excellent method for acoustic noise reduction. At the end of this study, application in leakage localization shows that it becomes much easier and a little more accurate to estimate the location of leak hole after noise reduction by DTCWT-SVD.

  10. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with a serrated rotor (QEP fan B scale model). [reduction of engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.

  11. Acoustics Reflections of Full-Scale Rotor Noise Measurements in NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha Lydia; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Sim, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of current research is to identify the extent of acoustic time history distortions due to wind tunnel wall reflections. Acoustic measurements from the recent full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor test (Fig. 2) will be used to illustrate the quality of noise measurement in the NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test section. Results will be compared to PSU-WOPWOP predictions obtained with and without adjustments due to sound reflections off wind tunnel walls. Present research assumes a rectangular enclosure as shown in Fig. 3a. The Method of Mirror Images7 is used to account for reflection sources and their acoustic paths by introducing mirror images of the rotor (i.e. acoustic source), at each and every wall surface, to enforce a no-flow boundary condition at the position of the physical walls (Fig. 3b). While conventional approach evaluates the "combined" noise from both the source and image rotor at a single microphone position, an alternative approach is used to simplify implementation of PSU-WOPWOP for this reflection analysis. Here, an "equivalent" microphone position is defined with respect to the source rotor for each mirror image that effectively renders the reflection analysis to be a one rotor, multiple microphones problem. This alternative approach has the advantage of allowing each individual "equivalent" microphone, representing the reflection pulse from the associated wall surface, to be adjusted by the panel absorption coefficient illustrated in Fig. 1a. Note that the presence of parallel wall surfaces requires an infinite number of mirror images (Fig. 3c) to satisfy the no-flow boundary conditions. In the present analysis, up to four mirror images (per wall surface) are accounted to achieve convergence in the predicted time histories

  12. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  13. Application of the fractal Perlin noise algorithm for the generation of simulated breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustler, Magnus; Bakic, Predrag; Petersson, Hannie; Timberg, Pontus; Tingberg, Anders; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-03-01

    Software breast phantoms are increasingly seeing use in preclinical validation of breast image acquisition systems and image analysis methods. Phantom realism has been proven sufficient for numerous specific validation tasks. A challenge is the generation of suitably realistic small-scale breast structures that could further improve the quality of phantom images. Power law noise follows the noise power characteristics of breast tissue, but may not sufficiently represent certain (e.g., non-Gaussian) properties seen in clinical breast images. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of fractal Perlin noise in generating more realistic breast tissue through investigation of its power spectrum and visual characteristics. Perlin noise is an algorithm that creates smoothly varying random structures of an arbitrary frequency. Through the use of a technique known as fractal noise or fractional Brownian motion (fBm), octaves of noise with different frequency are combined to generate coherent noise with a broad frequency range. fBm is controlled by two parameters - lacunarity and persistence - related to the frequency and amplitude of successive octaves, respectively. Average noise power spectra were calculated and beta parameters estimated in sample volumes of fractal Perlin noise with different combinations of lacunarity and persistence. Certain combinations of parameters resulted in noise volumes with beta values between 2 and 3, corresponding to reported measurements in real breast tissue. Different combinations of parameters resulted in different visual appearances. In conclusion, Perlin noise offers a flexible tool for generating breast tissue with realistic properties.

  14. Theory of Noise Generation from Moving Bodies with an Application to Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1975-01-01

    Several expressions for the determination of the acoustic field of moving bodies are presented. The analysis is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Applying some proposed criteria, one of these expressions is singled out for numerical computation of acoustic pressure signature. The compactness of sources is not assumed and the main results are not restricted by the observer position. The distinction between compact and noncompact sources on moving surfaces is discussed. Some thickness noise calculations of helicopter rotors and comparison with experiments are included which suggest this mechanism as the source of high-speed blade slap of rotors.

  15. Spin Start Line Effects on the J2X Gas Generator Chamber Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design has a spin start line connected near to the turbine inlet vanes. This line provides helium during engine startup to begin turbomachinery operation. The spin start line also acts as an acoustic side branch which alters the chamber's acoustic modes. The side branch effectively creates 'split modes' in the chamber longitudinal modes, in particular below the first longitudinal mode and within the frequency range associated with the injection-coupled response of the Gas Generator. Interaction between the spin start-modified chamber acoustics and the injection-driven response can create a higher system response than without the spin start attached to the chamber. This work reviews the acoustic effects of the spin start line as seen throughout the workhorse gas generator test program. A simple impedance model of the spin start line is reviewed. Tests were run with no initial spin start gas existing in the line, as well as being initially filled with nitrogen gas. Tests were also run with varying spin start line lengths from 0" to 40". Acoustic impedance changes due to different spin start gas constituents and line lengths are shown. Collected thermocouple and static pressure data in the spin start line was used to help estimate the fluid properties along the line length. The side branch impedance model was coupled to a chamber impedance model to show the effects on the overall chamber response. Predictions of the spin start acoustic behavior for helium operation are shown and compared against available data.

  16. Considerations on nonlinearity measurement with high signal-to-noise ratio for RF surface and bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Ryosuke; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Kyoya, Haruki; Nakagawa, Ryo

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the measurement setup of non-linearity caused in radio frequency (RF) surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) devices with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is shown that when some important points are considered, the background level can be suppressed better than -135 dBm, and the non-linearity signals can be measured in high SNR. Finally, measured results are compared with those measured independently by Murata Manufacturing, and validity of the measurement is cross-checked.

  17. Rational function representation of flap noise spectra including correction for reflection effects. [acoustic properties of engine exhaust jets deflected for externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A rational function is presented for the acoustic spectra generated by deflection of engine exhaust jets for under-the-wing and over-the-wing versions of externally blown flaps. The functional representation is intended to provide a means for compact storage of data and for data analysis. The expressions are based on Fourier transform functions for the Strouhal normalized pressure spectral density, and on a correction for reflection effects based on the N-independent-source model of P. Thomas extended by use of a reflected ray transfer function. Curve fit comparisons are presented for blown flap data taken from turbofan engine tests and from large scale cold-flow model tests. Application of the rational function to scrubbing noise theory is also indicated.

  18. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen; Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.

  19. The noise environment of a school classroom due to the operation of utility helicopters. [acoustic measurements of helicopter noise during flight over building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.

  20. Near noise field characteristics of Nike rocket motors for application to space vehicle payload acoustic qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Bruton, D.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a series of noise measurements that were made under controlled conditions during the static firing of two Nike solid propellant rocket motors are presented. The usefulness of these motors as sources for general spacecraft noise testing was assessed, and the noise expected in the cargo bay of the orbiter was reproduced. Brief descriptions of the Nike motor, the general procedures utilized for the noise tests, and representative noise data including overall sound pressure levels, one third octave band spectra, and octave band spectra were reviewed. Data are presented on two motors of different ages in order to show the similarity between noise measurements made on motors having different loading dates. The measured noise from these tests is then compared to that estimated for the space shuttle orbiter cargo bay.

  1. Psychophysiological acoustics of indoor sound due to traffic noise during sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulen, J. H. M.; Kumar, A.; Jurriëns, A. A.

    1986-10-01

    The relation between the physical characteristics of sound and an individual's perception of its as annoyance is complex and unclear. Sleep disturbance by sound is manifested in the physiological responses to the sound stimuli and the quality of sleep perceived in the morning. Both may result in deterioration of functioning during wakefulness. Therefore, psychophysiological responses to noise during sleep should be studied for the evaluation of the efficacy of sound insulation. Nocturnal sleep and indoor sound level were recorded in the homes of 12 subjects living along a highway with high traffic density. Double glazing sound insulation was used to create two experimental conditions: low insulation and high insulation. Twenty recordings were made per subject, ten recordings in each condition. During the nights with low insulation the quality of sleep was so low that both performance and mood were negatively affected. The enhancement of sound insulation was not effective enough to increase the restorative effects of sleep. The transient and peaky characteristics of traffic sound were also found to result in non-adaptive physiological responses during sleep. Sound insulation did have an effect on noise peak characteristics such as peak level, peak duration and slope. However, the number of sound peaks were found to be the same in both conditions. The relation of these sound peaks detected in the indoor recorded sound level signal to characteristics of passing vehicles was established, indicating that the sound peaks causing the psychophysiological disturbances during sleep were generated by the passing vehicles. Evidence is presented to show that the reduction in sound level is not a good measure of efficacy of sound insulation. The parameters of the sound peaks, as described in this paper, are a better representation of psychophysiological efficacy of sound insulation.

  2. Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Nai-Kuei

    This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra

  3. Prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise: A computer program incorporating realistic blade motions and advanced acoustic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program has been developed at the Langley Research Center to predict the discrete frequency noise of conventional and advanced helicopter rotors. The program, called WOPWOP, uses the most advanced subsonic formulation of Farassat that is less sensitive to errors and is valid for nearly all helicopter rotor geometries and flight conditions. A brief derivation of the acoustic formulation is presented along with a discussion of the numerical implementation of the formulation. The computer program uses realistic helicopter blade motion and aerodynamic loadings, input by the user, for noise calculation in the time domain. A detailed definition of all the input variables, default values, and output data is included. A comparison with experimental data shows good agreement between prediction and experiment; however, accurate aerodynamic loading is needed.

  4. Mesospheric, Thermospheric, and Ionospheric Responses to Acoustic and Gravity Waves Generated by Transient Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Strong acoustic waves with periods ~1-4 minutes have been confirmed to perturb the ionosphere following their generation by earthquakes [e.g., Garcia et al., GRL, 40(5), 2013] and volcanic eruption events [e.g., Heki, GRL, 33, L14303, 2006]. Clear acoustic and gravity wave signatures have also been reported in ionospheric data above strong tropospheric convection [Nishioka, GRL, 40(21), 2013], and prior modeling results suggest that convectively-generated acoustic waves with ~3-4 minute periods are readily detectable above their sources in TEC [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. These observations have provided quantitative insight into the coupling of processes occurring near Earth's surface with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere over short time-scales. Here, we investigate acoustic waves and short-period gravity waves generated by sources near ground level, and the observable responses of the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI) systems. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model, in cylindrically-axisymmetric coordinates, to investigate wave generation, upward propagation, steepening, and dissipation. Acoustic waves may produce observable signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013], and can strongly perturb the lower-thermosphere and E- and F-region ionosphere, prior to the arrival of simultaneously-generated gravity waves. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for mid and low latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013], we investigate its response to realistic acoustic wave perturbations. In particular, we demonstrate that the MLT and ionospheric responses are significantly and nonlinearly determined by the acoustic wave source geometry, spectrum, and amplitude, in addition to the local ambient state of the

  5. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  6. On the generation of double layers from ion- and electron-acoustic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiangrong; Cowee, Misa M.; Gary, S. Peter; Winske, Dan

    2016-03-01

    A plasma double layer (DL) is a nonlinear electrostatic structure that carries a uni-polar electric field parallel to the background magnetic field due to local charge separation. Past studies showed that DLs observed in space plasmas are mostly associated with the ion acoustic instability. Recent Van Allen Probes observations of parallel electric field structures traveling much faster than the ion acoustic speed have motivated a computational study to test the hypothesis that a new type of DLs—electron acoustic DLs—generated from the electron acoustic instability are responsible for these electric fields. Nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations yield negative results, i.e., the hypothetical electron acoustic DLs cannot be formed in a way similar to ion acoustic DLs. Linear theory analysis and the simulations show that the frequencies of electron acoustic waves are too high for ions to respond and maintain charge separation required by DLs. However, our results do show that local density perturbations in a two-electron-component plasma can result in unipolar-like electric field structures that propagate at the electron thermal speed, suggesting another potential explanation for the observations.

  7. Modelling of noise-like pulses generated in fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The present paper for the first time proposes and studies a relatively simple model of noise-like pulses that matches the experimental data well and suggests that there is a correlation between phases of adjacent spectral components of noiselike pulses. Comparison of a relatively basic model of `random' pulses with the results of noise-like pulse modelling in mode-locked fibre lasers based on coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations demonstrates that it adequately reproduces temporal and spectral properties of noise-like pulses as well as correlation between adjacent modes so that it's possible to use the proposed model for highly efficient simulations of promising applications of noise-like pulses, such as material processing, non-linear frequency conversion, microscopy, and others.

  8. Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

  9. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  10. Passive acoustic detection and localization of whales: effects of shipping noise in Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie; Gervaise, Cédric

    2008-06-01

    The performance of large-aperture hydrophone arrays to detect and localize blue and fin whales' 15-85 Hz signature vocalizations under ocean noise conditions was assessed through simulations from a normal mode propagation model combined to noise statistics from 15 960 h of recordings in Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park. The probability density functions of 2482 summer noise level estimates in the call bands were used to attach a probability of detection/masking to the simulated call levels as a function of whale depth and range for typical environmental conditions. Results indicate that call detection was modulated by the calling depth relative to the sound channel axis and by modal constructive and destructive interferences with range. Masking of loud infrasounds could reach 40% at 30 km for a receiver at the optimal depth. The 30 dB weaker blue whale D-call were subject to severe masking. Mapping the percentages of detection and localization allowed assessing the performance of a six-hydrophone array under mean- and low-noise conditions. This approach is helpful for optimizing hydrophone configuration in implementing passive acoustic monitoring arrays and building their detection function for whale density assessment, as an alternative to or in combination with the traditional undersampling visual methods. PMID:18537362

  11. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Johnson Paul A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Guyer, Robert; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  12. On the aeroacoustic tonal noise generation mechanism of a sharp-edged plate.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Danielle J; Brooks, Laura A; Doolan, Con J

    2011-04-01

    This letter presents an experimental study on the tonal noise generated by a sharp-edged flat plate at low-to-moderate Reynolds number. Flow and far-field noise data reveal that, in this particular case, the tonal noise appears to be governed by vortex shedding processes. Also related to the existence of the tonal noise is a region of separated flow slightly upstream of the trailing edge. Hydrodynamic fluctuations at selected vortex shedding frequencies are strongly amplified by the inflectional mean velocity profile in the separated shear layer. The amplified hydrodynamic fluctuations are diffracted by the trailing edge, producing strong tonal noise. PMID:21476623

  13. Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara M; Kirchner, Matthew S; Taylor, Jennifer A; Thorpe, Michael J; Lemke, Nathan; Ludlow, Andrew D; Jiang, Yanyi; Diddams, Scott A

    2011-08-15

    We present an optical frequency divider based on a 200 MHz repetition rate Er:fiber mode-locked laser that, when locked to a stable optical frequency reference, generates microwave signals with absolute phase noise that is equal to or better than cryogenic microwave oscillators. At 1 Hz offset from a 10 GHz carrier, the phase noise is below -100 dBc/Hz, limited by the optical reference. For offset frequencies >10 kHz, the phase noise is shot noise limited at -145 dBc/Hz. An analysis of the contribution of the residual noise from the Er:fiber optical frequency divider is also presented. PMID:21847227

  14. A theoretical prediction of the acoustic pressure generated by turbulence-flame front interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of momentum and continuity are combined and linearized yielding the one dimensional nonhomogeneous acoustic wave equation. Three terms in the non-homogeneous equation act as acoustic sources and are taken to be forcing functions acting on the homogeneous wave equation. The three source terms are: fluctuating entropy, turbulence gradients, and turbulence-flame interactions. Each source term is discussed. The turbulence-flame interaction source is used as the basis for computing the source acoustic pressure from the Fourier transformed wave equation. Pressure fluctuations created in turbopump gas generators and turbines may act as a forcing function for turbine and propellant tube vibrations in earth to orbit space propulsion systems and could reduce their life expectancy. A preliminary assessment of the acoustic pressure fluctuations in such systems is presented.

  15. A theoretical prediction of the acoustic pressure generated by turbulence-flame front interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of momentum annd continuity are combined and linearized yielding the one dimensional nonhomogeneous acoustic wave equation. Three terms in the non-homogeneous equation act as acoustic sources and are taken to be forcing functions acting on the homogeneous wave equation. The three source terms are: fluctuating entropy, turbulence gradients, and turbulence-flame interactions. Each source term is discussed. The turbulence-flame interaction source is used as the basis for computing the source acoustic pressure from the Fourier transformed wave equation. Pressure fluctuations created in turbopump gas generators and turbines may act as a forcing function for turbine and propellant tube vibrations in Earth to orbit space propulsion systems and could reduce their life expectancy. A preliminary assessment of the acoustic pressure fluctuations in such systems is presented.

  16. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-04-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  17. Noise

    MedlinePlus

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  18. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    PubMed

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  19. Improved perception of speech in noise and Mandarin tones with acoustic simulations of harmonic coding for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Nie, Kaibao; Imennov, Nikita S; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Rubinstein, Jay T; Atlas, Les E

    2012-11-01

    Harmonic and temporal fine structure (TFS) information are important cues for speech perception in noise and music perception. However, due to the inherently coarse spectral and temporal resolution in electric hearing, the question of how to deliver harmonic and TFS information to cochlear implant (CI) users remains unresolved. A harmonic-single-sideband-encoder [(HSSE); Nie et al. (2008). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing; Lie et al., (2010). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing] strategy has been proposed that explicitly tracks the harmonics in speech and transforms them into modulators conveying both amplitude modulation and fundamental frequency information. For unvoiced speech, HSSE transforms the TFS into a slowly varying yet still noise-like signal. To investigate its potential, four- and eight-channel vocoder simulations of HSSE and the continuous-interleaved-sampling (CIS) strategy were implemented, respectively. Using these vocoders, five normal-hearing subjects' speech recognition performance was evaluated under different masking conditions; another five normal-hearing subjects' Mandarin tone identification performance was also evaluated. Additionally, the neural discharge patterns evoked by HSSE- and CIS-encoded Mandarin tone stimuli were simulated using an auditory nerve model. All subjects scored significantly higher with HSSE than with CIS vocoders. The modeling analysis demonstrated that HSSE can convey temporal pitch cues better than CIS. Overall, the results suggest that HSSE is a promising strategy to enhance speech perception with CIs. PMID:23145619

  20. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  1. Assessment at full scale of nozzle/wing geometry effects on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics. [short takeoff aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groesbeck, D.; Vonglahn, U.

    1979-01-01

    The effects on acoustic characteristics of nozzle type and location on a wing for STOL engine over-the-wing configurations are assessed at full scale on the basis of model-scale data. Three types of nozzle configurations are evaluated: a circular nozzle with external deflector mounted above the wing, a slot nozzle with external deflector mounted on the wing and a slot nozzle mounted on the wing. Nozzle exhaust plane locations with respect to the wing leading edge are varied from 10 to 46 percent chord (flaps retracted) with flap angles of 20 (takeoff altitude) and 60 (approach attitude). Perceived noise levels (PNL) are calculated as a function of flyover distance at 152 m altitude. From these plots, static EPNL values, defined as flyover relative noise levels, are calculated and plotted as a function of lift and thrust ratios. From such plots the acoustic benefits attributable to variations in nozzle/deflector/wing geometry at full scale are assessed for equal aerodynamic performance.

  2. Attenuation of upstream-generated low frequency noise by gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, V. L.; Matta, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    The acoustic transfer functions of low frequency (below 3500 Hz) noise through aircraft turbines were investigated. Model test results were compared with theoretical predictions in order to assess the validity of the theory. Component tests were conducted on both high pressure and low pressure model turbines. The influence of inlet temperature and turbine speed attenuation was evaluated, while the effects of turbine pressure ratio, blade-row choking, and additional downstream stages were determined. Preliminary identification of pertinent aeroacoustic correlating parameters was made.

  3. Adjustable, rapidly switching microfluidic gradient generation using focused travelling surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Im, Sunghyuk; Hang Ha, Byung; Ho Jung, Jin; Ahmad Ansari, Mubashshir; Jin Sung, Hyung

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate a simple device to generate chemical concentration gradients in a microfluidic channel using focused travelling surface acoustic waves (F-TSAW). A pair of curved interdigitated metal electrodes deposited on the surface of a piezoelectric (LiNbO{sub 3}) substrate disseminate high frequency sound waves when actuated by an alternating current source. The F-TSAW produces chaotic acoustic streaming flow upon its interaction with the fluid inside a microfluidic channel, which mixes confluent streams of chemicals in a controlled fashion for an adjustable and rapidly switching gradient generation.

  4. Mesospheric hydroxyl airglow signatures of acoustic and gravity waves generated by transient tropospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical model results demonstrate that acoustic waves generated by tropospheric sources may produce cylindrical "concentric ring" signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer. They may arrive as precursors to upward propagating gravity waves, generated simultaneously by the same sources, and produce strong temperature perturbations in the thermosphere above. Transient and short-lived, the acoustic wave airglow intensity and temperature signatures are predicted to be detectable by ground-based airglow imaging systems and may provide new insight into the forcing of the upper atmosphere from below.

  5. Core Noise: Implications of Emerging N+3 Designs and Acoustic Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of the core-noise implications of NASA's primary N+3 aircraft concepts. These concepts are the MIT/P&W D8.5 Double Bubble design, the Boeing/GE SUGAR Volt hybrid gas-turbine/electric engine concept, the NASA N3-X Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion aircraft, and the NASA TBW-XN Truss-Braced Wing concept. The first two are future concepts for the Boeing 737/Airbus A320 US transcontinental mission of 180 passengers and a maximum range of 3000 nm. The last two are future concepts for the Boeing 777 transpacific mission of 350 passengers and a 7500 nm range. Sections of the presentation cover: turbofan design trends on the N+1.5 time frame and the already emerging importance of core noise; the NASA N+3 concepts and associated core-noise challenges; the historical trends for the engine bypass ratio (BPR), overall pressure ratio (OPR), and combustor exit temperature; and brief discussion of a noise research roadmap being developed to address the core-noise challenges identified for the N+3 concepts. The N+3 conceptual aircraft have (i) ultra-high bypass ratios, in the rage of 18 - 30, accomplished by either having a small-size, high-power-density core, an hybrid design which allows for an increased fan size, or by utilizing a turboelectric distributed propulsion design; and (ii) very high OPR in the 50 - 70 range. These trends will elevate the overall importance of turbomachinery core noise. The N+3 conceptual designs specify the need for the development and application of advanced liners and passive and active control strategies to reduce the core noise. Current engineering prediction of core noise uses semi-empirical methods based on older turbofan engines, with (at best) updates for more recent designs. The models have not seen the same level of development and maturity as those for fan and jet noise and are grossly inadequate for the designs considered for the N+3 time frame. An aggressive program for the development of updated noise

  6. The effect of mineralogy and grain breakage on shear-induced noise and auto-acoustic compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of granular flows is strongly dependent on shear rate. At relatively slow shear velocities, a granular flow will support stresses elastically through force chains in the quasi-static regime. At relatively high shear velocities, it will support stresses by transferring momentum in higher velocity grain collisions in the grain-inertial regime, which results in dilation of the flow. Experiments conducted using a commercial torsional rheometer (TA AR-2000ex) found that at intermediate shear velocities, force chain collapse in angular sand samples produces sound waves capable of vibrating the shear zone enough to cause compaction. Sound produced by spherical glass beads during shearing was of lower amplitude and no compaction effect was observed. In order to characterize both the source of acoustic energy produced during shearing of angular grains and its associated compaction effect, we used the same experimental set up to observe how volumetric and acoustic response to shear stress changes with mineralogy, specifically varying grain hardness and shear modulus. A comparison of angular quartz beach sand (Mohs hardness of 7 and shear modulus of 31.14 GPa) with angular aluminum oxide grit of the same size (Mohs hardness of 9 and shear modulus of 124 GPa) shows markedly different behavior, with the aluminum oxide mixture producing lower noise amplitudes during shearing and showing no compaction at intermediate shear rates. Combined with grain size and shape analysis, the implication is that shear-induced noise is the result of grain fracture rather than shear interactions and is dependent on the relative strength of individual grains. Combined with recent and ongoing work characterizing the effect of mean grain size and polydispersity on shear-induced volumetric and acoustic response, we are moving towards a more complete incorporation of field-observable variables into predictions of natural granular mixtures.

  7. Auralization Architectures for NASA?s Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The assessment of human response to noise from future aircraft can only be afforded through laboratory testing using simulated flyover noise. Recent work by the authors demonstrated the ability to auralize predicted flyover noise for a state-of-the-art reference aircraft and a future hybrid wing body aircraft concept. This auralization used source noise predictions from NASA's Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) as input. The results from this process demonstrated that auralization based upon system noise predictions is consistent with, and complementary to, system noise predictions alone. To further develop and validate the auralization process, improvements to the interfaces between the synthesis capability and the system noise tools are required. This paper describes the key elements required for accurate noise synthesis and introduces auralization architectures for use with the next-generation ANOPP (ANOPP2). The architectures are built around a new auralization library and its associated Application Programming Interface (API) that utilize ANOPP2 APIs to access data required for auralization. The architectures are designed to make the process of auralizing flyover noise a common element of system noise prediction.

  8. Next Generation Robust Low Noise Seismometer for Nuclear Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, Igor A.

    2013-06-20

    Implementation of the proposed seismometers turned out to be much more challenging than anticipated. The noise levels achieved are indeed well below those ever featured by any electrochemical sensor and just very nearly miss reaching the original objectives. However, while noise-wise the instruments could still prove their usefulness, especially considering their robustness and no-maintenance operation, the implementation of the proposed noise-reduction concept resulted in much larger and heavier devices than originally expected. Moreover, these large dimensions relate only to single-component vertical sensors. While building similar horizontal component is possible, the resulting three-component instrument would be way too large and heavy to be of any practical use. The prototype instruments developed and built retained the inherent advantages of the electrochemical seismometers: no maintenance operation; ability to perform with large installation tilts; and, unfortunately, to a much lesser extent in terms of robustness.

  9. Real-ear acoustical characteristics of impulse sound generated by golf drivers and the estimated risk to hearing: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Bardsley, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of the sound pressure levels (SPLs) and frequency responses in situ generated from golf club drivers at impact with a golf ball. The risk of hearing loss caused by hitting a basket of golf balls using various drivers was then estimated. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The three driver clubs were chosen on the basis of reflection of the commonality and modern technology of the clubs. The participants were asked to choose the clubs in a random order and hit six two-piece range golf balls with each club. The experiment was carried out at a golf driving range in South Wales, UK. Participants 19 male amateur golfers volunteered to take part in the study, with an age range of 19–54 years. Outcome measures The frequency responses and peak SPLs in situ of the transient sound generated from the club at impact were recorded bilaterally and simultaneously using the GN Otometric Freefit wireless real-ear measurement system. A swing speed radar system was also used to investigate the relationship between noise level and swing speed. Results Different clubs generated significantly different real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of SPL and frequency responses. However, they did not differ significantly between the ears. No significant correlation was found between the swing speed and noise intensity. On the basis of the SPLs measured in the present study, the percentage of daily noise exposure for hitting a basket of golf balls using the drivers described above was less than 2%. Conclusions The immediate danger of noise-induced hearing loss for amateur golfers is quite unlikely. However, it may be dangerous to hearing if the noise level generated by the golf clubs exceeded 116 dBA. PMID:24448845

  10. Acoustic noise associated with the MOD-1 wind turbine: its source, impact, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Hemphill, R.R.; Etter, C.L.; Garrelts, R.L.; Linn, N.C.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarizes extensive research by staff of the Solar Energy Research Institute and its subcontractors conducted to establish the origin and possible amelioration of acoustic disturbances associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed in 1979 near Boone, North Carolina. Results have shown that the source of this acoustic annoyance was the transient, unsteady aerodynamic lift imparted to the turbine blades as they passed through the lee wakes of the large, cylindrical tower supports. Nearby residents were annoyed by the low-frequency, acoustic impulses propagated into the structures in which the complainants lived. The situation was aggravated further by a complex sound propagation process controlled by terrain and atmospheric focusing. Several techniques for reducing the abrupt, unsteady blade load transients were researched and are discussed in the report.

  11. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including: (1) white "read noise"; (2) residual bias drifts; (3) pink 1/f noise; (4) alternating column noise; and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4. The source code is freely available for download from http://jwst.nasa.gov/publications.html.

  12. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including; (1) white "read noise", (2) residual bias drifts, (3) pink 1/f noise, (4) alternating column noise, and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4.

  13. Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

  14. Generation of infrasonic waves by low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers, the excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations by modulational instability in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the generation of infrasonic waves. The processes accompanying the propagation of these waves are considered, and the possibility of observing the waves from the Earth's surface is discussed, as well as the possible onset of acoustic gravitational vortex structures in the region of dust acoustic perturbations. The generation of such structures during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers can show up as an increase in the intensity of green nightglow by an amount on the order of 10% and can be attributed to the formation of nonlinear (vortex) structures at altitudes of 110-120 km.

  15. Coherent Generation of Photo-Thermo-Acoustic Wave from Graphene Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yichao; Tian, He; Wu, Y. L.; Zhu, L. L.; Tao, L. Q.; Zhang, W.; Shu, Y.; Xie, D.; Yang, Y.; Wei, Z. Y.; Lu, X. H.; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhao, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Many remarkable properties of graphene are derived from its large energy window for Dirac-like electronic states and have been explored for applications in electronics and photonics. In addition, strong electron-phonon interaction in graphene has led to efficient photo-thermo energy conversions, which has been harnessed for energy applications. By combining the wavelength independent absorption property and the efficient photo-thermo energy conversion, here we report a new type of applications in sound wave generation underlined by a photo-thermo-acoustic energy conversion mechanism. Most significantly, by utilizing ultrafast optical pulses, we demonstrate the ability to control the phase of sound waves generated by the photo-thermal-acoustic process. Our finding paves the way for new types of applications for graphene, such as remote non-contact speakers, optical-switching acoustic devices, etc. PMID:26053560

  16. Coherent Generation of Photo-Thermo-Acoustic Wave from Graphene Sheets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yichao; Tian, He; Wu, Y L; Zhu, L L; Tao, L Q; Zhang, W; Shu, Y; Xie, D; Yang, Y; Wei, Z Y; Lu, X H; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhao, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Many remarkable properties of graphene are derived from its large energy window for Dirac-like electronic states and have been explored for applications in electronics and photonics. In addition, strong electron-phonon interaction in graphene has led to efficient photo-thermo energy conversions, which has been harnessed for energy applications. By combining the wavelength independent absorption property and the efficient photo-thermo energy conversion, here we report a new type of applications in sound wave generation underlined by a photo-thermo-acoustic energy conversion mechanism. Most significantly, by utilizing ultrafast optical pulses, we demonstrate the ability to control the phase of sound waves generated by the photo-thermal-acoustic process. Our finding paves the way for new types of applications for graphene, such as remote non-contact speakers, optical-switching acoustic devices, etc. PMID:26053560

  17. Effect of phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Abdi, M.; Barzanjeh, Sh.; Tombesi, P.; Vitali, D.

    2011-09-15

    We study the effect of laser phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement between an intracavity optical mode and a mechanical resonator in a generic cavity optomechanical system. We show that one can realize robust stationary optomechanical entanglement even in the presence of non-negligible laser phase noise. We also show that the explicit form of the laser phase noise spectrum is relevant, and discuss its effect on both optomechanical entanglement and ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator.

  18. Noise Characteristics of a Four-Jet Impingement Device Inside a Broadband Engine Noise Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.; Hutcheson, Florence V.

    2015-01-01

    The noise generation mechanisms for four directly impinging supersonic jets are investigated employing implicit large eddy simulations with a higher-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory shock-capturing scheme. Impinging jet devices are often used as an experimental apparatus to emulate a broadband noise source. Although such devices have been used in many experiments, a detailed investigation of the noise generation mechanisms has not been conducted before. Thus, the underlying physical mechanisms that are responsible for the generation of sound waves are not well understood. The flow field is highly complex and contains a wide range of temporal and spatial scales relevant for noise generation. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field is utilized to characterize the unsteady nature of the flow field involving unsteady shock oscillations, large coherent turbulent flow structures, and the sporadic appearance of vortex tubes in the center of the impingement region. The causality method based on Lighthill's acoustic analogy is applied to link fluctuations of flow quantities inside the source region to the acoustic pressure in the far field. It will be demonstrated that the entropy fluctuation term in the Lighthill's stress tensor plays a vital role in the noise generation process. Consequently, the understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is employed to develop a reduced-order linear acoustic model of the four-jet impingement device. Finally, three linear acoustic FJID models are used as broadband noise sources inside an engine nacelle and the acoustic scattering results are validated against far-field acoustic experimental data.

  19. Disturbance generation in supersonic jets under acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimshtein, V. G.

    1994-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of saw-toothed high-intensity sound waves (sound pressure level (SPL) = 160-170 dB) with an axisymmetrical supersonic air jet. The flow and sound waves were visualized by the direct shadowgraph method using a spark light source with exposure time of 2 x 10(exp -7) s. It is shown that disturbance increase increment in a supersonic jet under external acoustic excitation depends on the angle of incidence of the sound wave to the jet boundary. The most intensive increase in jet disturbances occurs at an oblique sound incidence when the sound phase velocity along the boundary approaches the disturbance propagation velocity. For sufficiently intense jet disturbances, a shock wave formation induced by and moving with these disturbances may arise. Sound interaction with a supersonic jet takes place within a small flow zone near the nozzle exit; disturbances already developed are not noticeably affected by the sound intensity of 170 dB reached in the experiment.

  20. Active Control of Jet Noise Using High Resolution TRPIV Part 2: Velocity-Pressure-Acoustic Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Kerwin; Kostka, Stanislav; Berger, Zachary; Berry, Matthew; Gogineni, Sivaram; Glauser, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the pressure, velocity and acoustic field of a transonic jet. Test conditions comprise a 2 inch nozzle, analyzing two flow speeds, Mach 0.6 and 0.85, with open loop control explored for the Mach 0.6 case. We make simultaneous measurements of the near-field pressure and far-field acoustics at 40 kHz, alongside 10 kHz time resolved PIV measurements in the r-z plane. Cross correlations are performed exploring how both the near-field Fourier filtered pressure and low dimensional POD modes relate to the far-field acoustics. Of interest are those signatures witch exhibit the strongest correlation with far-field, and subsequently how these structures can be controlled. The goal is to investigate how flow-induced perturbations, via synthetic jet actuators, of the developing shear layer might bring insight into how one may alter the flow such that the far-field acoustic signature is mitigated. The TR-PIV measurements will prove to be a powerful tool in being able to track the propagation of physical structures for both the controlled and uncontrolled jet.

  1. Effects of forward velocity and acoustic treatment on inlet fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.; Merriman, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Flyover and static noise data from several engines are presented that show inlet fan noise measured in flight can be lower than that projected from static tests for some engines. The differences between flight and static measurements appear greatest when the fan fundamental tone due to rotor-stator interaction or to the rotor-alone field is below cutoff. Data from engine and fan tests involving inlet treatment on the walls only are presented that show the attenuation from this treatment is substantially larger than expected from previous theories or flow duct experience. Data showing noise shielding effects due to the location of the engine on the airplane are also presented. These observations suggest that multiringed inlets may not be necessary to achieve the desired noise reduction in many applications.

  2. Surface acoustic wave generation and detection using graphene interdigitated transducers on lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorov, A. S.; Hunter, N.; Muchenje, W.; Wood, C. D.; Rosamond, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Cunningham, J. E.

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using graphene as a conductive electrode for the generation and detection of surface acoustic waves at 100 s of MHz on a lithium niobate substrate. The graphene interdigitated transducers (IDTs) show sensitivity to doping and temperature, and the characteristics of the IDTs are discussed in the context of a lossy transmission line model.

  3. Investigation of the effects of a moving acoustic medium on jet noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Palmer, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Noise from an unheated sonic jet in the presence of an external flow is measured in a free-jet wind tunnel using microphones located both inside and outside the flow. Comparison of the data is made with results of similar studies. The results are also compared with theoretical predictions of the source strength for jet noise in the presence of flow and of the effects of sound propagation through a shear layer.

  4. A Robust Approach For Acoustic Noise Suppression In Speech Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.

  5. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms. PMID:17202022

  6. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 161: A/M32A-86 generator set, diesel engine driven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-05-01

    The A/M32A-86 generator set is a diesel engine driven source of electrical power used for the starting of aircraft, and for ground maintenance. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating outdoors on a concrete apron at normal rated/loaded conditions. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference level, perceived noise level, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors. Far-field data measured at 36 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 10 - 1600 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for these same seven acoustic measures as functions of angle and distance from the source.

  7. A second generation of low thermal noise cryogenic silicon resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, D. G.; Legero, T.; Grebing, Ch; Häfner, S.; Lisdat, Ch; Weyrich, R.; Zhang, W.; Sonderhouse, L.; Robinson, J. M.; Riehle, F.; Ye, J.; Sterr, U.

    2016-06-01

    We have set up an improved vertically mounted silicon cavity operating at the zero-crossing temperature of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) near 123 K with estimated thermal noise limited instability of 4 x 10-17 in the modified Allan deviation. Owing to the anisotropic elasticity of single-crystal silicon, the vertical acceleration sensitivity was minimized in situ by axially rotating the resonator with respect to the mounting frame. The control of the resonator temperature is greatly improved by using a combination of two thermal shields, monitoring with several temperature sensors, and employing low-thermal conductivity materials. The instability of the resonator stabilized laser was characterized by comparing with another low-noise system based on a 48 cm long room temperature cavity of PTB's strontium lattice clock, resulting in a modified Allan deviation of 7 x 10-17 at 100 s.

  8. Time Interval Errors of a Flicker-noise Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Time interval error (TIE) is the error of a clock at time t after it is synchronized and syntonized at time zero. Previous simulations of Flicker FM noise yielded a mean-square TIE proportional to sq t. It is shown that the order of growth is actually sq t log t. The earlier sq t result is explained and a modified version of the Barnes-Jarvis simulation algorithm is given.

  9. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  10. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-07-31

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  11. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-09-04

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  12. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2010-11-23

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  13. Identification of laser generated acoustic waves in the two-dimensional transient response of cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Rossignol, C.; Audoin, B.

    2005-06-01

    The published model [Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4379-4381 (2003)] for the two-dimensional transient wave propagation in a cylinder is modified to avoid the inherited integration of the numerical inverse scheme. The Fourier series expansion is introduced for one spatial coordinate to resolve the transient response problem: theoretical radial displacements in either the ablation or the thermoelastic regime are obtained with little numerical noise and short computation time. The normal mode expansion method fails to deliver results with the same accuracy. Acoustic waves are fully identified by the ray trajectory analysis. These identified waves are further verified on the experimental results observed with the laser ultrasonic technique. .

  14. Acoustic waves generated by a laser point source in an isotropic cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongdong; Rossignol, Clément; Audoin, Bertrand

    2004-08-01

    The acoustic field of a homogeneous and isotropic cylinder generated by a laser point source in either ablation or thermoelastic regime is obtained theoretically. A three-dimensional Fourier transform is used to calculate the acoustic displacement at the cylinder surface. Experimental waveforms were measured and analyzed for both regimes. Theoretical normal displacements under either regime are calculated and compared to the experimental signals for aluminum cylinders. Very good agreements are observed in the arrival time, shape, and relative amplitude (i) of the cylindrical Rayleigh waves with different round trips, and (ii) of the various longitudinal and transverse bulk waves propagating through the cylinder or reflected at the free circular surface.

  15. A microwave photonic generator of chaotic and noise signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Kondrashov, A. V.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2016-04-01

    The transition to chaos in a microwave photonic generator has been experimentally studied for the first time, and the generated broadband chaotic microwave signal has been analyzed. The generator represented a ring circuit with the microwave tract containing a low-pass filter and a microwave amplifier. The optical tract comprised a fiber delay line. The possibility of generating chaotic oscillations with uniform spectral power density in a 3-8 GHz range is demonstrated.

  16. Trailing edge wake flow characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. [noise generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating flow characteristics in the wake of upper surface blown flap configurations are presented. Relative importance of the longitudinal and the transverse components of the wake flow turbulence for noise generation are evaluated using correlation between the near-field noise and the wake turbulence. Effects of the jet velocity, the initial turbulence in the jet, and the flap deflection angle on noise and wake flow characteristics are studied. The far-field noise data is compared with the existing empirical prediction method. The measured wake flow properties are compared with an analytical model used in the existing USB wake flow noise theory. The detailed wake flow profiles, wake flow turbulence space-time correlations, wake flow turbulence cross-power spectra, and near-field noise third octave band spectra are presented in the appendices.

  17. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  18. Generation and development of small-amplitude disturbances in a laminar boundary layer in the presence of an acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.

    1985-01-01

    A low-turbulence subsonic wind tunnel was used to study the influence of acoustic disturbances on the development of small sinusoidal oscillations (Tollmien-Schlichting waves) which constitute the initial phase of turbulent transition. It is found that acoustic waves propagating opposite to the flow generate vibrations of the model (plate) in the flow. Neither the plate vibrations nor the acoustic field itself have any appreciable influence on the stability of the laminar boundary layer. The influence of an acoustic field on laminar boundary layer disturbances is limited to the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves at the leading-edge of the plate.

  19. Effect of surface acoustic waves on the catalytic decomposition of ethanol employing a comb transducer for ultrasonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Reese; D. H. Hurley; H.W. Rollins

    2006-04-01

    The effect of surface acoustic waves, generated on a silver catalyst using a comb transducer, on the catalytic decomposition of ethanol is examined. The comb transducer employs purely mechanical means for surface acoustic wave (SAW) transduction. Unlike interdigital SAW transducers on piezoelectric substrates, the complicating effects of heat generation due to electromechanical coupling, high electric fields between adjacent electrodes, and acoustoelectric currents are avoided. The ethanol decomposition reactions are carried out at 473 K. The rates of acetaldehyde and ethylene production are retarded when acoustic waves are applied. The rates recover to varying degrees when acoustic excitation ceases.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigation of noise from small scale axial fans focusing on inflow condition and acoustic source type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yoon Shik

    The objective of this work was to conduct an experimental and numerical investigation of the noise radiated by a small-scale axial fan from two different points-of-view: the development of an inflow treatment to compensate for unfavorable inflow conditions that result in excessive noise, and a consideration of installation effects for the acoustic source type of small axial fans. The effect of disturbed inflow on axial fans was experimentally investigated by intentionally placing a blockage plate at four different locations upstream of a fan. The blocked inflow made the axial fan perform very poorly; the severely decreased pressure performance introduced an overly strong dependence of flow performance on pressure load condition. An inflow diffuser made from aluminum foam was suggested to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the axial fan under such unfavorable inflow conditions. The inflow diffuser improved the stability of flow performance and reduced the blade passing tone by a small amount, but the levels of the high frequency harmonics of the blade passing tone were increased. A corresponding numerical model was built to model the flow change due to the inflow foam treatment. The inflow foam diffuser was approximated as a homogeneous porous zone to make the computational cost affordable, and it was shown that the model can predict the foam's influence on the pressure and flow performance of the fan. The aeroacoustic analogy model was applied to the solid surfaces of the fan and its housing to simulate the tonal noise at the blade passing frequency. The validity of the homogeneous foam model in terms of aeroacoustic predictions was also confirmed. As for the second aspect of the axial fan noise source, the dipole-like source behavior of an axial fan at the blade passing frequency was verified by directivity measurements. Thus, dipole modeling of an axial fan was justified. This result is associated with the problem of overestimated fan source