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Sample records for acoustic oscillation measurement

  1. Cosmological implications of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bautista, Julian E.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Bovy, Jo; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Busca, Nicolás G.; Carithers, William; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Delubac, Timothée; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ge, Jian; Le Goff, J.-M.; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A.; Gott, J. Richard; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Howlett, Cullan; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Lee, Khee-Gan; Long, Dan; Lupton, Robert H.; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; McBride, Cameron K.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Myers, Adam D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pâris, Isabelle; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Reid, Beth; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Samushia, Lado; Santos, Ricardo Tanausú Génova; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin; Simmons, Audrey; Skibba, Ramin A.; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Viel, Matteo; Wake, David A.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; BOSS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We derive constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark energy models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and a recent reanalysis of Type Ia supernova (SN) data. In particular, we take advantage of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest (LyaF) in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Treating the BAO scale as an uncalibrated standard ruler, BAO data alone yield a high confidence detection of dark energy; in combination with the CMB angular acoustic scale they further imply a nearly flat universe. Adding the CMB-calibrated physical scale of the sound horizon, the combination of BAO and SN data into an "inverse distance ladder" yields a measurement of H0=67.3 ±1.1 km s-1 Mpc-1 , with 1.7% precision. This measurement assumes standard prerecombination physics but is insensitive to assumptions about dark energy or space curvature, so agreement with CMB-based estimates that assume a flat Λ CDM cosmology is an important corroboration of this minimal cosmological model. For constant dark energy (Λ ), our BAO +SN +CMB combination yields matter density Ωm=0.301 ±0.008 and curvature Ωk=-0.003 ±0.003 . When we allow more general forms of evolving dark energy, the BAO +SN +CMB parameter constraints are always consistent with flat Λ CDM values at ≈1 σ . While the overall χ2 of model fits is satisfactory, the LyaF BAO measurements are in moderate (2 - 2.5 σ ) tension with model predictions. Models with early dark energy that tracks the dominant energy component at high redshift remain consistent with our expansion history constraints, and they yield a higher H0 and lower matter clustering amplitude, improving agreement with some low redshift observations. Expansion history alone yields an upper limit on the summed mass of neutrino species, ∑mν<0.56 eV (95% confidence), improving to ∑mν<0.25 eV if we include the

  2. Cosmological implications of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Jose; BOSS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and a reanalysis of Type Ia supernova (SN) data. In particular, we take of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering the Lyman-a forest (LyaF) in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Survey (BOSS). show that the flat LCDM model, that best describes the CMB data alone, is discrepant at 95% with the LyaF measurements. Hence, in order to reconcile them we consider models with more unusual histories of the dark energy, matter, or radiation components. In part we want to know what our combined data can place on interesting physical, such as neutrino masses, extra relativistic species, or dark energy that is dynamically significant at early times. But we also want to see whether any of these alternative models can resolve the discrepancy with the LyaF measurements at z = 2.34.

  3. The contamination of acoustic pressure measurements by sensor oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Surry, J.; Kezele, D.; Risley, C.

    1996-04-01

    The significance of micromotion (sensor) noise contamination of low frequency, low level, ambient ocean acoustic measurements has been pursued experimentally and analytically. Oceanographic hydrophones are subject to small motions resulting from various phenomena; the present study focussed on a pressure-sensitive hydrophone exposed to vertical oscillations. While under such imposed motion, the responses from a pressure-sensitive hydrophone and a collocated accelerometer were analyzed relative to a stationary reference hydrophone. The imposed motion was vertical, colored noise (1 to 50 Hz) of various acceleration amplitudes (10 {mu}g to 10 mg), transmitted through an elastic isolation suspension. Formation of Frequency Response Functions between the measured transducer signals, demonstrated that a three component model of the hydrophone signal predicts the response-to-motion contamination of the acoustic signal. In the lower frequency range, the vertical motion through the static head gradient generates a signal similar to the response-to-acoustic signal, while in the upper frequency range, the hydrophone responds inertially to the motion. For acceleration greater than 30 {mu}g, these components masked the laboratory ambient sound, except in a narrow frequency band where the two motion related components canceled each other. The in-water acceleration sensitivity of the hydrophone was found to be higher than the measured in-air value, apparently due to two hydrodynamic effects: water mass loading predicted by a classical added-mass term and a greatly magnifying effect from an adjacent moving body. Extrapolating the results to a deep ocean environment, the hydrophone signals would be contaminated below 5 Hz. A spectral technique is demonstrated to remove both forms of motion contamination from laboratory data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Measuring Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the clustering of voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependency of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1,000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  5. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations from the clustering of voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependence of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale-dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  6. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations with future SKA surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, P.; Camera, S.; Raccanelli, A.; Blake, C.; Ferreira, P.; Santos, M.; Schwarz, D. J.

    2015-04-01

    The imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in large-scale structure can be used as a standard ruler for mapping out the cosmic expansion history, and hence for testing cosmological models. In this article we briefly describe the scientific background to the BAO technique, and forecast the potential of the Phase 1 and 2 SKA telescopes to perform BAO surveys using both galaxy catalogues and intensity mapping, assessing their competitiveness with current and future optical galaxy surveys. We find that a 25,000 sq. deg. intensity mapping survey on a Phase 1 array will preferentially constrain the radial BAO, providing a highly competitive 2% constraint on the expansion rate at z ~ 2. A 30,000 sq. deg. galaxy redshift survey on SKA2 will outperform all other planned experiments for z < 1.4.

  7. Measuring the speed of light with baryon acoustic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Vincenzo; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2015-03-13

    In this Letter, we describe a new method to use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to derive a constraint on the possible variation of the speed of light. The method relies on the fact that there is a simple relation between the angular diameter distance (D(A)) maximum and the Hubble function (H) evaluated at the same maximum-condition redshift, which includes speed of light c. We note the close analogy of the BAO probe with a laboratory experiment: here we have D(A) which plays the role of a standard (cosmological) ruler, and H^{-1}, with the dimension of time, as a (cosmological) clock. We evaluate if current or future missions such as Euclid can be sensitive enough to detect any variation of c. PMID:25815922

  8. Digital image processing of sectorial oscillations for acoustically levitated drops and surface tension measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changle; Xie, Wenjun; Wei, Bingbo

    2010-12-01

    A type of non-axisymmetric oscillations of acoustically levitated drops is excited by modulating the ultrasound field at proper frequencies. These oscillations are recorded by a high speed camera and analyzed with a digital image processing method. They are demonstrated to be the third mode sectorial oscillations, and their frequencies are found to decrease with the increase of equatorial radius of the drops, which can be described by a modified Rayleigh equation. These oscillations decay exponentially after the cessation of ultrasound field modulation. The decaying rates agree reasonably with Lamb's prediction. The rotating rate of the drops accompanying the shape oscillations is found to be less than 1.5 rounds per second. The surface tension of aqueous ethanol has been measured according to the modified Rayleigh equation. The results agree well with previous reports, which demonstrates the possible application of this kind of sectorial oscillations in noncontact measurement of liquid surface tension.

  9. Application of Wavelet Packet Analysis to the Measurement of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Kevin; Garcia, Noel; Ford, Taurean; Pando, Jesus; SDSS-FAST Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We develop a method of wavelet packet analysis to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak and apply this method to the CMASS galaxy catalog from the SDSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) collaboration. We compare our results to a fiducial ?CDM flat cosmological model and detect a BAO signature in the power spectrum comparable to the previous consensus results of the BOSS collaboration. We find DA = 1365rd /rd , fid at z = . 54 . Member ID Forthcoming.

  10. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.

  11. DETECTING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-02-20

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) are a feature imprinted in the galaxy distribution by acoustic waves traveling in the plasma of the early universe. Their detection at the expected scale in large-scale structures strongly supports current cosmological models with a nearly linear evolution from redshift z Almost-Equal-To 1000 and the existence of dark energy. In addition, BAOs provide a standard ruler for studying cosmic expansion. In this paper, we focus on methods for BAO detection using the correlation function measurement {xi}-hat. For each method, we want to understand the tested hypothesis (the hypothesis H{sub 0} to be rejected) and the underlying assumptions. We first present wavelet methods which are mildly model-dependent and mostly sensitive to the BAO feature. Then we turn to fully model-dependent methods. We present the method used most often based on the {chi}{sup 2} statistic, but we find that it has limitations. In general the assumptions of the {chi}{sup 2} method are not verified, and it only gives a rough estimate of the significance. The estimate can become very wrong when considering more realistic hypotheses, where the covariance matrix of {xi}-hat depends on cosmological parameters. Instead, we propose to use the {Delta}l method based on two modifications: we modify the procedure for computing the significance and make it rigorous, and we modify the statistic to obtain better results in the case of varying covariance matrix. We verify with simulations that correct significances are different from the ones obtained using the classical {chi}{sup 2} procedure. We also test a simple example of varying covariance matrix. In this case we find that our modified statistic outperforms the classical {chi}{sup 2} statistic when both significances are correctly computed. Finally, we find that taking into account variations of the covariance matrix can change both BAO detection levels and cosmological parameter constraints.

  12. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veropalumbo, A.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Moresco, M.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-05-01

    We analyse the largest spectroscopic samples of galaxy clusters to date, and provide observational constraints on the distance-redshift relation from baryon acoustic oscillations. The cluster samples considered in this work have been extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at three median redshifts, z = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5. The number of objects is 12 910, 42 215 and 11 816, respectively. We detect the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations for all the three samples. The derived distance constraints are rs/DV(z = 0.2) = 0.18 ± 0.01, rs/DV(z = 0.3) = 0.124 ± 0.004 and rs/DV(z = 0.5) = 0.080 ± 0.002. Combining these measurements with the sound horizon scale measured from the cosmic microwave background, we obtain robust constraints on cosmological parameters. Our results are in agreement with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Specifically, we constrain the Hubble constant in a ΛCDM model, H_0 = 64_{-8}^{+17} km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} , the density of curvature energy, in the oΛCDM context, Ω _K = -0.01_{-0.33}^{+0.34}, and finally the parameter of the dark energy equation of state in the wCDM case, w = -1.06_{-0.52}^{+0.49}. This is the first time the distance-redshift relation has been constrained using only the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters.

  13. Galaxy bias and its effects on the Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Kushal T.; Seo, Hee -Jong; Eckel, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip; Xu, Xiaoying

    2011-05-31

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the clustering of matter in the universe serves as a robust standard ruler and hence can be used to map the expansion history of the universe. We use high force resolution simulations to analyze the effects of galaxy bias on the measurements of the BAO signal. We apply a variety of Halo Occupation Distributions (HODs) and produce biased mass tracers to mimic different galaxy populations. We investigate whether galaxy bias changes the non-linear shifts on the acoustic scale relative to the underlying dark matter distribution presented by Seo et al. (2009). For the less biased HOD models (b < 3), we do not detect any shift in the acoustic scale relative to the no-bias case, typically 0.10% ± 0.10%. However, the most biased HOD models (b > 3) show a shift at moderate significance (0.79% ± 0.31% for the most extreme case). We test the one-step reconstruction technique introduced by Eisenstein et al. (2007) in the case of realistic galaxy bias and shot noise. The reconstruction scheme increases the correlation between the initial and final (z = 1) density fields achieving an equivalent level of correlation at nearly twice the wavenumber after reconstruction. Reconstruction reduces the shifts and errors on the shifts. We find that after reconstruction the shifts from the galaxy cases and the dark matter case are consistent with each other and with no shift. The 1σ systematic errors on the distance measurements inferred from our BAO measurements with various HODs after reconstruction are about 0.07%-0.15%.

  14. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  15. Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Ballot, J.; Antia, H. M.; Basu, S.; Houdek, G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Seader, S. E.; Smith, J. C.

    2014-02-10

    For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

  16. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.; Lee, D. L.; Leja, I.

    1979-01-01

    Four areas of surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were investigated and a number of 401.2 MHz oscillators were constructed that showed improved performance. Aging studies on SAW devices packaged in HC36/U cold weld enclosures produced frequency drifts as low as 0.4 ppm in 35 weeks and drift rates well under 0.5 ppm/year. Temperature compensation circuits have substantially improved oscillator temperature stability, with a deviation of + or - 4 ppm observed over the range -45 C to + 40 C. High efficiency amplifiers were constructed for SAW oscillators and a dc to RF efficiency of 44 percent was obtained for an RF output of 25 mW. Shock and vibration tests were made on four oscillators and all survived 500 G shock pulses unchanged. Only when white noise vibration (20 Hz to 2000 Hz) levels of 20 G's rms were applied did some of the devices fail.

  17. Measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forest fluctuations in BOSS data release 9

    SciTech Connect

    Slosar, Anže; Iršič, Vid; Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael; Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, Bill; Busca, Nicolás G.; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel; Dawson, Kyle S.; Bovy, Jo; Croft, Rupert A.C.; Ho, Shirley; Font-Ribera, Andreu; and others

    2013-04-01

    We use the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) to detect and measure the position of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the three-dimensional correlation function in the Lyman-α flux fluctuations at a redshift z{sub eff} = 2.4. The feature is clearly detected at significance between 3 and 5 sigma (depending on the broadband model and method of error covariance matrix estimation) and is consistent with predictions of the standard ΛCDM model. We assess the biases in our method, stability of the error covariance matrix and possible systematic effects. We fit the resulting correlation function with several models that decouple the broadband and acoustic scale information. For an isotropic dilation factor, we measure 100 × (α{sub iso} − 1) = −1.6{sup +2.0+4.3+7.4}{sub −2.0−4.1−6.8} (stat.) ±1.0 (syst.) (multiple statistical errors denote 1,2 and 3 sigma confidence limits) with respect to the acoustic scale in the fiducial cosmological model (flat ΛCDM with Ω{sub m} = 0.27, h = 0.7). When fitting separately for the radial and transversal dilation factors we find marginalised constraints 100 × (α{sub ||} − 1) = −1.3{sup +3.5+7.6+12.3}{sub −3.3−6.7−10.2} (stat.) ±2.0 (syst.) and 100 × (α{sub p}erpendicular − 1) = −2.2{sup +7.4+17}{sub −7.1−15} (stat.) ±3.0 (syst.). The dilation factor measurements are significantly correlated with cross-correlation coefficient of ∼ −0.55. Errors become significantly non-Gaussian for deviations over 3 standard deviations from best fit value. Because of the data cuts and analysis method, these measurements give tighter constraints than a previous BAO analysis of the BOSS DR9 Lyman-α sample, providing an important consistency test of the standard cosmological model in a new redshift regime.

  18. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3 σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  19. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys. PMID:27176512

  20. Oscillational instabilities in single mode acoustics levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, J.; Barmatz, Martin

    1990-01-01

    An extention of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The authors' results are consistent with those of experimental investigators. The present approach accounts for the effects of time delays in the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside of it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of ability to levitate are discussed.

  1. PRSA hydrogen tank thermal acoustic oscillation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The power reactant storage assembly (PRSA) hydrogen tank test data were reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen data points illustrating the effect of flow rate, temperature ratio and configuration were identified. The test data were reduced to produce the thermal acoustic oscillation parameters. Frequency and amplitude were determined for model correlation. A comparison of PRSA hydrogen tank test data with the analytical models indicated satisfactory agreement for the supply and poor agreement for the full line.

  2. Quasinormal acoustic oscillations in the Michel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Morales, Manuel D.; Sarbach, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    We study spherical and nonspherical linear acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow, which describes the steady radial accretion of a perfect fluid into a nonrotating black hole. The dynamics of such perturbations are governed by a scalar wave equation on an effective curved background geometry determined by the acoustic metric, which is constructed from the spacetime metric and the particle density and four-velocity of the fluid. For the problem under consideration in this paper the acoustic metric has the same qualitative features as an asymptotically flat, static and spherically symmetric black hole, and thus it represents a natural astrophysical analogue black hole. As for the case of a scalar field propagating on a Schwarzschild background, we show that acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow exhibit quasinormal oscillations. Based on a new numerical method for determining the solutions of the radial mode equation, we compute the associated frequencies and analyze their dependency on the mass of the black hole, the radius of the sonic horizon and the angular momentum number. Our results for the fundamental frequencies are compared to those obtained from an independent numerical Cauchy evolution, finding good agreement between the two approaches. When the radius of the sonic horizon is large compared to the event horizon radius, we find that the quasinormal frequencies scale approximately like the surface gravity associated with the sonic horizon.

  3. Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Intensity Mapping of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called “dark energy.” To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 109 individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy.

  4. Baryon acoustic oscillation intensity mapping of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called "dark energy." To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 10(9) individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy. PMID:18352692

  5. Chromospheric Acoustic Oscillations in Active Flaring Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chromospheric p-mode oscillations are studied in Hα to obtain helioseismic information regarding the local structural conditions around highly magnetic regions such as sunspots. Solar flares commonly occur in active regions where these sunspots exist therefore boosting the p-mode power. In our current study of analyzing p-modes in the chromosphere we study the time evolution of acoustic p-mode oscillation data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Hα, and investigate the p-modes across the frequency band (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). This study entails three active regions directly over sunspots, with accompanying flaring activity from two solar flares, occurring on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. Our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved around the flare region, to study the frequency bands. We then study how the frequency distribution evolves temporally by constructing a Power Map Movie (PMM) of the regions. From these PMMs we can take a survey of the chromospheric oscillations for each frequency band. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the behavior of the p-modes within different frequency bands. The suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures within the PMMs and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity.

  6. Elimination of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations in Cryogenic Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. J.; Gu, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) were recently observed and eliminated in two vacuum-housing cryogenic pumps. This paper documents the results of research performed to identify the critical parameters that affect thermal acoustic oscillations in a vacuum-housing cryogenic pump. Techniques for simplifying this complex oscillation system were developed so that an existing mathematical model for a straight tube with uniform radius could be applied. Based on the simplified model, criteria were defined. These criteria provide design guidelines to prevent thermal acoustic oscillations from occurring inside vacuum-housing cryogenic pumps.

  7. Electromagnetically actuated micromanipulator using an acoustically oscillating bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. O.; Yang, J. S.; Lee, S. J.; Rhee, K.; Chung, S. K.

    2011-11-01

    A novel non-invasive micromanipulation technique has been developed where a microrobot swimming in an aqueous medium manipulates micro-objects, through electromagnetic actuation using an acoustically oscillating bubble attached to the microrobot as a grasping tool. This micromanipulation concept was experimentally verified; an investigation of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation was also performed. Two-dimensional propulsion of a magnetic piece was demonstrated through electromagnetic actuation, using three pairs of electric coils surrounding the water chamber, and confirming that the propulsion speed of the magnetic piece was linearly proportional to the applied current intensity. Micro-object manipulation was separately demonstrated using an air bubble with glass beads (80 µm diameter) and a steel ball (800 µm diameter) in an aqueous medium. Upon acoustic excitation of the bubble by a piezo-actuator around its resonant frequency, the generated radiation force attracted and captured the neighboring glass beads and steel ball. The grasping force was indirectly measured by exposing the glass beads captured by the oscillating bubble to a stream generated by an auto-syringe pump in a mini-channel. By measuring the maximum speed of the streaming flow when the glass beads detached from the oscillating bubble and flowed downstream, the grasping force was calculated as 50 nN, based on Stokes' drag approximation. Finally, a fish egg was successfully manipulated with the integration of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation, using a mini-robot consisting of a millimeter-sized magnetic piece with a bubble attached to its bottom. This novel micromanipulation may be an efficient tool for both micro device assembly and single-cell manipulation.

  8. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  9. Behaviour of a Premixed Flame Subjected to Acoustic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.; Prosser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a one dimensional premixed laminar methane flame is subjected to acoustic oscillations and studied. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effects of acoustic perturbations on the reaction rates of different species, with a view to their respective contribution to thermoacoustic instabilities. Acoustically transparent non reflecting boundary conditions are employed. The flame response has been studied with acoustic waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The integral values of the reaction rates, the burning velocities and the heat release of the acoustically perturbed flame are compared with the unperturbed case. We found that the flame's sensitivity to acoustic perturbations is greatest when the wavelength is comparable to the flame thickness. Even in this case, the perturbations are stable with time. We conclude that acoustic fields acting on the chemistry do not contribute significantly to the emergence of large amplitude pressure oscillations. PMID:24376501

  10. Thermal acoustic oscillations, volume 2. [cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Sims, W. H.; Fan, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of thermal acoustic oscillation phenomena and their effects on cryogenic systems were studied. The conditions which cause or suppress oscillations, the frequency, amplitude and intensity of oscillations when they exist, and the heat loss they induce are discussed. Methods of numerical analysis utilizing the digital computer were developed for use in cryogenic systems design. In addition, an experimental verification program was conducted to study oscillation wave characteristics and boiloff rate. The data were then reduced and compared with the analytical predictions.

  11. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  12. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  13. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation discusses the causes of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations, how it can be detected, analyzed and prevented. It also discusses where it can occur, where it doesn't occur and practical mitigation techniques.

  14. A NEW STATISTIC FOR ANALYZING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Eckel, J.; Mehta, K.; Metchnik, M.; Pinto, P.; White, M.; Padmanabhan, N.; Seo, H.-J.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a new statistic {omega}{sub l}(r{sub s}) for measuring and analyzing large-scale structure and particularly the baryon acoustic oscillations. {omega}{sub l}(r{sub s}) is a band-filtered, configuration space statistic that is easily implemented and has advantages over the traditional power spectrum and correlation function estimators. Unlike these estimators, {omega}{sub l}(r{sub s}) can localize most of the acoustic information into a single dip at the acoustic scale while avoiding sensitivity to the poorly constrained large-scale power (i.e., the integral constraint) through the use of a localized and compensated filter. It is also sensitive to anisotropic clustering through pair counting and does not require any binning of data. We measure the shift in the acoustic peak due to nonlinear effects using the monopole {omega}{sub 0}(r{sub s}) derived from subsampled dark matter (DM) catalogs as well as from mock galaxy catalogs created via halo occupation distribution modeling. All of these are drawn from 44 realizations of 1024{sup 3} particle DM simulations in a 1 h {sup -1} Gpc box at z = 1. We compare these shifts with those obtained from the power spectrum and conclude that the results agree. We therefore expect that distance measurements obtained from {omega}{sub 0}(r{sub s}) and P(k) will be consistent with each other. We also show that it is possible to extract the same amount of acoustic information by fitting over a finite range using either {omega}{sub 0}(r{sub s}) or P(k) derived from equal volume surveys.

  15. Experimental and theoretical demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations in porous silicon structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lazcano, Z.; Arriaga, J.; Aliev, G. N.

    2014-04-21

    We report the theoretical calculations and the experimental demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in linear tilted multilayer structures based on porous silicon. The considered structures consist of layers with constant porosity alternated by layers with a linear gradient in the parameter η=1/v{sub L}{sup 2} along the growth direction in order to tilt the acoustic band gap. The purpose of this gradient is to mimic the tilted electronic miniband structure of a superlattice semiconductor under an external electric field. In this way, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders of equidistant modes are formed and they were experimentally confirmed in the transmission spectrum around 1.2 GHz. Their frequency separation defines the period of the acoustic Bloch oscillations. We fabricated three different structures with the same thicknesses but different values in the η parameter to observe the effect on the period of the Bloch oscillations. We measured the acoustic transmission spectra in the frequency domain, and by using the Fourier transform, we obtained the transmission in the time domain. The transmission spectra of the fabricated samples show acoustic Bloch oscillations with periods of 27, 24, and 19 ns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the transfer matrix calculations. The observed phenomenon is the acoustic counterpart of the well known electronic Bloch oscillations.

  16. Sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated nanoparticle-coated droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Chen, Zhen; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a third mode sectorial oscillation of nanoparticle-coated droplets using acoustic levitation in combination with active modulation. The presence of nanoparticles at the droplet surface changes its oscillation amplitude and frequency. A model linking the interfacial rheology and oscillation dynamics has been proposed in which the compression modulus ɛ of the particle layer is introduced into the analysis. The ɛ obtained with the model is in good agreement with that obtained by the Wilhelmy plate approach, highlighting the important role of interfacial rheological properties in the sectorial oscillation of droplets.

  17. Precision surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) oscillators.

    PubMed

    Parker, T E; Montress, G K

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of SAW oscillator technology over the past 17 years is described and a review of the current state of the art for high-performance SAW oscillators is presented. This review draws heavily upon the authors' own experience and efforts, which have focused upon the development of a wide variety of SAW oscillators in response to numerous high-performance military system requirements. PMID:18290160

  18. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determined from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.

  19. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  20. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  1. Metamagnetism and Quantum Acoustic Oscillations in UPt3:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, V.; Shivaram, B.

    We present results of high resolution sound velocity measurements performed at the NHMFL, Tallahassee, in magnetic fields upto 33 T in a dilution refrigerator at temperatures down to 35 mK. For magnetic field parallel to the basal plane the observed quantum acoustic oscillations show a change in frequency as expected at the metamagnetic transition of 20 T. However, we find a similar abrupt change in frequency at 25 T for magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The implications of this fermi surface instability even though there is no metamagnetic transition in this orientation will be discussed. Work at the University of Virginia was supported through NSF DMR-0073456 and the NHMFL is supported by NSF and the State of Florida.

  2. Study of multilayered insulation pipe penetration. Thermal acoustic oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovin, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the net heat leak to a source of liquid nitrogen caused by a metal penetration through the blanket of multilayer insulation. The conditions under which the tests were conducted are described. A graph of the theoretical and experimental temperature distribution is developed for comparison. The variables involved in the computer program to process the data are defined. A study was conducted to develop analytical methods for predicting the effect and magnitudes of thermoacoustic oscillations on the penetration heat leak to cryogens. The oscillations develop as a result of large thermal gradients imposed on a compressible fluid. The predominant amplitudes and frequencies of the thermal acoustic oscillations were investigated.

  3. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-05-15

    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  4. Direct measurement of clarinet air column oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jesse; Rogers, Chris; French, Chris

    2003-10-01

    The internal oscillation of a clarinet air column has been directly measured through the implementation of hot-wire anemometry. By taking a series of measurements down the centerline of the bore, velocity and pressure modal shapes of individual harmonics are separated, measured, and plotted. Finally, composite averaged power spectra of the internal oscillation are presented and compared to acoustic measurements acquired outside the clarinet. In many cases, the even harmonics of the internal oscillation dominate over the power found in the odd harmonics. This contradicts the classic model of the clarinet as a cylindrical pipe closed at one end and open at the other (where only odd harmonics are produced). Further, the data from the direct velocity measurements also contradict the externally acquired acoustic data, where odd harmonics generally dominate for the lowest 5-9 harmonics. Thus the clarinet, in theory and practice, is generally considered incapable of generating strong even harmonics. In this research, however, it is seen that dominate even harmonics are generated, but the energy for these frequencies is largely trapped inside the clarinet, whereas the energy associated with the odd harmonics is released to the ambient. [This research was conducted with the support of Selmer Musical Instruments.

  5. Oscillating bubble concentration and its size distribution using acoustic emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2009-01-01

    New method has been proposed for the estimation of size and number density distribution of oscillating bubbles in a sonochemical reactor using acoustic emission spectra measurements. Bubble size distribution has been determined using Minnaert's equation [M. Minnaert, On musical air bubbles and sound of running water, Philanthr. Mag. 16 (1933) 235], i.e., size of oscillating bubble is inversely related to the frequency of its volume oscillations. Decomposition of the pressure signal measured by the hydrophone in frequency domain of FFT spectrum and then inverse FFT reconstruction of the signal at each frequency level has been carried out to get the information about each of the bubble/cavity oscillation event. The number mean radius of the bubble size is calculated to be in the range of 50-80 microm and it was not found to vary much with the spatial distribution of acoustic field strength of the ultrasound processor used in the work. However, the number density of the oscillating bubbles and the nature of the distribution were found to vary in different horizontal planes away from the driving transducer surface in the ultrasonic bath. A separate set of experiments on erosion assessment studies were carried out using a thin aluminium foil, revealing a phenomena of active region of oscillating bubbles at antinodal points of the stationary waves, identical to the information provided by the acoustic emission spectra at the same location in the ultrasonic bath. PMID:18752981

  6. Exploratory experiments on acoustic oscillations driven by periodic vortex shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, R.; Brown, R. S.

    1981-03-01

    Periodic vortex shedding is investigated as a mechanism by which low-amplitude pressure oscillations can be generated in segmented solid propellant rocket engines. Acoustic responses were monitored in an acoustically isolated flow chamber with two flow restrictors in the flow path as a function of resistor spacing and flow Mach number. At Mach 0.042, the maximum acoustic response is observed with a marked increase in the amplitude of the wave corresponding to the third acoustic mode of the chamber. Reduction of the Mach number by a factor of three is found to excite the first longitudinal mode of the chamber at the same restrictor spacing. Attempts to produce the second axial mode are unsuccessful when the restrictors were kept at the center of the chamber, indicating the importance of restrictor position relative to the acoustic mode structure. The restrictor spacing at which maximum response is obtained indicates a Strouhal number of 0.8 characterizing the vortex shedding frequency, in agreement with calculations. The results thus demonstrate that a significant (5-10%) pressure oscillation can be generated by coupling from periodic vortex shedding

  7. Acoustic-velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1982-09-30

    Acoustic energy is propatated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  8. Acoustic velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Edwin F.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic energy is propagated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  9. Oscillational instabilities in single-mode acoustic levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.

    1990-01-01

    An extension of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The results are consistent with experimental investigations. The present approach accounts for the effect of time delays on the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of the ability to levitate are discussed.

  10. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  11. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  12. Quasi-normal acoustic oscillations in the transonic Bondi flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Sarbach, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of nonspherical acoustic perturbations of the transonic Bondi flow, describing the steady radial accretion of a polytropic perfect fluid into a gravity center. The propagation of such perturbations can be described by a wave equation on the curved effective background geometry determined by the acoustic metric introduced by Unruh in the context of experimental black hole evaporation. We show that for the transonic Bondi flow, Unruh's acoustic metric describes an analogue black hole and that the acoustic perturbations undergo quasi-normal oscillations. The associated quasi-normal frequencies are computed and they are proven to scale like the surface gravity of the acoustic black hole. This provides an explanation for results given in an earlier work, where it was shown that the acoustic perturbations of a relativistic fluid accreted by a nonrotating black hole possess quasi-normal modes, and where it was found empirically that the associated frequencies scaled like the surface gravity of the analogue black hole in the limit where the radius of the sonic horizon is much larger than the Schwarzschild radius.

  13. Constraints on large-scale dark acoustic oscillations from cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; de Putter, Roland; Raccanelli, Alvise; Sigurdson, Kris

    2014-03-01

    If all or a fraction of the dark matter (DM) were coupled to a bath of dark radiation (DR) in the early Universe, we expect the combined DM-DR system to give rise to acoustic oscillations of the dark matter until it decouples from the DR. Much like the standard baryon acoustic oscillations, these dark acoustic oscillations (DAO) imprint a characteristic scale, the sound horizon of dark matter, on the matter power spectrum. We compute in detail how the microphysics of the DM-DR interaction affects the clustering of matter in the Universe and show that the DAO physics also gives rise to unique signatures in the temperature and polarization spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We use cosmological data from the CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, and large-scale structure to constrain the possible fraction of interacting DM as well as the strength of its interaction with DR. Like nearly all knowledge we have gleaned about DM since inferring its existence this constraint rests on the betrayal by gravity of the location of otherwise invisible DM. Although our results can be straightforwardly applied to a broad class of models that couple dark matter particles to various light relativistic species, in order to make quantitative predictions, we model the interacting component as dark atoms coupled to a bath of dark photons. We find that linear cosmological data and CMB lensing put strong constraints on the existence of DAO features in the CMB and the large-scale structure of the Universe. Interestingly, we find that at most ˜5% of all DM can be very strongly interacting with DR. We show that our results are surprisingly constraining for the recently proposed double-disk DM model, a novel example of how large-scale precision cosmological data can be used to constrain galactic physics and subgalactic structure.

  14. Efficient construction of mock catalogs for baryon acoustic oscillation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Rangel, Esteban

    2016-05-01

    Precision measurements of the large scale structure of the Universe require large numbers of high fidelity mock catalogs to accurately assess, and account for, the presence of systematic effects. We introduce and test a scheme for generating mock catalogs rapidly using suitably derated N-body simulations. Our aim is to reproduce the large scale structure and the gross properties of dark matter halos with high accuracy, while sacrificing the details of the halo's internal structure. By adjusting global and local time-steps in an N-body code, we demonstrate that we recover halo masses to better than 0.5% and the power spectrum to better than 1% both in real and redshift space for k=1hMpc‑1, while requiring a factor of 4 less CPU time. We also calibrate the redshift spacing of outputs required to generate simulated light cones. We find that outputs separated by Δ z=0.05 allow us to interpolate particle positions and velocities to reproduce the real and redshift space power spectra to better than 1% (out to k=1hMpc‑1). We apply these ideas to generate a suite of simulations spanning a range of cosmologies, motivated by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) but broadly applicable to future large scale structure surveys including eBOSS and DESI. As an initial demonstration of the utility of such simulations, we calibrate the shift in the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak position as a function of galaxy bias with higher precision than has been possible so far. This paper also serves to document the simulations, which we make publicly available.

  15. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file.

    PubMed

    Verhaagen, B; Boutsioukis, C; van der Sluis, L W M; Versluis, M

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses on the walls of the root canal. Here the induced acoustic streaming, pressure, and shear stress are investigated in a two-dimensional cross-section of the root canal, using a combination of theory, numerical predictions, and experimental validation through high-speed particle tracking velocimetry. Acoustic streaming theory describes very well the flow induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file. It consists of an oscillatory component, which is dominant near the file, and a steady component, or jet, along the axis of oscillation. The importance of the oscillatory component for both the pressure and the shear stress is apparent, as it is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the steady component. A confinement affects the formation of the steady jets; meanwhile the oscillatory velocities and associated pressure and shear stress are increased. Previous work considering only the steady component of the flow therefore, underestimated the hydrodynamic effects induced by ultrasonic files. PMID:25234972

  16. Oscillating load-induced acoustic emission in laboratory experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Lockner, David A.; Stroganova, S.; Stanchits, S.; Smirnov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of acoustic emission (AE) were studied. A pre-fractured cylinder of granite was loaded in a triaxial machine at 160 MPa confining pressure until stick-slip events occurred. The experiments were conducted at a constant strain rate of 10−7 s−1 that was modulated by small-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations with periods of 175 and 570 seconds. Amplitude of the oscillations was a few percent of the total load and was intended to simulate periodic loading observed in nature (e.g., earth tides or other sources). An ultrasonic acquisition system with 13 piezosensors recorded acoustic emissions that were generated during deformation of the sample. We observed a correlation between AE response and sinusoidal loading. The effect was more pronounced for higher frequency of the modulating force. A time-space spectral analysis for a “point” process was used to investigate details of the periodic AE components. The main result of the study was the correlation of oscillations of acoustic activity synchronized with the applied oscillating load. The intensity of the correlated AE activity was most pronounced in the “aftershock” sequences that followed large-amplitude AE events. We suggest that this is due to the higher strain-sensitivity of the failure area when the sample is in a transient, unstable mode. We also found that the synchronization of AE activity with the oscillating external load nearly disappeared in the period immediately after the stick-slip events and gradually recovered with further loading.

  17. Experimental study of the oscillation of spheres in an acoustic levitator.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marco A B; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C

    2014-10-01

    The spontaneous oscillation of solid spheres in a single-axis acoustic levitator is experimentally investigated by using a high speed camera to record the position of the levitated sphere as a function of time. The oscillations in the axial and radial directions are systematically studied by changing the sphere density and the acoustic pressure amplitude. In order to interpret the experimental results, a simple model based on a spring-mass system is applied in the analysis of the sphere oscillatory behavior. This model requires the knowledge of the acoustic pressure distribution, which was obtained numerically by using a linear finite element method (FEM). Additionally, the linear acoustic pressure distribution obtained by FEM was compared with that measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The comparison between numerical and experimental pressure distributions shows good agreement for low values of pressure amplitude. When the pressure amplitude is increased, the acoustic pressure distribution becomes nonlinear, producing harmonics of the fundamental frequency. The experimental results of the spheres oscillations for low pressure amplitudes are consistent with the results predicted by the simple model based on a spring-mass system. PMID:25324056

  18. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan A.; McEwen, Joseph E.; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2016-03-01

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ˜5 ) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  19. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale.

    PubMed

    Blazek, Jonathan A; McEwen, Joseph E; Hirata, Christopher M

    2016-03-25

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ∼5) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation. PMID:27058069

  20. Theoretical analysis of a cell's oscillations in an acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Zinin, Pavel

    2005-09-01

    The analysis and deformation of an individual cell in a high-frequency acoustic field is of fundamental interest for a variety of applications such as ultrasound cell separation and drug delivery. The oscillations of biological cells in a sound field are investigated using a shell model for the cell following an approach developed previously [Zinin, Ultrasonics, 30, 26-34 (1992)]. The model accounts for the three components which comprise the cell's motion: the internal fluid (cytoplasma), the cell membrane, and the surrounding fluid. The cell membrane whose thickness is small compared to the cell radius can be approximated as a thin elastic shell. The elastic properties of this shell together with the viscosities of the internal and external fluids determine the oscillations of the cell. The dipole oscillations of the cell depend on the surface area modulus and the maximum frequency for the relative change in cell area can be determined. Moreover, the higher order oscillations starting with the quadrupole oscillations are governed by the shell's shear modulus. Induced stresses in bacteria cell membranes in the vicinity of an oscillating bubble are investigated and cell rupture with respect to these stresses is analyzed.

  1. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  2. A Novel Analysis of Acoustic Oscillations in Chromospheric Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, Teresa; Hill, Frank; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2015-04-01

    A helioseismic analysis of the chromosphere is employed in H-alpha to study how solar flares around active regions affect the behavior of acoustic oscillations. Our analysis deals with flares directly over sunspots, where the region is highly magnetized. In our current study of analyzing these oscillations in the chromosphere we study the temporal evolution of the oscillatory behavior from data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) H-alpha detectors. We investigate the wave behavior across different frequency bands (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). In order to analyze the frequency bands of the oscillations, our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved and temporally evolved around the flare region; thereby creating a movie of each frequency band. This study entails three active regions, directly over sunspots, in which flaring activity is taking place from two solar flares, which occurred on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the oscillations within different frequency bands. A suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures across the total frequency bands and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity. We find that, in the heart of all three regions, the low-frequency power (˜1-2 mHz) is substantially enhanced immediately prior to and after the flare, and that power at all frequencies up to 8 mHz is depleted at flare maximum. This depletion is both frequency and time dependent, which probably reflects the changing depths visible during the flare in the bandpass of the filter. These variations are not observed outside the flaring region. The depletion may indicate that acoustic energy is being converted into thermal energy at flare maximum, while the low-frequency enhancement may arise from an instability in the chromosphere and provide an early warning of the flare onset.

  3. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOEpatents

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  4. Activation of immobilized enzymes by acoustic wave resonance oscillation.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tomoya; Inoue, Yasunobu

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic wave resonance oscillation has been used successfully in the development of methods to activate immobilized enzyme catalysts. In this study, resonance oscillation effects were demonstrated for enzyme reactions on galactose oxidase (GAD), D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), all of which were immobilized covalently on a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) device that could generate thickness-extensional resonance oscillations (TERO) of acoustic waves. For galactose oxidation on immobilized GAD in a microreactor, TERO generation immediately increased enzyme activity 2- to 3-fold. Eliminating TERO caused a slight decrease in the activity, with ∼90% of the enhanced activity retained while the reaction proceeded. Contact of the enhanced enzyme with a galactose-free solution caused almost complete reversion of the activity to the original low level before TERO generation, indicating that, not only TERO-induced GAD activation, but also preservation of the increased activity, required a galactose substrate. Similar activity changes with TERO were observed for enzyme reactions on DAAO and LAAO. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that TERO helped strengthen the interactions of the immobilized enzyme with the reactant substrate and promoted formation of an activation complex. PMID:25442945

  5. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This work also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.

  6. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This workmore » also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.« less

  7. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  8. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  9. MASS-DEPENDENT BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SIGNAL AND HALO BIAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiao; Zhan Hu

    2013-05-10

    We characterize the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) feature in halo two-point statistics using N-body simulations. We find that nonlinear damping of the BAO signal is less severe for halos in the mass range we investigate than for dark matter. The amount of damping depends weakly on the halo mass. The correlation functions show a mass-dependent drop of the halo clustering bias below roughly 90 h {sup -1} Mpc, which coincides with the scale of the BAO trough. The drop of bias is 4% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} and reduces to roughly 2% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. In contrast, halo biases in simulations without BAO change more smoothly around 90 h {sup -1} Mpc. In Fourier space, the bias of M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases smoothly by 11% from wavenumber k = 0.012 h Mpc{sup -1} to 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}, whereas that of M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases by less than 4% over the same range. By comparing the halo biases in pairs of otherwise identical simulations, one with and the other without BAO, we also observe a modulation of the halo bias. These results suggest that precise calibrations of the mass-dependent BAO signal and scale-dependent bias on large scales would be needed for interpreting precise measurements of the two-point statistics of clusters or massive galaxies in the future.

  10. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Vargas, Magda B.

    2013-01-01

    Subscale rocket acoustic data is used to predict acoustic environments for full scale rockets. Over the last several years acoustic data has been collected during horizontal tests of solid rocket motors. Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) was designed to evaluate the acoustics of the SLS vehicle including the liquid engines and solid rocket boosters. SMAT is comprised of liquid thrusters scalable to the Space Shuttle Main engines (SSME) and Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motors scalable to the 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSTMV). Horizontal testing of the liquid thrusters provided an opportunity to collect acoustic data from liquid thrusters to characterize the acoustic environments. Acoustic data was collected during the horizontal firings of a single thruster and a 4-thruster (Quad) configuration. Presentation scope. Discuss the results of the single and 4-thruster acoustic measurements. Compare the measured acoustic levels of the liquid thrusters to the Solid Rocket Test Motor V - Nozzle 2 (SRTMV-N2).

  11. Investigation of micromixing by acoustically oscillated sharp-edges.

    PubMed

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Recently, acoustically oscillated sharp-edges have been utilized to achieve rapid and homogeneous mixing in microchannels. Here, we present a numerical model to investigate acoustic mixing inside a sharp-edge-based micromixer in the presence of a background flow. We extend our previously reported numerical model to include the mixing phenomena by using perturbation analysis and the Generalized Lagrangian Mean (GLM) theory in conjunction with the convection-diffusion equation. We divide the flow variables into zeroth-order, first-order, and second-order variables. This results in three sets of equations representing the background flow, acoustic response, and the time-averaged streaming flow, respectively. These equations are then solved successively to obtain the mean Lagrangian velocity which is combined with the convection-diffusion equation to predict the concentration profile. We validate our numerical model via a comparison of the numerical results with the experimentally obtained values of the mixing index for different flow rates. Further, we employ our model to study the effect of the applied input power and the background flow on the mixing performance of the sharp-edge-based micromixer. We also suggest potential design changes to the previously reported sharp-edge-based micromixer to improve its performance. Finally, we investigate the generation of a tunable concentration gradient by a linear arrangement of the sharp-edge structures inside the microchannel. PMID:27158292

  12. An investigation of thermally driven acoustical oscillations in helium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    The phenomenon of thermal-acoustic oscillation is seen to arise spontaneously in gas columns subjected to steep temperature gradients, particularly in tubes connecting liquid helium reservoirs with the ambient environment. This if often the arrangement for installed cryogenic instrumentation and is accompanied by undesirably large heat transfer rates to the cold region. Experimental data are collected and matched to theoretical predictions of oscillatory behavior; these results are in good agreement with the analytical model and with previously collected data. The present experiment places the open ends of oscillating tubes of the various lengths and cross sections in communication with flowing helium in the subcooled, 2-phase, or superheated state while the other ends are maintained at some controlled, elevated temperature. Assorted cold end conditions are achieved through adjustments to the Fermilab Tevatron satellite test refrigerator to which the test cryostat is connected. The warm, closed ends of the tubes are maintained by isothermal baths of liquid nitrogen, ice water, and boiling water. The method is contrasted to previous arrangements whereby tubes are run from room temperature into or adjacent to a stagnant pool of liquid helium. Additionally, the effect of pulsations in the flowing helium stream is explored through operation of the refrigerator's wet and dry expanders during data collection. These data confirm the theory to which try were compared and support its use in the design of cryogenic sensing lines for avoidance of thermoacoustic oscillation.

  13. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    SciTech Connect

    Backhouse, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δmatm2 and sin2atm). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of vμ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the vμ-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the vμ-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm2 = 2.32-0.08+0.12 x 10-3 eV2, sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3eV2, sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86-0.12_0.11

  14. Surface acoustic BLOCH oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling in a solid.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M M; Kosevich, Yu A; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2010-04-23

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry. PMID:20482064

  15. Effects of acoustic wave resonance oscillation on immobilized enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tomoya; Inoue, Yasunobu

    2014-03-01

    In aiming at developing a new method to artificially activate enzyme catalysts immobilized on surface, the effects of resonance oscillation of bulk acoustic waves were studied. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized by a covalent coupling method on a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) device that was able to generate thickness-extensional resonance oscillation (TERO). Glucose oxidation by the GOD enzyme was studied in a microreactor. The generation of TERO immediately increased the catalytic activity of immobilized GOD by a factor of 2-3. With turn-off of TERO, no significant activity decrease occurred, and 80-90% of the enhanced activity was maintained while the reaction proceeded. The almost complete reversion of the activity to the original low level before TERO generation was observed when the immobilized GOD was exposed to a glucose substrate-free solution. These results indicated that the presence of glucose substrate was essential for TERO-induced GOD activation and preservation of the increased activity level. The influences of reaction temperature, glucose concentration, pH, and rf electric power on the TERO activation showed that TERO strengthened the interactions of the immobilized enzyme with glucose substrate and hence promoted the formation of an activation complex.

  16. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow. PMID:26986279

  17. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  18. Permeability determination through NMR detection of acoustically induced fluid oscillation.

    PubMed

    Looyestijn, Wim J; Smits, Robert M M; Abu-Shiekah, Issa; Kuvshinov, Boris; Hofman, Jan P; Schwing, Alex

    2006-11-01

    We present a novel approach for directly measuring the permeability of reservoir rocks by an instrument lowered in a well bore. The measurement is made by creating an oscillatory motion of fluids in the pores by acoustic stimulation and by detecting the amplitude response as a phase shift on a nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation signal. A full theoretical description is given. The feasibility of the method has been verified in the laboratory on a set of sandstone and carbonate samples spanning the entire range of practical interest. PMID:17071341

  19. Acoustic levitator for containerless measurements on low temperature liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, Richard; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Rey, Charles A A

    2009-01-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops at temperatures from -40 to +40 C. The levitator consisted of: (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) a acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of ~ 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated using a frequency generator to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  20. Acoustic levitator for structure measurements on low temperature liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Rey, C A; Neuefeind, J; Benmore, C J

    2009-08-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops of 1-3 mm in diameter at temperatures in the range -40 to +40 degrees C. The levitator comprised (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) an acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1 kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels of up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids. PMID:19725664

  1. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  2. Isocurvature modes and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations II: gains from combining CMB and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia E-mail: anna.mangilli@icc.ub.edu

    2011-09-01

    We consider cosmological parameters estimation in the presence of a non-zero isocurvature contribution in the primordial perturbations. A previous analysis showed that even a tiny amount of isocurvature perturbation, if not accounted for, could affect standard rulers calibration from Cosmic Microwave Background observations such as those provided by the Planck mission, affect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations interpretation, and introduce biases in the recovered dark energy properties that are larger than forecasted statistical errors from future surveys. Extending on this work, here we adopt a general fiducial cosmology which includes a varying dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature. Beside Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements, we include the information from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum and consider a joint analysis of a Planck-like Cosmic Microwave Background probe and a future, space-based, Large Scale Structure probe not too dissimilar from recently proposed surveys. We find that this allows one to break the degeneracies that affect the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations combination. As a result, most of the cosmological parameter systematic biases arising from an incorrect assumption on the isocurvature fraction parameter f{sub iso}, become negligible with respect to the statistical errors. We find that the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure combination gives a statistical error σ(f{sub iso}) ∼ 0.008, even when curvature and a varying dark energy equation of state are included, which is smaller that the error obtained from Cosmic Microwave Background alone when flatness and cosmological constant are assumed. These results confirm the synergy and complementarity between Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure, and the great potential of future and planned galaxy surveys.

  3. High frequency stability oscillator for surface acoustic wave-based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; He, Shitang; Li, Shunzhou; Pan, Yong

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a 158 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator used for a gas sensor. As the oscillator element, a SAW delay line on ST-X quartz substrate with low insertion loss (<8 dB) and single mode selection capability was developed. Low insertion loss was achieved by an electrode width control single phase unidirectional transducer (EWC/SPUDT) configuration. Single mode selection was simply accomplished by a comb transducer which is a means of combining the frequency selectivity of two interdigital transducers (IDTs). Coupling of modes (COM) simulation was performed to predict device performance prior to fabrication. The measured frequency response S12 showed a good agreement with simulated results. The effect of the oscillator circuit system temperature shift upon frequency stability was observed in detail. The experimental results showed that the baseline noise was typically up to ~0.7 × 10-7 in a laboratory environment with temperature control. The oscillator was successfully applied to a gas sensor coated self-assembled composite monolayer as a sensor material for dimethyl-methyl-phosphonate (DMMP). The sensitivity for low DMMP concentration detection was evaluated as ~25 Hz mg-1 m-3, and the threshold detection limit was up to 0.5 mg m-3.

  4. Acoustic measurement of the surface tension of levitated drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Marston, P. L.; Robey, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement of the frequency of the fundamental mode of shape oscillation of acoustically levitated drops has been carried out to determine the surface tension of the drop material. Sound fields of about 20 kHz in frequency allow the suspension of drops a few millimeters in size, as well as the necessary drive for oscillations. The surface tension of water, hexadecane, silicone oil, and aqueous solutions of glycerin levitated in air has been measured, and the results have been compared with those obtained with standard ring tensiometry. The two sets of data are in good agreement, the largest discrepancy being about 10 percent. Uncertainties in the effects of the nonspherical static shape of drops levitated in the earth's gravitational field and the rotation state of the sample are the major contributors to the experimental error. A decrease of the resonance frequency of the fundamental mode indicates a soft nonlinearity as the oscillation amplitude increases.

  5. Acoustic measurement of the surface tension of levitated drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Marston, P. L.; Robey, J. L.

    1988-07-01

    The measurement of the frequency of the fundamental mode of shape oscillation of acoustically levitated drops has been carried out to determine the surface tension of the drop material. Sound fields of about 20 kHz in frequency allow the suspension of drops a few millimeters in size, as well as the necessary drive for oscillations. The surface tension of water, hexadecane, silicone oil, and aqueous solutions of glycerin levitated in air has been measured, and the results have been compared with those obtained with standard ring tensiometry. The two sets of data are in good agreement, the largest discrepancy being about 10 percent. Uncertainties in the effects of the nonspherical static shape of drops levitated in the earth's gravitational field and the rotation state of the sample are the major contributors to the experimental error. A decrease of the resonance frequency of the fundamental mode indicates a soft nonlinearity as the oscillation amplitude increases.

  6. Motion measurement of acoustically levitated object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A system is described for determining motion of an object that is acoustically positioned in a standing wave field in a chamber. Sonic energy in the chamber is sensed, and variation in the amplitude of the sonic energy is detected, which is caused by linear motion, rotational motion, or drop shape oscillation of the object. Apparatus for detecting object motion can include a microphone coupled to the chamber and a low pass filter connected to the output of the microphone, which passes only frequencies below the frequency of sound produced by a transducer that maintains the acoustic standing wave field. Knowledge about object motion can be useful by itself, can be useful to determine surface tension, viscosity, and other information about the object, and can be useful to determine the pressure and other characteristics of the acoustic field.

  7. The Rhythm of Perception: Acoustic Rhythmic Entrainment Induces Subsequent Perceptual Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory; Farahbod, Haleh; Saberi, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic rhythms are pervasive in speech, music, and environmental sounds. Evidence for neural codes representing periodic information has recently emerged, which seem a likely neural basis for the ability to detect rhythm and rhythmic information has been found to modulate auditory system excitability, providing a potential mechanism for parsing the acoustic stream. Here we explore the effects of a previous rhythmic stimulus on subsequent auditory perception. We found that a low-frequency (3 Hz) amplitute modulated signal induces a subsequent oscillation of perceptual detectability of a brief non-periodic acoustic stimulus (1 kHz tone); the frequency but not phase of the perceptual oscillation matches the entrained stimulus-driven rhythmic oscillation. This provides evidence that rhythmic contexts have a direct influence on subsequent auditory perception of discrete acoustic events. Rhythm coding is likely a fundamental feature of auditory system design that predates the development of explicit human enjoyment of rhythm in music or poetry. PMID:25968248

  8. The Rhythm of Perception: Entrainment to Acoustic Rhythms Induces Subsequent Perceptual Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory; Farahbod, Haleh; Saberi, Kourosh

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic rhythms are pervasive in speech, music, and environmental sounds. Recent evidence for neural codes representing periodic information suggests that they may be a neural basis for the ability to detect rhythm. Further, rhythmic information has been found to modulate auditory-system excitability, which provides a potential mechanism for parsing the acoustic stream. Here, we explored the effects of a rhythmic stimulus on subsequent auditory perception. We found that a low-frequency (3 Hz), amplitude-modulated signal induces a subsequent oscillation of the perceptual detectability of a brief nonperiodic acoustic stimulus (1-kHz tone); the frequency but not the phase of the perceptual oscillation matches the entrained stimulus-driven rhythmic oscillation. This provides evidence that rhythmic contexts have a direct influence on subsequent auditory perception of discrete acoustic events. Rhythm coding is likely a fundamental feature of auditory-system design that predates the development of explicit human enjoyment of rhythm in music or poetry. PMID:25968248

  9. The location of the source of high-frequency solar acoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pawan; Lu, Edward )

    1991-07-01

    Recently Libbrecht and Jefferies et al. have reported regular peaks in the solar oscillation power spectrum extending well above 5.3 mHz, the maximum frequency of trapped acoustic modes. Kumar et al. argued that these peaks are primarily due to the interference of traveling waves which are excited due to acoustic emission from turbulent convection. In contrast with the standing wave P-mode frequencies below 5.3 mHz, the positions of the high-frequency interference peaks (HIPs) are dependent on the location of the source of the acoustic oscillations. In the present work, Kumar et al.'s argument is strengthened, and more importantly, use is made of the above dependence to determine the acoustic source strength as a function of depth. It is found that the acoustic source profile, and thus the convective velocity, is peaked about 200 km deeper than what is expected from standard mixing length theory. 13 refs.

  10. Directional acoustic measurements by laser Doppler velocimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Overbey, R. L.; Testerman, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDVs) are used as velocity microphones to measure sound pressure level in the range from 90 to 130 dB, spectral components, and two-point correlation functions for acoustic-noise source identification. Close agreement between LDV and microphone data is observed. Directional sensitivity and the ability to measure remotely make LDVs useful tools for acoustic measurement where placement of any physical probe is difficult or undesirable, as in the diagnosis of jet noise.

  11. Measuring the acoustic response of Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Quarthal, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Many experiments have been proposed to investigate acoustic phenomena in college and early undergraduate levels, in particular the speed of sound,1-9 by means of different methods, such as time of flight, transit time, or resonance in tubes. In this paper we propose to measure the acoustic response curves of a glass beaker filled with different gases, used as an acoustic resonator. We show that these curves expose many interesting peaks and features, one of which matches the resonance peak predicted for a Helmholtz resonator fairly well, and gives a decent estimate for the speed of sound in some cases. The measures are obtained thanks to the capabilities of smartphones.

  12. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  13. Rotating Microphone Rake Measures Spinning Acoustic Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.

    1996-01-01

    Rotating rake of pressure transducers developed for use in experimental studies of sources and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. Pressure transducers used as microphones to measure acoustic modes generated by, and spin with, fans. Versatility of control software used in rake-drive system enables measurements of acoustic modes on wide range of test-engine configurations. Rake-drive hardware easily adapted to different engines because not mechanically coupled to engine under test.

  14. Shape oscillations of acoustically levitated drops in water: Early research with Bob Apfel on modulated radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2001-05-01

    In 1976, research in collaboration with Bob Apfel demonstrated that low-frequency shape oscillations of hydrocarbon drops levitated in water could be driven using modulated radiation pressure. While that response to modulated ultrasound was subsequently extended to a range of systems, the emphasis here is to recall the initial stages of development in Bob Apfel's laboratory leading to some publications [P. L. Marston and R. E. Apfel, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68, 280-286 (1979); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 27-37 (1980)]. The levitation technology used at that time was such that it was helpful to develop a sensitive method for detecting weak oscillations using the interference pattern in laser light scattered by levitated drops. The initial experiments to verify this scattering method used shape oscillations induced by modulated electric fields within the acoustic levitator. Light scattering was subsequently used to detect shape oscillations induced by amplitude modulating a carrier having a high frequency (around 680 kHz) at a resonance of the transducer. Methods were also developed for quantitative measurements of the drop's response and with improved acoustic coupling drop fission was observed. The connection with research currently supported by NASA will also be noted.

  15. Prediction of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the CLAES solid CO2/neon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, I. E.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a study initiated to investigate the possibility that the existence of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the Cryogenic Limb Atmospheric Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) neon plumbing system ground configuration could be the cause of higher-than-predicted heat rates measured during thermal ground testing. Tests were conducted between warm boundary temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 K, which simulated the actual test conditions of the CLAES CO2/neon system. TAOs were observed between 6 and 106 Torr, which agreed with the analytical predictions, and verified the possible existence of TAOs in the CLAES system during ground testing. The presence of TAOs was eventually confirmed in the CLAES system during a subsequent thermal test and were determined to have caused the higher heat rates measured during the prior thermal test.

  16. A cross-check for H0 from Lyman-α Forest and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busti, V. C.; Guimarães, R. N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed to infer the Hubble constant H0 through the observed mean transmitted flux from high-redshift quasars and the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). A semi-analytical model for the cosmological-independent volume density distribution function was adopted; it allowed us to obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters once a moderate knowledge of the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) parameters is assumed. Our analysis, based on two different samples of Lyman-α forest and the BAO measurement, restricts (h, Ωm) to the intervals 0.19 ≤ Ωm ≤ 0.23 and 0.53 ≤ h ≤ 0.82 (1σ). Although the constraints are weaker compared with other estimates, we point out that, with a bigger sample and a better knowledge of the IGM, this method could provide complementary results to measure the Hubble constant independently of the cosmic distance ladder.

  17. Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.

    2006-01-31

    We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.

  18. Impact of Neutrino Oscillation Measurements on Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-30

    Neutrino oscillation data had been a big surprise to theorists, and indeed they have ongoing impact on theory. I review what the impact has been, and what measurements will have critical impact on theory in the future.

  19. Quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS DR11: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael; Busca, Nicolas; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian; Ross, Nicholas P.; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Carithers, Bill; Slosar, Anže; Rich, James; Delubac, Timothée; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight c/(H(z = 2.36)r{sub s}) = 9.0±0.3 and across the line of sight D{sub A}(z = 2.36)/r{sub s} = 10.8±0.4, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data (r{sub s} = 147.49 Mpc), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of H(z = 2.36) = 226±8 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} and of the angular diameter distance of D{sub A}(z = 2.36) = 1590±60 Mpc. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.

  20. Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

  1. Numerical investigation of amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials with nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Manimala, James M; Sun, C T

    2016-06-01

    The amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials having nonlinear local oscillator microstructures is studied using numerical simulations on representative discrete mass-spring models. Both cubically nonlinear hardening and softening local oscillator cases are considered. Single frequency, bi-frequency, and wave packet excitations at low and high amplitude levels were used to interrogate the models. The propagation and attenuation characteristics of harmonic waves in a tunable frequency range is found to correspond to the amplitude and nonlinearity-dependent shifts in the local resonance bandgap for such nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. A predominant shift in the propagated wave spectrum towards lower frequencies is observed. Moreover, the feasibility of amplitude and frequency-dependent selective filtering of composite signals consisting of individual frequency components which fall within propagating or attenuating regimes is demonstrated. Further enrichment of these wave manipulation mechanisms in acoustic metamaterials using different combinations of nonlinear microstructures presents device implications for acoustic filters and waveguides. PMID:27369163

  2. Quantum nondemolition measurements of harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Caves, C. M.; Zimmermann, M.; Sandberg, V. D.; Drever, R. W. P.

    1978-01-01

    Measuring systems to determine the real component of the complex amplitude of a harmonic oscillator are described. This amplitude is constant in the absence of driving forces, and the uncertainty principle accounts for the fact that only the real component can be measured precisely and continuously ('quantum nondemolition measurement'). Application of the measuring systems to the detection of gravitational waves is considered.

  3. The BOSS-WiggleZ overlap region - I. Baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Koda, Jun; Marín, Felipe A.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the large-scale clustering of galaxies in the overlap region of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS sample and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We calculate the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions in the overlap region of the two data sets and detect a Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal in each of them. The BAO measurement from the cross-correlation function represents the first such detection between two different galaxy surveys. After applying density-field reconstruction we report distance-scale measurements D_V r_s^fid / r_s = (1970 ± 45, 2132 ± 65, 2100 ± 200) Mpc from CMASS, the cross-correlation and WiggleZ, respectively. The distance scales derived from the two data sets are consistent, and are also robust against switching the displacement fields used for reconstruction between the two surveys. We use correlated mock realizations to calculate the covariance between the three BAO constraints. This approach can be used to construct a correlation matrix, permitting for the first time a rigorous combination of WiggleZ and CMASS BAO measurements. Using a volume-scaling technique, our result can also be used to combine WiggleZ and future CMASS DR12 results. Finally, we show that the relative velocity effect, a possible source of systematic uncertainty for the BAO technique, is consistent with zero for our samples.

  4. Acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1990-01-01

    A discharge-measurement system that uses a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler has been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey. Discharge measurements using the system require a fraction of the time needed for conventional current-meter discharge measurements and do not require shore-based navigational aids or tag lines for positioning the vessel.

  5. Drag Measurements of Porous Plate Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of direct drag measurements on a variety of porous plate acoustic liners. The existing literature describes numerous studies of drag on porous walls with injection or suction, but relatively few of drag on porous plates with neither injection nor suction. Furthermore, the porosity of the porous plate in existing studies is much lower than typically used in acoustic liners. In the present work, the acoustic liners consisted of a perforated face sheet covering a bulk acoustic absorber material. Factors that were varied in the experiment were hole diameter, hole pattern, face sheet thickness, bulk material type, and size of the gap (if any) between the face sheet and the absorber material.

  6. Solar oscillations instrumentation and measurement theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appourchaux, T.

    1988-01-01

    Solar-oscillation instruments are reviewed. Common characteristics include detecting solar radial velocities on Fraunhofer lines with a 2-point measuring technique, high spectral resolution and stability, etc. The choice of the spectral line for getting a high signal to solar noise ratio is addressed. Velocity imaging of solar oscillations modes is detailed, including spatial sampling and span, highest observable degree. Applications of these different analyses is applied to existing or future helioseismology instruments.

  7. First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background.

    PubMed

    Follin, Brent; Knox, Lloyd; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-08-28

    The unimpeded relativistic propagation of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum. PMID:26371637

  8. Measuring Acoustic-Radiation Stresses in Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    System measures nonlinearity parameters of materials. Uses static strain generated by acoustic wave propagating in material. Since static strain is effectively "dc" component of waveform distortion, problems associated with phase-cancellation artifacts disappear. Further, sign of nonlinearity parameter obtained by simple inspection of measured signal polarity. These features make this system very amenable to use in field. System expected to become standard for acoustic-radiation-stress measurements for solids and liquids and for characterization of material properties related to strength and residual or applied stresses. Also expected to become standard for transducer calibration.

  9. Redshift weights for baryon acoustic oscillations: application to mock galaxy catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fangzhou; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Ross, Ashley J.; Zhao, Gongbo

    2016-09-01

    Large redshift surveys capable of measuring the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal have proven to be an effective way of measuring the distance-redshift relation in cosmology. Building off the work in Zhu et al., we develop a technique to directly constrain the distance-redshift relation from BAO measurements without splitting the sample into redshift bins. We apply the redshift weighting technique in Zhu et al. to the clustering of galaxies from 1000 Quick particle mesh (QPM) mock simulations after reconstruction and achieve a 0.75 per cent measurement of the angular diameter distance DA at z = 0.64 and the same precision for Hubble parameter H at z = 0.29. These QPM mock catalogues mimic the clustering and noise level of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (DR12). We compress the correlation functions in the redshift direction on to a set of weighted correlation functions. These estimators give unbiased DA and H measurements across the entire redshift range of the combined sample. We demonstrate the effectiveness of redshift weighting in improving the distance and Hubble parameter estimates. Instead of measuring at a single `effective' redshift as in traditional analyses, we report our DA and H measurements at all redshifts. The measured fractional error of DA ranges from 1.53 per cent at z = 0.2 to 0.75 per cent at z = 0.64. The fractional error of H ranges from 0.75 per cent at z = 0.29 to 2.45 per cent at z = 0.7. Our measurements are consistent with a Fisher forecast to within 10-20 per cent depending on the pivot redshift. We further show the results are robust against the choice of fiducial cosmologies, galaxy bias models, and redshift-space distortions streaming parameters.

  10. Measurement of complex acoustic intensity in an acoustic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenbo; Kirby, Ray; Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill V

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic intensity is normally treated as a real quantity, but in recent years, many articles have appeared in which intensity is treated as a complex quantity where the real (active) part is related to local mean energy flow and the imaginary (reactive) part to local oscillatory transport of energy. This offers the potential to recover additional information about a sound field and then to relate this to the properties of the sound source and the environment that surrounds it. However, this approach is applicable only to multi-modal sound fields, which places significant demands on the accuracy of the intensity measurements. Accordingly, this article investigates the accuracy of complex intensity measurements obtained using a tri-axial Microflown intensity probe by comparing measurement and prediction for sound propagation in an open flanged pipe. Under plane wave conditions, comparison between prediction and experiment reveals good agreement, but when a higher order mode is present, the reactive intensity field becomes complicated and agreement is less successful. It is concluded that the potential application of complex intensity as a diagnostic tool is limited by difficulties in measuring reactive intensity in complex sound fields when using current state of the art acoustic instrumentation. PMID:24180778

  11. The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Broadband and Broad-beam Array: Design Overview and Sensitivity Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; DeBoer, David R.; McDonald, Patrick; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E.; Ali, Zaki; Bradley, Richard F.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Morales, Miguel F.

    2013-03-01

    This work describes a new instrument optimized for a detection of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm power spectrum between redshifts of 0.5 and 1.5: the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Broadband and Broad-beam (BAOBAB) array. BAOBAB will build on the efforts of a first generation of 21 cm experiments that are targeting a detection of the signal from the Epoch of Reionization at z ~ 10. At z ~ 1, the emission from neutral hydrogen in self-shielded overdense halos also presents an accessible signal, since the dominant, synchrotron foreground emission is considerably fainter than at redshift 10. The principle science driver for these observations are baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum which have the potential to act as a standard ruler and constrain the nature of dark energy. BAOBAB will fully correlate dual-polarization antenna tiles over the 600-900 MHz band with a frequency resolution of 300 kHz and a system temperature of 50 K. The number of antennas will grow in staged deployments, and reconfigurations of the array will allow for both traditional imaging and high power spectrum sensitivity operations. We present calculations of the power spectrum sensitivity for various array sizes, with a 35 element array measuring the cosmic neutral hydrogen fraction as a function of redshift, and a 132 element system detecting the BAO features in the power spectrum, yielding a 1.8% error on the z ~ 1 distance scale, and, in turn, significant improvements to constraints on the dark energy equation of state over an unprecedented range of redshifts from ~0.5 to 1.5.

  12. Coherent acoustic phonon oscillation accompanied with backward acoustic pulse below exciton resonance in a ZnO epifilm on oxide-buffered Si(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Liu, Wei-Rein; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump–probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator.

  13. Acoustic particle palpation for measuring tissue elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Koruk, Hasan; El Ghamrawy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We propose acoustic particle palpation—the use of sound to press a population of acoustic particles against an interface—as a method for measuring the qualitative and quantitative mechanical properties of materials. We tested the feasibility of this method by emitting ultrasound pulses across a tunnel of an elastic material filled with microbubbles. Ultrasound stimulated the microbubble cloud to move in the direction of wave propagation, press against the distal surface, and cause deformations relevant for elasticity measurements. Shear waves propagated away from the palpation site with a velocity that was used to estimate the material's Young's modulus. PMID:26869723

  14. Acoustic particle palpation for measuring tissue elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koruk, Hasan; El Ghamrawy, Ahmed; Pouliopoulos, Antonios N.; Choi, James J.

    2015-11-01

    We propose acoustic particle palpation—the use of sound to press a population of acoustic particles against an interface—as a method for measuring the qualitative and quantitative mechanical properties of materials. We tested the feasibility of this method by emitting ultrasound pulses across a tunnel of an elastic material filled with microbubbles. Ultrasound stimulated the microbubble cloud to move in the direction of wave propagation, press against the distal surface, and cause deformations relevant for elasticity measurements. Shear waves propagated away from the palpation site with a velocity that was used to estimate the material's Young's modulus.

  15. Numerical simulation of thermal acoustic oscillations in a liquid helium system

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Youfan; Timmerhaus, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    Thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) can generally be described by the general hydrodynamic equations for flow processes. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms associated with TAOs requires a full solution of these equations. However, the complexity of these equations make an analytical solution for TAOs essentially impossible. Accordingly, a numerical method has been employed to simulate the oscillation process. A combination of the finite difference and finite element method has been found to be most effective in simulating the oscillation process. Simulated oscillation results match the experimental observations with reasonable accuracy. Detailed axial pressure distribution, axial mean gas velocity and radial temperature gradient in an oscillation tube have been obtained and are included in this study.

  16. Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Phillips, D. B.; Barnes, A. C.

    2014-04-21

    Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5 μm silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8 MHz standing wave, λ = 220 μm, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2 nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

  17. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  18. Helioseismology and asteroseismology: looking for gravitational waves in acoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-10-10

    Current helioseismology observations allow the determination of the frequencies and surface velocity amplitudes of solar acoustic modes with exceptionally high precision. In some cases, the frequency accuracy is better than one part in a million. We show that there is a distinct possibility that quadrupole acoustic modes of low order could be excited by gravitational waves (GWs), if the GWs have a strain amplitude in the range 10{sup –20} h {sub –20} with h {sub –20} ∼ 1 or h {sub –20} ∼ 10{sup 3}, as predicted by several types of GW sources, such as galactic ultracompact binaries or extreme mass ratio inspirals and coalescence of black holes. If the damping rate at low order is 10{sup –3}η {sub N} μHz, with η {sub N} ∼ 10{sup –3}-1, as inferred from the theory of stellar pulsations, then GW radiation will lead to a maximum rms surface velocity amplitude of quadrupole modes of the order of h{sub −20}η{sub N}{sup −1}∼ 10{sup –9}-10{sup –3} cm s{sup –1}, on the verge of what is currently detectable via helioseismology. The frequency and sensitivity range probed by helioseismological acoustic modes overlap with, and complement, the capabilities of eLISA for the brightest resolved ultracompact galactic binaries.

  19. Helioseismology and Asteroseismology: Looking for Gravitational Waves in Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Current helioseismology observations allow the determination of the frequencies and surface velocity amplitudes of solar acoustic modes with exceptionally high precision. In some cases, the frequency accuracy is better than one part in a million. We show that there is a distinct possibility that quadrupole acoustic modes of low order could be excited by gravitational waves (GWs), if the GWs have a strain amplitude in the range 10-20 h -20 with h -20 ~ 1 or h -20 ~ 103, as predicted by several types of GW sources, such as galactic ultracompact binaries or extreme mass ratio inspirals and coalescence of black holes. If the damping rate at low order is 10-3η N μHz, with η N ~ 10-3-1, as inferred from the theory of stellar pulsations, then GW radiation will lead to a maximum rms surface velocity amplitude of quadrupole modes of the order of h_{-20}\\eta _N^{-1}\\sim 10-9-10-3 cm s-1, on the verge of what is currently detectable via helioseismology. The frequency and sensitivity range probed by helioseismological acoustic modes overlap with, and complement, the capabilities of eLISA for the brightest resolved ultracompact galactic binaries.

  20. Acoustic measurements of clay-size particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of sediment concentration is important in the study of streams and rivers. The work presented explores using high frequency (20 MHz) acoustic signal attenuation to measure the concentration of fine sediment particles (0.2-5.0 microns) in a fluvial environment. A small laboratory tank with...

  1. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  2. Surface area measurement utilizing an acoustic bridge

    PubMed

    Torigoe; Ishii

    2000-05-01

    A new method is proposed for measuring the surface area of an object. The acoustic conductance of a cavity is proportional to the surface area of the cavity inner wall. The surface area of an object thus can be known from the measurement of the acoustic impedance of a chamber in which the object is placed. In order to measure the acoustic impedance accurately; the proposed method employs the acoustic bridge technique. The experimental device is composed of the following elements so arranged that their electric equivalents form a bridge circuit: a measuring chamber in which an object under test is placed and whose volume can be adjusted; a reference chamber whose inner surface area can be varied; a loudspeaker (the signal source) mounted between the two chambers; and a bypass channel at the midpoint of which a microphone (the null detector) is installed. This bridge balances when the volume and the inner surface area of each chamber become equal. The surface area of the object can then be known from the inner surface area of the reference chamber. Several experiments were performed with this device and the success of the proposed method was verified. PMID:10830378

  3. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  4. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Mercè; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk. PMID:22163891

  5. Angular oscillation of solid scatterers in response to progressive planar acoustic waves: do fish otoliths rock?

    PubMed

    Krysl, Petr; Hawkins, Anthony D; Schilt, Carl; Cranford, Ted W

    2012-01-01

    Fish can sense a wide variety of sounds by means of the otolith organs of the inner ear. Among the incompletely understood components of this process are the patterns of movement of the otoliths vis-à-vis fish head or whole-body movement. How complex are the motions? How does the otolith organ respond to sounds from different directions and frequencies? In the present work we examine the responses of a dense rigid scatterer (representing the otolith) suspended in an acoustic fluid to low-frequency planar progressive acoustic waves. A simple mechanical model, which predicts both translational and angular oscillation, is formulated. The responses of simple shapes (sphere and hemisphere) are analyzed with an acoustic finite element model. The hemispherical scatterer is found to oscillate both in the direction of the propagation of the progressive waves and also in the plane of the wavefront as a result of angular motion. The models predict that this characteristic will be shared by other irregularly-shaped scatterers, including fish otoliths, which could provide the fish hearing mechanisms with an additional component of oscillation and therefore one more source of acoustical cues. PMID:22912710

  6. Angular Oscillation of Solid Scatterers in Response to Progressive Planar Acoustic Waves: Do Fish Otoliths Rock?

    PubMed Central

    Krysl, Petr; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Schilt, Carl; Cranford, Ted W.

    2012-01-01

    Fish can sense a wide variety of sounds by means of the otolith organs of the inner ear. Among the incompletely understood components of this process are the patterns of movement of the otoliths vis-à-vis fish head or whole-body movement. How complex are the motions? How does the otolith organ respond to sounds from different directions and frequencies? In the present work we examine the responses of a dense rigid scatterer (representing the otolith) suspended in an acoustic fluid to low-frequency planar progressive acoustic waves. A simple mechanical model, which predicts both translational and angular oscillation, is formulated. The responses of simple shapes (sphere and hemisphere) are analyzed with an acoustic finite element model. The hemispherical scatterer is found to oscillate both in the direction of the propagation of the progressive waves and also in the plane of the wavefront as a result of angular motion. The models predict that this characteristic will be shared by other irregularly-shaped scatterers, including fish otoliths, which could provide the fish hearing mechanisms with an additional component of oscillation and therefore one more source of acoustical cues. PMID:22912710

  7. Acoustic measurements of gas density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Sound transmission through gases in an enclosure is considered. Analytical results are given in terms of geometrical parameters, wave numbers, and source type for simple model problems, and are compared with data obtained by Haran (1983). It is concluded that density measurements can be made in a gas contained in an enclosure by measuring the sound pressure level at a receiver located near a dipole source driven at a constant velocity amplitude at low frequencies.

  8. Optimizing baryon acoustic oscillation surveys - II. Curvature, redshifts and external data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Vardanyan, Mihran

    2010-02-01

    We extend our study of the optimization of large baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys to return the best constraints on the dark energy, building on Paper I of this series by Parkinson et al. The survey galaxies are assumed to be pre-selected active, star-forming galaxies observed by their line emission with a constant number density across the redshift bin. Star-forming galaxies have a redshift desert in the region 1.6 < z < 2, and so this redshift range was excluded from the analysis. We use the Seo & Eisenstein fitting formula for the accuracies of the BAO measurements, using only the information for the oscillatory part of the power spectrum as distance and expansion rate rulers. We go beyond our earlier analysis by examining the effect of including curvature on the optimal survey configuration and updating the expected `prior' constraints from Planck and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We once again find that the optimal survey strategy involves minimizing the exposure time and maximizing the survey area (within the instrumental constraints), and that all time should be spent observing in the low-redshift range (z < 1.6) rather than beyond the redshift desert, z > 2. We find that, when assuming a flat universe, the optimal survey makes measurements in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.7, but that including curvature as a nuisance parameter requires us to push the maximum redshift to 1.35, to remove the degeneracy between curvature and evolving dark energy. The inclusion of expected other data sets (such as WiggleZ, the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and a stage III Type Ia supernova survey) removes the necessity of measurements below redshift 0.9, and pushes the maximum redshift up to 1.5. We discuss considerations in determining the best survey strategy in light of uncertainty in the true underlying cosmological model.

  9. Theoretical Estimation of the Acoustic Energy Generation and Absorption Caused by Jet Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Iwagami, Sho; Kobayashi, Taizo; Takami, Toshiya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the energy transfer between the fluid field and acoustic field caused by a jet driven by an acoustic particle velocity field across it, which is the key to understanding the aerodynamic sound generation of flue instruments, such as the recorder, flute, and organ pipe. Howe's energy corollary allows us to estimate the energy transfer between these two fields. For simplicity, we consider the situation such that a free jet is driven by a uniform acoustic particle velocity field across it. We improve the semi-empirical model of the oscillating jet, i.e., exponentially growing jet model, which has been studied in the field of musical acoustics, and introduce a polynomially growing jet model so as to apply Howe's formula to it. It is found that the relative phase between the acoustic oscillation and jet oscillation, which changes with the distance from the flue exit, determines the quantity of the energy transfer between the two fields. The acoustic energy is mainly generated in the downstream area, but it is consumed in the upstream area near the flue exit in driving the jet. This theoretical examination well explains the numerical calculation of Howe's formula for the two-dimensional flue instrument model in our previous work [Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 061411 (2014)] as well as the experimental result of Yoshikawa et al. [J. Sound Vib. 331, 2558 (2012)].

  10. Hunting down systematics in baryon acoustic oscillations after cosmic high noon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, Francisco; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Gottlöber, Stefan; Zhao, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Future dark energy experiments will require accurate theoretical predictions for the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Here, we use large N-body simulations to study any systematic shifts and damping in BAO due to non-linear effects. The impact of cosmic variance is largely reduced by dividing the tracer power spectrum by that from a `BAO-free' simulation starting with the same random amplitudes and phases. The accuracy of our simulations allows us to resolve well dark matter (sub)haloes, which permits us to study with high accuracy (better than 0.02 per cent for dark matter and 0.07 per cent for low-bias haloes) small BAO shifts α towards larger k, and non-linear damping Σnl of BAO in the power spectrum. For dark matter, we provide an accurate parametrization of the evolution of α as a function of the linear growth factor D(z). For halo samples, with bias from 1.2 to 2.8, we measure a typical BAO shift of ≈0.25 per cent, with no appreciable evolution with redshift. Moreover, we report a constant shift as a function of halo bias. We find a different evolution of the BAO damping in all halo samples as compared to dark matter with haloes suffering less damping, and also find some weak dependence on bias. Larger BAO shift and damping are measured in redshift-space, which can be explained by linear theory due to redshift-space distortions. A clear modulation in phase with the acoustic scale is observed in the scale-dependent halo bias due to the presence of BAOs. We compare our results with previous works.

  11. Quantum Ion-Acoustic Oscillations in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Iqbal, Z.; Wazir, Z.; Aman-ur-Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum ion-acoustic oscillations in single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied by employing a quantum hydrodynamics model. The dispersion equation is obtained by Fourier transformation, which exhibits the existence of quantum ion-acoustic wave affected by change of density balance due to presence of positive or negative heavy species as stationary ion clusters and wave potential at equilibrium. The numerical results are presented, and the role of quantum degeneracy, nanotube geometry, electron exchange-correlation effects, and concentration and polarity of heavy species on wave dispersion is pointed out for typical systems of interest.

  12. Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Oscillations Due to Flow Past a Shallow Cavity: Effect of Cavity Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    P. Oshkai; M. Geveci; D. Rockwell; M. Pollack

    2002-12-12

    Flow-acoustic interactions due to fully turbulent inflow past a shallow axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe are investigated using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry in conjunction with unsteady pressure measurements. This imaging leads to patterns of velocity, vorticity, streamline topology, and hydrodynamic contributions to the acoustic power integral. Global instantaneous images, as well as time-averaged images, are evaluated to provide insight into the flow physics during tone generation. Emphasis is on the manner in which the streamwise length scale of the cavity alters the major features of the flow structure. These image-based approaches allow identification of regions of the unsteady shear layer that contribute to the instantaneous hydrodynamic component of the acoustic power, which is necessary to maintain a flow tone. In addition, combined image analysis and pressure measurements allow categorization of the instantaneous flow patterns that are associated with types of time traces and spectra of the fluctuating pressure. In contrast to consideration based solely on pressure spectra, it is demonstrated that locked-on tones may actually exhibit intermittent, non-phase-locked images, apparently due to low damping of the acoustic resonator. Locked-on flow tones (without modulation or intermittency), locked-on flow tones with modulation, and non-locked-on oscillations with short-term, highly coherent fluctuations are defined and represented by selected cases. Depending on which of,these regimes occur, the time-averaged Q (quality)-factor and the dimensionless peak pressure are substantially altered.

  13. Acoustical concept for measuring particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, D.S.; Kaufman, M.

    1981-02-01

    A new concept is investigated for measuring particle size and distribution for air pollution control applications. This study illustrates that the proposed device--the Acoustic Particulate Monitor (APM)--can measure total mass loading, mean particle diameter, and width of particle size distributions on an in-situ basis. The concept for such an instrument is based upon experimental and theoretical observations that the presence of dust in air causes a reduction in the speed of sound as a function of the transmitted frequency. These percentage reductions in the speed of sound are small and the research results illustrate how the accompanying shift in the acoustical phase is a highly sensitive method for detecting such effects. The magnitudes of the phase shift are related to mass loading. The frequency associated with the maximum phase shift is defined as the acoustic frequency, fA. Experimentally determining fA provides a measure of the mean particle size of the distribution. The detailed shape of the phase shift as a function of frequency is a measure of the spread in the size distribution of the entrained particulate. Experiments were performed using several configurations. Results were verified using direct mass measurements and microphotographs.

  14. Driven acoustic oscillations within a vertical magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Cally, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a vertical magnetic field on p-mode frequencies, line widths, and eigenfunctions, are examined. A solar model, consisting of a neutrally stable polytropic interior matched to an isothermal chromosphere, is applied. The p-modes are produced by a spatially distributed driver. The atmosphere is threaded by a constant vertical magnetic field. The frequency shifts due to the vertical magnetic field are found to be much smaller than the shifts caused by horizontal fields of similar strength. A large vertical field of 2000 G produces shifts of several nHz. It is found that the frequency shifts decrease with increasing frequency and increase with field strength. The coupling of the acoustic fast mode to the escaping slow modes is inefficient. Constant vertical magnetic field models are therefore incapable of explaining the high level of absorption observed in sunspots and plage.

  15. Acoustic vs Interferometric Measurements of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Erives, H.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Jensen, D.; Morris, K.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer of 2015 we acquired acoustic and RF data on severalflashes from thunderstorms over Fort Morgan CO. and Langmuir Laboratoryin the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico. The acoustic arrayswere located at a distance of roughly 150 m from the interferometers.Lightning mapping array and slow antenna data were also obtained. Theacoustic arrays consist of arrays of five audio-range and six infrasoundmicrophones operating at 50 KHz and 1 KHz respectively. The lightninginterferometer at Fort Morgan CO. consists of three flat-plate, 13" diameterantennas at the vertices of an equilateral 50 m per side triangle. Theinterferometer at Langmuir Laboratory consists of three 13" dishes separatedby about 15 m. Both interferometers, operating at 180 Megasamples persecond, use the analysis software and digitizer hardware pioneered byStanley, Stock et al. The high data rate allows for excellent spatialresolution of high speed (and typically high current) processes such asK-changes, return strokes and dart-leaders. In previous studies, we haveshown the usefulness of acoustic recordings to locate thunder sources aswell as infrasound pulses from lightning. This work will present acomparison of Acoustic and Interferometric measurements from lightning,using some interesting flashes, including a positive cloud to ground,that occurred in these campaigns.

  16. Antineutrinos from nuclear reactors: recent oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-made source of antineutrinos, providing a useful tool for the study of these particles. Oscillation due to the neutrino mixing angle {{θ }13} is revealed by the disappearance of reactor {{\\bar{ν }}e} over ˜km distances. Use of additional identical detectors located near nuclear reactors reduce systematic uncertainties related to reactor {{\\bar{ν }}e} emission and detector efficiency, significantly improving the sensitivity of oscillation measurements. The Double Chooz, RENO, and Daya Bay experiments set out in search of {{θ }13} using these techniques. All three experiments have recently observed reactor {{\\bar{ν }}e} disappearance, and have estimated values for {{θ }13} of 9.3◦ ± 2.1°, 9.2◦ ± 0.9°, and 8.7◦ ± 0.4° respectively. The energy-dependence of {{\\bar{ν }}e} disappearance has also allowed measurement of the effective neutrino mass difference, \\mid Δ mee2\\mid ≈ \\mid Δ m312\\mid . Comparison with \\mid Δ mμ μ 2\\mid ≈ \\mid Δ m322\\mid from accelerator {{ν }μ } measurements supports the three-flavor model of neutrino oscillation. The current generation of reactor {{\\bar{ν }}e} experiments are expected to reach ˜3% precision in both {{θ }13} and \\mid Δ mee2\\mid . Precise knowledge of these parameters aids interpretation of planned {{ν }μ } measurements, and allows future experiments to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP-violation in neutrino oscillation. Absolute measurements of the energy spectra of {{\\bar{ν }}e} deviate from existing models of reactor emission, particularly in the range of 5-7 MeV.

  17. Model-independent dark energy equation of state from unanchored baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evslin, Jarah

    2016-09-01

    Ratios of line of sight baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peaks at two redshifts only depend upon the average dark energy equation of states between those redshifts, as the dependence on anchors such as the BAO scale or the Hubble constant is canceled in a ratio. As a result, BAO ratios provide a probe of dark energy which is independent of both the cosmic distance ladder and the early evolution of universe. In this note, we use ratios to demonstrate that the known tension between the Lyman alpha forest BAO measurement and other probes arises entirely from recent (0.57 < z < 2.34) cosmological expansion. Using ratios of the line of sight Lyman alpha forest and BOSS CMASS BAO scales, we show that there is already more than 3 σ tension with the standard ΛCDM cosmological model which implies that either (i) The BOSS Lyman alpha forest measurement of the Hubble parameter was too low as a result of a statistical fluctuation or systematic error or else (ii) the dark energy equation of state falls steeply at high redshift.

  18. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-15

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2%, and the growth-rate parameter by {approx}5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  19. Measuring Antineutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Justin John

    2008-09-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A manmade beam of predominantly muon neutrinos is detected both 1 km and 735 km from the production point by two functionally identical detectors. A comparison of the energy spectra measured by the two detectors shows the energy-dependent disappearance of muon neutrinos characteristic of oscillations and allows a measurement of the parameters governing the oscillations. This thesis presents work leading to measurements of disappearance in the 6% $\\bar{v}$μ background in that beam. A calibration is developed to correct for time-dependent changes in the responses of both detectors, reducing the corresponding uncertainty on hadronic energy measurements from 1.8% to 0.4% in the near detector and from 0.8% to 0.4% in the far detector. A method of selecting charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events is developed, with purities (efficiencies) of 96.5% (74.4%) at the near detector, and 98.8% (70.9%) at the far detector in the region below 10 GeV reconstructed antineutrino energy. A method of using the measured near detector neutrino energy spectrum to predict that expected at the far detector is discussed, and developed for use in the $\\bar{v}$μ analysis. Sources of systematic uncertainty contributing to the oscillation measurements are discussed. In the far detector, 32 charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events are observed below a reconstructed energy of 30 GeV, compared to an expectation of 47.8 for Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2 = Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2, sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = sin2(2θ23). This deficit, in such a low-statistics sample, makes the result difficult to interpret in the context of an oscillation parameter measurement. Possible sources for the discrepancy are discussed, concluding that considerably more data are required for a definitive solution. Running MINOS with a dedicated $\\bar

  20. Acoustic levitation methods for density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

    1986-12-01

    The capability of ultrasonic levitators operating in air to perform density measurements has been demonstrated. The remote determination of the density of ordinary liquids as well as low density solid metals can be carried out using levitated samples with size on the order of a few millimeters and at a frequency of 20 kHz. Two basic methods may be used. The first one is derived from a previously known technique developed for acoustic levitation in liquid media, and is based on the static equilibrium position of levitated samples in the earth's gravitational field. The second approach relies on the dynamic interaction between a levitated sample and the acoustic field. The first technique appears more accurate (1 percent uncertainty), but the latter method is directly applicable to a near gravity-free environment such as that found in space.

  1. Acoustic levitation methods for density measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of ultrasonic levitators operating in air to perform density measurements has been demonstrated. The remote determination of the density of ordinary liquids as well as low density solid metals can be carried out using levitated samples with size on the order of a few millimeters and at a frequency of 20 kHz. Two basic methods may be used. The first one is derived from a previously known technique developed for acoustic levitation in liquid media, and is based on the static equilibrium position of levitated samples in the earth's gravitational field. The second approach relies on the dynamic interaction between a levitated sample and the acoustic field. The first technique appears more accurate (1 percent uncertainty), but the latter method is directly applicable to a near gravity-free environment such as that found in space.

  2. KamLAND's precision neutrino oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decowski, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    The KamLAND experiment started operation in the Spring of 2002 and is operational to this day. The experiment observes signals from electron antineutrinos from distant nuclear reactors. The program, spanning more than a decade, allowed the determination of LMA-MSW as the solution to the solar neutrino transformation results (under the assumption of CPT invariance) and the measurement of various neutrino oscillation parameters. In particular, the solar mass-splitting Δ m212 was determined to high precision. Besides the study of neutrino oscillation, KamLAND started the investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos (geo-ν‾e). The collaboration also reported on a variety of other topics related to particle and astroparticle physics.

  3. Outdoor measurements of spherical acoustic shock decay.

    PubMed

    Young, Sarah M; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Leete, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Prior anechoic measurements of a small acetylene-oxygen balloon explosion were used to study spherical weak-shock decay over short ranges [Muhlestein et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2422-2430 (2012)]. Here, longer-range measurements conducted at the Bonneville Salt Flats with a larger balloon are described. Waveform and spectral characteristics and comparisons of the peak pressure decay with an analytical weak-shock model are presented. Weak shocks persist to at least 305 m, with an amplitude decay that is predicted reasonably well using the model. Deviations are discussed in the context of atmospheric effects and nonlinear ground reflections. PMID:26428831

  4. Measurements of thermo-acoustic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Winston

    The problem of combustion instabilities has existed since the early 1940s, when they were observed during the development of solid and liquid rocket engines. While various engineering solutions have served well in these fields, the problem is revisited in modern gas-turbine engines. The purpose of this work is to provide experimental measurements of laboratory devices that exhibit thermo-acoustic coupling, similar to the interaction observed during combustion instabilities, which will aid in the design and development of stable systems. Possibly the simplest device which exhibits these characteristics is a Rijke tube. An electrical, horizontally mounted, 1 m long version of the original Rijke tube is presented, with measurements taken during unstable and stable operation. An accurate stability boundary with uncertainty is determined for a heater position of x/L = ¼, as a function of mass flow rate and heater power. Hysteresis, not previously reported, is observed at flow rates above 3 g/s. A one-dimensional model of the stability boundary with linear acoustics is shown to have qualitative agreement with experimental data. A novel technique has also been devised which can provide insight into the local dynamic response of a flame to an acoustic field. In the experiments, a test chamber is acoustically excited by a pair of low-frequency drivers. The response of the flame is visualized by two techniques; chemiluminescence and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the hydroxyl (OH) radical, both of which are well-known indicators for heat release in flames. The resulting images are phase-resolved and averaged to yield a qualitative picture of the fluctuation of the heat release. The images are correlated with a pressure transducer near the flame, which allows stability to be evaluated using Rayleigh's criterion and a combustion response function. This is the first known measurement of the combustion dynamics of a flame over a range of frequencies. Results

  5. Model-independent Evidence for Dark Energy Evolution from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, V.; Shafieloo, A.; Starobinsky, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) allow us to determine the expansion history of the universe, thereby shedding light on the nature of dark energy. Recent observations of BAOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9 and DR11 have provided us with statistically independent measurements of H(z) at redshifts of 0.57 and 2.34, respectively. We show that these measurements can be used to test the cosmological constant hypothesis in a model-independent manner by means of an improved version of the Om diagnostic. Our results indicate that the SDSS DR11 measurement of H(z) = 222 ± 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 at z = 2.34, when taken in tandem with measurements of H(z) at lower redshifts, imply considerable tension with the standard ΛCDM model. Our estimation of the new diagnostic Omh 2 from SDSS DR9 and DR11 data, namely, Omh 2 ≈ 0.122 ± 0.01, which is equivalent to Ω0m h 2 for the spatially flat ΛCDM model, is in tension with the value Ω0m h 2 = 0.1426 ± 0.0025 determined for ΛCDM from Planck+WP. This tension is alleviated in models in which the cosmological constant was dynamically screened (compensated) in the past. Such evolving dark energy models display a pole in the effective equation of state of dark energy at high redshifts, which emerges as a smoking gun test for these theories.

  6. MODEL-INDEPENDENT EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY EVOLUTION FROM BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, V.; Shafieloo, A.; Starobinsky, A. A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-10-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) allow us to determine the expansion history of the universe, thereby shedding light on the nature of dark energy. Recent observations of BAOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9 and DR11 have provided us with statistically independent measurements of H(z) at redshifts of 0.57 and 2.34, respectively. We show that these measurements can be used to test the cosmological constant hypothesis in a model-independent manner by means of an improved version of the Om diagnostic. Our results indicate that the SDSS DR11 measurement of H(z) = 222 ± 7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} at z = 2.34, when taken in tandem with measurements of H(z) at lower redshifts, imply considerable tension with the standard ΛCDM model. Our estimation of the new diagnostic Omh {sup 2} from SDSS DR9 and DR11 data, namely, Omh {sup 2} ≈ 0.122 ± 0.01, which is equivalent to Ω{sub 0m} h {sup 2} for the spatially flat ΛCDM model, is in tension with the value Ω{sub 0m} h {sup 2} = 0.1426 ± 0.0025 determined for ΛCDM from Planck+WP. This tension is alleviated in models in which the cosmological constant was dynamically screened (compensated) in the past. Such evolving dark energy models display a pole in the effective equation of state of dark energy at high redshifts, which emerges as a smoking gun test for these theories.

  7. Acoustic input impedance measurements on brass instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Robert W., Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Measurement of the acoustic input impedance of a brass instrument can reveal something about the instrument's intonation, its reasonable playing range, its tone color, and perhaps whether the mouthpiece used for the impedance measurement is appropriate for the instrument. Such measurements are made at sound-presssure levels much lower than those encountered under playing conditions. Thus, impedance measurements may offer the only feasible way to infer something about the playing characteristics of instruments, typically museum specimens, that are too rare or too fragile to be played. In this paper the effects of some of the available choices of sound source and stimulus signal on measurement accuracy will be explored. Driver-transducer nonlinearity, source impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, and any necessary signal processing will be discussed.

  8. Exploring bubble oscillation and mass transfer enhancement in acoustic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuliang; Chindam, Chandraprakash; Nama, Nitesh; Yang, Shikuan; Lu, Mengqian; Zhao, Yanhui; Mai, John D.; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated bubble oscillation and its induced enhancement of mass transfer in a liquid-liquid extraction process with an acoustically-driven, bubble-based microfluidic device. The oscillation of individually trapped bubbles, of known sizes, in microchannels was studied at both a fixed frequency, and over a range of frequencies. Resonant frequencies were analytically identified and were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations. The acoustic streaming induced by the bubble oscillation was identified as the cause of this enhanced extraction. Experiments extracting Rhodanmine B from an aqueous phase (DI water) to an organic phase (1-octanol) were performed to determine the relationship between extraction efficiency and applied acoustic power. The enhanced efficiency in mass transport via these acoustic-energy-assisted processes was confirmed by comparisons against a pure diffusion-based process. PMID:26223474

  9. Acoustics measurements in normal jet impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of far field acoustic measurements for a uniform jet on nozzle to plate spacing for small dimensionless spacings (h/d - 0.75 to 3.0) was investigated. Spectra from a real time analyzer were read and processed by an HP 2116 minicomputer in on-line mode. Similar data was generated for a fully developed pipe flow exit condition jet to compare with other investigations. The data base for normal jet impingement was extended to smaller values of nozzle to plate spacing. The effects of slight noise heating (30 deg rise) of the jet on the far field noise produced by the impinging jet are demonstrated.

  10. Dynamic behavior of acoustic metamaterials and metaconfigured structures with local oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimala, James Mathew

    Dynamic behavior of acoustic metamaterials (AM) and metaconfigured structures (MCS) with various oscillator-type microstructures or local attachments was investigated. AM derive their unusual elastic wave manipulation capabilities not just from material constituents but more so from engineered microstructural configurations. Depending on the scale of implementation, these "microstructures" may be deployed as microscopic inclusions in metacomposites or even as complex endo-structures within load-bearing exo-structures in MCS. The frequency-dependent negative effective-mass exhibited by locally resonant microstructures when considered as a single degree of freedom system was experimentally verified using a structure with an internal mass-spring resonator. AM constructed by incorporating resonators in a host material display spatial attenuation of harmonic stress waves within a tunable bandgap frequency range. An apparent damping coefficient was derived to compare the degree of attenuation achieved in these wholly elastic AM to equivalent conventionally damped models illustrating their feasibility as stiff structures that simultaneously act as effective damping elements. Parametric studies were performed using simulations to design and construct MCS with attached resonators for dynamic load mitigation applications. 98% payload isolation at resonance (7 Hz) was experimentally attained using a low-frequency vibration isolator with tip-loaded cantilever beam resonators. Pendulum impact tests on a resonator stack substantiated a peak transmitted stress reduction of about 60% and filtering of the resonator frequencies in the transmitted spectrum. Drop-tower tests were done to gauge the shock mitigation performance of an AM-inspired infrastructural building-block with internal resonators. Proof-of-concept experiments using an array of multifunctional resonators demonstrate the possibility of integrating energy harvesting and transducer capabilities. Stress wave attenuation

  11. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Rianon, Nahid; Feiveson, Alan; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Bone Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift. The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values (less than 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  12. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  13. Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik

    2010-04-01

    A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

  14. Acoustic landmarks drive delta-theta oscillations to enable speech comprehension by facilitating perceptual parsing

    PubMed Central

    Doelling, Keith; Arnal, Luc; Ghitza, Oded; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (< 10 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the ‘sharpness’ of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility. PMID:23791839

  15. Heat release and flame structure measurements of self-excited acoustically-driven premixed methane flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp-Vaughan, Kristin M.; Tuttle, Steven G.; Renfro, Michael W.; King, Galen B.

    2009-10-15

    An open-open organ pipe burner (Rijke tube) with a bluff-body ring was used to create a self-excited, acoustically-driven, premixed methane-air conical flame, with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.05. The feed tube velocities corresponded to Re = 1780-4450. Coupled oscillations in pressure, velocity, and heat release from the flame are naturally encouraged at resonant frequencies in the Rijke tube combustor. This coupling creates sustainable self-excited oscillations in flame front area and shape. The period of the oscillations occur at the resonant frequency of the combustion chamber when the flame is placed {proportional_to}1/4 of the distance from the bottom of the tube. In this investigation, the shape of these acoustically-driven flames is measured by employing both OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and chemiluminescence imaging and the images are correlated to simultaneously measured pressure in the combustor. Past research on acoustically perturbed flames has focused on qualitative flame area and heat release relationships under imposed velocity perturbations at imposed frequencies. This study reports quantitative empirical fits with respect to pressure or phase angle in a self-generated pressure oscillation. The OH-PLIF images were single temporal shots and the chemiluminescence images were phase averaged on chip, such that 15 exposures were used to create one image. Thus, both measurements were time resolved during the flame oscillation. Phase-resolved area and heat release variations throughout the pressure oscillation were computed. A relation between flame area and the phase angle before the pressure maximum was derived for all flames in order to quantitatively show that the Rayleigh criterion was satisfied in the combustor. Qualitative trends in oscillating flame area were found with respect to feed tube flow rates. A logarithmic relation was found between the RMS pressure and both the normalized average area and heat release rate

  16. Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

    1982-01-01

    Very little information is available concerning acoustic velocity meter (AVM) operation, performance, and limitations. This report provides a better understanding about the application of AVM instrumentation to streamflow measurment. Operational U.S. Geological Survey systems have proven that AVM equipment is accurate and dependable. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measureable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected, and will measure velocitites as low as 0.1 meter per second which is normally less than the threshold level for mechanical or head-loss meters. In some situations the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Smaller, less-expensive, more conveniently operable microprocessor equipment is now available which should increase use of AVM systems in streamflow applications. (USGS)

  17. Evidence of Multiple Slow Acoustic Oscillations in the Stellar Flaring Loops of Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Lalitha, S.; Pandey, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first observational evidence of multiple slow acoustic oscillations in the post-flaring loops of the corona of Proxima Centauri using XMM-Newton observations. We find the signature of periodic oscillations localized in the decay phase of the flare in its soft (0.3-10.0 keV) X-ray emissions. Using the standard wavelet tool, we find multiple periodicities of 1261 s and 687 s. These bursty oscillations persist for durations of 90 minutes and 50 minutes, respectively, for more than three cycles. The intensity oscillations with a period of 1261 s may be the signature of the fundamental mode of slow magnetoacoustic waves with a phase speed of 119 km s-1 in a loop of length 7.5 × 109 cm, which is initially heated, producing the flare peak temperature of 33 MK and later cooled down in the decay phase and maintained at an average temperature of 7.2 MK. The other period of 687 s may be associated with the first overtone of slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the flaring loop. The fundamental mode oscillations show dissipation with a damping time of 47 minutes. The period ratio P 1/P 2 is found to be 1.83, indicating that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified stellar loops. We estimate the density scale height of the stellar loop system as ~23 Mm, which is smaller than the hydrostatic scale height of the hot loop system, and implies the existence of non-equilibrium conditions.

  18. EVIDENCE OF MULTIPLE SLOW ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE STELLAR FLARING LOOPS OF PROXIMA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A. K.; Pandey, J. C.; Lalitha, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first observational evidence of multiple slow acoustic oscillations in the post-flaring loops of the corona of Proxima Centauri using XMM-Newton observations. We find the signature of periodic oscillations localized in the decay phase of the flare in its soft (0.3-10.0 keV) X-ray emissions. Using the standard wavelet tool, we find multiple periodicities of 1261 s and 687 s. These bursty oscillations persist for durations of 90 minutes and 50 minutes, respectively, for more than three cycles. The intensity oscillations with a period of 1261 s may be the signature of the fundamental mode of slow magnetoacoustic waves with a phase speed of 119 km s{sup –1} in a loop of length 7.5 × 10{sup 9} cm, which is initially heated, producing the flare peak temperature of 33 MK and later cooled down in the decay phase and maintained at an average temperature of 7.2 MK. The other period of 687 s may be associated with the first overtone of slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the flaring loop. The fundamental mode oscillations show dissipation with a damping time of 47 minutes. The period ratio P {sub 1}/P {sub 2} is found to be 1.83, indicating that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified stellar loops. We estimate the density scale height of the stellar loop system as ∼23 Mm, which is smaller than the hydrostatic scale height of the hot loop system, and implies the existence of non-equilibrium conditions.

  19. Suppressed alpha oscillations predict intelligibility of speech and its acoustic details.

    PubMed

    Obleser, Jonas; Weisz, Nathan

    2012-11-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time-frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  20. Suppressed Alpha Oscillations Predict Intelligibility of Speech and its Acoustic Details

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time–frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  1. Time-sliced perturbation theory II: baryon acoustic oscillations and infrared resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    We use time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT) to give an accurate description of the infrared non-linear effects affecting the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) present in the distribution of matter at very large scales. In TSPT this can be done via a systematic resummation that has a simple diagrammatic representation and does not involve uncontrollable approximations. We discuss the power counting rules and derive explicit expressions for the resummed matter power spectrum up to next-to leading order and the bispectrum at the leading order. The two-point correlation function agrees well with N-body data at BAO scales. The systematic approach also allows to reliably assess the shift of the baryon acoustic peak due to non-linear effects.

  2. NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR OF BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN REDSHIFT SPACE FROM THE ZEL'DOVICH APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    McCullagh, Nuala; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2015-01-10

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are a powerful probe of the expansion history of the universe, which can tell us about the nature of dark energy. In order to accurately characterize the dark energy equation of state using BAO, we must understand the effects of both nonlinearities and redshift space distortions on the location and shape of the acoustic peak. In a previous paper, we introduced a novel approach to second order perturbation theory in configuration space using the Zel'dovich approximation, and presented a simple result for the first nonlinear term of the correlation function. In this paper, we extend this approach to redshift space. We show how to perform the computation and present the analytic result for the first nonlinear term in the correlation function. Finally, we validate our result through comparison with numerical simulations.

  3. Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Oscillations Due to Flow Past a Shallow Cavity: Effect of Cavity Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    P Oshkai; M Geveci; D Rockwell; M Pollack

    2004-05-24

    Flow-acoustic interactions due to fully turbulent inflow past a shallow axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe, which give rise to flow tones, are investigated using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry in conjunction with unsteady pressure measurements. This imaging leads to patterns of velocity, vorticity, streamline topology, and hydrodynamic contributions to the acoustic power integral. Global instantaneous images, as well as time-averaged images, are evaluated to provide insight into the flow physics during tone generation. Emphasis is on the manner in which the streamwise length scale of the cavity alters the major features of the flow structure. These image-based approaches allow identification of regions of the unsteady shear layer that contribute to the instantaneous hydrodynamic component of the acoustic power, which is necessary to maintain a flow tone. In addition, combined image analysis and pressure measurements allow categorization of the instantaneous flow patterns that are associated with types of time traces and spectra of the fluctuating pressure. In contrast to consideration based solely on pressure spectra, it is demonstrated that locked-on tones may actually exhibit intermittent, non-phase-locked images, apparently due to low damping of the acoustic resonator. Locked-on flow tones (without modulation or intermittency), locked-on flow tones with modulation, and non-locked-on oscillations with short-term, highly coherent fluctuations are defined and represented by selected cases. Depending on which of these regimes occur, the time-averaged Q (quality)-factor and the dimensionless peak pressure are substantially altered.

  4. Influence of an oscillating circuit on the radiation of transient acoustic waves by an electroelastic cylinder.

    PubMed

    Babaev, A E; Babaev, A A; Yanchevskiy, I V

    2010-04-01

    The problem of nonstationary wave radiation in an infinitely long thick-wall piezoelectric cylinder in fluid medium is considered. The influence of an oscillating circuit with lumped parameters on characteristics of transient process is taken into consideration. Problem formulation is executed within the forced electrostatic theory, acoustic approximations, and quasistatic theory for electric circuit. The solution method is based on the integral Laplace transform in time. This allows analytically reducing the problem to solving a system of Volterra integral equations with retarded arguments. The numerical results of calculations are presented and analyzed. PMID:20370009

  5. A simple analytic treatment of linear growth of structure with baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    In linear perturbation theory, all information about the growth of structure is contained in the Green's function, or equivalently, transfer function. These functions are generally computed using numerical codes or by phenomenological fitting formula anchored in accurate analytic results in the limits of large and small scale. Here, we present a framework for analytically solving all scales, in particular the intermediate scales relevant for the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We solve for the Green's function and transfer function using spherically averaged overdensities and the approximation that the density of the coupled baryon-photon fluid is constant interior to the sound horizon.

  6. Acoustic Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles With Bevel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A series of convergent rectangular nozzles of aspect ratios 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were constructed with uniform exit velocity profiles. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. Far-field acoustic measurements were made and analyzed, and the results presented. The impact of aspect ratio on jet noise was similar to that of enhanced mixing devices: reduction in aft, peak frequency noise with an increase in broadside, high frequency noise. Azimuthally, it was found that rectangular jets produced more noise directed away from their wide sides than from their narrow sides. The azimuthal dependence decreased at aft angles where noise decreased. The effect of temperature, keeping acoustic Mach number constant, was minimal. Since most installations would have the observer on the wide size of the nozzle, the increased high frequency noise has a deleterious impact on the observer. Extending one wide side of the rectangular nozzle, evocative of an aft deck in an installed propulsion system, increased the noise of the jet with increasing length. The impact of both aspect ratio and bevel length were relatively well behaved, allowing a simple bilinear model to be constructed relative to a simple round jet.

  7. An acoustic levitation technique for the study of nonlinear oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. A.; Crum, L. A.

    1983-08-01

    A technique of acoustic levitation was developed for the study of individual gas bubbles in a liquid. Isopropyl alcohol and a mixture of glycerine and water (33-1/3% glycerine by volume) were the two liquids used in this research. Bubbles were levitated near the acoustic pressure antinode of an acoustic wave in the range of 20-22 kHz. Measurements were made of the levitation number as a function of the normalized radius of the bubbles. The levitation number is the ratio of the hydrostatic pressure gradient to the acoustic pressure gradient. These values were then compared to a nonlinear theory. Results were very much in agreement except for the region near the n=2 harmonic. An explanation for the discrepancy between theory and experiment appears to lie in the polytropic exponent associated with the gas in the interior of the bubble.

  8. Evidence for an environment-dependent shift in the baryon acoustic oscillation peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Buchert, Thomas; Ostrowski, Jan J.; France, Martin J.

    2015-04-01

    The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric assumes comoving spatial rigidity of metrical properties. The curvature term in comoving coordinates is environment independent and cannot evolve. In the standard model, structure formation is interpreted accordingly: structures average out on the chosen metrical background, which remains rigid in comoving coordinates despite nonlinear structure growth. The latter claim needs to be tested, since it is a hypothesis that is not derived using general relativity. We introduce a test of the comoving rigidity assumption by measuring the two-point autocorrelation function on comoving scales - assuming FLRW comoving spatial rigidity - in order to detect shifts in the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak location for luminous red galaxy (LRG) pairs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. In tangential directions, subsets of pairs overlapping with superclusters or voids show the BAO peak. The tangential BAO peak location for overlap with Nadathur & Hotchkiss superclusters is 4.3 ± 1.6 h-1 Mpc less than that for LRG pairs unselected for supercluster overlap, and 6.6 ± 2.8 h-1 Mpc less than that of the complementary pairs. Liivamägi et al. superclusters give corresponding differences of 3.7 ± 2.9 h-1 Mpc and 6.3 ± 2.6 h-1 Mpc, respectively. We have found moderately significant evidence (Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests suggest very significant evidence) that the BAO peak location for supercluster-overlapping pairs is compressed by about 6 per cent compared to that of the complementary sample, providing a potential challenge to FLRW models and a benchmark for predictions from models based on an averaging approach that leaves the spatial metric a priori unspecified.

  9. Effect of Model-dependent Covariance Matrix for Studying Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.; Lachièze-Rey, M.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale structures in the universe are a powerful tool to test cosmological models and constrain cosmological parameters. A particular feature of interest comes from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), which are sound waves traveling in the hot plasma of the early universe that stopped at the recombination time. This feature can be observed as a localized bump in the correlation function at the scale of the sound horizon rs . As such, it provides a standard ruler and a lot of constraining power in the correlation function analysis of galaxy surveys. Moreover, the detection of BAOs at the expected scale gives strong support to cosmological models. Both of these studies (BAO detection and parameter constraints) rely on a statistical modeling of the measured correlation function \\hat{\\xi }. Usually \\hat{\\xi } is assumed to be Gaussian, with a mean ξθ depending on the cosmological model and a covariance matrix C generally approximated as a constant (i.e., independent of the model). In this article, we study whether a realistic model-dependent C θ changes the results of cosmological parameter constraints compared to the approximation of a constant covariance matrix C. For this purpose, we use a new procedure to generate lognormal realizations of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to obtain a model-dependent C θ in a reasonable time. The approximation of C θ as a constant creates small changes in the cosmological parameter constraints on our sample. We quantify this modeling error using a lot of simulations and find that it only has a marginal influence on cosmological parameter constraints for current and next-generation galaxy surveys. It can be approximately taken into account by extending the 1σ intervals by a factor ≈1.3.

  10. EFFECT OF MODEL-DEPENDENT COVARIANCE MATRIX FOR STUDYING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale structures in the universe are a powerful tool to test cosmological models and constrain cosmological parameters. A particular feature of interest comes from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), which are sound waves traveling in the hot plasma of the early universe that stopped at the recombination time. This feature can be observed as a localized bump in the correlation function at the scale of the sound horizon r{sub s} . As such, it provides a standard ruler and a lot of constraining power in the correlation function analysis of galaxy surveys. Moreover, the detection of BAOs at the expected scale gives strong support to cosmological models. Both of these studies (BAO detection and parameter constraints) rely on a statistical modeling of the measured correlation function {xi}-circumflex. Usually {xi}-circumflex is assumed to be Gaussian, with a mean {xi}{sub {theta}} depending on the cosmological model and a covariance matrix C generally approximated as a constant (i.e., independent of the model). In this article, we study whether a realistic model-dependent C {sub {theta}} changes the results of cosmological parameter constraints compared to the approximation of a constant covariance matrix C. For this purpose, we use a new procedure to generate lognormal realizations of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to obtain a model-dependent C {sub {theta}} in a reasonable time. The approximation of C {sub {theta}} as a constant creates small changes in the cosmological parameter constraints on our sample. We quantify this modeling error using a lot of simulations and find that it only has a marginal influence on cosmological parameter constraints for current and next-generation galaxy surveys. It can be approximately taken into account by extending the 1{sigma} intervals by a factor Almost-Equal-To 1.3.

  11. Solar cycle variations in the powers and damping rates of low-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Pugh, C. E.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Helioseismology uses the Sun's natural resonant oscillations to study the solar interior. The properties of the solar oscillations are sensitive to the Sun'2019;s magnetic activity cycle. Here we examine variations in the powers, damping rates, and energy supply rates of the most prominent acoustic oscillations in unresolved, Sun-as-a-star data, obtained by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) during solar cycles 22, 23, and the first half of 24. The variations in the helioseismic parameters are compared to the 10.7 cm flux, a well-known global proxy of solar activity. As expected the oscillations are most heavily damped and the mode powers are at a minimum at solar activity maximum. The 10.7 cm flux was linearly regressed using the fractional variations of damping rates and powers observed during cycle 23. In general, good agreement is found between the damping rates and the 10.7 cm flux. However, the linearly regressed 10.7 cm flux and fractional variation in powers diverge in cycles 22 and 24, indicating that the relationship between the mode powers and the 10.7 cm flux is not consistent from one cycle to the next. The energy supply rate of the oscillations, which is usually approximately constant, also decreases at this time. We have determined that this discrepancy is not because of the first-order bias introduced by an increase in the level of background noise or gaps in the data. Although we cannot categorically rule out an instrumental origin, the divergence observed in cycle 24, when the data were of high quality and the data coverage was over 80%, raises the possibility that the effect may be solar in origin.

  12. Fitting methods for baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forest fluctuations in BOSS data release 9

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Blomqvist, Michael; Slosar, Anže; Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, Bill; Busca, Nicolás G.; Bautista, Julian E.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Croft, Rupert A.C.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Myers, Adam D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; and others

    2013-03-01

    We describe fitting methods developed to analyze fluctuations in the Lyman-α forest and measure the parameters of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We apply our methods to BOSS Data Release 9. Our method is based on models of the three-dimensional correlation function in physical coordinate space, and includes the effects of redshift-space distortions, anisotropic non-linear broadening, and broadband distortions. We allow for independent scale factors along and perpendicular to the line of sight to minimize the dependence on our assumed fiducial cosmology and to obtain separate measurements of the BAO angular and relative velocity scales. Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main BOSS Data Release 9 results are publicly available.

  13. Asymptotic solutions for shocked resonant acoustic oscillations between concentric spheres and coaxial cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian R.; Mortell, Michael P.; Amundsen, David E.

    2012-02-01

    For resonant oscillations of a gas in a straight tube with a closed end, shocks form and all harmonics are generated, see Chester ["Resonant oscillations in a closed tube," J. Fluid Mech. 18, 44 (1964)], 10.1017/S0022112064000040. When the gas is confined between two concentric spheres or coaxial cylinders, the radially symmetric resonant oscillations may be continuous or shocked. For a fixed small Mach number of the input, the flow is continuous for sufficiently small L, defined as the ratio of the inner radius to the difference of the radii, see Seymour et al. ["Resonant oscillations of an inhomogeneous gas between concentric spheres," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 467, 2149 (2011)], 10.1098/rspa.2010.0576. However, shocks appear in the resonant flow for either larger values of L or larger input Mach number. A nonlinear geometric acoustics approximation is used to analyse the shocked motion of the gas when L ≫ 1. This approximation and the exact numerical solution are compared for the shocked wave profiles and shock strengths, and the approximation is valid for surprisingly small values of L. The flow in the plane wave case for a straight tube is recovered in the limit L → ∞ for both the spherical and cylindrical cases, providing a check on the results. The shocked solutions given here complement those continuous solutions previously derived from a dominant first mode approximation.

  14. Measuring aeolian sand transport using acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poortinga, Ate; van Rheenen, Hans; Ellis, Jean T.; Sherman, Douglas J.

    2015-03-01

    Acoustic sensors are frequently used to measure aeolian saltation. Different approaches are used to process the signals from these instruments. The goal of this paper is to describe and discuss a method to measure aeolian saltation with acoustic sensors. In a laboratory experiment, we measured the output from an advanced signal processing scheme on the circuit board of the saltiphone. We use a software implementation of this processing scheme to re-analyse data from four miniphones obtained during a field experiment. It is shown that a set of filters remove background noise outside the frequency spectrum of aeolian saltation (at 8 kHz), whereas signals within this frequency spectrum are amplified. The resulting analogue signal is a proxy of the energy. Using an AC pulse convertor, this signal can be converted into a digital and analogue count signal or an analogue energy signal, using a rectifier and integrator. Spatio-temporal correlation between field deployed miniphones increases by using longer integration times for signal processing. To quantify aeolian grain impact, it is suggested to use the analogue energy output, as this mode is able to detect changes in frequency and amplitude. The analogue and digital count signals are able to detect an increase in frequency, but are not able to detect an increase in signal amplitude. We propose a two-stage calibration scheme consisting of (1) a factory calibration, to set the frequency spectrum of the sensor and (2) a standardized drop-test conducted before and after the experiment to evaluate the response of the sensor.

  15. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Adel A

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

  16. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  17. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  18. Extreme low frequency acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  19. Preliminary investigation of acoustic oscillations in an H2-O2 fired Hall generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, B.

    1981-01-01

    Burner pressure oscillations and interelectrode voltage oscillations measured in an open-cycle supersonic flow Hall generator are presented. The ionized gas for the channel was supplied by seeding the approximately 1 lb/sec of hydrogen-oxygen combustion products with cesium. Since both the burner and the channel were located within magnetic fields exceeding 4 Tesla during operation, an infinite probe pressure measurement technique was used to measure burner pressure oscillations. Calibration of the burner pressure transducer using a resonance tube technique is presented. Evidence is presented for the existence of the first longitudinal mode of oscillations (5000 Hz) within the burner. Interelectrode voltage oscillations were simultaneously measured at two separate axial stations. The magnitude change and the phase shift between the two signals was interpreted as a decaying magnetoacoustic wave driven by the burner that propagates at local gas plus sonic velocities. The amplitude of the electrical voltage oscillations at the start of the power producing region of the channel varied with the magnetic field. This variation is compared with the results of a simple perturbation analysis. Arguments are presented for using an unsteady model for analyzing wave processes in channels.

  20. Parametrized mode decomposition for bifurcation analysis applied to a thermo-acoustically oscillating flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter; Richecoeur, Franck; Durox, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Thermo-acoustic systems belong to a class of dynamical systems that are governed by multiple parameters. Changing these parameters alters the response of the dynamical system and causes it to bifurcate. Due to their many applications and potential impact on a variety of combustion systems, there is great interest in devising control strategies to weaken or suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. However, the system dynamics have to be available in reduced-order form to allow the design of such controllers and their operation in real-time. As the dominant modes and their respective frequencies change with varying the system parameters, the dynamical system needs to be analyzed separately for a set of fixed parameter values, before the dynamics can be linked in parameter-space. This two-step process is not only cumbersome, but also ambiguous when applied to systems operating close to a bifurcation point. Here we propose a parametrized decomposition algorithm which is capable of analyzing dynamical systems as they go through a bifurcation, extracting the dominant modes of the pre- and post-bifurcation regime. The algorithm is applied to a thermo-acoustically oscillating flame and to pressure signals from experiments. A few selected mode are capable of reproducing the dynamics.

  1. Energy analysis during acoustic bubble oscillations: relationship between bubble energy and sonochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2014-01-01

    In this work, energy analysis of an oscillating isolated spherical bubble in water irradiated by an ultrasonic wave has been theoretically studied for various conditions of acoustic amplitude, ultrasound frequency, static pressure and liquid temperature in order to explain the effects of these key parameters on both sonochemistry and sonoluminescence. The Keller-Miksis equation for the temporal variation of the bubble radius in compressible and viscous medium has been employed as a dynamics model. The numerical calculations showed that the rate of energy accumulation, dE/dt, increased linearly with increasing acoustic amplitude in the range of 1.5-3.0 atm and decreased sharply with increasing frequency in the range 200-1000 kHz. There exists an optimal static pressure at which the power w is highest. This optimum shifts toward a higher value as the acoustic amplitude increases. The energy of the bubble slightly increases with the increase in liquid temperature from 10 to 60 °C. The results of this study should be a helpful means to explain a variety of experimental observations conducted in the field of sonochemistry and sonoluminescence concerning the effects of operational parameters. PMID:23683796

  2. Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic velocity meter (AVM), also referred to as an ultrasonic flowmeter, has been an operational tool for the measurement of streamflow since 1965. Very little information is available concerning AVM operation, performance, and limitations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate information in such a manner as to provide a better understanding about the application of this instrumentation to streamflow measurement. AVM instrumentation is highly accurate and nonmechanical. Most commercial AVM systems that measure streamflow use the time-of-travel method to determine a velocity between two points. The systems operate on the principle that point-to-point upstream travel-time of sound is longer than the downstream travel-time, and this difference can be monitored and measured accurately by electronics. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measurable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected. AVM systems used in streamflow measurement generally operate with a resolution of ?0.01 meter per second but this is dependent on system frequency, path length, and signal attenuation. In some applications the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Presently used minicomputer systems, although expensive to purchase and maintain, perform well. Increased use of AVM systems probably will be realized as smaller, less expensive, and more conveniently operable microprocessor-based systems become readily available. Available AVM equipment should be capable of flow measurement in a wide variety of situations heretofore untried. New signal-detection techniques and communication linkages can provide additional flexibility to the systems so that operation is possible in more river and estuary situations.

  3. Deformation of biological cells in the acoustic field of an oscillating bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Allen, John S., III

    2009-02-01

    In this work we develop a theoretical framework of the interaction of microbubbles with bacteria in the ultrasound field using a shell model of the bacteria, following an approach developed previously [P. V. Zinin , Phys. Rev. E 72, 61907 (2005)]. Within the shell model, the motion of the cell in an ultrasonic field is determined by the motion of three components: the internal viscous fluid, a thin elastic shell, and the surrounding viscous fluid. Several conclusions can be drawn from the modeling of sound interaction with a biological cell: (a) the characteristics of a cell’s oscillations in an ultrasonic field are determined both by the elastic properties of the shell the viscosities of all components of the system, (b) for dipole quadrupole oscillations the cell’s shell deforms due to a change in the shell area this oscillation depends on the surface area modulus KA , (c) the relative change in the area has a maximum at frequency fK˜(1)/(2π)KA/(ρa3) , where a is the cell’s radius and ρ is its density. It was predicted that deformation of the cell wall at the frequency fK is high enough to rupture small bacteria such as E . coli in which the quality factor of natural vibrations is less than 1 (Q<1) . For bacteria with high value quality factors (Q>1) , the area deformation has a strong peak near a resonance frequency fK ; however, the value of the deformation near the resonance frequency is not high enough to produce sufficient mechanical effect. The theoretical framework developed in this work can be extended for describing the deformation of a biological cell under any arbitrary, external periodic force including radiation forces unduced by acoustical (acoustical levitation) or optical waves (optical tweezers).

  4. Deformation of biological cells in the acoustic field of an oscillating bubble.

    PubMed

    Zinin, Pavel V; Allen, John S

    2009-02-01

    In this work we develop a theoretical framework of the interaction of microbubbles with bacteria in the ultrasound field using a shell model of the bacteria, following an approach developed previously [P. V. Zinin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 61907 (2005)]. Within the shell model, the motion of the cell in an ultrasonic field is determined by the motion of three components: the internal viscous fluid, a thin elastic shell, and the surrounding viscous fluid. Several conclusions can be drawn from the modeling of sound interaction with a biological cell: (a) the characteristics of a cell's oscillations in an ultrasonic field are determined both by the elastic properties of the shell the viscosities of all components of the system, (b) for dipole quadrupole oscillations the cell's shell deforms due to a change in the shell area this oscillation depends on the surface area modulus K{A} , (c) the relative change in the area has a maximum at frequency f{K} approximately 1/2pi square root[K{A}(rhoa;{3})] , where a is the cell's radius and rho is its density. It was predicted that deformation of the cell wall at the frequency f{K} is high enough to rupture small bacteria such as E . coli in which the quality factor of natural vibrations is less than 1 (Q<1). For bacteria with high value quality factors (Q>1) , the area deformation has a strong peak near a resonance frequency f{K} however, the value of the deformation near the resonance frequency is not high enough to produce sufficient mechanical effect. The theoretical framework developed in this work can be extended for describing the deformation of a biological cell under any arbitrary, external periodic force including radiation forces unduced by acoustical (acoustical levitation) or optical waves (optical tweezers). PMID:19391781

  5. Deformation of biological cells in the acoustic field of an oscillating bubble

    PubMed Central

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Allen, John S.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we develop a theoretical framework of the interaction of microbubbles with bacteria in the ultrasound field using a shell model of the bacteria, following an approach developed previously [P. V. Zinin et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 61907 (2005)]. Within the shell model, the motion of the cell in an ultrasonic field is determined by the motion of three components: the internal viscous fluid, a thin elastic shell, and the surrounding viscous fluid. Several conclusions can be drawn from the modeling of sound interaction with a biological cell: (a) the characteristics of a cell’s oscillations in an ultrasonic field are determined both by the elastic properties of the shell the viscosities of all components of the system, (b) for dipole quadrupole oscillations the cell’s shell deforms due to a change in the shell area this oscillation depends on the surface area modulus KA, (c) the relative change in the area has a maximum at frequency fK∼12πKA/(ρa3), where a is the cell’s radius and ρ is its density. It was predicted that deformation of the cell wall at the frequency fK is high enough to rupture small bacteria such as E. coli in which the quality factor of natural vibrations is less than 1 (Q < 1). For bacteria with high value quality factors (Q > 1), the area deformation has a strong peak near a resonance frequency fK; however, the value of the deformation near the resonance frequency is not high enough to produce sufficient mechanical effect. The theoretical framework developed in this work can be extended for describing the deformation of a biological cell under any arbitrary, external periodic force including radiation forces unduced by acoustical (acoustical levitation) or optical waves (optical tweezers). PMID:19391781

  6. Field Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter in Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.; Na, Jeong K.; Yost, William T.; Kessel, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustics techniques were used to measure fatigue in turbine blades in a power generation plant. The measurements were made in the field using a reference based measurement technique, and a reference sample previously measured in the laboratory. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter showed significant increase with fatigue in the blades, as indicated by service age and areas of increased stress. The technique shows promise for effectively measuring fatigue in field applications and predicting subsequent failures.

  7. Measurement of acoustic velocity in the stack of a thermoacoustic refrigerator using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Michard, Marc; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration systems generate cooling power from a high-amplitude acoustic standing wave. There has recently been a growing interest in this technology because of its simple and robust architecture and its use of environmentally safe gases. With the prospect of commercialization, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of thermoacoustic cooling systems and more particularly of some of their components such as the heat exchangers. The characterization of the flow field at the end of the stack plates is a crucial step for the understanding and optimization of heat transfer between the stack and the heat exchangers. In this study, a specific particle image velocimetry measurement is performed inside a thermoacoustic refrigerator. Acoustic velocity is measured using synchronization and phase-averaging. The measurement method is validated inside a void resonator by successfully comparing experimental data with an acoustic plane wave model. Velocity is measured inside the oscillating boundary layers, between the plates of the stack, and compared to a linear model. The flow behind the stack is characterized, and it shows the generation of symmetric pairs of counter-rotating vortices at the end of the stack plates at low acoustic pressure level. As the acoustic pressure level increases, detachment of the vortices and symmetry breaking are observed.

  8. Measurements of canard-induced roll oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.; Levin, D.

    1985-01-01

    A small canard wing was installed in front of a delta wing which was mounted on a free-to-roll sting balance in a low-speed wind tunnel. The leading edge vortices, originating from the canard, enhanced self-induced roll oscillations at test conditions for which the basic delta wing would otherwise have been stable. Time-dependent roll angle, and normal and side force data recorded during these oscillations are presented along with their phase relations. It was found that the canard increased the range of angle of attack at which self-induced oscillations occurred. Also, at an angle of attack of about 46 deg asymmetric oscillations are observed.

  9. Pulsed EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer) acoustic measurements on a horizontal continuous caster for internal temperature determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Donald M.

    1989-10-01

    Development of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) through transmission system for acoustic measurements on steel billets up to 1300 C was completed. Laboratory measurements of acoustic velocity were made, and used to determine the average internal temperature of hot stainless and carbon steel billets. Following the success of the laboratory system development, the laboratory EMAT system was subsequently tested successfully at the Baltimore Specialty Steel Co. on a horizontal continuous caster. Details of the sensor system development and the steel plant demonstration results are presented. Future directions for the high temperature pulsed EMAT internal temperature concept are discussed for potential material processing applications.

  10. Concentration measurements with Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamp, Stefan; Sobota, Thomas H.

    2001-03-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is used to measure the concentration of iodine vapor (40-150 ppm) in air instantaneously (1 μs), remotely, and non-intrusively. Two focused, pulsed intersecting laser beams inscribe a density grating in the fluid. A cw interrogation beam directed at the Bragg angle on the grating is scattered into a coherent signal beam whose intensity depends on the instantaneous density grating magnitude. The signal beam is detected by a photomultiplier tube and its history recorded by a digital storage oscilloscope. The species in question (e.g., I_2) and the dilution species are excited resonantly (by thermalization) and non-resonantly (by electrostriction), respectively. The signals show oscillations at (twice) the grating's Brillouin frequency for the case of thermalization (electrostriction). The ratio of the thermalization to the electrostriction grating magnitudes is proportional to the resonant species concentration. They are extracted by a least-squares fitting scheme. For good accuracy, the ratio must be of order unity. For this case, the standard error is 5%. The speed of sound (error <1%) and flow velocity (error <1%) can be measured simultaneously.

  11. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  12. Applications of acoustics in the measurement of coal slab thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Mills, J. M.; Pierce, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the possibility of employing acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies for measurements of thicknesses of slabs of coal backed by shale is investigated. Fundamental information concerning the acoustical properties of coal, and the relationship between these properties and the structural and compositional parameters used to characterize coal samples was also sought. The testing device, which utilizes two matched transducers, is described.

  13. Acoustic Measurement of Suspended Fine Particle Concentrations by Attenuation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of sediment concentration is important in the study of streams and rivers. The work presented explores the appropriate frequency and transducer spacing for acoustic measurement of suspended particles in the range of 0.1 – 64 microns. High frequency (20 MHz) acoustic signal attenuation wa...

  14. Stroboscopic and acoustic measures of inspiratory phonation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C L; Fisher, K V

    1999-09-01

    Inspiratory phonation (IP) is the production of voice as air is taken into the lungs. Although IP is promoted as a laryngeal assessment and voice treatment technique, it has been described quantitatively in very few speakers. This study quantified changes in laryngeal adduction, fundamental frequency, and intensity during IP relative to expiratory phonation (EP). We hypothesized that IP would increase laryngeal abduction and fundamental frequency. The experiment was a within-subjects, repeated measures design with each subject serving as her own control. Participants were 10 females (ages 19-50 years) who underwent simultaneous transoral videostrobolaryngoscopy and acoustic voice recording. We found that membranous vocal fold contact decreased significantly during IP relative to EP, while the trends for change of ventricular fold squeeze during IP varied across individuals. Vocal fundamental frequency increased significantly during IP relative to EP, but intensity did not vary consistently across conditions. Without teaching or coaching, changes that occurred during IP did not carry over to EP produced immediately following IP within the same respiratory cycle. PMID:10498055

  15. Multi-dimensional analysis of subjective acoustical ratings and acoustical measures in existing concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2001-05-01

    Correlations between subjective acoustical ratings and hall-averaged values of acoustical measures are studied among existing worldwide major concert halls. It was shown that the classified acoustical ratings by Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls, How They Sound (ASA, 1996)] are discriminated correctly by combining binaural quality index (BQI) with some other acoustical measures. BQI is determined by the arithmetic average of inter-aural cross correlation coefficient in three octave bands of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, subtracted from unity, calculated from the early 80-ms part of binaural impulse response. Considering that the upper limit value of BQI not to cause disturbing image shift is approximately 0.85 at individual seat [Okano, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2219-2230 (2000)], the values of 0.6 or higher in hall averaged value of BQI, 0.85 or smaller in individual seat value of BQI, and approximately 5 dB or higher in strength factor at middle frequencies are proposed as design objectives to attain a high acoustical quality. It should be provided that other acoustical measures are also optimized. These target values will be very effective in studying room shape of halls, using scale models or computer models.

  16. An experimental study on resonance of oscillating air/vapor bubbles in water using a two-frequency acoustic apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaka, K.

    2003-05-01

    A two-frequency acoustic apparatus is employed to study the growth behavior of vapor-saturated bubbles driven in a volumetric mode. A unique feature of the apparatus is its capability of trapping a bubble by an ultrasonic standing wave while independently driving it into oscillations by a second lower-frequency acoustic wave. It is observed that the growing vapor bubbles exhibit a periodic shape transition between the volumetric and shape modes due to resonant coupling. In order to explain this observation, we performed an experimental investigation on resonant coupling of air bubbles and obtained the following results: First, the induced shape oscillations are actually a mixed mode that contains the volume component, thus, vapor bubbles can grow while they exhibit shape oscillations. Second, the acoustically levitated bubbles are deformed and therefore, degeneracy in resonant frequency is partially removed. As a result, the vapor bubbles exhibit the shape oscillations in both the axisymmetric mode and asymmetric (three-dimensional) modes. Nonlinear effects in addition to the frequency shift and split due to deformation creates overlapping of the coupling ranges for different modes, which leads to the continuous shape oscillations above a certain bubble radius as the bubble grows.

  17. A spatiotemporally controllable chemical gradient generator via acoustically oscillating sharp-edge structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Chan, Chung Yu; Li, Peng; Nama, Nitesh; Xie, Yuliang; Wei, Cheng-Hsin; Chen, Yuchao; Ahmed, Daniel; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-11-01

    The ability to generate stable, spatiotemporally controllable concentration gradients is critical for resolving the dynamics of cellular response to a chemical microenvironment. Here we demonstrate an acoustofluidic gradient generator based on acoustically oscillating sharp-edge structures, which facilitates in a step-wise fashion the rapid mixing of fluids to generate tunable, dynamic chemical gradients. By controlling the driving voltage of a piezoelectric transducer, we demonstrated that the chemical gradient profiles can be conveniently altered (spatially controllable). By adjusting the actuation time of the piezoelectric transducer, moreover, we generated pulsatile chemical gradients (temporally controllable). With these two characteristics combined, we have developed a spatiotemporally controllable gradient generator. The applicability and biocompatibility of our acoustofluidic gradient generator are validated by demonstrating the migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) in response to a generated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gradient, and by preserving the viability of HMVEC-d cells after long-term exposure to an acoustic field. Our device features advantages such as simple fabrication and operation, compact and biocompatible device, and generation of spatiotemporally tunable gradients. PMID:26338516

  18. Measuring Neutrino Oscillations with Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2007-10-26

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided crucial information on the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  19. Helioseismic measurement of solar torsional oscillations.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, S V; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Schou, J; Strakhov, V N; Thompson, M J

    2002-04-01

    Bands of slower and faster rotation, the so-called torsional oscillations, are observed at the Sun's surface to migrate in latitude over the 11-year solar cycle. Here, we report on the temporal variations of the Sun's internal rotation from solar p-mode frequencies obtained over nearly 6 years by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite. The entire solar convective envelope appears to be involved in the torsional oscillations, with phase propagating poleward and equatorward from midlatitudes at all depths throughout the convective envelope. PMID:11935019

  20. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

  1. Picosecond acoustics in vegetal cells: non invasive in vitro measurements at a sub-cell scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audoin, Bertrand; Rossignol, Clément; Chigarev, Nikolay; Ducousso, Mathieu; Forget, Guillaume; Guillemot, Fabien; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    A 100 fs laser pulse passes through a single transparent cell and is absorbed at the surface of a metallic substrate. Picosecond acoustic waves are generated and propagate through the cell in contact with the metal. Interaction of the high frequency acoustic pulse with a probe laser light gives rise to stimulated Brillouin oscillations. The measurements are thus made with lasers for both the opto-acoustic generation and the acousto-optic detection. The technique offers perspectives for single cell imaging. The in plane resolution is limited by the pump and probe spot sizes, i.e ˜1 μm, and the in depth resolution is provided by the acoustic frequencies, typically in the GHz range. The effect of the technique on cell safety is discussed. Experiments achieved in vegetal cells illustrate reproducibility and sensitivity of the measurements. The acoustic responses of cell organelles are significantly different. The results support the potentialities of the hypersonic non invasive technique in the fields of bio-engineering and medicine.

  2. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  3. Acoustic containerless experiment system: A non-contact surface tension measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.; Barmatz, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES) was flown on STS 41-B in February 1984 and was scheduled to be reflown in 1986. The primary experiment that was to be conducted with the ACES module was the containerless melting and processing of a fluoride glass sample. A second experiment that was to be conducted was the verification of a non-contact surface tension measurement technique using the molten glass sample. The ACES module consisted of a three-axis acoustic positioning module that was inside an electric furnace capable of heating the system above the melting temperature of the sample. The acoustic module is able to hold the sample with acoustic forces in the center of the chamber and, in addition, has the capability of applying a modulating force on the sample along one axis of the chamber so that the molten sample or liquid drop could be driven into one of its normal oscillation modes. The acoustic module could also be adjusted so that it could place a torque on the molten drop and cause the drop to rotate. In the ACES, a modulating frequency was applied to the drop and swept through a range of frequencies that would include the n = 2 mode. A maximum amplitude of the drop oscillation would indicate when resonance was reached and from that data the surface tension could be calculated. For large viscosity samples, a second technique for measuring surface tension was developed. The results of the ACES experiment and some of the problems encountered during the actual flight of the experiment will be discussed.

  4. The Effect of Shape Mode Oscillations on the Particle Scavenging Efficiency of Water Droplets Using Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizzee, J.; Saylor, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of drop oscillations on the scavenging of solid particles is studied using an ultrasonic transducer to levitate a water droplet in an airflow of particles. Shape mode oscillations are induced in the drop by modulating the acoustic field used for levitation. The effect of oscillation frequency, the oscillation amplitude, and the drop diameter on the scavenging of particles is presented. The particle diameters are on the order of 1μm and the drop diameters are on the order of 1mm. Although single droplets are studied here, the application of interest is improved scavenging of particles by spray drops. Specifically, improving the elimination of coal dust particles from mines using waters sprays excited ultrasonically is of interest.

  5. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  6. Enthalpy of sublimation as measured using a silicon oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, Hamza; Pomeroy, J. M.

    In this study, we report the enthalpy of sublimation of common gases (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, krypton, xenon, and water vapor) using a large area silicon oscillator with a sub-ng (~0.027 ng/cm2) mass sensitivity. The double paddle oscillator design enables high frequency stability (17 ppb) at cryogenic temperatures and provides a consistent technique for enthalpy measurements. The enthalpies of sublimation are derived from the rate of mass loss during programmed thermal desorption and are detected as a change in the resonance frequency of the self-tracking oscillator. These measured enthalpy values show excellent agreement with the accepted literature values.

  7. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  8. Taking advantage of acoustic inhomogeneities in photoacoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Anabela; Handschin, Charles; Riedinger, Christophe; Piasecki, Julien; Mensah, Serge; Litman, Amélie; Akhouayri, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic offers promising perspectives in probing and imaging subsurface optically absorbing structures in biological tissues. The optical uence absorbed is partly dissipated into heat accompanied with microdilatations that generate acoustic pressure waves, the intensity which is related to the amount of fluuence absorbed. Hence the photoacoustic signal measured offers access, at least potentially, to a local monitoring of the absorption coefficient, in 3D if tomographic measurements are considered. However, due to both the diffusing and absorbing nature of the surrounding tissues, the major part of the uence is deposited locally at the periphery of the tissue, generating an intense acoustic pressure wave that may hide relevant photoacoustic signals. Experimental strategies have been developed in order to measure exclusively the photoacoustic waves generated by the structure of interest (orthogonal illumination and detection). Temporal or more sophisticated filters (wavelets) can also be applied. However, the measurement of this primary acoustic wave carries a lot of information about the acoustically inhomogeneous nature of the medium. We propose a protocol that includes the processing of this primary intense acoustic wave, leading to the quantification of the surrounding medium sound speed, and, if appropriate to an acoustical parametric image of the heterogeneities. This information is then included as prior knowledge in the photoacoustic reconstruction scheme to improve the localization and quantification.

  9. Acoustic beamforming through a thin plate using vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Quentin; Picard, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to localize acoustic sources from the measurement of airborne induced vibrations of a thin structure. Targeted applications are the identification of acoustic sources through a thin wall, with a potential filtration of the incident field, which may be of practical interest, for instance, when identifying exterior acoustic sources from the inside of a moving vehicle. Two methods are coupled here to achieve this purpose: the Force Analysis Technique (FAT), used to identify the parietal pressure field exciting the thin structure from vibration measurements, and beamforming, used for the localization of acoustic sources from the (FAT-)identified parietal pressure. The coupling of the two methods is studied first from a theoretical point of view, and an experimental proof of concept is then presented, showing the feasibility and relevance of the proposed approach. PMID:26093428

  10. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  11. Electrical Measurement of Biological Oscillations in Unicellular Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaever, Ivar; Linton, Michael; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Male, Tone

    1997-03-01

    Many different rhythms or oscillations exists in biological systems; the circadian rhythm is probably the best known, but other oscillations are also common. The slimemold Physarum is a classical example of ultradian oscillations occurring in a single multinucleated cell, and the period is a few minutes long. It is also reasonable well known that oscillations occur in yeast with a periods of a few minutes These oscillations result from the action of a single allosteric enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. We have recently discovered a new oscillating system in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells that have a period of 2-3 hours, and at present the origin of these oscillations is unknown. All these systems have been studied for the first time using a biosensor that measures impedance changes caused by mammalian cells and is referred to as Electrical Cell-surface Impedance Sensing or ECIS for short. The characteristic behavior of these three systems will be contrasted and discussed in detail. In particular we will focus on how the oscillations can be induced, how long they persists, and finally the stability of the observed frequencies.

  12. Interpreting Torsional Oscillator Measurements: Effect of Shear Modulus and Supersolidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppy, John D.; Mi, Xiao; Justin, Alexander; Mueller, Erich J.

    2012-08-01

    The torsional oscillator is the chief instrument for investigating supersolidity in solid 4He. These oscillators can be sensitive to the elastic properties of the solid helium, which show anomalies over the same range of temperature in which the supersolid phenomenon appears. In this report we present a detailed study of the influence of the elastic properties of the solid on the periods of torsional oscillators for the various designs that have been commonly employed in supersolid measurements. We show how to design an oscillator which measures supersolidity, and how to design one which predominantly measures elasticity. We describe the use of multiple frequency TOs for the separation of the elastic and supersolid phenomena.

  13. Classroom acoustics in Omaha, Nebraska: Measurements and outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.; Bradley, David T.

    2002-11-01

    This project collected data detailing the current status of classroom acoustics while simultaneously increasing awareness of educational acoustics and exposure to acoustical engineering research in local schools. In 8 Omaha-area schools, 2 acoustical aspects which directly influence speech intelligibility were measured and studied: (1) background noise levels resulting from a building's mechanical systems; and (2) reverberation times within the classroom. Prior to each measurement session, a presentation on good classroom acoustic principles was presented to the teacher and students in that classroom. Subsequently, the teacher and students assisted the principal investigator and research assistants in the measurement of the acoustic data from their classroom. In total, 13 classrooms were studied, with the assistance of 425 middle and high school students in 14 different classes. The background noise results have been associated with commonly used noise criterion curves. Results are compared to recommended background noise levels and reverberation times suggested by ANSI standard S12.60-2002. The resulting database provides knowledge on the current status of classrooms in Omaha, and may be indicative of classroom situations across the midwestern United States.

  14. Static and oscillatory response measurements of acoustically levitated foam drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

    2002-11-01

    Small samples of aqueous foam of varying gas volume fraction are acoustically levitated in an ultrasonic field. The drops are subjected to both static and time-varying pressures. Normal mode frequencies and inferred rheological properties (yield stress, shear modulus) for foams as a function of gas volume fraction will be presented. We compare the experimental results to recent theoretical descriptions of such modal oscillations [McDaniel and Holt, Phys. Rev. E 61, 2204 (2000); McDaniel, Akhatov, and Holt, Phys Fluids 14, 1886 (2002)]. [Work supported by NASA.

  15. Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

    2009-12-01

    Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

  16. REMOVING BARYON-ACOUSTIC-OSCILLATION PEAK SHIFTS WITH LOCAL DENSITY TRANSFORMS

    SciTech Connect

    McCullagh, Nuala; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2013-01-20

    Large-scale bulk flows in the universe distort the initial density field, broadening the baryon-acoustic-oscillation (BAO) feature that was imprinted when baryons were strongly coupled to photons. Additionally, there is a small shift inward in the peak of the conventional overdensity correlation function, a mass-weighted statistic. This shift occurs when high-density peaks move toward each other. We explore whether this shift can be removed by applying to the density field a transform (such as a logarithm) that gives fairer statistical weight to fluctuations in underdense regions. Using configuration-space perturbation theory in the Zel'dovich approximation, we find that the log-density correlation function shows a much smaller inward shift in the position of the BAO peak at low redshift than is seen in the overdensity correlation function. We also show that if the initial, Lagrangian density of matter parcels could be estimated at their Eulerian positions, giving a displaced-initial-density field, its peak shift would be even smaller. In fact, a transformed field that accentuates underdensities, such as the reciprocal of the density, pushes the peak the other way, outward. In our model, these shifts in the peak position can be attributed to shift terms, involving the derivative of the linear correlation function, that entirely vanish in this displaced-initial-density field.

  17. A Detection of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the Distribution of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the correlation function of 79,091 galaxy clusters in the redshift region of z≤slant 0.5, selected from the WH15 cluster catalog. With a weight of cluster mass, a significant baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is detected on the correlation function with a significance of 3.7σ . By fitting the correlation function with a ΛCDM model curve, we find {D}v(z=0.331){r}d{fid}/{r}d=1261.5+/- 48 Mpc, which is consistent with the Planck 2015 cosmology. We find that the correlation function of the higher mass sub-sample shows a higher amplitude at small scales of r\\lt 80 {h}-1 {{Mpc}}, which is consistent with our previous result. The two-dimensional correlation function of this large sample of galaxy clusters shows a faint BAO ring with a significance of 1.8σ , from which we find that the distance scale parameters on directions across and along the line of sight are {α }σ =1.02+/- 0.06 and {α }π =0.94+/- 0.10, respectively.

  18. Small scale aspects of warm dark matter: Power spectra and acoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, Daniel; Wu Jun

    2011-02-15

    We provide a semianalytic derivation of approximate evolution equations for density perturbations of warm dark matter candidates that decoupled while relativistic with arbitrary distribution functions, their solutions at small scales, and a simple numerical implementation that yields their transfer functions and power spectra. Density perturbations evolve through three stages: radiation domination when the particle is relativistic and nonrelativistic and matter domination. An early integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect during the first stage leads to an enhancement of density perturbations and a plateau in the transfer function for k < or approx. k{sub fs}, the free-streaming wave vector. An effective fluid description emerges at small scales which includes the effects of free streaming in initial conditions and inhomogeneities. The transfer function features warm dark matter acoustic oscillations at scales k > or approx. 2k{sub fs}. A simple analytic interpolation of the power spectra between large and small scales and a numerical implementation valid for arbitrary distribution functions is provided. As an application we study the power spectra for two models of sterile neutrinos with m{approx}keV produced nonresonantly and compare our results to those obtained from Boltzmann codes.

  19. Quantitative measurement of acoustic pressure in the focal zone of acoustic lens-line focusing using the Schlieren method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xueping; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Qian, Menglu; Han, Qingbang

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a theory and method for quantitative measurement of the acoustic lens-line focusing ultrasonic (ALLFU) field in its focal spot size and acoustic pressure using the Schlieren imaging technique. Using Fourier transformation, the relationship between the brightness of the Schlieren image and the acoustic pressure was introduced. The ALLFU field was simulated using finite element method and compared with the Schlieren acoustic field image. The measurement of the focal spot size was performed using the Schlieren method. The acoustic pressure in the focal zone of the ALLFU field and the transducer-transmitting voltage response were quantitatively determined by measuring the diffraction light fringe intensity. The results show that the brightness of the Schlieren image is a linear function of the acoustic intensity when the acousto-optic interaction length remains constant and the acoustic field is weak. PMID:27139646

  20. Field-Deployable Acoustic Digital Systems for Noise Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Wright, Kenneth D.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Smith, Charlie D.

    2000-01-01

    Langley Research Center (LaRC) has for years been a leader in field acoustic array measurement technique. Two field-deployable digital measurement systems have been developed to support acoustic research programs at LaRC. For several years, LaRC has used the Digital Acoustic Measurement System (DAMS) for measuring the acoustic noise levels from rotorcraft and tiltrotor aircraft. Recently, a second system called Remote Acquisition and Storage System (RASS) was developed and deployed for the first time in the field along with DAMS system for the Community Noise Flight Test using the NASA LaRC-757 aircraft during April, 2000. The test was performed at Airborne Airport in Wilmington, OH to validate predicted noise reduction benefits from alternative operational procedures. The test matrix was composed of various combinations of altitude, cutback power, and aircraft weight. The DAMS digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone site and can be located up to 2000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 10 microphones is recorded on a Jaz disk and is analyzed post-test by microcomputer system. The RASS digitizes and stores acoustic inputs at the microphone site that can be located up to three miles from the base station and can compose a 3 mile by 3 mile array of microphones. 16-bit digitized data from the microphones is stored on removable Jaz disk and is transferred through a high speed array to a very large high speed permanent storage device. Up to 30 microphones can be utilized in the array. System control and monitoring is accomplished via Radio Frequency (RF) link. This paper will present a detailed description of both systems, along with acoustic data analysis from both systems.

  1. Resonance method of measuring shear viscoelastic properties of liquid media based on excitation of torsional oscillations in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esipov, I. B.; Zozulya, O. M.; Fokin, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    Possibilities of using torsional oscillations for measuring viscoelastic properties of liquids are discussed. The theory of torsional oscillations of an elastic tube filled with the media to be investigated possessing viscosity and shear elasticity is developed. It is shown that to determine a complex shear modulus it is sufficient to determine the resonance frequency and Q-factor of torsional oscillations. An experimental installation and the results of measurements of viscoelastic modulus of glycerin and oil of one oilfield within the temperature range from -10° to 60°C are given. The experimental installation allows measuring a viscoelastic modulus within the range of acoustic logging frequencies (10-20 kHz). The obtained results are compared with the results of rheometric measurements.

  2. Effect of Helium Elasticity on Torsional Oscillator Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Balibar, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Kim and Chan performed a torsional oscillator measurement of the rotational inertia of solid helium-4. They found frequency changes which were interpreted in terms of a non-classical rotational inertia, that is a partial superfluidity or "supersolidity" of solid helium-4. Since then there have been many further studies using various versions of this technique. One important question that arises in these experiments is the possible effect on the oscillator frequency of changes in the elasticity of the solid helium; this can produce a change in frequency that adds to any effect due to superfluidity. In this paper we give a general discussion of the effect of changes in elasticity on the oscillator frequency and consider how the magnitude of the effect is influenced by the oscillator design. Our results should help make it possible to discriminate between frequency changes due to changes in elasticity and changes due to supersolidity.

  3. Resolving the source of the solar acoustic oscillations: What will be possible with DKIST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    The solar p-modes are likely excited by small-scale convective dynamics in the solar photosphere, but the detailed source properties are not known. Theoretical models differ and observations are yet unable to differentiate between them. Resolving the underlying source events is more than a curiosity. It is important to the veracity of global helioseismic measurements (including local spectral methods such as ring diagram analysis) because global p-mode line shapes and thus accurate frequency determinations depend critically on the relationship between intensity and velocity during the excitation events. It is also fundamental to improving the accuracy of the local time-distance measurements because in these kernel calculations depend on knowledge of the source profile and the properties of the excitation noise. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will have the spatial resolution and spectral range needed to resolve the solar acoustic excitation events in both time and space (horizontally and with height) using multi-wavelength observations. Inversions to determine the dynamic and thermodynamic evolution of the discrete small-scale convective events that serve as acoustic sources may also be possible, though determination of the pressure fluctuations associated with the sources is a challenge. We describe the DKIST capabilities anticipated and the preliminary work needed to prepare for them.

  4. Stabilization and feedback control of weak measurement monitored quantum oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Du Toit, Pieter; Burd, Shaun; Konrad, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We study feedback control of quantum oscillators, monitored through periodic weak measurement. By implementing reversals of measurement perturbations based on a Bayesian estimate of the state dynamics, we demonstrate suppressed measurement noise leading to greater oscillator stability and improved quantum feedback control. The work in this paper was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa through Grant No. 93602 as well as an award by the United States Airforce Office of Scientific Research, Award No. FA9550-14-1-0151.

  5. Acoustic measurement study 40 by 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An acoustical study conducted during the period from September 1, 1973 to April 30, 1974 measured sound pressure levels and vibration amplitudes inside and outside of the subsonic tunnel and on the tunnel structure. A discussion of the technical aspects of the study, the field measurement and data reduction procedures, and results are presentd, and conclusions resulting from the study which bear upon near field and far field tunnel noise, upon the tunnel as an acoustical enclosure, and upon the sources of noise within the tunnel drive system are given.

  6. Acoustical measurement of the Salt Lake Mormon Tabernacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, Sarah; Leishman, Timothy W.

    2001-05-01

    An acoustical survey of the Salt Lake Mormon Tabernacle has been performed to assess the behavior of the hall in its current state. The tabernacle is a well-known historical building with a large elongated dome ceiling. This paper discusses the measurements used to characterize the hall. Several parameters derived from omnidirectional, directional, and binaural impulse response measurements are presented. Color maps of the parameters over audience seating areas reveal their spatial variations. These maps and the statistical properties of the parameters aid in clarifying the acoustical characteristics and anomalies of the hall.

  7. Measurement of thin films using very long acoustic wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, G. T.; Nomura, H.; Adachi, H.; Kamakura, T.

    2013-12-01

    A procedure for measuring material thickness by means of necessarily long acoustic wavelengths is examined. The approach utilizes a temporal phase lag caused by the impulse time of wave momentum transferred through a thin layer that is much denser than its surrounding medium. In air, it is predicted that solid or liquid layers below approximately 1/2000 of the acoustic wavelength will exhibit a phase shift with an arctangent functional dependence on thickness and layer density. The effect is verified for thin films on the scale of 10 μm using audible frequency sound (7 kHz). Soap films as thin as 100 nm are then measured using 40 kHz air ultrasound. The method's potential for imaging applications is demonstrated by combining the approach with near-field holography, resulting in reconstructions with sub-wavelength resolution in both the depth and lateral directions. Potential implications at very high and very low acoustic frequencies are discussed.

  8. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  9. Measurement of Atomic Oscillator Strength Distribution from the Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2008-10-22

    Saturation technique has been employed to measure the oscillator strength distribution in spectra of helium lithium using an electrical discharge cell a thermionic diode ion detector respectively. The photoabsorption cross sections in the discrete or bound region (commonly known as f-values) have been determined form the Rydberg series accessed from a particular excited state calibrating it with the absolute value of the photoionization cross section measured at the ionization threshold. The extracted discrete f-values merge into the oscillator strength densities, estimated from the measured photoionization cross sections at different photon energies above the first ionization threshold. The experimental data on helium and lithium show continuity between the discrete and the continuous oscillator strengths across the ionization threshold.

  10. Measurements of High-Degree Solar Oscillation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, K. T.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Hill, F.

    1994-12-01

    We present results obtained from full-disk, 1000times 1024 pixel, Ca II intensity images of the Sun collected with the High-L Helioseismometer (HLH). Our measurement of p- and f-mode oscillation frequencies over the frequency range 1.8<=nu <=5.0 mHz and the spherical harmonic degree range 100<=l<=1200 from 22-25 June 1993 data represents an improvement over previous measurements. We are able to differentiate among the predictions of several solar models, thus constraining physical models of the solar convection zone. We also include recent splitting and frequency results from data collected during the entire month of June 1994. The purpose of the HLH research program is to measure high-degree solar oscillation parameters for the remainder of this decade in support of the Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager collaboration, which is part of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, a joint ESA-NASA satellite mission.

  11. Acoustic Phase Measurements from Volume Scatter in the Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Robert Delmar

    A primary goal of this thesis has been to demonstrate that stable, useful measurements of the orientation of the acoustic signal vector as a function of range and time can be obtained from ocean backscatter, and that this orientation, or acoustic phase, can be related to the local sound speed distribution. Consistent and useful measurement of absolute phase depends upon the positions of individual scatterers, which are normally random and sparse relative to the acoustic wavelength. This difficulty has been overcome by coherent super-position of echoes from successive transmissions, such that the effective density of acoustic targets progressively increases as the summation proceeds. The theoretical basis of this type of coherent processing has been developed and examined in the limiting case, in which it approximates a scatterer continuum for which an analytic expression has been found. The theory provides fundamental insights to the behaviour of both the amplitude and phase of volume scatter. As the ratio of coherent to incoherent signal increases with successive superposition of the echoes (coherent processing), the phase statistics evolve from a uniform to a nearly Gaussian distribution. Once the phase signal is bounded to within +/-45 ^circ, the basic requirement for a coherent 'volume mirror' has been met and reliable interferometric estimates are possible. The experimental work used a bistatic configuration with a multi-beam projector and narrow beam hydrophone operating at 215 kHz. The results confirm the theoretical concepts and demonstrate that within the quite limited range of environmental conditions that were studied, the coherently processed acoustic signals are consistent with independent measurements of the evolving sound speed profile. The main contribution of this thesis has been to lay a firm theoretical and experimental foundation for the use of volume backscatter in acoustic interferometer devices. Based on these results, the potential for new

  12. Quantum nondemolition measurement by pulsed oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Kai-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Paramagnetic Faraday rotation is a quantum nondemolition measurement method that can generate spin squeezing and improve the measurement precision of a collective spin component beyond the standard quantum limit. In practice, a constant bias magnetic field is used to drive the spin precessing at sufficiently high frequency in order to lift the signal out of low-frequency technical noises. However, continuous measurement of precessing spins introduces back-action noise (BAN) due to the light-shift effect. Two types of back-action-evading (BAE) measurement of collective spin components have been demonstrated recently: continuous measurement of a two-ensemble system and stroboscopic measurement of a single ensemble. Here we propose another single ensemble BAE measurement by periodically modulating the bias field with π pulses. Our theoretical calculation shows that under experimental settings where pulse-field modulation does not introduce significant decoherences, the proposed method can suppress the BAN and generate spin squeezing faster than the stroboscopic one at the same probe light power. Moreover, if it is combined with synchronous stroboscopic probing, light-shift BAN can be completely eliminated.

  13. The Correlation Function of Galaxy Clusters and Detection of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.; Sun, L.; Zhan, H.

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the correlation function of 13,904 galaxy clusters of z <= 0.4 selected from the cluster catalog of Wen et al. The correlation function can be fitted with a power-law model ξ(r) = (r/R 0)-γ on the scales of 10 h -1 Mpc <= r <= 50 h -1 Mpc, with a larger correlation length of R 0 = 18.84 ± 0.27 h -1 Mpc for clusters with a richness of R >= 15 and a smaller length of R 0 = 16.15 ± 0.13 h -1 Mpc for clusters with a richness of R >= 5. The power-law index of γ = 2.1 is found to be almost the same for all cluster subsamples. A pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak is detected at r ~ 110 h -1 Mpc with a significance of ~1.9σ. By analyzing the correlation function in the range of 20 h -1 Mpc <= r <= 200 h -1 Mpc, we find that the constraints on distance parameters are Dv (zm = 0.276) = 1077 ± 55(1σ) Mpc and h = 0.73 ± 0.039(1σ), which are consistent with the cosmology derived from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data. However, the BAO signal from the cluster sample is stronger than expected and leads to a rather low matter density Ω m h 2 = 0.093 ± 0.0077(1σ), which deviates from the WMAP7 result by more than 3σ. The correlation function of the GMBCG cluster sample is also calculated and our detection of the BAO feature is confirmed.

  14. THE CORRELATION FUNCTION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS AND DETECTION OF BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, T.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.; Sun, L.; Zhan, H.

    2012-04-10

    We calculate the correlation function of 13,904 galaxy clusters of z {<=} 0.4 selected from the cluster catalog of Wen et al. The correlation function can be fitted with a power-law model {xi}(r) = (r/R{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}} on the scales of 10 h{sup -1} Mpc {<=} r {<=} 50 h{sup -1} Mpc, with a larger correlation length of R{sub 0} = 18.84 {+-} 0.27 h{sup -1} Mpc for clusters with a richness of R {>=} 15 and a smaller length of R{sub 0} = 16.15 {+-} 0.13 h{sup -1} Mpc for clusters with a richness of R {>=} 5. The power-law index of {gamma} = 2.1 is found to be almost the same for all cluster subsamples. A pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak is detected at r {approx} 110 h{sup -1} Mpc with a significance of {approx}1.9{sigma}. By analyzing the correlation function in the range of 20 h{sup -1} Mpc {<=} r {<=} 200 h{sup -1} Mpc, we find that the constraints on distance parameters are D{sub v} (z{sub m} = 0.276) = 1077 {+-} 55(1{sigma}) Mpc and h = 0.73 {+-} 0.039(1{sigma}), which are consistent with the cosmology derived from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data. However, the BAO signal from the cluster sample is stronger than expected and leads to a rather low matter density {Omega}{sub m} h{sup 2} = 0.093 {+-} 0.0077(1{sigma}), which deviates from the WMAP7 result by more than 3{sigma}. The correlation function of the GMBCG cluster sample is also calculated and our detection of the BAO feature is confirmed.

  15. Distinguishing interacting dark energy from wCDM with CMB, lensing, and baryon acoustic oscillation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väliviita, Jussi; Palmgren, Elina

    2015-07-01

    We employ the Planck 2013 CMB temperature anisotropy and lensing data, and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain a phenomenological wCDM model, where dark matter and dark energy interact. We assume time-dependent equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treat dark matter and dark energy as fluids whose energy-exchange rate is proportional to the dark-matter density. The CMB data alone leave a strong degeneracy between the interaction rate and the physical CDM density parameter today, ωc, allowing a large interaction rate |Γ| ~ H0. However, as has been known for a while, the BAO data break this degeneracy. Moreover, we exploit the CMB lensing potential likelihood, which probes the matter perturbations at redshift z ~ 2 and is very sensitive to the growth of structure, and hence one of the tools for discerning between the ΛCDM model and its alternatives. However, we find that in the non-phantom models (wde>-1), the constraints remain unchanged by the inclusion of the lensing data and consistent with zero interaction, -0.14 < Γ/H0 < 0.02 at 95% CL. On the contrary, in the phantom models (wde<-1), energy transfer from dark energy to dark matter is moderately favoured over the non-interacting model; 0-0.57 < Γ/H0 < -0.1 at 95% CL with CMB+BAO, while addition of the lensing data shifts this to -0.46 < Γ/H0 < -0.01.

  16. Experimentally Measured Radiative Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths in Neutral Vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.; Nilsson, H.; Engström, L.; Hartman, H.; Lundberg, H.; Belmonte, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    We report a new study of the V i atom using a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence and Fourier transform spectroscopy that contains newly measured radiative lifetimes for 25 levels between 24,648 cm‑1 and 37,518 cm‑1 and oscillator strengths for 208 lines between 3040 and 20000 Å from 39 upper energy levels. Thirteen of these oscillator strengths have not been reported previously. This work was conducted independently of the recent studies of neutral vanadium lifetimes and oscillator strengths carried out by Den Hartog et al. and Lawler et al., and thus serves as a means to verify those measurements. Where our data overlap with their data, we generally find extremely good agreement in both level lifetimes and oscillator strengths. However, we also find evidence that Lawler et al. have systematically underestimated oscillator strengths for lines in the region of 9000 ± 100 Å. We suggest a correction of 0.18 ± 0.03 dex for these values to bring them into agreement with our results and those of Whaling et al. We also report new measurements of hyperfine structure splitting factors for three odd levels of V i lying between 24,700 and 28,400 cm‑1.

  17. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-10-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters.

  18. PROGRESS IN ACOUSTIC SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT MEASUREMENT RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automatic acoustic pulse-echo distance measuring device (Field SedBed Monitor) was developed to collect bed height records in the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed. The bed material at the study site is composed of a mixture of sand and gravel with a median size of 8.3 mm. Using bed height re...

  19. SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT MEASUREMENTS IN LABORATORY FLUMES USING ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated measurement of suspended sediments is crucial to the study of sediment transport. The short duration, high-intensity flows that are responsible for a large fraction of sediment movement are best observed by continuous monitoring systems. Acoustic systems are ideal for continuous monitori...

  20. Laboratory comparisons of acoustic and optical sensors for microbubble measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ming Yang; Todoroff, Douglas; Cartmill, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent comparison between three microbubble size spectrum measurement systems. These systems are the light-scattering bubble counter, the photographic bubble-imaging system, and the acoustic resonator array. Good agreement was formed among these three systems over the bubble size range appropriate for each system.

  1. Acoustical Measurements of Selected Intonation Contours of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, John M.

    Recent studies of rising intonation contours in French, in particular the acoustical differences that serve to distinguish Yes/No questions from other rising intonations are reviewed. The preliminary results of a pilot study of rising intonations in French, in which average curves were obtained from spectrographic measurements of fundamental…

  2. Measurement of the total acoustic output power of HITU transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenderka, Klaus-V.; Beissner, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    The majority of High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) applications use strongly focused ultrasound fields generating very high local intensities in the focal region. The metrology of these high-power ultrasound fields is a challenge for the established measurement procedures and devices. This paper describes the results of measurements by means of the radiation force for a total acoustic output power up to 400 W at 1.5 MHz and up to 200 W at 2.45 MHz. For this purpose, a radiation force balance set-up was adapted for the determination of large acoustic output powers. For two types of HITU transducers, the relationship between the total acoustic output power and the applied net electrical power was determined at close transducer-target distance. Further, dependence of the measured electro-acoustic radiation conductance on the transducer-target distance was investigated at reduced power levels, considering the appearance of focal anomalies. Concluding, a list of the main uncertainty contributions, and an estimate of the uncertainty for the used radiation force balance set-up is given for measurements at high power levels.

  3. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  4. Phase behaviour and phase separation kinetics measurement using acoustic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khammar, M.; Shaw, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    Speed of sound and acoustic wave attenuation are sensitive to fluid phase composition and to the presence of liquid-liquid interfaces. In this work, the use of an acoustic array comprising 64 elements as a non-intrusive sensor for liquid-liquid interface, phase separation kinetics measurement in bulk fluids, and local composition measurement in porous media is illustrated. Three benchmark examples: the phase behaviour of methanol + mixed hexanes and methanol + heptane mixtures at 25.0 °C and 1 bar, and Athabasca bitumen + heptane in a synthetic silica porous medium at 22.5 °C and 1 bar, illustrate the accuracy of liquid-liquid interface and potential research and industrial applications of the technique. Liquid-liquid interfaces can be detected independently using both speed of sound and acoustic wave attenuation measurements. The precision of the interface location measurement is 300 μm. As complete scans can be performed at a rate of 1 Hz, phase separation kinetics and diffusion of liquids within porous media are readily tracked. The technique is expected to find application where the fluids or porous media are opaque to visible light and where other imaging techniques are not readily applied, or are too costly. A current limitation is that the acoustic probes must be cooled to less than 315 K in order for them to operate.

  5. A field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, David L.; Wright, Kenneth D., II; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    A field deployable digital acoustic measurement system was developed to support acoustic research programs at the Langley Research Center. The system digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone, which can be located up to 1000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage, and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 12 microphones is recorded on high density 8mm tape and is analyzed post-test by a microcomputer system. Synchronous and nonsynchronous sampling is available with maximum sample rates of 12,500 and 40,000 samples per second respectively. The high density tape storage system is capable of storing 5 gigabytes of data at transfer rates up to 1 megabyte per second. System overall dynamic range exceeds 83 dB.

  6. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-15

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10{sup −9} at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10{sup −11} τ{sup −1/2} up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  7. Picosecond acoustics in vegetal cells: non-invasive in vitro measurements at a sub-cell scale.

    PubMed

    Audoin, B; Rossignol, C; Chigarev, N; Ducousso, M; Forget, G; Guillemot, F; Durrieu, M C

    2010-02-01

    A 100 fs laser pulse passes through a single transparent cell and is absorbed at the surface of a metallic substrate. Picosecond acoustic waves are generated and propagate through the cell in contact with the metal. Interaction of the high frequency acoustic pulse with a probe laser light gives rise to Brillouin oscillations. The measurements are thus made with lasers for both the opto-acoustic generation and the acousto-optic detection, and acoustic frequencies as high as 11 GHz can be detected, as reported in this paper. The technique offers perspectives for single cell imaging. The in-plane resolution is limited by the pump and probe spot sizes, i.e. approximately 1 microm, and the in-depth resolution is provided by the acoustic frequencies, typically in the GHz range. The effect of the technique on cell safety is discussed. Experiments achieved in vegetal cells illustrate the reproducibility and sensitivity of the measurements. The acoustic responses of cell organelles are significantly different. The results support the potentialities of the hypersonic non-invasive technique in the fields of bio-engineering and medicine. PMID:19879618

  8. Measurement of rolling friction by a damped oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayan, M.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring rolling friction is proposed. The method is mechanically simple. It is based on an oscillator in a uniform magnetic field and does not involve any mechanical forces except for the measured friction. The measured pickup voltage is Fourier analyzed and yields the friction spectral response. The proposed experiment is not tailored for a particular case. Instead, various modes of operation, suitable to different experimental conditions, are discussed.

  9. Broadband acoustic scattering measurements of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, J A; Houston, B H; Saniga, M; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Dey, S; Kraus, L; Carin, L

    2008-02-01

    In order to evaluate the potential for detection and identification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) by exploiting their structural acoustic response, we carried out broadband monostatic scattering measurements over a full 360 degrees on UXO's (two mortar rounds, an artillery shell, and a rocket warhead) and false targets (a cinder block and a large rock). The measurement band, 1-140 kHz, includes a low frequency structural acoustics region in which the wavelengths are comparable to or larger than the target characteristic dimensions. In general, there are aspects that provide relatively high target strength levels ( approximately -10 to -15 dB), and from our experience the targets should be detectable in this structural acoustics band in most acoustic environments. The rigid body scattering was also calculated for one UXO in order to highlight the measured scattering features involving elastic responses. The broadband scattering data should be able to support feature-based separation of UXO versus false targets and identification of various classes of UXO as well. PMID:18247878

  10. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  11. Optimal Extraction of Collective Oscillations from Unreliable Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Kantz, Holger

    2016-03-01

    We present a method that facilitates a phase description of collective, irregular-oscillatory dynamics from unreliable multichannel recordings. The collective oscillations may be represented in each channel with fluctuating amplitude, phase offsets, and substantial amounts of measurement noise. Our method performs well under such realistic conditions, as we exemplify with collective brain rhythms in multichannel electroencephalogram recordings.

  12. Particle Mesh Simulations of the Lyα Forest and the Signature of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Martin; Pope, Adrian; Carlson, Jordan; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Fasel, Patricia; Daniel, David; Lukic, Zarija

    2010-04-01

    We present a set of ultra-large particle-mesh simulations of the Lyα forest targeted at understanding the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations in the inter-galactic medium. We use nine dark matter only simulations which can, for the first time, simultaneously resolve the Jeans scale of the intergalactic gas while covering the large volumes required to adequately sample the acoustic feature. Mock absorption spectra are generated using the fluctuating Gunn-Peterson approximation which have approximately correct flux probability density functions and small-scale power spectra. On larger scales, there is clear evidence in the redshift-space correlation function for an acoustic feature, which matches a linear theory template with constant bias. These spectra, which we make publicly available, can be used to test pipelines, plan future experiments, and model various physical effects. As an illustration, we discuss the basic properties of the acoustic signal in the forest, the scaling of errors with noise and source number density, modified statistics to treat mean flux evolution and mis-estimation, and non-gravitational sources such as fluctuations in the photoionizing background and temperature fluctuations due to He II reionization.

  13. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-15

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  14. Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.

    2003-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

  15. Accuracy of acoustic velocity metering systems for measurement of low velocity in open channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Curtis, R.E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) accuracy depends on equipment limitations, the accuracy of acoustic-path length and angle determination, and the stability of the mean velocity to acoustic-path velocity relation. Equipment limitations depend on path length and angle, transducer frequency, timing oscillator frequency, and signal-detection scheme. Typically, the velocity error from this source is about +or-1 to +or-10 mms/sec. Error in acoustic-path angle or length will result in a proportional measurement bias. Typically, an angle error of one degree will result in a velocity error of 2%, and a path-length error of one meter in 100 meter will result in an error of 1%. Ray bending (signal refraction) depends on path length and density gradients present in the stream. Any deviation from a straight acoustic path between transducer will change the unique relation between path velocity and mean velocity. These deviations will then introduce error in the mean velocity computation. Typically, for a 200-meter path length, the resultant error is less than one percent, but for a 1,000 meter path length, the error can be greater than 10%. Recent laboratory and field tests have substantiated assumptions of equipment limitations. Tow-tank tests of an AVM system with a 4.69-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of 9.3 mms/sec, and the field tests of an AVM system with a 20.5-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of a 4 mms/sec. (USGS)

  16. Acoustic measurements of a large cavity in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were made with inside and far-field microphones. Correlation of measured frequencies with available theories indicates that existing theories are applicable over a broader range than previously shown. The cavity configuration with a partial covering downstream amplified tonal intensities. The frequency of the tones depended on cavity size, not on cavity open area. Introducing upstream disturbances decreased the amplitude of the cavity tones.

  17. Mass flow rate measurement in abrasive jets using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantsiv, V.; Spelt, J. K.; Papini, M.

    2009-09-01

    The repeatability of abrasive jet machining operations is presently limited by fluctuations in the mass flow rate due to powder compaction, stratification and humidity effects. It was found that the abrasive mass flow rate for a typical abrasive jet micromachining setup could be determined by using data from the acoustic emission of the abrasive jet impacting a flat plate. Two methods for extracting the mass flow rate from the acoustic emission were developed and compared. In the first method, the number of particle impacts per unit time was determined by a direct count of peaks in the acoustic emission signal. The second method utilizes the power spectrum density of the acoustic emission in a specific frequency range. Both measures were found to correlate strongly with the mass flow rate measured by weighing samples of blasted powder for controlled time periods. It was found that the peak count method permits measurement of the average frequency of the impacts and the mass flow rate, but can only be applied to flow rates in which the impact frequency is approximately one order of magnitude less than the frequency of the target plate ringing. The power spectrum density method of signal processing is applicable to relatively fine powders and to flow rates at which the average impact frequency is of the same order of magnitude as that of the ringing due to the impact. The acoustic emission technique can be used to monitor particle flow variations over a wide range of time periods and provides a straightforward and accurate means of process control.

  18. Measurement of b_s oscillations at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Salamanna, G.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2006-09-01

    The first precise measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} - {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation frequency {Delta}m{sub s} with the CDFII experiment is summarized in this talk. The measurement is performed with 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the Fermilab Tevatron hadron collider. They find a signal consistent with flavor oscillations; the probability that such a signal is originated by random fluctuations is 0.2%. They measure {Delta}m{sub s} = 17.31{sub -0.18}{sup +0.33}(stat.) {+-} 0.07(syst.)ps{sup -1}. After a brief theoretical overview, the author describes the experimental technique and shows the results of the CDF analysis and the |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}| value we infer from this measurement.

  19. Deep Seafloor Acoustic Backscattering Measurements Using Sea Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moustier, Christian

    backscattered acoustic energy level as well as in the inferred roughness character between these areas, de Moustier J.A.S.A., submitted . Although these simple characteristics are insufficient to determine the nature of the seafloor surveyed, they represent additional clues to help understand the geological processes under investigation. Further insight into these processes is afforded by the qualitative measure of acoustic backscatter inherent to a gray scale side looking sonar display. Such displays have been created with Sea Beam acoustic data. They contain a wealth of information not available in the bathymetric contours and are expected to become a very valuable addition to the Sea Beam system.

  20. Lyman-tomography of Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations with Euclid: Probing Emissions and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations at z ≳ 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Helgason, K.

    2015-11-01

    The Euclid space mission, designed to probe evolution of the Dark Energy (DE), will map a large area of the sky at three adjacent near-IR filters, Y, J, and H. This coverage will also enable mapping source-subtracted cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations with unprecedented accuracy on sub-degree angular scales. Here, we propose methodology, using the Lyman-break tomography applied to the Euclid-based CIB maps, to accurately isolate the history of CIB emissions as a function of redshift from 10 ≲ z ≲ 20 and to identify the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) at those epochs. To identify the BAO signature, we would assemble individual CIB maps over conservatively large contiguous areas of ≳400 deg2. The method can isolate the CIB spatial spectrum by z to sub-percent statistical accuracy. We illustrate this with a specific model of CIB production at high z normalized to reproduce the measured Spitzer-based CIB fluctuation. We show that even if the latter contains only a small component from high-z sources, the amplitude of that component can be accurately isolated with the methodology proposed here and the BAO signatures at z ≳ 10 are recovered well from the CIB fluctuation spatial spectrum. Probing the BAO at those redshifts will be an important test of the underlying cosmological paradigm and would narrow the overall uncertainties on the evolution of cosmological parameters, including the DE. Similar methodology is applicable to the planned WFIRST mission, where we show that a possible fourth near-IR channel at ≥2 μm would be beneficial.

  1. REGARDING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT BARYONIC ACOUSTIC FEATURE IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY LUMINOUS RED GALAXY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kazin, Eyal A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scoccimarro, Roman; McBride, Cameron K.; Berlind, Andreas A.

    2010-08-20

    We analyze the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature in the two-point correlation function {xi} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16 < z < 0.47). By defining a narrow line-of-sight region, r{sub p} < 5.5 h {sup -1} Mpc, where r{sub p} is the transverse separation component, we measure a strong excess of clustering at {approx}110 h {sup -1} Mpc, as previously reported in the literature. We also test these results in an alternative coordinate system, by defining the line of sight as {theta} < 3{sup 0}, where {theta} is the opening angle. This clustering excess appears much stronger than the feature in the better-measured monopole. A fiducial {Lambda}CDM nonlinear model in redshift space predicts a much weaker signature. We use realistic mock catalogs to model the expected signal and noise. We find that the line-of-sight measurements can be explained well by our mocks as well as by a featureless {xi} = 0. We conclude that there is no convincing evidence that the strong clustering measurement is the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature. We also evaluate how detectable such a signal would be in the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) LRG volume. Mock LRG catalogs (z < 0.6) suggest that (1) the narrow line-of-sight cylinder and cone defined above probably will not reveal a detectable acoustic feature in BOSS; (2) a clustering measurement as high as that in the current sample can be ruled out (or confirmed) at a high confidence level using a BOSS-sized data set; (3) an analysis with wider angular cuts, which provide better signal-to-noise ratios, can nevertheless be used to compare line-of-sight and transverse distances, and thereby constrain the expansion rate H(z) and diameter distance D{sub A}(z).

  2. Cross-spectrum measurement of thermal-noise limited oscillators.

    PubMed

    Hati, A; Nelson, C W; Howe, D A

    2016-03-01

    Cross-spectrum analysis is a commonly used technique for the detection of phase and amplitude noise of a signal in the presence of interfering uncorrelated noise. Recently, we demonstrated that the phase-inversion (anti-correlation) effect due to amplitude noise leakage can cause complete or partial collapse of the cross-spectral function. In this paper, we discuss the newly discovered effect of anti-correlated thermal noise that originates from the common-mode power divider (splitter), an essential component in a cross-spectrum noise measurement system. We studied this effect for different power splitters and discuss its influence on the measurement of thermal-noise limited oscillators. We provide theory, simulation and experimental results. In addition, we expand this study to reveal how the presence of ferrite-isolators and amplifiers at the output ports of the power splitters can affect the oscillator noise measurements. Finally, we discuss a possible solution to overcome this problem. PMID:27036804

  3. Navy precision optical interferometer measurements of 10 stellar oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Benson, James A.; Zavala, R. T.; Van Belle, Gerard T.

    2014-02-01

    Using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, we measured the angular diameters of 10 stars that have previously measured solar-like oscillations. Our sample covered a range of evolutionary stages but focused on evolved subgiant and giant stars. We combined our angular diameters with Hipparcos parallaxes to determine the stars' physical radii, and used photometry from the literature to calculate their bolometric fluxes, luminosities, and effective temperatures. We then used our results to test the scaling relations used by asteroseismology groups to calculate radii and found good agreement between the radii measured here and the radii predicted by stellar oscillation studies. The precision of the relations is not as well constrained for giant stars as it is for less evolved stars.

  4. Cross-spectrum measurement of thermal-noise limited oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hati, A.; Nelson, C. W.; Howe, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Cross-spectrum analysis is a commonly used technique for the detection of phase and amplitude noise of a signal in the presence of interfering uncorrelated noise. Recently, we demonstrated that the phase-inversion (anti-correlation) effect due to amplitude noise leakage can cause complete or partial collapse of the cross-spectral function. In this paper, we discuss the newly discovered effect of anti-correlated thermal noise that originates from the common-mode power divider (splitter), an essential component in a cross-spectrum noise measurement system. We studied this effect for different power splitters and discuss its influence on the measurement of thermal-noise limited oscillators. We provide theory, simulation and experimental results. In addition, we expand this study to reveal how the presence of ferrite-isolators and amplifiers at the output ports of the power splitters can affect the oscillator noise measurements. Finally, we discuss a possible solution to overcome this problem.

  5. Nonlinear acoustic measurements ahead of a notch during fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. W.; Mooers, R. D.; Hutson, A. L.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of relative nonlinear acoustic parameter (βrel), ahead of a notch in Al 7075-T651 dog bone samples, subjected to fatigue. It is compared with crack growth measurements on the same samples. Measurements performed on two samples subjected to identical fatigue conditions that failed at vastly different number of fatigue cycles are described. The βrel measurement for both samples as a function of fatigue cycles was fit a Boltzmann curve. The role of changing βrel ahead of a notch is explored as a possible approach for remain life evaluation.

  6. Wake profile measurements of fixed and oscillating flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.

    1984-01-01

    Although the potential of laser velocimetry for the non-intrusive measurement of complex shear flows has long been recognized, there have been few applications in other small, closely controlled laboratory situations. Measurements in large scale, high speed wind tunnels are still a complex task. To support a study of periodic flows produced by an oscillating edge flap in the Ames eleven foot wind tunnel, this study was done. The potential for laser velocimeter measurements in large scale production facilities are evaluated. The results with hot wire flow field measurements are compared.

  7. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  8. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  9. Acoustic temperature profile measurement technique for large combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateshan, S. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-05-01

    Measurement of times of flight of sound waves can be used to determinetemperatures in a gas. This paper describes a system, based on this principle,that is capable of giving the temperature profile in a nonisothermal gasvolume, for example, prevalent in a large furnace. The apparatus is simple,rugged, accurate, and capable of being automated for process controlapplications. It is basically an acoustic waveguide where the outsidetemperature profile is tranferred to a chosen gas contained inside theguide.

  10. Acoustic temperature profile measurement technique for large combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateshan, S. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of times of flight of sound waves can be used to determine temperatures in a gas. This paper describes a system, based on this principle, that is capable of giving the temperature profile in a nonisothermal gas volume, for example, prevalent in a large furnace. The apparatus is simple, rugged, accurate, and capable of being automated for process control applications. It is basically an acoustic waveguide where the outside temperature profile is transferred to a chosen gas contained inside the guide.

  11. Optical and acoustical measuring techniques. [for Doppler measurement of flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the techniques of laser and acoustic Doppler measurement of fluid velocities in confined and free flows. The main mathematical relations are presented, and some systems are studied. Resolution properties of coaxial, bistatic, and pulsed CO2 laser Doppler velocimeter systems are compared. Schematics for pulsed and continuous wave acoustic Doppler systems are discussed. Both of these types of systems benefit from using a bistatic configuration instead of a coaxial system. The pulsed systems avoid contamination of source noise by not sampling until after the source noise has passed the receiver. Comparison of wind velocity measured with a pulsed acoustic Doppler and with a boundary layer profile is made.

  12. Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, L. A.; Bailey, M. R.; Kaczkowski, P.; McAteer, J. A.; Pishchalnikov, Y. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data.

  13. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-28

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  14. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-01

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  15. Measurement of microbubble-induced acoustic microstreaming using microparticle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Paul; Zhu, Yonggang; Manasseh, Richard; Ooi, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    Micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the velocity fields around oscillating gas bubbles in microfluidic geometries were undertaken. Two sets of experiments were performed. The first measured the acoustic microstreaming around a gas bubble with a radius of 195 μm attached to a wall in a chamber of 30 mm× 30 mm× 0.66 mm. Under acoustic excitation, vigorous streaming in the form of a circulation around on the bubble was observed. The streaming flow was highest near the surface of the bubble with velocities around 1mm/s measured. The velocity magnitude decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the bubble. The velocity field determined by micro-PIV matched the streaklines of the fluorescent particles very well. The second set of experiments measured the streaming at the interface between a trapped air bubble and water inside a microchannel of cross section 100 μm × 90 μm. The streaming flow was limited to within a short distance from the interface and was observed as a looping flow, moving towards the interface from the top and being circulated back from the bottom of the channel. The characteristic streaming velocity was in the order of 100 μm/s.

  16. In-situ physical properties measurements using crosswell acoustic data

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Crosswell acoustic surveys enable the in-situ measurements of elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, porosity, and apparent seismic Q of gas-bearing low-permeability formations represented at the Department of Energy Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) site near Rifle, Colorado. These measurements, except for Q, are compared with laboratory measurements on core taken from the same depths at which the crosswell measurements are made. Seismic Q determined in situ is compared to average values for sandstone. Porosity was determined from crosswell data using the empirical relationship between acoustic velocity, porosity, and effective pressure developed by Domenico. Domenico, S.N., ''Rock Lithology and Porosity Determination from Shear and compressional Wave Velocity,'' Geophysics, Vol. 49, No. 9, Aug. 1984, pp. 1188-1195. In-situ porosities are significantly greater than the core-derived values. Sources of the discrepancy may arise from (i) the underestimation of porosity that can result when Boyle's Law measurements are made on low-permeability core and (ii) the application of Dominico's relationship, which is developed for clean sands, to the mixed sandstone and shale lithologies represented at the MWX site. Values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio derived from crosswell measurements are comparable to values obtained from core. Apparent seismic Q measured in situ between wells is lower than Q measured on core and clearly shows the heterogeneity of sandstone deposited in a fluvial environment. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Three-dimensional broadband intensity probe for measuring acoustical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, Khalid Hossain

    Measuring different acoustical properties have been the key in reducing noise and improving the sound quality from various sources. In this report, a broadband (200 Hz -- 6.5 kHz) three-dimensional seven-microphone intensity probe system is developed to measure the sound intensity, and total energy density in different acoustical environments. Limitations of most commercial intensity probes in measuring the three-dimensional intensity for a broadband sound field was the main motivation in developing this probe. The finite-difference error and the phase mismatch error which are the two main errors associated with the intensity measurements are addressed in this report. As for the physical design, seven microphones were arranged in a two-concentric arrays with one microphone located at the center of the probe. The outer array is for low-frequencies (200 Hz -- 1.0 kHz), and the inner one is for high-frequencies (1.0 kHz -- 6.5 kHz). The screw adjustable center microphone is used for the microphone calibration, and as the reference microphone of the probe. The simultaneous calibrations of all the microphones in the probe were done in the anechoic room. Theories for the intensity and the energy densities calculations for the probe were derived from the existing four-microphone probe configuration. Reflection and diffraction effects on the intensity measurements due to the presence of the microphones, and the supporting structures were also investigated in this report. Directivity patterns of the calculated intensity showed the omnidirectional nature of the probe. The intensity, and total energy density were calculated and compared with the ideal values in the anechoic room environment. Characterization of sound fields in a reverberant enclosed space, and sound source identification are some applications that were investigated using this probe. Results of different measurements showed effectiveness of the probe as a tool to measure key acoustical properties in many

  18. Nonintrusive Monitoring and Control of Metallurgical Processes by Acoustic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ling; Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Barati, Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of developing a new online monitoring technique based on the characteristic acoustic response of gas bubbles in a liquid has been investigated. The method is intended to monitor the chemistry of the liquid through its relation to the bubble sound frequency. A low-temperature model consisting of water and alcohol mixtures was established, and the frequency of bubbles rising under varying concentrations of methanol was measured. It was shown that the frequency of the sound created by bubble pulsation varies with the percentage of alcohol in water. The frequency drops sharply with the increase in methanol content up to 20 wt pct, after which the decreases is gradual. Surface tension seems to be a critical liquid property affecting the sound frequency through its two-fold effects on the bubble size and the pulsation domain. The dependence between the frequency and the liquid composition suggests the feasibility of developing an acoustic-based technique for process control purposes.

  19. Acoustic ship signature measurements by cross-correlation method.

    PubMed

    Fillinger, Laurent; Sutin, Alexander; Sedunov, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Cross-correlation methods were applied for the estimation of the power spectral density and modulation spectrum of underwater noise generated by moving vessels. The cross-correlation of the signal from two hydrophones allows the separation of vessel acoustic signatures in a busy estuary. Experimental data recorded in the Hudson River are used for demonstration that cross-correlation method measured the same ship noise and ship noise modulation spectra as conventional methods. The cross-correlation method was then applied for the separation of the acoustic signatures of two ships present simultaneously. Presented methods can be useful for ship traffic monitoring and small ship classification, even in noisy harbor environments. PMID:21361436

  20. Acoustic plethysmography measures breathing in unrestrained neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Daubenspeck, J Andrew; Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene E

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of breathing volumes in neonatal mice is of growing importance in order to characterize the influence of development and genetic modifications on respiratory control to evaluate hypotheses concerned with human infant deficits that may affect sudden infant death syndrome, for example. Current techniques require undesirable physical constraints or incur possible artifacts specific to very small animals. We have examined the utility of a recently proposed approach using an acoustic resonance procedure that does not require undue physical constraint beyond placement in the acoustic plethysmograph. We show here that this approach can be applied to baby mice 5 days after birth and that it can be accurately calibrated. In addition, this approach should be useful to study unrestrained neonatal mice under conditions where body temperature approaches environmental temperature and barometric plethysmography cannot be used. PMID:17962574

  1. Electrodynamic soil plate oscillator: Modeling nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior and hysteresis in nonlinear acoustic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, M. S.; Duong, D. V.; Kalsbeck, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus (SPO), designed to study flexural vibrations of a soil loaded plate, consists of a thin circular elastic clamped plate (and cylindrical wall) supporting a vertical soil column. A small magnet attached to the center of the plate is driven by a rigid AC coil (located coaxially below the plate) to complete the electrodynamic soil plate oscillator SPO design. The frequency dependent mechanical impedance Zmech (force / particle velocity, at the plate's center) is inversely proportional to the electrical motional impedance Zmot. Measurements of Zmot are made using the complex output to input response of a Wheatstone bridge that has an identical coil element in one of its legs. Near resonance, measurements of Zmot (with no soil) before and after a slight point mass loading at the center help determine effective mass, spring, damping and coupling constant parameters of the system. "Tuning curve" behavior of real{ Zmot } and imaginary{ Zmot } at successively higher vibration amplitudes of dry sifted masonry sand are measured. They exhibit a decrease "softening" in resonance frequency along with a decrease in the quality Q factor. In soil surface vibration measurements a bilinear hysteresis model predicts the tuning curve shape for this nonlinear mesoscopic elastic SPO behavior - which also models the soil vibration over an actual plastic "inert" VS 1.6 buried landmine. Experiments are performed where a buried 1m cube concrete block supports a 12 inch deep by 30 inch by 30 inch concrete soil box for burying a VS 1.6 in dry sifted masonry sand for on-the-mine and off-the-mine soil vibration experiments. The backbone curve (a plot of the peak amplitude vs. corresponding resonant frequency from a family of tuning curves) exhibits mostly linear behavior for "on target" soil surface vibration measurements of the buried VS 1.6 or drum-like mine simulants for relatively low particle velocities of the soil. Backbone curves for "on target" measurements exhibit

  2. Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning

    2016-04-01

    The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m³. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.

  3. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  4. Basic oscillation measurables in the neutrino pair beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yoshimura, M.

    2016-09-01

    It was recently shown that the neutrino-pair emission may occur with large rates, their energy being extended to GeV region, if appropriate heavy ions are circulated in a quantum state of mixture. In the present work it is further demonstrated that the vector current contribution of neutrino interaction with electrons in ion, not necessarily suppressed in high atomic number ions, gives rise to the oscillating component, even when a single neutrino is detected alone. On the other hand, the single neutrino detection in Z-boson decay does not show the oscillating component, as known for some time. CP violation measurements in the neutrino pair beam may become a possibility, along with determination of mass hierarchical patterns.

  5. Viscosity measurements of metallic melts using the oscillating drop technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzmann, P.; Yang, F.; Schneider, S.; Lohöfer, G.; Meyer, A.

    2016-06-01

    By means of benchmarking reduced gravity experiments, we have verified the measured viscosity of binary Zr-Ni glass forming liquids utilizing the oscillating drop technique combined with ground-based electrostatic levitation (ESL). Reliable viscosity data can be obtained as long as internal viscous damping of a single oscillation mode of a levitated drop dominates external perturbations. This can be verified by the absence of a sample mass dependence of the results. Hence, ESL is an excellent tool for studying the viscosity of metallic glass forming melts in the range of about 10-250 mPa s, with sample masses below 100 mg. To this end, we show that, for binary Zr-Ni melts, the viscosity is qualitatively controlled by the packing density.

  6. Measuring Neutron-Star Spins via Burst Oscillations (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measuring the spin of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries is one of the great strengths and highest priorities for RXTE. We propose targeted observations of known thermonuclear burst sources which do not have confirmed burst oscillations, as well as previously unknown sources, in order to detect new examples of burst oscillations and thus add to the sample of neutron star spins. We will target sources in states of frequent, bright bursts by triggering on the detection of bursts by INTEGRAL and/or Swift. Detection of neutron stars spinning beyond the present maximum will allow us to significantly constrain the neutron-star equation of state, presently an area of major uncertainty.

  7. Calibration of ipsilateral stimulus transducer for acoustic reflex measurements.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S; Osterhammel, P A; Rasmussen, A N; Nielsen, L H

    1995-01-01

    Pure-tone Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level (RETSPL) of the ipsilateral stimulus receiver for acoustic reflex measurements on Madsen Electronics type Zodiac 901 impedance audiometer is provided. The results, obtained from 20 normal-hearing subjects, are achieved by comparing hearing threshold levels measured using a TDH 39 telephone (calibrated to ISO 389) with thresholds recorded using the ipsilateral stimulus insert phone. The calibration is referenced to an IEC-711 ear simulator and comprises the following frequencies: 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz. PMID:8552975

  8. Predicting the intelligibility of deaf children's speech from acoustic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Geers, Ann E.; Brenner, Christine M.; Tobey, Emily A.

    2001-05-01

    A weighted combination of speech-acoustic measures may provide an objective assessment of speech intelligibility in deaf children that could be used to evaluate the benefits of sensory aids and rehabilitation programs. This investigation compared the accuracy of two different approaches, multiple linear regression and a simple neural net. These two methods were applied to identical sets of acoustic measures, including both segmental (e.g., voice-onset times of plosives, spectral moments of fricatives, second formant frequencies of vowels) and suprasegmental measures (e.g., sentence duration, number and frequency of intersentence pauses). These independent variables were obtained from digitized recordings of deaf children's imitations of 11 simple sentences. The dependent measure was the percentage of spoken words from the 36 McGarr Sentences understood by groups of naive listeners. The two predictive methods were trained on speech measures obtained from 123 out of 164 8- and 9-year-old deaf children who used cochlear implants. Then, predictions were obtained using speech measures from the remaining 41 children. Preliminary results indicate that multiple linear regression is a better predictor of intelligibility than the neural net, accounting for 79% as opposed to 65% of the variance in the data. [Work supported by NIH.

  9. Unsteady wake measurements of an oscillating flap at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodapati, S.; Lee, C.-S.

    1984-01-01

    The steady and unsteady wake profiles of an airfoil with an oscillating flap were measured at nominal free stream Mach number of 0.8 in the NASA Ames 11 x 11-foot wind tunnel. The instantaneous wake velocity and pressure profiles at four axial locations are presented up to one chord length from the trailing edge. Both fundamental harmonic frequency and typical time history data are presented to observe the effects of airfoil incidence and flap angle. The drag coefficient obtained from the wake pressure measurements is compared with that obtained from the airfoil pressure distribution.

  10. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  11. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  12. Comment on "Acoustical observation of bubble oscillations induced by bubble popping"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, É.; Ollivier, F.; Antkowiak, A.; Wunenburger, R.

    2015-03-01

    We have reproduced the experiment of acoustic monitoring of spontaneous popping of single soap bubbles standing in air reported by Ding et al. [2aa Phys. Rev. E 75, 041601 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.041601]. By using a single microphone and two different signal acquisition systems recording in parallel the signal at the microphone output, among them the system used by Ding et al., we have experimentally evidenced that the acoustic precursors of bubble popping events detected by Ding et al. actually result from an acausal artifact of the signal processing performed by their acquisition system which lies outside of its prescribed working frequency range. No acoustic precursor of popping could be evidenced with the microphone used in these experiments, whose sensitivity is 1 V Pa-1 and frequency range is 500 Hz-100 kHz.

  13. A pseudo-inverse algorithm for simultaneous measurements using multiple acoustical sources.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ning; Li, Shu

    2007-03-01

    Simultaneous multiple acoustical sources measurement (SMASM) has been proposed for more effective and reliable identification of acoustical systems under critical conditions [N. Xiang and M. R. Schroeder, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2754-2761 (2003); N. Xiang, J. N. Daigle, and M. Kleiner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 1889-1894 (2005)]. This paper presents a pseudo-inverse algorithm for the SMASM correlation technique as an alternative way of extracting impulse responses of acoustical channels. Simulations and room acoustics experiments are carried out and the results prove the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. PMID:17407864

  14. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  15. Acoustic Techniques for Thin Film Thickness Measurement in Semiconductor Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Sanjay

    In modern semiconductor manufacturing, process monitoring and control are important issues limited at the present time by a lack of sensors and instrumentation capable of measuring process parameters like film thickness. In order to address this problem, two novel systems for thin film thickness measurement in semiconductor processing based upon contacting acoustic techniques have been developed. Both of these systems couple acoustic energy into the wafer via a nondestructive Hertzian contact and achieve high resolution by exciting and receiving ultrasonic signals from a ZnO transducer with microwave frequency electronics. The basic physical mechanism for film thickness determination is to analyze reflected waves due to acoustic impedance mismatches between various material layers on a silicon substrate. The first system requires frontside contacting of a sapphire buffer rod to an opaque film deposited on a silicon wafer and involves the use of broadband, high frequency pulse-echo electronics in the 0.5-5 GHz range. With this system, ex-situ measurements of aluminum and gold thin films on a silicon substrate have been done in the 0.25-2.5 mum. range with 3-6% accuracy as compared to surface profilometer measurements. Possible applications for this system include using it as a post -deposition process monitor, generating film thickness contour maps, or examining multilayer structures. The second system requires backside contacting of a sapphire buffer rod to a silicon wafer, which is in a vacuum station, and involves monitoring the changes in phase of CW 1-2 GHz acoustic waves as a function of frontside film growth. Using this technique, in-situ indium and aluminum film thickness monitoring has been done in both evaporator and sputtering environments with a resolution of 40 A. Temperature experiments in an oven have shown a resolution of 0.05 K for the sapphire buffer rod. Finally, multistep processing has been done and a multilayer film structure has been measured

  16. Measurement of the volume of weights using an acoustic volumeter and the reliability of such measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobata, T.; Ueki, M.; Ooiwa, A.; Ishii, Y.

    2004-04-01

    For the precise measurement of the mass of a weight, buoyancy correction of air for the volume of a weight is necessary. Although hydrostatic weighing is the most accurate method currently used in determining volume, it is a relatively complicated process requiring the weight to be wetted in a reference fluid. Since more weights with high accuracy of mass are being used, a more sophisticated method of determining volume that satisfies uncertainty requirements has been demanded to improve the efficiency of calibration. In this paper, an acoustic volumeter is proposed for the measurement of the volume of weights. An acoustic volumeter can measure volume in atmosphere in a simple manner. Consequently, it is not necessary to consider the contamination and mass change due to the liquid used in the hydrostatic weighing method. In practical applications, a procedure for measuring the volume of weights ranging from 100 g to 10 kg using an acoustic volumeter is proposed. The volumes obtained using an acoustic volumeter were compared with those obtained by the hydrostatic weighing method, and the reliability of the measurement was evaluated with a relative uncertainty below the order of 1 × 10-3. From the measurement results, it was shown that the use of an acoustic volumeter is effective for the measurement of the volume of weights.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; Benzvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Palazzo, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-08-23

    We present the first statistically significant detection of neutrino oscillations in the high-energy regime (>20 GeV) from an analysis of IceCube Neutrino Observatory data collected in 2010 and 2011. This measurement is made possible by the low-energy threshold of the DeepCore detector (~20 GeV) and benefits from the use of the IceCube detector as a veto against cosmic-ray-induced muon background. The oscillation signal was detected within a low-energy muon neutrino sample (20-100 GeV) extracted from data collected by DeepCore. A high-energy muon neutrino sample (100 GeV-10 TeV) was extracted from IceCube data to constrain systematic uncertainties. The disappearance of low-energy upward-going muon neutrinos was observed, and the nonoscillation hypothesis is rejected with more than 5σ significance. In a two-neutrino flavor formalism, our data are best described by the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters |Δm(32)(2)|=(2.3(-0.5)(+0.6))×10(-3) eV(2) and sin(2)(2θ(23))>0.93, and maximum mixing is favored. PMID:24010427

  18. First neutrino oscillation measurements in NOvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messier, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    The NOvA experiment uses the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam and a newly constructed 14 kt detector to address several open questions in neutrino oscillations including the neutrino mass hierarchy, the precise value of the angle θ23, and the CP-violating phase δCP. The experiment has been running since 2014 and has recently released its first results from an equivalent exposure of 2.74 ×1020 protons-on-target equal to 8% of the eventual data set. Measurements of νμ →νμ oscillations find Δ m322 = (2.52-0.18+0.20) ×10-3 eV2 and 0.38 oscillations at 3.3 σ C.L. in this early data and disfavors the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy in the range 0.1 π <δCP < 0.5 π at the 90% C.L.

  19. a Modeling and Measurement Study of Acoustic Horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, John Theodore

    Although acoustic horns have been in use for thousands of years, formal horn design only began approximately 80 years ago with the pioneering effort of A. G. Webster. In this dissertation, the improvements to Webster's original horn model are reviewed and the lack of analytical progress since Webster is noted. In an attempt to augment the traditional methods of analysis, a semi-analytical technique presented by Rayleigh is extended. Although Rayleigh's method is not based on one-dimensional wave propagation, it is found not to offer significant improvement over Webster's model. In order to be free of the limitations associated with analytical techniques, a numerical method based on boundary elements has been developed. It is suitable for solving radiation problems that can be modeled as a source in an infinite bafffe. The exterior boundary element formulation is exchanged for an interior formulation by placing a hemisphere over the baffled source and using an analytical expansion of the field in the exterior half space. The boundary element method is demonstrated by solving the baffled piston problem, and is then used to obtain the acoustic throat impedance and far-field directivity of axisymmetric horns having exponential and tractrix contours. Experiments are performed to measure the throat impedance and the far-field directivity of two axisymmetric horns mounted in a rigid baffle. An exponential horn and a tractrix horn with equal throat radius (2.54 cm), length (55.9 cm), and mouth radius (27.1 cm) are critically examined. A modern implementation of the "reaction on the source" method is compared with a new implementation of the two-microphone method for measuring acoustic impedance. The modified two-microphone method is found to be extremely simple and accurate, but the "reaction on the source" method has the advantage of in situ measurements. The far-field directivity is measured by a new technique that allows the far-field pressure to be calculated from the

  20. Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Richard; Di Iorio, Daniela; Bowen, Andrew; Reddy, Christopher M.; Techet, Alexandra H.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Sylva, Sean P.; Fenwick, Judith

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and acoustic Doppler sonar operating onboard a remotely operated vehicle for noncontact measurement of flow cross-section and velocity from the well’s two leak sites. Over 2,500 sonar cross-sections and over 85,000 Doppler velocity measurements were recorded during the acquisition process. These data were then applied to turbulent jet and plume flow models to account for entrained water and calculate a combined hydrocarbon flow rate from the two leak sites at seafloor conditions. Based on the chemical composition of end-member samples collected from within the well, this bulk volumetric rate was then normalized to account for contributions from gases and condensates at initial leak source conditions. Results from this investigation indicate that on May 31, 2010, the well’s oil flow rate was approximately 0.10 ± 0.017 m3 s-1 at seafloor conditions, or approximately 85 ± 15 kg s-1 (7.4 ± 1.3 Gg d-1), equivalent to approximately 57,000 ± 9,800 barrels of oil per day at surface conditions. End-member chemical composition indicates that this oil release rate was accompanied by approximately an additional 24 ± 4.2 kg s-1 (2.1 ± 0.37 Gg d-1) of natural gas (methane through pentanes), yielding a total hydrocarbon release rate of 110 ± 19 kg s-1 (9.5 ± 1.6 Gg d-1). PMID:21903931

  1. Computer and laboratory modeling of radiation-acoustic detector for charged particles pulse beams and plasma parameters measuring

    SciTech Connect

    Kresnin, Yu.A.; Stervoedov, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    Model investigations and laboratory tests of detectors for charged particles pulse beams and plasma parameters measuring are presented. Detector represents combination of classic Faraday cup with electrical way of signal getting and radiation-acoustic meter of pulse beams parameters. Radiation-acoustic meter consists of two parts--thin detector, transparent for beams of high energy particles, and thick detector with full absorption. Ultrasonic oscillations, which arise during interaction of charged particles pulse beams or plasma with detector material, are transformed by piezoelectric detector into electric signals, whose amplitude-frequency and time characteristics functionally depended on beams parameters. All the signals come into microcontroller device Intel MSC51. This device produces calculations of following beam parameters: average energy, pulse charge, pulse currents, density, beam size and pulse time. Calculated characteristics of meter well coincide with experimental measurements, carried out at accelerators in particles energy range from 1 to 100 Mev.

  2. Passive Wake Acoustics Measurements at Denver International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Frank Y.; Wassaf, Hadi; Dougherty, Robert P.; Clark, Kevin; Gulsrud, Andrew; Fenichel, Neil; Bryant, Wayne H.

    2004-01-01

    From August to September 2003, NASA conducted an extensive measurement campaign to characterize the acoustic signal of wake vortices. A large, both spatially as well as in number of elements, phased microphone array was deployed at Denver International Airport for this effort. This paper will briefly describe the program background, the microphone array, as well as the supporting ground-truth and meteorological sensor suite. Sample results to date are then presented and discussed. It is seen that, in the frequency range processed so far, wake noise is generated predominantly from a very confined area around the cores.

  3. Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations, and CMB surface distance constraints on f(G) higher order gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha; Thompson, John; Easson, Damien A.

    2010-03-15

    We consider recently proposed higher-order gravity models where the action is built from the Einstein-Hilbert action plus a function f(G) of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. The models were previously shown to pass physical acceptability conditions as well as solar system tests. In this paper, we compare the models to combined data sets of supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and constraints from the CMB surface of last scattering. We find that the models provide fits to the data that are close to those of the lambda cold dark matter concordance model. The results provide a pool of higher-order gravity models that pass these tests and need to be compared to constraints from large scale structure and full CMB analysis.

  4. Detection of geodesic acoustic mode oscillations, using multiple signal classification analysis of Doppler backscattering signal on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; the Tore Supra Team

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the first observation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on Tore Supra plasmas. Using the Doppler backscattering system, the oscillations of the plasma flow velocity, localized between r/a = 0.85 and r/a = 0.95, and with a frequency, typically around 10 kHz, have been observed at the plasma edge in numerous discharges. When the additional heating power is varied, the frequency is found to scale with Cs/R. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed to access the temporal evolution of the perpendicular velocity of density fluctuations. The method is presented in some detail, and is validated and compared against standard methods, such as the conventional fast Fourier transform method, using a synthetic signal. It stands out as a powerful data analysis method to follow the Doppler frequency with a high temporal resolution, which is important in order to extract the dynamics of GAMs.

  5. Measurement of stiffness of standing trees and felled logs using acoustics: A review.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Bradley, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a review on the use of acoustics to measure stiffness of standing trees, stems, and logs. An outline is given of the properties of wood and how these are related to stiffness and acoustic velocity throughout the tree. Factors are described that influence the speed of sound in wood, including the different types of acoustic waves which propagate in tree stems and lumber. Acoustic tools and techniques that have been used to measure the stiffness of wood are reviewed. The reasons for a systematic difference between direct and acoustic measurements of stiffness for standing trees, and methods for correction, are discussed. Other techniques, which have been used in addition to acoustics to try to improve stiffness measurements, are also briefly described. Also reviewed are studies which have used acoustic tools to investigate factors that influence the stiffness of trees. These factors include different silvicultural practices, geographic and environmental conditions, and genetics. PMID:26936543

  6. Utilizing nitrogen-vacancy centers to measure oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2014-10-01

    We show how nitrogen-vacancy centers can be used to determine the amplitude, phase, and frequency of unknown weak monochromatic and multichromatic oscillating magnetic fields using only the periodic dynamical decoupling and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences. The effect of decoherence on the measurement of the magnetic field parameters is explicitly analyzed, and we take into account the fact that different pulse sequences suppress decoherence to different extents. Since the sensitivity increases with increasing sensing time while it decreases due to decoherence and limited photon detection efficiency, we use the Fisher information matrix in order to optimize the number of pulses that should be used.

  7. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: Unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio

    2006-06-01

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q→0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,ω) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q -dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.

  8. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio

    2006-06-01

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, omega) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q-->0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q, omega) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra. PMID:16906814

  9. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: Unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora

    2006-06-15

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,{omega}) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q{yields}0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,{omega}) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.

  10. Atomic Oscillator Strengths by Emission Spectroscopy and Lifetime Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, W. L.; Griesmann, U.; Kling, R.; Musielok, J.

    2002-11-01

    Over the last seven years, we have carried out numerous oscillator strength measurements for some light and medium heavy elements (Musielok et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Veres & Wiese 1996; Griesmann et al. 1997; Bridges & Wiese 1998; Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Gries- mann 2000; Bridges & Wiese to be published). Most recently we have determined numerous transitions of Mu II (Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Griesmann 2000) and are now working on Cl I (Bridges & Wiese to be published). See the summary statement at the end of the text. For the emission measurements, we have applied either a high-current wall-stabilized arc (described for example, in Musielok et al. (1999)), or a high-current hollow cathode, or a Penning discharge. The latter two sources were used for branching ratio measurements from common upper 1ev- els, while the wall-stabilized arc was operated at atmospheric pressure under the condition of partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, which allows the measurement of relative transition probabilities. Absolute data were obtained by combining the emission results with lifetime data measured by other research groups, especially the University of Hannover, with which we have closely collaborated. This group uses the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Our emission spectra were recorded for the light elements with a 2 m grating spectrometer, or, for Mu II, with an FT 700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. The radiometric calibration was carried out with a tungsten strip lamp for the visible part of the spectrum and with a deuterium lamp for the ultraviolet. All measurements were made under optically thin conditions, which was checked by doubling the path length with a focusing mirror setup. Typical uncertainties of the measured oscillator strengths are estimated to be in the range 15%-20% (one-standard deviation). However, discrepancies with advanced atomic structure theories are sometimes much larger. In Tables 1-3 and Fig. 1, we

  11. Precise Frequency Measurements Using a Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Yeh, N.-C.; Jiang, W.; Anderson, V. L.; Asplund, N.

    1999-01-01

    Many physics experiments call on improved resolution to better define the experimental results, thus improving tests of theories. Modern microwave technology combined with high-Q resonators can achieve frequency readout and control with resolutions up to a part in 10(exp 18). When the physical quantity in question in the experiment can be converted to a frequency or a change in frequency, a high-stability microwave oscillator can be applied to obtain state-of-the-art precision. In this work we describe the overall physical concepts and the required experimental procedures for optimizing a high-resolution frequency measurement system that employs a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity and a low-noise frequency synthesizer. The basic approach is to resolve the resonant frequencies of a high-Q (Q > 10(exp 10)) cavity to extremely high precision (one part in 10(exp 17)- 10(exp 18)). Techniques for locking the synthesizer frequency to a resonant frequency of the superconducting cavity to form an ultra-stable oscillator are described. We have recently set up an ultra-high-vacuum high-temperature annealing system to process superconducting niobium cavities, and have been able to consistently achieve Q > 10(exp 9). We have integrated high-Q superconducting cavities with a low-noise microwave synthesizer in a phase-locked-loop to verify the frequency stability of the system. Effects that disturb the cavity resonant frequency (such as the temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations) and methods to mitigate those effects are also considered. Applicability of these techniques to experiments will be discussed, and our latest experimental progress in achieving high-resolution frequency measurements using the superconducting-cavity-stabilized-oscillator will be presented.

  12. Suppression of nonlinear oscillations in combustors with partial length acoustic liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espander, W. R.; Mitchell, C. E.; Baer, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model is formulated for a three-dimensional nonlinear stability problem in a rocket motor combustion chamber. The chamber is modeled as a right circular cylinder with a short (multi-orifice) nozzle, and an acoustic linear covering an arbitrary portion of the cylindrical periphery. The combustion is concentrated at the injector and the gas flow field is characterized by a mean Mach number. The unsteady combustion processes are formulated using the Crocco time lag model. The resulting equations are solved using a Green's function method combined with numerical evaluation techniques. The influence of acoustic liners on the nonlinear waveforms is predicted. Nonlinear stability limits and regions where triggering is possible are also predicted for both lined and unlined combustors in terms of the combustion parameters.

  13. Nonlinear Resonant Oscillations of Gas in Optimized Acoustical Resonators and the Effect of Central Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing resonator shapes for maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of the resonator is investigated numerically. It is well known that the resonant frequencies and the nonlinear standing waveform in an acoustical resonator strongly depend on the resonator geometry. A quasi-Newton type scheme was used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes achieving the maximum pressure compression ratio with an acceleration of constant amplitude. The acoustical field was solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects were obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation method. Results are presented for optimizing three types of geometry: a cone, a horn-cone and a half cosine-shape. For each type, different optimized shapes were found when starting with different initial guesses. Further, the one-dimensional model was modified to study the effect of an axisymmetric central blockage on the nonlinear standing wave.

  14. Nonlinear Resonant Oscillations of Gas in Optimized Acoustical Resonators and the Effect of Central Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiao-Fan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing resonator shapes for maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of the resonator is investigated numerically. It is well known that the resonant frequencies and the nonlinear standing waveform in an acoustical resonator strongly depend on the resonator geometry. A quasi-Newton type scheme was used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes achieving the maximum pressure compression ratio with an acceleration of constant amplitude. The acoustical field was solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects were obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation method. Results are presented for optimizing three types of geometry: a cone, a horn-cone and a half cosine- shape. For each type, different optimized shapes were found when starting with different initial guesses. Further, the one-dimensional model was modified to study the effect of an axisymmetric central blockage on the nonlinear standing wave.

  15. Experimental Study on Effects of Frequency and Mean Pressure on Heat Pumping by Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Akira; Ozawa, Mamoru; Kataoka, Masaki; Takifuji, Tomonari

    Experimental studies were conducted for the fundamental understanding of the thermoacoustic behavior in the simulated resonance-tube refrigerator with special reference to the effect of imposed frequency and mean pressure. The resonance frequency in the case of helium was lower by about 20% than the theoretical prediction, while the experimental value in the case of air was almost the same as the theoretical one. The temperature difference observed along the stack increased with the increase in the amplitude of acoustic pressure, and decreased with the increase in the mean pressure, Based on the simplified model of heat pumping process, the relationship between the temperature variation and the acoustic pressure field was formulated, and thus the characteristic parameter which represents overall heat transfer between gas and stack plates or heat exchangers was obtained.

  16. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  17. Preliminary measurements of thermal effects in the dust acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jeremiah

    2009-11-01

    A complex (dusty) plasma (CDP) is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of the microparticles gives rise to new plasma phenomena, including collective modes such as the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements of the dispersion relationship of this wave mode [E. Thomas, Jr., et. al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007), J.D. Williams, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008)] have shown that, over a range of neutral gas pressures, it is necessary to include thermal effects to accurately fit the measured dispersion relations. In this work, initial measurements of the dispersion relation in a new dusty plasma experiment, the Wittenberg University DUsty Plasma Experiment (WUDUPE), will be presented. In particular, the dependence of the kinetic dust temperature on the neutral gas pressure will be presented.

  18. Effects of microphone type on acoustic measures of voice.

    PubMed

    Parsa, V; Jamieson, D G; Pretty, B R

    2001-09-01

    Acoustic measures provide an objective means to describe pathological voices and are a routine component of the clinical voice examination. Because the voice sample is obtained using a microphone, microphone characteristics have the potential to influence the values of parameters obtained from a voice sample. This project examined how the choice of microphone affects key voice parameters and investigated how one might compensate for such microphone effects through filtering or by including additional parameters in the decision process. A database of 53 normal voice samples and 100 pathological voice samples was used in four experiments conducted in an anechoic chamber using four different microphones. One omnidirectional microphone and three cardioid microphones were used in these experiments. The original voice samples were presented to each microphone through a speaker located in an anechoic chamber, and the output of each microphone sampled to computer disk. Each microphone modified the frequency spectrum of the voice signal; this, in turn, affected the values of the voice parameters obtained. These microphone effects reduced the accuracy with which acoustic measures of voice could be used to discriminate pathological from normal voices. Discrimination performance improved when the microphone output was filtered to compensate for microphone frequency response. Performance also improved when spectral moment coefficient parameters were added to the vocal function parameters already in use. PMID:11575630

  19. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.

    1994-11-15

    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  20. Measuring the Acoustic Impedance of Pipes and Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2007-05-01

    Using a small electret microphone and a piezo-buzzer we have constructed a simple impedance transducer to measure the input impedance of air columns, such as cylindrical pipes, as well as musical instruments. The input impedance of an air column is given as the ratio of the pressure to the volume flow of air at the input of the air column. The microphone serves as the pressure transducer, while the piezo-buzzer is controlled to provide a constant velocity amplitude. Therefore the microphone signal is proportional to the acoustical impedance and, if required, can be calibrated using a simple air column for which the impedance can be calculated. This impedance transducer is currently in use as demonstration equipment for a physical acoustics class. It is simple to use and robust, so that it is well-suited for an undergraduate introductory laboratory environment. This talk will discuss the function of the impedance transducer and show examples of the type of measurements that can be performed. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.C1.1

  1. Optical parametric oscillators for ultra-sensitive intracavity phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Andreas

    This thesis describes the simulation design and construction of optical parametric oscillators (OPO) for intracavity interferometry. Intracavity interferometers use two mode-locked pulses oscillating inside a cavity to perform very sensitive measurements of the phase of light. Phase changes of less than 10-7 rad or length changes of less than 10 femtometers can be resolved. The main challenge to overcome in the execution of such a measurement is the construction of a laser or OPO with two completely independent pulses inside the cavity. To this end the concept of harmonic pumping is developed and used to construct a two pulse harmonically pumped OPO. This device demonstrates an unprecedented sensitivity and long term measurement stability. In a demonstration measurement it is used to measure the nonlinear index of refraction of lithium niobate in the near infrared. An intracavity synchronously pumped OPO is investigated as a second option for an intracavity interferometer. By placing the OPO gain crystal inside the cavity of the pump laser, higher efficiency can be reached. Since the pump pulse passes the OPO gain crystal twice in each round trip two OPO pulses are automatically created. Past realizations of this concept have however shown severe amplitude instabilities. This thesis uses an extensive computer simulation to analyze these instabilities and to develop strategies to avoid them. With this new information a stable intracavity synchronously pumped OPO and an intracavity harmonically pumped OPO are constructed. The simulation is also applied to the investigation of cavity auto stabilization with rubidium. The simulation also reveals that semiconductor lasers, due to their short excitation life time, will not suffer from instabilities when used as intracavity OPO pump lasers. A tapered amplifier semiconductor laser is constructed to pump an OPO, but is found to be unsuitable. The current state of a project to construct a vertical external cavity surface

  2. [EFFECTS OF MUSIC-ACOUSTIC SIGNALS, ONLINE CONTROLLED BY EEG OSCILLATORS OF THE SUBJECT].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2015-08-01

    The effects of 2 variants of the method of musical EEG neurofeedback, in which the dominant spectral components of subject's EEG (EEG oscillators) are online converted to music-like signals similar by timbre to flute sounds, have been studied. In the first case, these music-like signals were smoothly varying by the pitch and intensity in accordance with the current amplitude of the EEG oscillator. In the second case, the same variations of flute-like sound were accompanied by such musical element as rhythm. After the single exposure, the modifications of subject's brain activity and positive changes in psycho-physiological state of the subject have been found. Particularly pronounced effects were observed under rhythmically organized music-like stimuli. PMID:26591592

  3. A precise measurement of the B^0 meson oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; C. Forshaw, D.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; K. Kuonen, A.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; W. Ronayne, J.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The oscillation frequency, Δ m_d, of B^0 mesons is measured using semileptonic decays with a D^- or D^{*-} meson in the final state. The data sample corresponds to 3.0fb^{-1} of pp collisions, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV. A combination of the two decay modes gives Δ m_d = (505.0 ± 2.1 ± 1.0) ns^{-1}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the most precise single measurement of this parameter. It is consistent with the current world average and has similar precision.

  4. Asymptotic theory of intermediate- and high-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, M.; Vorontsov, S. V.

    1993-01-01

    A second-order asymptotic approximation is developed for adiabatic nonradial p-modes of a spherically symmetric star. The exact solutions of adiabatic oscillations are assumed in the outermost layers, where the asymptotic description becomes invalid, which results in a eigenfrequency equation with model-dependent surface phase shift. For lower degree modes, the phase shift is a function of frequency alone; for high-degree modes, its dependence on the degree is explicitly taken into account.

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: baryon acoustic oscillations in the correlation function of LOWZ and CMASS galaxies in Data Release 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Antonio J.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Beutler, Florian; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ho, Shirley; McBride, Cameron K.; Maraston, Claudia; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J.; Reid, Beth A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Verde, Licia; White, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We present distance scale measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillation signal in the constant stellar mass and low-redshift sample samples from the Data Release 12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. The total volume probed is 14.5 Gpc3, a 10 per cent increment from Data Release 11. From an analysis of the spherically averaged correlation function, we infer a distance to z = 0.57 of D_V(z)r^fid_d/r_d = 2028± 21 Mpc and a distance to z = 0.32 of D_V(z)r^fid_d/r_d = 1264± 22 Mpc assuming a cosmology in which r^fid_d = 147.10 Mpc. From the anisotropic analysis, we find an angular diameter distance to z = 0.57 of D_A(z)r^fid_d/r_d = 1401± 21 Mpc and a distance to z = 0.32 of 981 ± 20 Mpc, a 1.5 and 2.0 per cent measurement, respectively. The Hubble parameter at z = 0.57 is H(z)r_d/r^fid_d = 100.3± 3.7 km s-1 Mpc-1 and its value at z = 0.32 is 79.2 ± 5.6 km s-1 Mpc-1, a 3.7 and 7.1 per cent measurement, respectively. These cosmic distance scale constraints are in excellent agreement with a Λ cold dark matter model with cosmological parameters released by the recent Planck 2015 results.

  6. Boundary conditions for simulations of oscillating bubbles using the non-linear acoustic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. R. C.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Ruffert, M.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new boundary condition for finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Our method uses an approximation to the motion outside the domain, based on the solution at the domain boundary. We then use this approximation to apply boundary conditions by defining incoming characteristic waves at the domain boundary. Our boundary condition is applicable in regions where the motion is close to spherically symmetric. We have tested our method on a range of one- and two-dimensional test cases. Results show good agreement with previous studies. The method allows simulations of oscillating bubbles for long run times (5 ×105 time steps with a CFL number of 0.8) on highly truncated domains, in which the boundary condition may be applied within 0.1% of the maximum bubble radius. Conservation errors due to the boundary conditions are found to be of the order of 0.1% after 105 time steps. The method significantly reduces the computational cost of fixed grid finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Two-dimensional results demonstrate that highly asymmetric bubble features, such as surface instabilities and the formation of jets, may be captured on a small domain using this boundary condition.

  7. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  8. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Robert Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    NASA's current models to predict lift-off acoustics for launch vehicles are currently being updated using several numerical and empirical inputs. One empirical input comes from free-field acoustic data measured at three Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) static firings. The measurements were collected by a joint collaboration between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center, Wyle Labs, and ATK Launch Systems. For the first time NASA measured large-thrust solid rocket motor plume acoustics for evaluation of both noise sources and acoustic radiation properties. Over sixty acoustic free-field measurements were taken over the three static firings to support evaluation of acoustic radiation near the rocket plume, far-field acoustic radiation patterns, plume acoustic power efficiencies, and apparent noise source locations within the plume. At approximately 67 m off nozzle centerline and 70 m downstream of the nozzle exit plan, the measured overall sound pressure level of the RSRM was 155 dB. Peak overall levels in the far field were over 140 dB at 300 m and 50-deg off of the RSRM thrust centerline. The successful collaboration has yielded valuable data that are being implemented into NASA's lift-off acoustic models, which will then be used to update predictions for Ares I and Ares V liftoff acoustic environments.

  9. Ultrasonic Measurement of Microdisplacement Induced by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Ryo; Izumi, Takuya; Komatsu, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative evaluation of human skin aging is achieved by measuring the viscoelasticity of the skin. In the present study, microdisplacement induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF) is quantitatively measured by high-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) and the result is confirmed by laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 1% cellulose particles was used as the biological phantom. A concave piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer with a diameter and focal length of 3 cm was used as an applicator to generate ARF. Microdisplacement at each depth of PVA was measured by the phased tracking method at 100 MHz of ultrasound with a repetition rate of 2000 Hz. When 80 tone-burst pulses were applied, the displacement measured by HFUS was 9 µm and the same result was obtained by LDV. As the displacement at each depth of PVA is measurable using ARF and the HFUS system, the system could be applied to measuring the viscoelasticity of the layered structure of the human skin.

  10. Application of acoustic doppler velocimeters for streamflow measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) principally has used Price AA and Price pygmy mechanical current meters for measurement of discharge. New technologies have resulted in the introduction of alternatives to the Price meters. One alternative, the FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter, was designed by SonTek/YSI to make streamflow measurements in wadeable conditions. The device measures a point velocity and can be used with standard midsection method algorithms to compute streamflow. The USGS collected 55 quality-assurance measurements with the FlowTracker at 43 different USGS streamflow-gaging stations across the United States, with mean depths from 0.05to0.67m, mean velocities from 13 to 60 cm/s, and discharges from 0.02 to 12.4m3/s. These measurements were compared with Price mechanical current meter measurements. Analysis of the comparisons shows that the FlowTracker discharges were not statistically different from the Price meter discharges at a 95% confidence level. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  11. First measurement of laser Wakefield oscillations by longitudinal interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Le Blanc, S.P.; Rau, B.; Fisher, D.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Babine, A.; Stepanov, A.; Sergeev, A.

    1996-12-31

    Because the electrostatic fields present in plasma waves can exceed those achievable in conventional accelerators and approach atomic scale values (E{sub a} {approximately} 500 GV/m), plasma based accelerators have received considerable attention as compact sources of high-energy electron pulses. Although stimulated Raman scattering or terahertz radiation at {ital w{sub p}} provided spatially averaged optical signatures of the plasma wave`s existence, new diagnostic techniques are required to map the the temporal and spatial structure of the plasma wave directly since such information is vital for addressing fundamental issues of wakefield generation and propagation. In this paper, we report femtosecond time resolved measurements of the longitudinal and radial structure of laser wakefield oscillations using an all optical technique known as interferometric ``photon acceleration`` or Longitudinal Interferometry.

  12. Picosecond Acoustic Measurement of Anisotropic Properties of Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Perton, M.; Rossignol, C.; Chigarev, N.; Audoin, B.

    2007-03-21

    Properties of thin metallic films have been studied extensively by means of laser-picosecond ultrasonics. Generation of longitudinal and shear waves via thermoelastic mechanism and large source has been only demonstrated for waves vectors along the normal to the interface. However, such measurements cannot provide complete information about elastic properties of films. As it has been already shown for nanosecond ultrasonics, the knowledge of group or phase velocities in several directions for sources with small lateral size allows determining the stiffness tensor coefficients of a sample. The experimental set-up was prepared to obtain the thinnest size for the source to achieve acoustic diffraction. The identification of the stiffness tensor components, based on the inversion of the bulk waves phase velocities, is applied to signals simulated and experimentally recorded for a material with hexagonal properties. First estimation of stiffness tensor coefficients for thin metallic film 2.1 {mu}m has been performed.

  13. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale coaxial helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, M.; Peterson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic data were obtained during a full-scale test of the XH-59A Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The XH-59A is a research helicopter with two coaxial rotors and hingeless blades. Performance, vibration, noise at various forward speeds, rotor lift coefficients, and rotor shaft angles of attack were investigated. In general, the noise level is shown to increase with rotor lift coefficient except under certain operating conditions where it is increased by significant impulsive blade/vortex interactions. The impulsivity appears to depend upon how the lift is distributed between the two rotors. The noise levels measured are shown to be slightly higher than on a modern conventional rotor tested in the same facility.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  15. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  16. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  17. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  19. Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter for Biological Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Wesley Nelson

    In vitro measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are presented for several biological media. With these measurements it is possible to predict the distortion of a finite amplitude wave in biological tissues of current diagnostic and research interest. The measurement method is based on the finite amplitude distortion of a sine wave that is emmitted by a piston source. The growth of the second harmonic component of this wave is measured by a piston receiver which is coaxial with and has the same size as the source. The experimental measurements and theory are compared in order to determine the nonlinearity parameter. The density, sound speed, and attenuation for the medium are determined in order to make this comparison. The theory developed for this study accounts for the influence of both diffraction and attenuation on the experimental measurements. The effects of dispersion, tissue inhomogeneity and gas bubbles within the excised tissues are studied. To test the measurement method, experimental results are compared with established values for the nonlinearity parameter of distilled water, ethylene glycol and glycerol. The agreement between these values suggests that the measurement uncertainty is (+OR-) 5% for liquids and (+OR-) 10% for solid tissues. Measurements are presented for dog blood and bovine serum albumen as a function of concentration. The nonlinearity parameters for liver, kidney and spleen are reported for both human and canine tissues. The values for the fresh tissues displayed little variation (6.8 to 7.8). Measurements for fixed, normal and cirrhotic tissues indicated that the nonlinearity parameter does not depend strongly on pathology. However, the values for fixed tissues were somewhat higher than those of the fresh tissues.

  20. Stabilization and Low-Frequency Oscillation of Capillary Bridges with Modulated Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Morse, S. F.; Thiessen, David B.

    1996-01-01

    In the work reported here it is demonstrated that acoustic radiation pressure may be used in simulated low gravity to produce stable bridges significantly beyond the Rayleigh limit with S as large as 3.6. The bridge (PDMS mixed with a dense liquid) has the same density as the surrounding water bath containing an ultrasonic standing wave. Modulation was first used to excite specific bridge modes. In the most recent work reported here the shape of the bridge is optically sensed and the ultrasonic drive is electronically adjusted such that the radiation stress distribution dynamically quenches the most unstable mode. This active control simulates passive stabilization suggested for low gravity. Feedback increases the mode frequency in the naturally stable region since the effective stiffness of the mode is increased.

  1. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  2. Precision Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation describes a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters m2 21, θ12 and constraints on θ13 based on a study of reactor antineutrinos at a baseline of ~ 180 km with the KamLAND detector. The data presented here was collected between April 2002 and November 2009, and amounts to a total exposure of 2.64 ± 0.07 × 1032 proton-years. For this exposure we expect 2140 ± 74(syst) antineutrino candidates from reactors, assuming standard model neutrino behavior, and 350±88(syst) candidates from background. The number observed is 1614. The ratio of background-subtracted candidates observed to expected is (NObs - NBkg)/ (NExp) = 0.59 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.045(syst) which confirms reactor neutrino disappearance at greater than 5σ significance. Interpreting this deficit as being due to neutrino oscillation, the best-fit oscillation parameters from a three-flavor analysis are m2 21= 7.60+0.20 -0.19×10-5eV2, θ12 = 32.5 ± 2.9 degrees and sin2 θ13 = 0.025+0.035 -0.035, the 95% confidence-level upper limit on sin2 θ13 is sin2 θ13 < 0.083. Assuming CPT invariance, a combined analysis of KamLAND and solar neutrino data yields best-fit values: m2 21 = 7.60+0.20 -0.20 × 10-5eV2, θ12 = 33.5+1.0 -1.1 degrees, and sin2 θ13 = 0.013 ± 0.028 or sin2 θ13 < 0.06 at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Construction of Tunnel Diode Oscillator for AC Impedance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. H.; Kim, E.

    2014-03-01

    We construct a tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) to study electromagnetic response of a superconducting thin film. Highly sensitive tunnel diode oscillators allow us to detect extremely small changes in electromagnetic properties such as dielectric constant, ac magnetic susceptibility and magnetoresistance. A tunnel diode oscillator is a self-resonant oscillator of which resonance frequency is primarily determined by capacitance and inductance of a resonator. Amplitude of the signal depends on the quality factor of the resonator. The change in the impedance of the sample electromagnetic coupled to one of inductors in the resonator alters impedance of the inductor, and leads to the shift in the resonance frequency and the change of the amplitude.

  4. Mechanical Properties of a Primary Cilium Measured by Resonant Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Andrew

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established `ciliary hypothesis' states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1), the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam, 2), the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, the linear spring constant `k' of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 +/- 0.62)*10-12 N/rad and nonlinear spring constant ` α' to be (-1 +/- 0.34) *10-10 N/rad2 , and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signalling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia, anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions.

  5. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  6. An acoustic method for the remote measurement of seagrass metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M.; Lefebvre, A.; Manca, E.; Amos, C. L.

    2011-05-01

    Seagrass meadows are ecosystems of great ecological and economical value and their monitoring is an important task within coastal environmental management. In this paper, an acoustic mapping technique is presented using a profiling sonar. The method has been applied to three different sites with meadows of Zostera marina, Zostera noltii and Posidonia oceanica respectively, with the aim to test the method's applicability. From the backscatter data the seabed could be identified as the strongest scatterer along an acoustic beam. The presented algorithm was used to compute water depth, seagrass canopy height and seagrass coverage and to produce maps of the survey areas. Canopy height was estimated as the distance between the bed and the point where backscatter values decrease to water column values. The algorithm was extended from previous methods to account for a variety of meadow types. Seagrass coverage was defined as the percentage of beams in a sweep where the backscatter 5-10 cm above the bed was higher than a threshold value. This threshold value is dynamic and depends on the average backscatter value throughout the water column. The method is therefore applicable in a range of turbidity conditions. Comparison with results from other survey techniques (i.e. dive surveys, underwater videos) yielded a high correlation which indicates that the method is suited to measure seagrass coverage and height. Analysis of the data showed that each seagrass species has a characteristic canopy height and spatial coverage distribution. These differences were used to undertake a preliminary species identification, as each species has a typical canopy height and preferred depth range. Furthermore, the results show that these differences can be used to track boundaries between species remotely. Finally, the application of the meadow distribution pattern to the health of a meadow is discussed.

  7. Redshift-space Enhancement of Line-of-sight Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main-galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. J.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2011-02-01

    We show that redshift-space distortions of galaxy correlations have a strong effect on correlation functions with distinct, localized features, like the signature of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). Near the line of sight, the features become sharper as a result of redshift-space distortions. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the correlation function in Gaussian simulations and the Millennium simulation. We also analyze the SDSS DR7 main-galaxy sample, splitting the sample into slices 2fdg5 on the sky in various rotations. Measuring two-dimensional correlation functions in each slice, we do see a sharp bump along the line of sight. Using Mexican-hat wavelets, we localize it to (110 ± 10) h -1 Mpc. Averaging only along the line of sight, we estimate its significance at a particular wavelet scale and location at 2.2σ. In a flat angular weighting in the (π, rp ) coordinate system, the noise level is suppressed, pushing the bump's significance to 4σ. We estimate that there is about a 0.2% chance of getting such a signal anywhere in the vicinity of the BAO scale from a power spectrum lacking a BAO feature. However, these estimates of the significances make some use of idealized Gaussian simulations, and thus are likely a bit optimistic.

  8. Redshift-Space Enhancement of Line-of-Sight Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main-Galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Haijun; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Budavari, Tamas; SZALAY, AlEXANDER

    2015-08-01

    We show that redshift-space distortions of galaxy correlations have a strong effect on correlation functions with distinct, localized features, like the signature of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). Near the line of sight, the features become sharper as a result of redshift-space distortions. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the correlation function in Gaussian simulations and the Millennium simulation. We also analyze the SDSS DR7 main-galaxy sample, splitting the sample into slices 2.5 on the sky in various rotations. Measuring two-dimensional correlation functions in each slice, we do see a sharp bump along the line of sight. Using Mexican-hat wavelets, we localize it to (110 ± 10) Mpc/h. Averaging only along the line of sight, we estimate its significance at a particular wavelet scale and location at 2.2σ. In a flat angular weighting in the (π,rp) coordinate system, the noise level is suppressed, pushing the bump’s significance to 4σ . We estimate that there is about a 0.2% chance of getting such a signal anywhere in the vicinity of the BAO scale from a power spectrum lacking a BAO feature. However, these estimates of the significances make some use of idealized Gaussian simulations, and thus are likely a bit optimistic.

  9. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  10. Passive Acoustic Tomography Tested for Measuring Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Kleppe, John

    2004-01-01

    The requirements of higher performance, better fuel economy, and lower emissions place an increasing premium on knowing the internal operating parameters of jet engines. One of the most important is the gas temperature in the post combustor section of the engine. Typically the gas temperature is measured with a thermocouple probe or by some optical technique such as Rayleigh scattering. Probes, while providing valuable information, have several limitations. The probe signal must be corrected for radiation and conduction losses, probes provide only a point measurement, and probes must be constructed of materials whose melting points are lower than the temperature of the environment into which they are inserted. Some of the disadvantages of probes are overcome by various optical techniques. Nothing needs to be inserted into the flow, and the temperature can be directly related to the signal by known physical laws. However, optical techniques require optical access (i.e., a window) and a light source (such as a laser), and they are very sensitive to the presence of particles in the flow. To overcome these problems, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center and The University of Nevada are developing a technique that uses sound instead of light to measure gas temperature. Like optical techniques, it is nonintrusive--no probe need be exposed to the combustion environment--and the temperature is directly related to a measured quantity--the speed of sound, which is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature. The temperature profile inside the engine is constructed from the differences in arrival time between correlated signals from an array of microphones placed around the circumference of the engine. In much the same way as a complete picture of the inside of your body can be constructed from an array of x-ray photographs taken at different angles, the temperature profile in the engine is constructed from the angular array of microphones. It is

  11. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  12. Measurement of transmission loss characteristics using acoustic intensity techniques at the KU-FRL Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    The transmission loss characteristics of panels using the acoustic intensity technique is presented. The theoretical formulation, installation of hardware, modifications to the test facility, and development of computer programs and test procedures are described. A listing of all the programs is also provided. The initial test results indicate that the acoustic intensity technique is easily adapted to measure transmission loss characteristics of panels. Use of this method will give average transmission loss values. The fixtures developed to position the microphones along the grid points are very useful in plotting the intensity maps of vibrating panels.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Measurements of Concentration Distributions in Acoustic Focusing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Fisher, K; Jung, B; Ness, K; Mariella Jr., R P

    2008-06-16

    We describe a modeling approach to capture the particle motion within an acoustic focusing microfluidic device. Our approach combines finite element models for the acoustic forces with analytical models for the fluid motion and uses these force fields to calculate the particle motion in a Brownian dynamics simulation. We compare results for the model with experimental measurements of the focusing efficiency within a microfabricated device. The results show good qualitative agreement over a range of acoustic driving voltages and particle sizes.

  14. The application of acoustic emission technique to fatigue crack measurement. [in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission technique to measure fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy specimens was investigated. There are several variables, such as the metallurgical and the physical treatment of the specimen, that can affect the level of acoustic activity of a fatigue specimen. It is therefore recommended that the acoustic emission technique be supplemented by other nondestructive evaluation methods to obtain quantitative data on crack growth.

  15. Resonant Acoustic Measurement of Vapor Phase Transport Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhmann, R. J.; Garrett, S. L.; Matson, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    A major impediment to accurate non steady-state diffusion measurements is the ability to accurately measure and track a rapidly changing gas concentration without disturbing the system. Non-destructive methods that do not interfere with system dynamics have been developed in the past. These methods, however, have tended to be cumbersome or inaccurate at low concentrations. A new experimental approach has been developed to measure gaseous diffusion in free air and through porous materials. The method combines the traditional non steady-state laboratory methodology with resonant acoustic gas analysis. A phase-locked-loop (PLL) resonance frequency tracker is combined with a thermally insulated copper resonator. A piston sealed with a metal bellows excites the fundamental standing wave resonance of the resonator. The PLL maintains a constant phase difference (typically 90§) between the accelerometer mounted on the piston and a microphone near the piston to track the resonance frequency in real time. A capillary or glass bead filled core is fitted into an o-ring sealed opening at the end of the resonator opposite the bellows. The rate at which the tracer gas is replaced by air within the resonator is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of the gas in free air through the capillary (DA) or by the effective diffusion coefficient of the gas through the core (De). The mean molecular weight of the gas mixture in the resonator is directly determined six times each minute from the ratio of the absolute temperature to the square of the fundamental acoustic resonance frequency. Average system stability (temperature divided by frequency squared) is better than 350 ppm. DA values for a 0.3-inch diameter capillary were in excellent agreement with published values. De values for porous media samples (0.5 mm glass beads) of four different lengths (1 through 4 inches) using three different tracer gases (He, CH4, Kr) will be reported. Comments will be offered regarding tracer gas

  16. Automated acoustic intensity measurements and the effect of gear tooth profile on noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, William J.; Pintz, Adam; Lewicki, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic intensity measurements were made at NASA Lewis Research Center on a spur gear test apparatus. The measurements were obtained with the Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System developed by Cleveland State University. This system provided dense spatial positioning, and was calibrated against a high quality acoustic intensity system. The measured gear noise compared gearsets having two different tooth profiles. The tests evaluated the sound field of the different gears for two speeds and three loads. The experimental results showed that gear tooth profile had a major effect on measured noise. Load and speed were found to have an effect on noise also.

  17. Acoustic measurements of a liquefied cohesive sediment bed under waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, R.; Groposo, V.; Pedocchi, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this article the response of a cohesive sediment deposit under the action of water waves is studied with the help of laboratory experiments and an analytical model. Under the same regular wave condition three different bed responses were observed depending on the degree of consolidation of the deposit: no bed motion, bed motion of the upper layer after the action of the first waves, and massive bed motion after several waves. The kinematic of the upper 3 cm of the deposit were measured with an ultrasound acoustic profiler, while the pore-water pressure inside the bed was simultaneously measured using several pore pressure sensors. A poro-elastic model was developed to interpret the experimental observations. The model showed that the amplitude of the shear stress increased down into the bed. Then it is possible that the lower layers of the deposit experience plastic deformations, while the upper layers present just elastic deformations. Since plastic deformations in the lower layers are necessary for pore pressure build-up, the analytical model was used to interpret the experimental results and to state that liquefaction of a self consolidated cohesive sediment bed would only occur if the bed yield stress falls within the range defined by the amplitude of the shear stress inside the bed.

  18. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. PMID:26377510

  19. Use of fluidic oscillator to measure fuel-air ratios of combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratios between 0.015 and 0.031. Fuel-air ratios determined by oscillator frequency were within 0.001 of the values computed from separate flow measurements of the air and fuel.

  20. Optimization of Acoustic Pressure Measurements for Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    As noise constraints become increasingly stringent, there is continued emphasis on the development of improved acoustic liner concepts to reduce the amount of fan noise radiated to communities surrounding airports. As a result, multiple analytical prediction tools and experimental rigs have been developed by industry and academia to support liner evaluation. NASA Langley has also placed considerable effort in this area over the last three decades. More recently, a finite element code (Q3D) based on a quasi-3D implementation of the convected Helmholtz equation has been combined with measured data acquired in the Langley Grazing Incidence Tube (GIT) to reduce liner impedance in the presence of grazing flow. A new Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has also been developed to allow evaluation of liners in the presence of grazing flow and controlled, higher-order modes, with straight and curved waveguides. Upgraded versions of each of these two test rigs are expected to begin operation by early 2008. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) will replace the GIT, and additional capabilities will be incorporated into the CDTR. The current investigation uses the Q3D finite element code to evaluate some of the key capabilities of these two test rigs. First, the Q3D code is used to evaluate the microphone distribution designed for the GFIT. Liners ranging in length from 51 to 610 mm are investigated to determine whether acceptable impedance eduction can be achieved with microphones placed on the wall opposite the liner. This analysis indicates the best results are achieved for liner lengths of at least 203 mm. Next, the effects of moving this GFIT microphone array to the wall adjacent to the liner are evaluated, and acceptable results are achieved if the microphones are placed off the centerline. Finally, the code is used to investigate potential microphone placements in the CDTR rigid wall adjacent to the wall containing an acoustic liner, to determine if sufficient fidelity can be

  1. Experimental study of coaxial nozzle exhaust noise. [acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J. H.; Stone, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for static acoustic model tests of various geometrical configurations of coaxial nozzles operating over a range of flow conditions. The geometrical configurations consisted of nozzles with coplanar and non-coplanar exit planes and various exhaust area ratios. Primary and secondary nozzle flows were varied independently over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.4 to 3.0 and gas temperatures from 280 to 1100 K. Acoustic data are presented for the conventional mode of coaxial nozzle operation as well as for the inverted velocity profile mode. Comparisons are presented to show the effect of configuration and flow changes on the acoustic characteristics of the nozzles.

  2. Solar Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations were first detected in the solar photosphere in 1962 by Leighton and students. In 1970 it was calculated that these oscillations, with a period near five minutes, were the manifestations of acoustic waves trapped in the interior. The subsequent measurements of the frequencies of global oscillation modes from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the waves made possible the refinement of solar interior models. Over the years, increased understanding of the nuclear reaction rates, the opacity, the equation of state, convection, and gravitational settling have resulted. Mass flows shift the frequencies of modes leading to very accurate measurements of the interior rotation as a function of radius and latitude. In recent years, analogues of terrestrial seismology have led to a tomography of the interior, including measurements of global north-south flows and flow and wave speed measurements below features such as sunspots. The future of helioseismology seems bright with the approval of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, to be launched in 2008.

  3. Use of an acoustic helium analyzer for measuring lung volumes.

    PubMed

    Krumpe, P E; MacDannald, H J; Finley, T N; Schear, H E; Hall, J; Cribbs, D

    1981-01-01

    We have evaluated the use of an acoustic gas analyzer (AGA) for the measurement of total lung capacity (TLC) by single-breath helium dilution. The AGA has a rapid response time (0-90% response = 160 ms for 10% He), is linear for helium concentration of 0.1-10%, is stable over a wide range of ambient temperatures, and is small and portable. We plotted the output of the AGA vs. expired lung volume after a vital capacity breath of 10% He. However, since the AGA is sensitive to changes in speed of sound relative to air, the AGA output signal also reports an artifact due to alveolar gases. We corrected for this artifact by replotting a single-breath expiration after a vital capacity breath of room air. Mean alveolar helium concentration (HeA) was then measured by planimetry, using this alveolar gas curve as the base line. TLC was calculated using the HeA from the corrected AGA output and compared with TLC calculated from HeA simultaneously measured using a mass spectrometer (MS). In 12 normal subjects and 9 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) TLC-AGA and TLC-MS were compared by linear regression analysis; correlation coefficient (r) was 0.973 for normals and 0.968 for COPD patients (P less than 0.001). This single-breath; estimation of TLC using the corrected signal of the AGA vs. Expired volume seems ideally suited for the measurement of subdivisions of lung volume in field studies. PMID:7204187

  4. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  5. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  6. Convergence of oscillator spectral estimators for counted-frequency measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A common intermediary connecting frequency-noise calibration or testing of an oscillator to useful applications is the spectral density of the frequency-deviating process. In attempting to turn test data into predicts of performance characteristics, one is naturally led to estimation of statistical values by sample-mean and sample-variance techniques. However, sample means and sample variances themselves are statistical quantities that do not necessarily converge (in the mean-square sense) to actual ensemble-average means and variances, except perhaps for excessively large sample sizes. This is especially true for the flicker noise component of oscillators. This article shows, for the various types of noises found in oscillators, how sample averages converge (or do not converge) to their statistical counterparts. The convergence rate is shown to be the same for all oscillators of a given spectral type.

  7. Precision evaluation for intensive GPS acoustic measurements along Japan trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Osada, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Yasuda, K.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Tohoku-oki earthquake in 2011, researchers recognized the importance of the state of inter-plate coupling close to the trench for giant earthquakes, in where seafloor geodetic surveys were few or not available. To overcome this limitation, we have developed GPS/acoustic instrument for greater depth up to 6000m, which can cover the region close to the trench for most subduction zones. MEXT, Japan promotes to construct a network of GPS/acoustic survey sites along the Japan trench to elucidate post-seismic behavior after the giant earthquake. In 2012, research group in Tohoku and Nagoya Universities constructed 20 new survey sites along the Japan trench and started their initial positioning. Three to six transponders were installed for each site, which were 86 transponders in total. The network covers large portion of the Japan trench, mainly along the deep land-side of the trench, covering the region of expected significant afterslip as well as of the large coseismic slip. In this year second phase surveys are planned to detect displacement of roughly 1-yesr since the last survey. These are the first intensive surveys that we have never been experienced, and with new survey style. Therefore, in advance to the second phase survey, we summarize the first phase survey in 2012 in the presentation. As one of the most important key to obtain precise positioning of seafloor transponders is how to estimate horizontal variation of sound speed in ocean, which are neglected in the past analysis. For this purpose, some of the sites consist of six transponders, with which such variation can be potentially estimated. For this context, in the second phase surveys, we are going to introduce automatic surface vehicle to enable simultaneous measurement from two points from sea surface, which will provide information of the horizontal variation in sound speed even for three or four transponders. In addition we have made both moving and stationary surveys, in which we can

  8. Acoustic signature of violins based on bridge transfer mobility measurements.

    PubMed

    Elie, Benjamin; Gautier, François; David, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to solve two problems related to musical acoustics. The first one consists in defining a signature of an instrument, namely, summarizing its vibroacoustical behavior. The second one deals with the existing relationship between the musical sound and the vibroacoustic properties of the instrument body. The violin is the application of this paper. A proposed solution for the first problem consists in an estimation of the bridge transfer mobility and the mean-value of the lateral bridge transfer mobility. The second problem is studied via the comparison between the amplitudes of harmonics, extracted from a glissando audio signal, and the lateral bridge transfer mobility: Both curves exhibit similar features. This is the main result of the paper. This is evidenced by studying the effect of a violin mute on both the lateral bridge transfer mobility and the produced sound. Finally, this is evidenced by successfully identifying which violin is played in an audio recording, using the computation of the Pearson distance between the distribution of the amplitude of harmonics and a database of measured mobilities. PMID:25190411

  9. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  10. Modelling baryon acoustic oscillations with perturbation theory and stochastic halo biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    In this work we investigate the generation of mock halo catalogues based on perturbation theory and non-linear stochastic biasing with the novel PATCHY code. In particular, we use Augmented Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (ALPT) to generate a dark matter density field on a mesh starting from Gaussian fluctuations and to compute the peculiar velocity field. ALPT is based on a combination of second order LPT (2LPT) on large scales and the spherical collapse model on smaller scales. We account for the systematic deviation of perturbative approaches from N-body simulations together with halo biasing adopting an exponential bias model. We then account for stochastic biasing by defining three regimes: a low-, an intermediate- and a high-density regime, using a Poisson distribution in the intermediate regime and the negative binomial distribution - including an additional parameter - to model over-dispersion in the high-density regime. Since we focus in this study on massive haloes, we suppress the generation of haloes in the low-density regime. The various non-linear and stochastic biasing parameters, and density thresholds, are calibrated with the large BigMultiDark N-body simulation to match the power spectrum of the corresponding halo population. Our model effectively includes only five parameters, as they are additionally constrained by the halo number density. Our mock catalogues show power spectra, in both real- and redshift-space, which are compatible with N-body simulations within about 2 per cent up to k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1 at z = 0.577 for a sample of haloes with the typical Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS (constant stellar mass galaxy sample) galaxy number density. The corresponding correlation functions are compatible down to a few Mpc. We also find that neglecting over-dispersion in high-density regions produces power spectra with deviations of 10 per cent at k ˜ 0.4 h Mpc-1. These results indicate the need to account for an accurate

  11. Effects of Various Architectural Parameters on Six Room Acoustical Measures in Auditoria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Wei-Hwa

    The effects of architectural parameters on six room acoustical measures were investigated by means of correlation analyses, factor analyses and multiple regression analyses based on data taken in twenty halls. Architectural parameters were used to estimate acoustical measures taken at individual locations within each room as well as the averages and standard deviations of all measured values in the rooms. The six acoustical measures were Early Decay Time (EDT10), Clarity Index (C80), Overall Level (G), Bass Ratio based on Early Decay Time (BR(EDT)), Treble Ratio based on Early Decay Time (TR(EDT)), and Early Inter-aural Cross Correlation (IACC80). A comprehensive method of quantifying various architectural characteristics of rooms was developed to define a large number of architectural parameters that were hypothesized to effect the acoustical measurements made in the rooms. This study quantitatively confirmed many of the principles used in the design of concert halls and auditoria. Three groups of room architectural parameters such as the parameters associated with the depth of diffusing surfaces were significantly correlated with the hall standard deviations of most of the acoustical measures. Significant differences of statistical relations among architectural parameters and receiver specific acoustical measures were found between a group of music halls and a group of lecture halls. For example, architectural parameters such as the relative distance from the receiver to the overhead ceiling increased the percentage of the variance of acoustical measures that was explained by Barron's revised theory from approximately 70% to 80% only when data were taken in the group of music halls. This study revealed the major architectural parameters which have strong relations with individual acoustical measures forming the basis for a more quantitative method for advancing the theoretical design of concert halls and other auditoria. The results of this study provide

  12. Influence of Architectural Features and Styles on Various Acoustical Measures in Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Antonio Pedro Oliveira De.

    This work reports on acoustical field measurements made in a major survey of 41 Catholic churches in Portugal that were built in the last 14 centuries. A series of monaural and binaural acoustical measurements was taken at multiple source/receiver positions in each church using the impulse response with noise burst method. The acoustical measures were Reverberation Time (RT), Early Decay Time (EDT), Clarity (C80), Definition (D), Center Time (TS), Loudness (L), Bass Ratios based on the Reverberation Time and Loudness rm (BR_-RT and rm BR_-L), Rapid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI), and the binaural Coherence (COH). The scope of this research is to investigate how the acoustical performance of Catholic churches relates to their architectural features and to determine simple formulas to predict acoustical measures by the use of elementary architectural parameters. Prediction equations were defined among the acoustical measures to estimate values at individual locations within each room as well as the mean values in each church. Best fits with rm R^2~0.9 were not uncommon among many of the measures. Within and interchurch differences in the data for the acoustical measures were also analyzed. The variations of RT and EDT were identified as much smaller than the variations of the other measures. The churches tested were grouped in eight architectural styles, and the effect of their evolution through time on these acoustical measures was investigated. Statistically significant differences were found regarding some architectural styles that can be traced to historical changes in Church history, especially to the Reformation period. Prediction equations were defined to estimate mean acoustical measures by the use of fifteen simple architectural parameters. The use of the Sabine and Eyring reverberation time equations was tested. The effect of coupled spaces was analyzed, and a new algorithm for the application of the Sabine equation was developed, achieving an average of

  13. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  14. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Ronald J; Nowlin, Scott R; Hahn, Ila L; Eaton, Frank D; McCrae, Kim A

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence. PMID:12558258

  15. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  16. Analysis of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Data for Acoustic Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic velocity measurements were taken using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a Normal Incidence Tube configuration at various frequency, phase, and amplitude levels. This report presents the results of the PIV analysis and data reduction portions of the test and details the processing that was done. Estimates of lower measurement sensitivity levels were determined based on PIV image quality, correlation, and noise level parameters used in the test. Comparison of measurements with linear acoustic theory are presented. The onset of nonlinear, harmonic frequency acoustic levels were also studied for various decibel and frequency levels ranging from 90 to 132 dB and 500 to 3000 Hz, respectively.

  17. Directional acoustic measurements by laser Doppler velocimeters. [for jet aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Overbey, R. L.; Testerman, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDVs) were used as velocity microphones to measure sound pressure level in the range of 90-130 db, spectral components, and two-point cross correlation functions for acoustic noise source identification. Close agreement between LDV and microphone data is observed. It was concluded that directional sensitivity and the ability to measure remotely make LDVs useful tools for acoustic measurement where placement of any physical probe is difficult or undesirable, as in the diagnosis of jet aircraft noise.

  18. Quasi-biennial oscillation in GPS VTEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Laura I.; Meza, Amalia M.; Elías, Ana G.

    2014-07-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation, QBO, a well known periodicity in the equatorial stratospheric zonal winds, is also found in ionospheric parameters and in solar and geomagnetic activity indices. Many authors speculated about the link between the QBO in solar and geomagnetic activity and the QBO in atmospheric parameters. In this work we analyze the presence of the QBO in the ionosphere using the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) values obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements during the period 1999-2012. In particular, we used IONEX files, i.e. the International GNSS Service (IGS) ionospheric products. IONEX provide VTEC values around the world at 2-h intervals. From these data we compute global and zonal averages of VTEC at different local times at mid and equatorial geomagnetic latitudes. VTEC and Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) solar flux time series are analyzed using a wavelet multi resolution analysis. In all cases the QBO is detected among other expected periodicities. Since the main source of variation of free electrons in the ionospheric F2 region, where the maximum concentration occurs, is solar EUV radiation, we conclude that the most important cause attributable to QBO in the ionosphere is the quasi-biennial variability of EUV solar flux. Both QBOs are observed to vary in phase. The percentage of the total signal of the ionospheric QBO at the local times of the maximum photoionization is around 15% independent of magnetic latitude while the respective percentage of the total energy for the EUV solar flux is about 18%.

  19. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = −0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW <3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥3.5 g/kg. No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values. PMID:26426636

  20. Acoustic and manual measurements of methane ebullition in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Lennartz, J. M.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Ewing, S. A.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Controls on the magnitude and frequency of methane (CH4) release through ebullition (bubbling) in water saturated ecosystems such as bogs, fens and lakes are important to both the atmospheric and ecosystems science community. In order to understand the response of these ecosystems to future climate forcing, we need to systematically monitor ebullition from these ecosystems over many seasons and across a multitude of landscape morphologies. We have developed and field tested an inexpensive array of sampling/monitoring instruments to identify the frequency and magnitude of bubbling events which allows us to correlate bubble data with potential drivers such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, wind and temperature. The instrument consists of a nested, inverted funnel design with a hydrophone for detecting bubbles that rise through the peat. The design offers a way to sample the gas collected in the funnels to determine the concentration of CH4. Laboratory calibration of the instrument resulted in an equation that relates frequency of bubbles hitting the hydrophone with bubble volume. Audio data was recorded continuously using a digital audio recorder attached to two ebullition sensors and could be deployed remotely for up to 20 days. Time, fundamental frequency, and estimated bubble size were determined using MATLAB code. Manual bubble flux measurements were also made for comparison to the acoustically sensed ebullition. Instruments were deployed in summers 2011-2013 at a temperate fen (Sallie's Fen, NH, USA) and a subarctic mire (Stordalen, Abisko, Sweden). We also recorded ebullition at two locations in subarctic Alaska (APEX Research Site, Fairbanks, AK and Innoko National Wildlife Refuge) during summer 2011. Ebullition was observed at all sites with highest daily rates in fen versus bog sites. Observed distributions of bubble events correlate with published models of ebullition based on peat density.

  1. Solar Activity in Cycle 24 - What do Acoustic Oscillations tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, Sushant; Simoniello, Rosaria; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Solar Cycle 24 is the weakest cycle in modern era of space- and ground-based observations. The number of sunspots visible on solar disk and other measures of magnetic activity have significantly decreased from the last cycle. It was also preceeded by an extended phase of low activity, a period that raised questions on our understanding of the solar activity cycle and its origin. This unusual behavior was not only limited to the visible features in Sun's atmosphere, the helioseismic observations also revealed peculiar behavior in the interior. It was suggested that the changes in magnetic activity were confined to shallower layers only, as a result low-degree mode frequencies were found to be anti-correlated with solar activity. Here we present results on the progression of Cycle 24 by analyzing the uninterrupted helioseismic data from GONG and SDO/HMI, and discuss differences and similarity between cycles 23 and 24 in relation to the solar activity.

  2. Comparison of acoustic and strain gauge techniques for crack closure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, O.; Inman, R. V.; Frandsen, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative study on the systems performances of the COD gauge and the acoustic transmission techniques to elastic deformation of part-through crack and compact tension specimens has been conducted. It is shown that the two instruments measure two completely different quantities: The COD gauge yields information on the length change of the specimen whereas the acoustic technique is sensitive directly to the amount of contract area between two surfaces, interfering with the acoustic signal. In another series of experiments, compression tests on parts with specifically prepared surfaces were performed so that the surface contact area could be correlated with the transmitted acoustic signal, as well as the acoustic with the COD gauge signal. A linear relation between contact area and COD gauge signal was obtained until full contact had been established.

  3. Identification of vibration excitations from acoustic measurements using near field acoustic holography and the force analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pézerat, C.; Leclère, Q.; Totaro, N.; Pachebat, M.

    2009-10-01

    This study presents a method of using acoustic holography and the force analysis technique to identify vibration sources from radiated noise measurements. The structure studied is a plate excited by a shaker on which three measurements were performed: the first is a reference measurement of plate velocity obtained by scanning laser vibrometry, the second is based on sound pressure measurements in the near field of the structure, and the third is the measurement of normal acoustic velocities by using a p-U probe recently developed by Microflown Technologies. This was followed by the application of classical NAH, known as pressure-to-velocity holography and velocity-to-velocity holography to predict the plate velocity field from acoustic measurements at distances of 1 and 5 cm. Afterwards, the force analysis technique, also known as the RIFF technique, is applied with these five data sets. The principle is to inject the displacement field of the structure into its equation of motion and extract the resulting force distribution. This technique requires regularization done by a low-pass filter in the wavenumber domain. Apart from pressure-to-velocity holography at 5 cm, the reconstructed force distribution allows localizing the excitation point in the measurement area. FAT regularization is also shown to improve results as its cutoff wavenumber is optimized with the natural wavenumber of the plate. Lastly, quantitative force values are extracted from force distributions at all frequencies of the band 0-4 kHz studied and compared with the force spectrum measured directly by a piezoelectric sensor.

  4. Measuring the acoustic absorption coefficient in biological tissue specimens using ultrasonic phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Zelenova, Z. V.; Brysev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens—porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues—by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses.

  5. Underwater hybrid near-field acoustical holography based on the measurement of vector hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Yang, Desen; Sun, Yu

    2010-06-01

    Hybrid near-field acoustical holography (NAH) is developed for reconstructing acoustic radiation from a cylindrical source in a complex underwater environment. In hybrid NAH, we combine statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (SONAH) and broadband acoustical holography from intensity measurements (BAHIM) to reconstruct the underwater cylindrical source field. First, the BAHIM is utilized to regenerate as much acoustic pressures on the hologram surface as necessary, and then the acoustic pressures are taken as input to the formulation implemented numerically by SONAH. The main advantages of this technology are that the complex pressure on the hologram surface can be reconstructed without reference signal, and the measurement array can be smaller than the source, thus the practicability and efficiency of this technology are greatly enhanced. Numerical examples of a cylindrical source are demonstrated. Test results show that hybrid NAH can yield a more accurate reconstruction than conventional NAH. Then, an experiment has been carried out with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results show the advantage of hybrid NAH in the reconstruction of an acoustic field and the feasibility of using a vector hydrophone array in an underwater NAH measurement, as well as the identification and localization of noise sources.

  6. Acoustic measurements of soil pipeflow and internal erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can lead to embankment failures, landslides, and gully erosion therefore non-intrusive methods are needed to detect and monitor soil pipeflow and the resulting internal erosion. This paper presents a laboratory study using both active and passive acoustic techniques to...

  7. Acoustic measurements of soil-pipeflow and internal erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can lead to embankment failures, landslides, and gully erosion. Therefore, non-intrusive methods are needed to detect and monitor soil pipeflow and the resulting internal erosion. This paper presents a laboratory study using both active and passive acoustic techniques ...

  8. Deep seafloor acoustic backscattering measurements using sea beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoustier, C.

    Multibeam echo-sounders such as Sea Beam allow detailed bathymetric surveys of large areas of the seafloor. However, bathymetry only reveals the shape of seafloor features to the resolution of the sounding system, and in order to make geological interpretations the nature of the seafloor surveyed needs to be characterized. Because bottom roughness and/or variations in bottom substrate cause fluctuations in the backscattered acoustic signal received by an echo-sounder, such characteristics can be inferred in part by analyzing the structure and the variations of this signal over several transmission cycles. The approach taken was to record digitally the detected echo envelopes of the Sea Beam's 16 narrow beams over a variety of seafloor environments, and process these data to determine whether the acoustics held enough information to differentiate between bottom types. Significant results derived from these acoustic data concern the Sea Beam system's performance, its potential for mapping acoustic boundaries, and the display of the echoes received in a side looking sonar-like picture.

  9. Gated photon correlation spectroscopy for acoustical particle velocity measurements in free-field conditions.

    PubMed

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben; Theobald, Pete

    2013-03-01

    The measurement of acoustic pressure at a point in space using optical methods has been the subject of extensive research in airborne acoustics over the last four decades. The main driver is to reliably establish the acoustic pascal, thus allowing the calibration of microphones with standard and non-standard dimensions to be realized in an absolute and direct manner. However, the research work so far has mostly been limited to standing wave tubes. This Letter reports on the development of an optical system capable of measuring acoustic particle velocities in free-field conditions; agreement within less than 0.6 dB was obtained with standard microphone measurements during these initial experiments. PMID:23464122

  10. The Autonomous Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator: A Reference for Frequency Stability and Phase Noise Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, V.; Grop, S.; Fluhr, C.; Dubois, B.; Kersalé, Y.; Rubiola, E.

    2016-06-01

    The Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator (CSO) is the microwave oscillator which feature the highest short-term stability. Our best units exhibit Allan deviation σy (τ) of 4.5x10-16 at 1s, ≈ 1.5x10-16 at 100 s ≤ t ≤ 5,000 s (floor), and ≤ 5x10-15 at one day. The use of a Pulse-Tube cryocooler enables full two year operation with virtually no maintenance. Starting with a short history of the CSO in our lab, we go through the architecture and we provide more details about the resonator, the cryostat, the oscillator loop, and the servo electronics. We implemented three similar oscillators, which enable the evaluation of each with the three- cornered hat method, and provide the potential for Allan deviation measurements at parts of 10-17 level. One of our CSOs (ULISS) is transportable, and goes with a small customized truck. The unique feature of ULISS is that its σy (τ) can be validated at destination by measuring before and after the roundtrip. To this extent, ULISS can be regarded as a traveling standard of frequency stability. The CSOs are a part of the Oscillator IMP project, a platform dedicated to the measurement of noise and short-term stability of oscillators and devices in the whole radio spectrum (from MHz to THz), including microwave photonics. The scope spans from routine measurements to the research on new oscillators, components, and measurement methods.

  11. Large area planar fiber optic accelerometers for measurement of acoustic velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Bucaro, J.A.; Lagakos, N.; Houston, B.H.; Kraus, L.

    1996-04-01

    Large area, flexible planar fiber optic accelerometers have been developed for use as acoustic velocity sensors in underwater applications. The devices use a specially designed optical fiber with specific jackets which suppress the fiber sensor{close_quote}s response to acoustic pressure. The sensor has been subjected to a variety of tests including direct acceleration response, direct pressure response, and response to flexural wave excitation when mounted to a {open_quote}{open_quote}hull simulator{close_quote}{close_quote} backing structure. A thorough analysis has been carried out to understand the dynamic responses and limitations of these sensor types. This work is motivated by the desire to measure spatially averaged acoustic velocity while suppressing higher wavenumber mechanical excitations. In conjunction with existing large area pressure sensors (or with suitable structural models), these devices would provide a powerful capability for the measurement and detection of acoustic fields near structures having general impedance properties. This would allow, for example, the decomposition of the acoustic field into backward and forward propagating waves near such a boundary, the determination of acoustic intensity, the detection of the acoustic field with high signal-to-noise ratios even near a soft, pressure release boundary, and determination of the impedance of the structure itself. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary: Analysis of experimental measurements and numerical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sreeram

    Underwater intrusion detection is an ongoing security concern in port and harbor areas. Of particular interest is to detect SCUBA divers, unmanned underwater vehicles and small boats from their acoustic signature. A thorough understanding of the effects of the shallow water propagating medium on acoustic signals can help develop new technologies and improve the performance of existing acoustic based surveillance systems. The Hudson River Estuary provides us with such a shallow water medium to conduct research and improve our knowledge of shallow water acoustics. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary is highly affected by the temporal and spatial variability of salinity and temperature due to tides, freshwater inflows, winds etc. The primary goal of this research is to help develop methodologies to predict the formation of an acoustic field in the realistic environment of the lower Hudson River Estuary. Shallow water high-frequency acoustic propagation experiments were conducted in the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. Channel Impulse Response (CIR) measurements were carried out in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz for distances up to 200 meters in a water depth of 8-10 meters which formed the basis for experimental Transmission Loss (TL). CIR data was also utilized to demonstrate multi-path propagation in shallow water. Acoustic propagation models based on Ray Theory and Parabolic Equation methods were implemented in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz and TL was estimated. The sound velocity profiles required as input by acoustic propagation models were calculated from in-situ measurements of temperature, salinity and depth. Surface reflection loss was obtained from CIR data and incorporated into the acoustic propagation models. Experimentally obtained TL was used to validate the acoustic model predictions. An outcome of this research is an operational acoustic transmission loss (TL) forecast system based on the existing, Stevens New York

  13. Field evaluation of boat-mounted acoustic Doppler instruments used to measure streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    The use of instruments based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun field validation of the instruments used to make discharge measurements from a moving boat. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made using a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures concurrent with the acoustic instruments at each site. Discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with discharges measured with Price AA current meters and the USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating.

  14. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  15. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  16. Generation of a squeezed state of an oscillator by stroboscopic back-action-evading measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, G.; Shen, H.; Jensen, K.; Balabas, M.; Salart, D.; Chen, B.; Polzik, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    Continuous observation of an oscillator results in quantum back-action, which limits the knowledge acquired by the measurement. A careful balance between the information obtained and the back-action disturbance leads to the standard quantum limit of precision. This limit can be surpassed by a measurement with strength modulated at twice the oscillator frequency, resulting in a squeezed state of the oscillator motion, as proposed decades ago. Here, we report the generation of a squeezed state of an oscillator by a stroboscopic back-action-evading measurement. The oscillator is the spin of an atomic ensemble precessing in a magnetic field. The oscillator initially prepared nearly in the ground state is stroboscopically coupled to an optical mode of a cavity. A measurement of the output light results in a 2.2 +/- 0.3 dB squeezed state of the oscillator. The demonstrated spin-squeezed state of 108 atoms with an angular spin variance of 8 × 10-10 rad2 is promising for magnetic field sensing.

  17. Measuring the Kuroshio Current with ocean acoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naokazu; Huang, Chen-Fen; Kaneko, Arata; Liu, Cho-Teng; Howe, Bruce M; Wang, Yu-Huai; Yang, Yih; Lin, Ju; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Gohda, Noriaki

    2013-10-01

    Ocean current profiling using ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was conducted in the Kuroshio Current southeast of Taiwan from August 20 to September 15, 2009. Sound pulses were transmitted reciprocally between two acoustic stations placed near the underwater sound channel axis and separated by 48 km. Based on the result of ray simulation, the received signals are divided into multiple ray groups because it is difficult to resolve the ray arrivals for individual rays. The average differential travel times from these ray groups are used to reconstruct the vertical profiles of currents. The currents are estimated with respect to the deepest water layer via two methods: An explicit solution and an inversion with regularization. The strong currents were confined to the upper 200 m and rapidly weakened toward 500 m in depth. Both methods give similar results and are consistent with shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler results in the upper 150 m. The observed temporal variation demonstrates a similar trend to the prediction from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. PMID:24116522

  18. Comparison between psycho-acoustics and physio-acoustic measurement to determine optimum reverberation time of pentatonic angklung music concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsono, Anugrah S.; Merthayasa, I. G. N.; Suprijanto

    2015-09-01

    This research tried to compare psycho-acoustics and Physio-acoustic measurement to find the optimum reverberation time of soundfield from angklung music. Psycho-acoustic measurement was conducted using a paired comparison method and Physio-acoustic measurement was conducted with EEG Measurement on T3, T4, FP1, and FP2 measurement points. EEG measurement was conducted with 5 persons. Pentatonic angklung music was used as a stimulus with reverberation time variation. The variation was between 0.8 s - 1.6 s with 0.2 s step. EEG signal was analysed using a Power Spectral Density method on Alpha Wave, High Alpha Wave, and Theta Wave. Psycho-acoustic measurement on 50 persons showed that reverberation time preference of pentatonic angklung music was 1.2 second. The result was similar to Theta Wave measurement on FP2 measurement point. High Alpha wave on T4 measurement gave different results, but had similar patterns with psycho-acoustic measurement

  19. Assessing the integrity of structural adhesive bonds by the measurement of acoustic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagasivamani, V.; Smith, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing the influence of externally applied shear stresses on the acoustic properties in the bondline region. The changes in the acoustic properties with a change in the temperature of the test samples are measured. The results of these tests are employed to evaluate the quality of the adhesive bonds. The dependence of time-of-flight on the temperature of plain steel and of steel adhesively bonded to rubber is illustrated in graphic form.

  20. Intensive sound speed monitoring in ocean and its impact on the GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Motoyuki

    2016-04-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) technique, based on GPS positioning and acoustic ranging, is now getting a popular tool to measure seafloor crustal movement. Several groups in the world have been intensively conducted campaign surveys in the region of scientifically interest. As the technology of measurement has been matured and plenty of data are accumulated, researchers are now aware of the limit of its precision mainly due to unexpected undulation of sound speed in ocean, which significantly degrades acoustic ranging. If sound speed structure keeps its figure during survey period, e.g., more than a couple of hours, it can be estimated by a moving survey to get sufficient paths from various directions to illustrate the structure. However the sound speed structure often varies quickly with in a hour due to internal gravitational wave excited by interaction of tidal current and seafloor topography. In this case one cannot separate temporal and spatial variations. We revisited our numerous sound speed profile data derived from numbers of XBT measurements, which were concurrently carried out with GPS/A survey along the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench. Among the measurements, we found notably short-period variation in sound speed profile through intensive XBT survey repeatedly cast every 6 minutes for one hour, which also appeared in residuals in traveltime of acoustic ranging. The same feature is also found in more moderate rate for semidiurnal undulation, in which vertical oscillation of the middle of the profile can be clearly seen rather than variation of absolute sound speed. This also reflects traveltime residuals in the GPS/A measurement. These typical frequencies represent dominant wavelengths of spatial sound speed variation. In the latter, local horizontal variation can be negligible in the vicinity of a point survey area and the traditional analysis can be applicable that assumes time-varying stratified sound speed structure. In the former case, on the contrary, local

  1. Acoustic Measurements of a Large Civil Transport Main Landing Gear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravetta, Patricio A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Wisda, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Microphone phased array acoustic measurements of a 26 percent-scale, Boeing 777-200 main landing gear model with and without noise reduction fairings installed were obtained in the anechoic configuration of the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 with the latter speed used as the nominal test condition. The fully and partially dressed gear with the truck angle set at 13 degrees toe-up landing configuration were the two most extensively tested configurations, serving as the baselines for comparison purposes. Acoustic measurements were also acquired for the same two baseline configurations with the truck angle set at 0 degrees. In addition, a previously tested noise reducing, toboggan-shaped fairing was re-evaluated extensively to address some of the lingering questions regarding the extent of acoustic benefit achievable with this device. The integrated spectra generated from the acoustic source maps reconfirm, in general terms, the previously reported noise reduction performance of the toboggan fairing as installed on an isolated gear. With the recent improvements to the Virginia Tech tunnel acoustic quality and microphone array capabilities, the present measurements provide an additional, higher quality database to the acoustic information available for this gear model.

  2. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  3. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  4. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    2001-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in two hydrocarbon reservoirs. This was accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using MR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurements were compared with petrographic analysis results to determine the relative roles of petrographic elements such as porosity type, mineralogy, texture, and distribution of clay and cement in creating permeability heterogeneity.

  5. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Ph.D., Jorge O.

    2002-06-10

    The objective of the project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This will be accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging were linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of cores and theoretical modeling.

  6. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  7. Oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines from stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, Alex

    2011-05-01

    Herein we develop a new method to determine oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines with state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations of the optical spectrum of the Sun and of standard spectral reference stars. We update the log(gf) values of 911 neutral lines observed in the KPNO-FTS flux spectrum of the Sun and high-resolution echelle spectra (R = 80 000) of Procyon (F5 IV-V) and Eps Eri (K2 V) observed with large signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of 2000 using the new Mercator-Hermes spectrograph at La Palma Observatory (Spain). We find for 483 Fe I, 85 Ni I, and 51 Si I absorption lines in the sample a systematic overestimation of the literature log(gf) values with central line depths below 15%. We employ a curve-of-growth analysis technique to test the accuracy of the new oscillator strength values and compare calculated equivalent line widths to the Moore, Minnaert, and Houtgast atlas of the Sun. The online SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org interactively displays the observed and synthetic spectra and provides the new log(gf) values together with important atomic line data. The graphical database is under development for stellar reference spectra of every spectral sub-class observed with large spectral resolution and S/N ratios.

  8. ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) Liftoff Acoustic Environments: Prediction vs. Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, Douglas; Kenny, Jeremy; Murphy, John

    2009-01-01

    The ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) provided an opportunity to measure liftoff acoustic noise data. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers were interested in the ALV-X1 launch because the First Stage motor and launch pad conditions, including a relativity short deflector ducting, provide a potential analogue to future Ares I launches. This paper presents the measured liftoff acoustics on the vehicle and tower. Those measured results are compared to predictions based upon the method described in NASA SP-8072 "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System" and the Vehicle Acoustic Environment Prediction Program (VAEPP) which was developed by MSFC acoustics engineers. One-third octave band sound pressure levels will be presented. This data is useful for the ALV-X1 in validating the pre-launch environments and loads predictions. Additionally, the ALV-X1 liftoff data can be scaled to define liftoff environments for the NASA Constellation program Ares vehicles. Vehicle liftoff noise is caused by the supersonic jet flow interaction with surrounding atmosphere or more simply, jet noise. As the vehicle's First Stage motor is ignited, an acoustic noise field is generated by the exhaust. This noise field persists due to the supersonic jet noise and reflections from the launch pad and tower, then changes as the vehicle begins to liftoff from the launch pad. Depending on launch pad and adjacent tower configurations, the liftoff noise is generally very high near the nozzle exit and decreases rapidly away from the nozzle. The liftoff acoustic time range of interest is typically 0 to 20 seconds after ignition. The exhaust plume thermo-fluid mechanics generates sound at approx.10 Hz to 20 kHz. Liftoff acoustic noise is usually the most severe dynamic environment for a launch vehicle or payload in the mid to high frequency range (approx.50 to 2000 Hz). This noise environment can induce high-level vibrations along the external surfaces of the vehicle and surrounding

  9. The 2.2 GHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) oscillator development Ku-band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two 2.2 GHz SAW oscillators using aluminum nitride on sapphire (AlN/Al2O3) delay lines were fabricated. The oscillators were electronically temperature compensated and characterized. One of the oscillators was used as the frequency reference for the Ku band source; the second oscillator is available for continued evaluation. A 15 GHz frequency source was designed and fabricated. The 15 GHz source consists of a Ku band FET oscillator which is phase locked to the frequency multiplied (X7) output of the 2.2 GHz SAW reference source. The Ku band source was built using microstrip circuit designs, which are hybrid compatible. Two wafer runs of 2.2 GHz TED devices were fabricated and evaluated. The devices were mounted on microstrip test substrates and evaluated as 15 GHz divide by 7 circuits. The device evaluation indicated that in their present form the TED is not a practical circuit element.

  10. Analyzing excitation forces acting on a plate based on measured acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Zhou, Pan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on "seeing" through an elastic structure to uncover the root cause of sound and vibration by using nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) and normal modes expansion. This approach is of generality because vibro-acoustic responses on the surface of a vibrating structure can always be reconstructed, exactly or approximately. With these vibro-acoustic responses, excitation forces acting on the structure can always be determined, analytically or numerically, given any set of boundary conditions. As an example, the explicit formulations for reconstructing time-harmonic excitation forces, including point, line and surface forces, and their arbitrary combinations acting on a rectangular thin plate in vacuum mounted on an infinite baffle are presented. The reason for choosing this example is that the analytic solutions to vibro-acoustic responses are available, and in-depth analyses of results are possible. Results demonstrate that this approach allows one to identify excitation forces based on measured acoustic pressures and reveal their characteristics such as locations, types and amplitudes, as if one could "see" excitation forces acting behind the plate based on acoustic pressure measured on the opposite side. This approach is extendable to general elastic structures, except that in such circumstance numerical results must be sought. PMID:27475174

  11. Acoustic Techniques for Measuring Surface Sealing and Crusting of Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, C. J.; Leary, D.; Dicarlo, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The microtopography of soils is an important surface characteristic that effects water ponding, infiltration, and consequently soil erosion. During a rainstorm event the surface microtopography and soil matrix evolve, thereby altering the erosion and runoff dynamics. The impact of raindrops cause the breakdown of soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can then be deposited into the smaller depressions. The redistribution of soil particles on the surface during rainfall produce a thin surface layer often referred to as surface sealing or crusting. For the purpose of this presentation, surface sealing will be used to describe a reduction in the ability of fluid to flow across the surface. Surface crusting will be associated with the formation of a thin layer of higher stiffness or larger mechanical strength. The sensitivity of acoustics to the effects of sealing and crusting was examined by measuring the acoustic-to seismic (A/S) transfer function and acoustic reflectivity on two different soils in a dry, wetted and rained-on state. The A/S transfer function measurement involves the use of a suspended loud speaker to impinge acoustic energy from the air onto the sample and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to measure the induced surface particle velocity. Therefore, the A/S transfer function is a measure of the seismic energy that has been transferred into the soil from the airborne wave. The acoustic surface reflectivity is a measurement of the amount of acoustic energy reflected from the surface and requires the use of a microphone suspended above the surface. Results suggests that the seismic energy transferred (A/S transfer function) is sensitive to crust formation but is not as sensitive to sealing. The amount of reflected acoustic energy appears to be more sensitive to sealing than crusting.

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Oscillations of the Vocal Folds and of the Resulting Acoustic Phenomena in the Vocal Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, P.; Horáček, J.; Švec, J. G.

    The study presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the flow-induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustics of simplified vocal tract models. The 3D vocal tract models of the acoustic spaces shaped for simulation of phonation of Czech vowels [a:], [i:] and [u:] were created by converting the data from the magnetic resonance images (MRI). For modelling of the fluid-structure interaction, explicit coupling scheme with separated solvers for fluid and structure domain was utilized. The FE model comprises vocal folds pretension before starting phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal-fold collisions, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according to the vocal-fold motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation. The developed FE model enables to study the relationship between flow-induced vibrations of the vocal folds and acoustic wave propagation in the vocal tract and can also be used to simulate for example pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue and their influence on the voice production.

  13. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  14. Quantum oscillations in magnetothermopower measurements of topological insulator Bi2Te3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qu, Dong -Xia; Hor, Y. S.; Cava, R. J.

    2012-12-10

    We report the magnetothermopower measurements of the nonmetallic topological insulator Bi2Te3 in magnetic fields up to 35 T. Quantum oscillations arising from surface states are observed in both thermoelectric and conductivity tensors. The inferred surface thermopower has a peak magnitude ~1 mV/K possibly as a result of surface electron and bulk phonon interaction. At the n = 1 Landau level, we resolve additional quantum oscillations signaling Landau sublevels.

  15. Use of acoustic wave travel-time measurements to probe the near-surface layers of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Osaki, Y.; Shibahashi, H.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Pomerantz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The variation of solar p-mode travel times with cyclic frequency nu is shown to provide information on both the radial variation of the acoustic potential and the depth of the effective source of the oscillations. Observed travel-time data for waves with frequency lower than the acoustic cutoff frequency for the solar atmosphere (approximately equals 5.5 mHz) are inverted to yield the local acoustic cutoff frequency nu(sub c) as a function of depth in the outer convection zone and lower atmosphere of the Sun. The data for waves with nu greater than 5.5 mHz are used to show that the source of the p-mode oscillations lies approximately 100 km beneath the base of the photosphere. This depth is deeper than that determined using a standard mixing-length calculation.

  16. Measurement of Aqueous Foam Rheology by Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn; Rogers, Rich (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique is demonstrated for acoustically levitating aqueous foam drops and exciting their spheroidal modes. This allows fundamental studies of foam-drop dynamics that provide an alternative means of estimating the viscoelastic properties of the foam. One unique advantage of the technique is the lack of interactions between the foam and container surfaces, which must be accounted for in other techniques. Results are presented in which a foam drop with gas volume fraction phi = 0.77 is levitated at 30 kHz and excited into its first quadrupole resonance at 63 +/- 3 Hz. By modeling the drop as an elastic sphere, the shear modulus of the foam was estimated at 75 +/- 3 Pa.

  17. Broadband electrostatic acoustic transducer for ultrasonic measurements in liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.; Heyman, J. S.; Yost, W. T.; Torbett, M. A.; Breazeale, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    A broadband capacitive electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) has been developed for use in a liquid environment at megahertz frequencies. The ESAT basically consists of a thin conductive membrane stretched over a metallic housing. The membrane functions as the ground plate of a parallel plate capacitor, the other plate being a dc biased electrode recessed approximately 10 microns from the electrically grounded membrane. An ultrasonic wave incident on the membrane varies the membrane-electrode gap spacing and generates an electrical signal proportional to the wave amplitude. The entire assembly is sealed for immersion in a liquid environment. Calibration of the ESAT with incident ultrasonic waves of constant displacement amplitude from 1 to 15 MHz reveals a decrease in signal response with increasing frequency independent of membrane tension. The use of the ESAT as a broadband ultrasonic transducer in liquids with a predictable frequency response is promising.

  18. Acoustic measurement of suspensions of clay and silt particles using single frequency attenuation and backscatter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of ultrasonic acoustic technology to measure the concentration of fine suspended sediments has the potential to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of sediment measurements while reducing the need for personnel to be present at gauging stations during storm events. The conv...

  19. Improvements to the methods used to measure bubble attenuation using an underwater acoustical resonator.

    PubMed

    Czerski, Helen; Vagle, Svein; Farmer, David M; Hall-Patch, Nick

    2011-11-01

    Active acoustic techniques are commonly used to measure oceanic bubble size distributions, by inverting the bulk acoustical properties of the water (usually the attenuation) to infer the bubble population. Acoustical resonators have previously been used to determine attenuation over a wide range of frequencies (10-200 kHz) in a single measurement, corresponding to the simultaneous measurement of a wide range of bubble sizes (20-300 μm radii). However, there is now also considerable interest in acquiring measurements of bubbles with radii smaller than 16 μm, since these are thought to be important for ocean optics and as tracers for near-surface flow. To extend the bubble population measurement to smaller radii, it is necessary to extend the attenuation measurements to higher frequencies. Although the principles of resonator operation do not change as the frequency increases, the assumptions previously made during the spectral analysis may no longer be valid. In order to improve the methods used to calculate attenuation from acoustical resonator outputs, a more complete analysis of the resonator operation is presented here than has been published previously. This approach allows for robust attenuation measurements over a much wider frequency range and enables accurate measurements from lower-quality spectral peaks. PMID:22088016

  20. Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  1. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  2. Non-Destructive Measurement of Vascular Tissue Development in Stems of Miniature Tomato Using Acoustic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Kensuke; Watanabe, Eiko; Kato, Hiroshi

    The guided wave effect resembling that of annual rings found in woods and the cortical region of bones is believed to be observable in vascular tissues of herbaceous plants. The properties of acoustic waves traveling through the vascular tissue in the stem of a miniature tomato were measured using a piezoelectric pulser and receiver. The thickness of the vascular tissues and the stem's water content were measured. The detected acoustic waves showed a guided wave effect. The apparent sound velocity, va, was related to the vascular tissue thickness, tv. These results reveal that the detected acoustic waves traveled along the vascular tissues in stems. The maximum peak intensity of the detected acoustic waves, Imax was also related to t. Furthermore, wilting of the examined plants decreased the Imax, although va was not changed. The decrease in Imax might result from cavitations and embolisms with a subsequent increase in air pores in xylem tissues. These results demonstrate that the measurement of acoustic waves traveling through vascular tissue is a useful tool for the non-destructive evaluation of vascular tissue development and embolism density in xylem tissues.

  3. Microwave Electromechanics: Measuring and Manipulating the Quantum State of a Macroscopic Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jennifer Wightman

    In the past several years, the field of optomechanics has progressed from proof-of-principle experiments to the realization of mechanical oscillators and measurements in the quantum regime. Mechanical oscillators are of great interest because they can have small dissipation rates, can couple to many different systems of interest, and are the fundamental elements of ultrasensitive force detectors. Coupling these mechanical oscillators to microwave or optical fields provides a two-fold advantage. Firstly, information about mechanical position can be encoded in the interrogating field, enabling sensitive readout of the mechanical oscillator. Secondly, the radiation pressure force of that field can be used to control the state of the mechanical oscillator. Including a high-quality microwave or optical cavity enhances both of these effects, as the field strength is resonantly increased. The major questions in the field of optomechanics in the last several years have dealt with using mechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive measurements and as tools for quantum information. Both of these goals have the prerequisite that we be able to read out the motion of the mechanical oscillator in a quantum efficient manner. To that end, we developed a nearly shot-noise limited microwave interferometer capable of measuring mechanical motion with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit. This achievement is not only a critical improvement for the electromechanical experiments we do, but is also an important tool for any experiment that encodes the information of interest in microwave fields. In order to use mechanical oscillators as tools for quantum information, the mechanical oscillator must also be cooled into the quantum regime and fully controllable by the interrogating fields. To this end, we used the radiation pressure of microwave fields to cool our macroscopic mechanical oscillator to less than one phonon. We also demonstrated coherent transfer between

  4. A new method to measure the oscillation of a cylindrical cantilever: ``The laser reflection detection system''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognozzi, M.; Haschke, H.; Miles, M. J.

    2000-04-01

    A new optical detection system for measuring the oscillation of cylindrical cantilevers has been designed. A laser beam is directed perpendicularly to the oscillating plane and is focused on the curved surface of the vibrating probe. The surface reflects the light and a second lens refocuses it onto a two-segment photodiode. The sensitivity of this method lies in the fact that a small displacement of the probe produces a large angular deflection of the reflected laser. Applications of this new system are presented in order to demonstrate its reliability, accuracy, sensitivity, and the possible use in a shear force microscope. All the results are finally analyzed by modeling the motion of the cantilevers using harmonic oscillator theory and the continuous model for oscillating bars. The agreement between experimental data and models is well inside the experimental errors confirming the possibility of using this system to accurately study the dynamics of cylindrical cantilevers.

  5. Preparation of a second station for the measurement of solar oscillations of low degree 'l'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacciani, A.; Fabbri, F.; Ricci, D.; Rosati, P.; Marquedant, R.; Smith, E.

    1990-01-01

    An observing station to detect low-degree global solar oscillations is already operational at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A second station for continuative measurements of such oscillations has recently been installed and successfully tested in Rome. The high transmission and stability of the magneto-optical filter (MOF) coupled with the lock-in amplifier technique allow analog and real-time detection of oscillation modes with a noise level of only a few cm/s. Observing runs and estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio are shown in time and frequency domains. Routine observations will establish whether the MOF sensitivity and stability are suitable for the detection of stellar oscillations.

  6. Use of Acoustic Doppler Instruments for Measuring Discharge in Streams with Appreciable Sediment Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) for measuring discharge in streams with sediment transport was discussed. The studies show that the acoustic frequency of an ADCP in combination with the sediment transport characteristics in a river causes the ADCP bottom-tracking algorithms to detect a moving bottom. A moving bottom causes bottom-tracking-referenced water velocities and discharges to be biased low. The results also show that the use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) data allows accurate measurement of water velocities and discharges in such cases.

  7. Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A method for measuring the acoustic velocity in a thin sheet of a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) material was investigated. This method uses two identical acoustic-emission (AE) sensors, one to transmit and one to receive. The delay time as a function of distance between sensors determines a bulk velocity. A lightweight fixture (balsa wood in the current implementation) provides a consistent method of positioning the sensors, thus providing multiple measurements of the time delay between sensors at different known distances. A linear fit to separation, x, versus delay time, t, will yield an estimate of the velocity from the slope of the line.

  8. Beam distortion detection and deflectometry measurements of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Higuet, Julien; Valier-Brasier, Tony; Dehoux, Thomas; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    Gigahertz acoustic waves propagating on the surface of a metal halfspace are detected using different all-optical detection schemes, namely, deflectometry and beam distortion detection techniques. Both techniques are implemented by slightly modifying a conventional reflectometric setup. They are then based on the measurement of the reflectivity change but unlike reflectometric measurements, they give access to the sample surface displacement. A semi-analytical model, taking into account optical, thermal, and mechanical processes responsible for acoustic waves generation, allows analyzing the physical content of the detected waveforms. PMID:22129002

  9. Simultaneous Measurement of Oscillations in Oxygen Evolution and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Leaf Pieces 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David A.; Sivak, Mirta N.; Prinsley, Roslyn T.; Cheesbrough, John K.

    1983-01-01

    In spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves, chlorophyll a fluorescence and O2 evolution have been measured simultaneously following re-illumination after a dark interval or when steady state photosynthesis has been perturbed by changes in the gas phase. In high CO2 concentrations, both O2 and fluorescence can display marked dampening oscillations that are antiparallel but slightly out of phase (a rise or fall in fluorescence anticipating a corresponding fall or rise in O2 by about 10 to 15 seconds). Infrared gas analysis measurements showed that CO2 uptake behaved like O2 evolution both in the period of oscillation (about 1 minute) and in its relation to fluorescence. In the steady state, oscillations were initiated by increases in CO2 or by increases or decreases in O2. Oscillations in O2 or CO2 did not occur without associated oscillations in fluorescence and the latter were a sensitive indicator of the former. The relationship between such oscillations in photosynthetic carbon assimilation and chlorophyl a fluorescence is discussed in the context of the effect of ATP or NADPH consumption on known quenching mechanisms. PMID:16663255

  10. Simultaneous measurement of oscillations in oxygen evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence in leaf pieces.

    PubMed

    Walker, D A; Sivak, M N; Prinsley, R T; Cheesbrough, J K

    1983-11-01

    In spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves, chlorophyll a fluorescence and O(2) evolution have been measured simultaneously following re-illumination after a dark interval or when steady state photosynthesis has been perturbed by changes in the gas phase. In high CO(2) concentrations, both O(2) and fluorescence can display marked dampening oscillations that are antiparallel but slightly out of phase (a rise or fall in fluorescence anticipating a corresponding fall or rise in O(2) by about 10 to 15 seconds). Infrared gas analysis measurements showed that CO(2) uptake behaved like O(2) evolution both in the period of oscillation (about 1 minute) and in its relation to fluorescence. In the steady state, oscillations were initiated by increases in CO(2) or by increases or decreases in O(2). Oscillations in O(2) or CO(2) did not occur without associated oscillations in fluorescence and the latter were a sensitive indicator of the former. The relationship between such oscillations in photosynthetic carbon assimilation and chlorophyl a fluorescence is discussed in the context of the effect of ATP or NADPH consumption on known quenching mechanisms. PMID:16663255

  11. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  12. Acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient in sheep aorta measured at 5-9 MHz.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Katharine H; Poepping, Tamie L; McNeilly, Alan; Megson, Ian L; Hoskins, Peter R

    2006-06-01

    B-mode ultrasound (US) images from blood vessels in vivo differ significantly from vascular flow phantom images. Phantoms with acoustic properties more closely matched to those of in vivo arteries may give better images. A method was developed for measuring the speed and attenuation coefficient of US over the range 5 to 9 MHz in samples of sheep aorta using a pulse-echo technique. The times-of-flight method was used with envelope functions to identify the reference points. The method was tested with samples of tissue-mimicking material of known acoustic properties. The tissue samples were stored in Krebs physiologic buffer solution and measured over a range of temperatures. At 37 degrees C, the acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient as a function of frequency in MHz were 1600 +/- 50 ms(-1) and 1.5 +/- 4f(0.94 +/- 1.3) dB cm(-1), respectively. PMID:16785018

  13. A Decade of Ocean Acoustic Measurements from R/P FLIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Spain, G. L.

    2002-12-01

    Studies of the properties of low frequency acoustic fields in the ocean continue to benefit from the use of manned, stable offshore platforms such as R/P FLIP. A major benefit is providing the at-sea stability required for deployment of extremely large aperture line arrays, line arrays composed of both acoustic motion and acoustic pressure sensors, and arrays that provide measurements in all 3 spatial dimensions. In addition, FLIP provides a high-profile (25 m) observation post with 360 deg coverage for simultaneous visual observations of marine mammals. A few examples of the scientific results that have been achieved over this past decade with ocean acoustic data collected on FLIP are presented. These results include the normal mode decomposition of earthquake T phases to study their generation and water/land coupling characteristics using a 3000 m vertical aperture hydrophone array, simultaneous vertical and horizontal directional information on the underwater sound field from line arrays of hydrophones and geophones, the strange nightime chorusing behavior of fish measured by 3D array aperture, the mirage effect caused by bathymetry changes in inversions for source location in shallow water, and the diving behavior of blue whales determined from 1D recordings of their vocalizations. Presently, FLIP serves as the central data recording platform in ocean acoustic studies using AUV's.

  14. Measurements and computational fluid dynamics predictions of the acoustic impedance of orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; Rupp, J.; Garmory, A.; Carrotte, J. F.

    2015-09-01

    The response of orifices to incident acoustic waves, which is important for many engineering applications, is investigated with an approach combining both experimental measurements and numerical simulations. This paper presents experimental data on acoustic impedance of orifices, which is subsequently used for validation of a numerical technique developed for the purpose of predicting the acoustic response of a range of geometries with moderate computational cost. Measurements are conducted for orifices with length to diameter ratios, L/D, of 0.5, 5 and 10. The experimental data is obtained for a range of frequencies using a configuration in which a mean (or bias) flow passes from a duct through the test orifices before issuing into a plenum. Acoustic waves are provided by a sound generator on the upstream side of the orifices. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of the same configuration have also been performed. These have been undertaken using an unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach with a pressure based compressible formulation with appropriate characteristic based boundary conditions to simulate the correct acoustic behaviour at the boundaries. The CFD predictions are in very good agreement with the experimental data, predicting the correct trend with both frequency and orifice L/D in a way not seen with analytical models. The CFD was also able to successfully predict a negative resistance, and hence a reflection coefficient greater than unity for the L / D = 0.5 case.

  15. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Solar Dynamics Observatory-Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler-velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time - distance helioseismology pipeline (Zhao et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2010) has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross-covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time - distance helioseismology: a Gabor-wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004). Using Doppler-velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument onboard SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference traveltime perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet-Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997) and Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002). We investigated the relationships among

  16. OASIS in the sea: Measurement of the acoustic reflectivity of zooplankton with concurrent optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, J. S.; Ohman, M. D.; De Robertis, A.

    A new instrument Optical-Acoustic Submersible Imaging System (OASIS) has been developed for three-dimensional acoustic tracking of zooplankton with concurrent optical imaging to verify the identity of the insonified organisms. OASIS also measures in situ target strengths (TS) of freely swimming zooplankton and nekton of known identity and 3-D orientation. The system consists of a three-dimensional acoustic imaging system (FishTV), a sensitive optical CCD camera with red-filtered strobe illumination, and ancillary oceanographic sensors. The sonar triggers the acquisition of an optical image when it detects the presence of a significant target in the precise location where the camera, strobe and sonar are co-registered. Acoustic TS can then be related to the optical image, which permits identification of the animal and its 3-D aspect. The system was recently deployed (August 1996) in Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada. Motile zooplankton and nekton were imaged with no evidence of reaction to or avoidance of the OASIS instrument package. Target strengths of many acoustic reflectors were recorded in parallel with the optical images, triggered by the presence of an animal in the correct location of the sonar system. Inspection of the optical images, corroborated with zooplankton sampling with a MOCNESS net, revealed that the joint optically and acoustically sensed taxa at the site were the euphausiid Euphausia pacifica, the gammarid amphipod Orchomene obtusa, and a gadid fish. The simultaneous optical and acoustic images permitted an exact correlation of TS and taxa. Computer simulations from a model of the backscattered strength from euphausiids are in good agreement with the observed data.

  17. On measurement of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter using the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeqiri, Bajram; Cook, Ashley; Rétat, Lise; Civale, John; ter Haar, Gail

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic nonlinearity parameter, B/A, is an important parameter which defines the way a propagating finite amplitude acoustic wave progressively distorts when travelling through any medium. One measurement technique used to determine its value is the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) method which has been applied to a range of liquid, tissue and tissue-like media. Importantly, in terms of the achievable measurement uncertainties, it is a relative technique. This paper presents a detailed study of the method, employing a number of novel features. The first of these is the use of a large area membrane hydrophone (30 mm aperture) which is used to record the plane-wave component of the acoustic field. This reduces the influence of diffraction on measurements, enabling studies to be carried out within the transducer near-field, with the interrogating transducer, test cell and detector positioned close to one another, an attribute which assists in controlling errors arising from nonlinear distortion in any intervening water path. The second feature is the development of a model which estimates the influence of finite-amplitude distortion as the acoustic wave travels from the rear surface of the test cell to the detector. It is demonstrated that this can lead to a significant systematic error in B/A measurement whose magnitude and direction depends on the acoustic property contrast between the test material and the water-filled equivalent cell. Good qualitative agreement between the model and experiment is reported. B/A measurements are reported undertaken at (20 ± 0.5) °C for two fluids commonly employed as reference materials within the technical literature: Corn Oil and Ethylene Glycol. Samples of an IEC standardised agar-based tissue-mimicking material were also measured. A systematic assessment of measurement uncertainties is presented giving expanded uncertainties in the range ±7% to ±14%, expressed at a confidence level close to 95

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy; Hobbs, Chris; Plotkin, Ken; Pilkey, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments generated by the future Ares I launch vehicle are assessed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) acoustics team using several prediction tools. This acoustic environment is directly caused by the Ares I First Stage booster, powered by the five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRMV). The RSRMV is a larger-thrust derivative design from the currently used Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Lift-off acoustics is an integral part of the composite launch vibration environment affecting the Ares launch vehicle and must be assessed to help generate hardware qualification levels and ensure structural integrity of the vehicle during launch and lift-off. Available prediction tools that use free field noise source spectrums as a starting point for generation of lift-off acoustic environments are described in the monograph NASA SP-8072: "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." This monograph uses a reference database for free field noise source spectrums which consist of subscale rocket motor firings, oriented in horizontal static configurations. The phrase "subscale" is appropriate, since the thrust levels of rockets in the reference database are orders of magnitude lower than the current design thrust for the Ares launch family. Thus, extrapolation is needed to extend the various reference curves to match Ares-scale acoustic levels. This extrapolation process yields a subsequent amount of uncertainty added upon the acoustic environment predictions. As the Ares launch vehicle design schedule progresses, it is important to take every opportunity to lower prediction uncertainty and subsequently increase prediction accuracy. Never before in NASA s history has plume acoustics been measured for large scale solid rocket motors. Approximately twice a year, the RSRM prime vendor, ATK Launch Systems, static fires an assembled RSRM motor in a horizontal configuration at their test facility

  19. On the measurement of time for the quantum harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Scott R.

    1992-01-01

    A generalization of previous treatments of quantum phase is presented. Restrictions on the class of realizable phase statistics are thereby removed; thus, permitting 'phase wavefunction collapse' (and other advantages). This is accomplished by exciting the auxiliary mode of the measurement apparatus in a time-reversed fashion. The mathematical properties of this auxiliary mode are studied in the hope that they will lead to an identification of a physical apparatus which can realize the quantum phase measurement.

  20. Acoustic measurements of F-4E aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-4E aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-4E aircraft aft fuselage structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an F-4E aircraft water cooled hush house at Hill AFB in the lower frequencies, but were increased over that measured during ground run up on some areas of the aircraft. It was recommended that the acoustic loads measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for aircraft which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment. Recommendations were also made to increase the fatigue life of the aft fuselage.

  1. Anharmonic properties of solids from measurements of the stress acoustic constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The equations of elastic motion and their solutions are generalized in order to include nonzero homogeneous initial stresses and redefine the stress acoustic constants to include the effect of initial stress. In deriving the relationship between the stress acoustic constants and the strain-generalized Gruneisen parameters, implications in material anharmonicity and nonlinear thermoelasticity are discovered. It is found that the linear change in velocity obtained from these measurements is a nonlinear process resulting from anharmonicity in the interatomic potential. In addition, the thermal expansion coefficient can also be expressed in terms of linear combinations.

  2. A Void Fraction Characterisation by Low Frequency Acoustic Velocity Measurements in Microbubble Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaro, Matthieu

    Low frequency acoustic velocity measurements have been applied for the characterization of microbubble clouds generated in water. This method, based on the Wood's model (1941) links the acoustic velocity throughout a two-phase medium to its void fraction value. Low frequency means below resonance frequencies of the bubbles inside the cloud. An original bench was developed to allow the qualification of this method. The experiments conducted allowed us to characterize void fraction values between 10-3 and 10-7. The radii of the studied microbubbles are between a few micrometers and a hundred micrometers.

  3. Molecular recognition in gas sensing: Results from acoustic wave and in-situ FTIR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-06-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements were combined with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopy to understand the interactions of surface-confined sensing films with gas-phase analytes. This was accomplished by collecting Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectra (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their specifically coated surfaces with key analytes.

  4. A Multidimensional Investigation of Children's /r/ Productions: Perceptual, Ultrasound, and Acoustic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Harriet B.; McAllister Byun, Tara; Davidson, Lisa; Grigos, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored relationships among perceptual, ultrasound, and acoustic measurements of children's correct and misarticulated /r/ sounds. Longitudinal data documenting changes across these parameters were collected from 2 children who acquired /r/ over a period of intervention and were compared with data from children with…

  5. A thickness mode acoustic wave sensor for measuring interface stiffness between two elastic materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiankang; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Ji; Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi

    2008-08-01

    We studied thickness vibration of 2 elastic layers with an elastic interface mounted on a plate piezoelectric resonator. The effect of the interface elasticity on resonant frequencies was examined. The result obtained suggests an acoustic wave sensor for measuring the elastic property of an interface between 2 materials. PMID:18986911

  6. Effect of Foreshortening on Center-to-Limb Variations of Measured Acoustic Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Stejko, Andrey; Chen, Ruizhu

    2016-03-01

    We use data observed near the solar disk center by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) to mimic observations at high-latitude areas after applying geometric transform and projection. These data are then used to study how foreshortening affects the time-distance measurements of acoustic travel times. We find that foreshortening reduces the measured mean travel-times through altering the acoustic-power weighting in different harmonic degrees, but the level of reduction and the latitude dependence are not as strong as those measured from the observation data at the same latitude. Foreshortening is not found to be accountable for the systematic center-to-limb effect in the measured acoustic travel-time differences, which is an essential factor for a reliable inference of the Sun's meridional-circulation profile. The differences in the acoustic power spectrum between the mimicked data and the observation data in high-latitude areas suggest that the optical spectrum-line formation height or convection cells in these areas may be the primary cause of the center-to-limb effect in helioseismic analyses.

  7. Relation of perceived breathiness to laryngeal kinematics and acoustic measures based on computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine 1) how specific vocal fold structural and vibratory features relate to breathy voice quality and 2) the relation of perceived breathiness to four acoustic correlates of breathiness. Method A computational, kinematic model of the vocal fold medial surfaces was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: vocal process separation, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and epilaryngeal constriction. Twelve naïve listeners rated breathiness of 364 samples relative to a reference. The degree of breathiness was then compared to 1) the underlying kinematic profile and 2) four acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP), harmonics-to-noise ratio, and two measures of spectral slope. Results Vocal process separation alone accounted for 61.4% of the variance in perceptual rating. Adding nodal point ratio and bulging to the equation increased the explained variance to 88.7%. The acoustic measure CPP accounted for 86.7% of the variance in perceived breathiness, and explained variance increased to 92.6% with the addition of one spectral slope measure. Conclusions Breathiness ratings were best explained kinematically by the degree of vocal process separation and acoustically by CPP. PMID:23785184

  8. Deriving content-specific measures of room acoustic perception using a binaural, nonlinear auditory model.

    PubMed

    van Dorp Schuitman, Jasper; de Vries, Diemer; Lindau, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Acousticians generally assess the acoustic qualities of a concert hall or any other room using impulse response-based measures such as the reverberation time, clarity index, and others. These parameters are used to predict perceptual attributes related to the acoustic qualities of the room. Various studies show that these physical measures are not able to predict the related perceptual attributes sufficiently well under all circumstances. In particular, it has been shown that physical measures are dependent on the state of occupation, are prone to exaggerated spatial fluctuation, and suffer from lacking discrimination regarding the kind of acoustic stimulus being presented. Accordingly, this paper proposes a method for the derivation of signal-based measures aiming at predicting aspects of room acoustic perception from content specific signal representations produced by a binaural, nonlinear model of the human auditory system. Listening tests were performed to test the proposed auditory parameters for both speech and music. The results look promising; the parameters correlate with their corresponding perceptual attributes in most cases. PMID:23464027

  9. Feasibility of using nonlinear guided waves to measure acoustic nonlinearity of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2011-04-01

    This research investigates the feasibility of measuring acoustic nonlinearity in aluminum with different ultrasonic guided wave modes. Acoustic nonlinearity is manifested by generation of a second harmonic component in an originally monochromatic ultrasonic wave signal, and previous research has shown this correlates to an intrinsic material property. This parameter has been shown to increase with accumulated material damage - specifically in low- and high-cycle fatigue - prior to crack initiation, whereas other ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques measuring linear parameters are unable to detect damage prior to crack initiation. In structural components such as jet engines and aircraft structures subjected to fatigue damage, crack initiation does not occur until ~80% of a component's life. Thus, there is a need for structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that can characterize material damage state prior to crack initiation, and therefore nonlinear ultrasonic techniques have the potential to be powerful NDE and SHM tools. Experimental results using Rayleigh and Lamb guided wave modes to measure acoustic nonlinearity in undamaged aluminum 6061 samples are presented, and a comparison of the efficiency of these modes to measure acoustic nonlinearity is given.

  10. Profiles of Material Properties in Induction-Hardened Steel Determined through Inversion of Resonant Acoustic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.L.; Kim, S.A.; Norton, S.J.

    2005-04-09

    Electromagnetic-acoustic measurements of resonant frequencies of induction-hardened steel shafts were used in an inverse calculation to determine parameters of the radial variations in the shear constant and density, including the effects of material variations and residual stress. Parameters determined for the profile of the shear constant were consistent with independent measurements on cut specimens and estimates of the acoustoelastic contribution. The profiles determined for material variations were close to those of the measured hardness.

  11. Effect of tank liquid acoustic velocity on Doppler string phantom measurements.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, A

    1991-03-01

    The quantitative effects of degassed water in string phantom tank Doppler measurements are derived theoretically. The Doppler parameter measurements considered are range gate registration, range gate profile, image flow angle measurements, and velocity calculation. The equipment velocity calculation is demonstrated to have an appreciable error which is due to the water acoustic velocity and the transducer acquisition geometry. A velocity calibration technique is proposed that only needs a simple multiplicative factor to compensate for the water in the tank. PMID:2027185

  12. Measurement and modeling of the acoustic field near an underwater vehicle and implications for acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Paul A; D'Spain, Gerald L

    2007-08-01

    The performance of traditional techniques of passive localization in ocean acoustics such as time-of-arrival (phase differences) and amplitude ratios measured by multiple receivers may be degraded when the receivers are placed on an underwater vehicle due to effects of scattering. However, knowledge of the interference pattern caused by scattering provides a potential enhancement to traditional source localization techniques. Results based on a study using data from a multi-element receiving array mounted on the inner shroud of an autonomous underwater vehicle show that scattering causes the localization ambiguities (side lobes) to decrease in overall level and to move closer to the true source location, thereby improving localization performance, for signals in the frequency band 2-8 kHz. These measurements are compared with numerical modeling results from a two-dimensional time domain finite difference scheme for scattering from two fluid-loaded cylindrical shells. Measured and numerically modeled results are presented for multiple source aspect angles and frequencies. Matched field processing techniques quantify the source localization capabilities for both measurements and numerical modeling output. PMID:17672639

  13. Effect of orientation of euphausiids and copepods on acoustic target strength: Implications for measurements from down-looking and side-looking acoustic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutor, Malinda; Cowles, Timothy J.

    2001-05-01

    Multifrequency acoustics is a potentially useful tool for zooplankton ecologists to rapidly map distributional patterns and determine taxonomic and size composition of scatterers. This is typically done with down-looking or side-looking acoustic systems. The ability to estimate taxonomic and size composition acoustically depends upon accurate models of scattering from zooplankton. In this study, distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) models of individual zooplankton were used to illustrate that the frequency dependence of expected scattering is different for down-looking and side-looking acoustic systems due to the differences in orientation of scatters within the sampled volume. The results show that peaks and nulls occur at different frequencies for each system with maximum target strength differences of 30 dB. The models were used to predict volume scattering (SV) based on zooplankton collected from MOCNESS tows. Predicted SV was compared to SV measured by both a down-looking HTI acoustic system and a side-looking TAPS. The results showed that changes in orientation can have large effects on predicted total SV, particularly at higher frequencies, and demonstrate that choice of orientation parameters is important and different parameters should be used when comparing predicted SV with measured SV from down-looking or side-looking acoustic systems.

  14. Measuring $\\theta_{13}$ via Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, Ruth B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary goals in neutrino physics at the present moment is to make a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter $\\theta_{13}$. This parameter, in addition to being unknown, could potentially allow for the introduction of CP violation into the lepton sector. The MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment has the ability to make a measurement of this parameter, by looking for the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos between a Near and Far Detector over a distance of 735 km. This thesis discusses the development of an analysis framework to search for this oscillation mode. Two major improvements to pre-existing analysis techniques have been implemented by the author. First, a novel particle ID technique based on strip topology, known as the Library Event Matching (LEM) method, is optimized for use in MINOS. Second, a multiple bin likelihood method is developed to fit the data. These two improvements, when combined, increase MINOS' sensitivity to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})$ by 27\\% over previous analyses. This thesis sees a small excess over background in the Far Detector. A Frequentist interpretation of the data rules out $\\theta_{13}=0$ at 91\\%. A Bayesian interpretation of the data is also presented, placing the most stringent upper boundary on the oscillation parameter to date, at $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})<0.09(0.015)$ for the Normal (Inverted) Hierarchy and $\\delta_{CP}=0$.

  15. Measurement of the motional sidebands of a nanogram-scale oscillator in the quantum regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, M.; Mason, D.; Lee, D.; Xu, H.; Jiang, L.; Shkarin, A. B.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe measurements of the motional sidebands produced by a mechanical oscillator (with effective mass 43 ng and resonant frequency 705 kHz) that is placed in an optical cavity and cooled close to its quantum ground state. The red and blue sidebands (corresponding to Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering) from a single laser beam are recorded simultaneously via a heterodyne measurement. The oscillator's mean phonon number n ¯ is inferred from the ratio of the sidebands, and reaches a minimum value of 0.84 ±0.22 (corresponding to a mode temperature T =28 ±7 μ K ). We also infer n ¯ from the calibrated area of each of the two sidebands, and from the oscillator's total damping. The values of n ¯ inferred from these four methods are in close agreement. The behavior of the sidebands as a function of the oscillator's temperature agrees well with theory that includes the quantum fluctuations of both the cavity field and the mechanical oscillator.

  16. Acoustic signal propagation and measurement in natural stream channels for application to surrogate bed load measurements: Halfmoon Creek, Colorado.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring sediment-generated noise using submerged hydrophones is a surrogate method for measuring bed load transport in streams with the potential for improving estimates of bed load transport through widespread, inexpensive monitoring. Understanding acoustic signal propagation in natural stream e...

  17. Low-cost precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability based on GNSS carrier observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Yanhong; Jiao, Yue; Xu, Dongyang; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ya; Li, Xiaohui

    2013-03-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers can be used in time and frequency metrology by exploiting stable GNSS time scales. This paper proposes a low-cost method for precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability using a single-frequency software GNSS receiver. The only required hardware is a common radio frequency (RF) data collection device driven by the oscillator under test (OUT). The receiver solves the oscillator frequency error in high time resolution using the carrier Doppler observation and the broadcast ephemeris from one of the available satellites employing the onboard reference atomic frequency standard that is more stable than the OUT. Considering the non-stable and non-Gaussian properties of the frequency error measurement, an unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is employed to obtain robust estimation and filter out measurement noise. The effects of different filter orders and convolution lengths are further discussed. The frequency error of an oven controlled oscillator (OCXO) is measured using live Beidou-2/Compass signals. The results are compared with the synchronous measurement using a specialized phase comparator with the standard coordinated universal time (UTC) signal from the master clock H226 in the national time service center (NTSC) of China as its reference. The Allan deviation (ADEV) estimates using the two methods have a 99.9% correlation coefficient and a 0.6% mean relative difference over 1-1000 s intervals. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness and high precision of the software receiver method.

  18. Measurement and mathematical simulation of acoustic characteristics of an artificially lengthened vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radolf, Vojtěch; Horáček, Jaromír; Dlask, Pavel; Otčenášek, Zdeněk; Geneid, Ahmed; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2016-03-01

    Phonation into tubes is used for voice training and therapy. In the present study, the formant frequencies were estimated from measurements of the acoustic pressure and the acoustic input impedance for a plexiglass model of the vocal tract (VT) prolonged by a glass tube. Similar transfer function measurements were performed with a human VT in vivo. The experimental results matched the mathematical modelling and confirmed the legitimacy of assuming rigid walls in mathematical simulations of the acoustic characteristics of an artificial VT model prolonged by a tube. However, this study also proved a considerable influence from soft tissues in the yielding walls of human VT cavities on the first formant frequency, F1. The measured F1 for the VT model corresponded to the computed value of 78 Hz. The experiments in a human instead resulted in a much higher value of F1: about 200 Hz. The results confirm that a VT model with yielding walls must be considered for mathematical modelling of the occluded or semi-occluded human vocal tract, e.g. prolonged by tubes or straws. This is explained by an acoustic-structural interaction of the vocal tract cavities with a mechanical low-frequency resonance of the soft tissue in the larynx.

  19. Single-shot measurements of the acoustic field of an electrohydraulic lithotripter using a hydrophone array

    PubMed Central

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad A.; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Filoux, Erwan; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Piezopolymer-based hydrophone arrays consisting of 20 elements were fabricated and tested for use in measuring the acoustic field from a shock-wave lithotripter. The arrays were fabricated from piezopolymer films and were mounted in a housing to allow submersion into water. The motivation was to use the array to determine how the shot-to-shot variability of the spark discharge in an electrohydraulic lithotripter affects the resulting focused acoustic field. It was found that the dominant effect of shot-to-shot variability was to laterally shift the location of the focus by up to 5 mm from the nominal acoustic axis of the lithotripter. The effect was more pronounced when the spark discharge was initiated with higher voltages. The lateral beamwidth of individual, instantaneous shock waves were observed to range from 1.5 mm to 24 mm. Due to the spatial variation of the acoustic field, the average of instantaneous beamwidths were observed to be 1 to 2 mm narrower than beamwidths determined from traditional single-point measurements that average the pressure measured at each location before computing beamwidth. PMID:23654419

  20. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling in Porous Ground - Measurements and Analysis for On-Site-Inspection Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Gorschlüter, Felix; Altmann, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    During on-site inspections (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) a local seismic network can be installed to measure seismic aftershock signals of an assumed underground nuclear explosion. These signals are caused by relaxation processes in and near the cavity created by the explosion and when detected can lead to a localisation of the cavity. This localisation is necessary to take gas samples from the ground which are analysed for radioactive noble gas isotopes to confirm or dismiss the suspicion of a nuclear test. The aftershock signals are of very low magnitude so they can be masked by different sources, in particular periodic disturbances caused by vehicles and aircraft in the inspection area. Vehicles and aircraft (mainly helicopters) will be used for the inspection activities themselves, e.g. for overhead imagery or magnetic-anomaly sensing. While vehicles in contact with the ground can excite soil vibrations directly, aircraft and vehicles alike emit acoustic waves which excite soil vibrations when hitting the ground. These disturbing signals are of periodic nature while the seismic aftershock signals are pulse-shaped, so their separation is possible. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is yet incomplete, a better understanding is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. In a project funded by the Young Scientist Research Award of the CTBTO to one of us (ML), we investigated the acoustic-seismic coupling of airborne signals of jet aircraft and artificially induced ones by a speaker. During a measurement campaign several acoustic and seismic sensors were placed below the take-off trajectory of an airport at 4 km distance. Therefore taking off and landing jet aircraft passed nearly straightly above the setup. Microphones were placed close to the ground to record the sound pressure of incident

  1. Protective measurement of the wave function of a single squeezed harmonic-oscillator state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alter, Orly; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    1996-05-01

    A scheme for the "protective measurement"

    [Phys. Rev. A 47, 4616 (1993)]
    of the wave function of a squeezed harmonic-oscillator state is described. This protective measurement is shown to be equivalent to a measurement of an ensemble of states. The protective measurement, therefore, allows for a definition of the quantum wave function on a single system. Yet, this equivalency also suggests that both measurement schemes account for the epistemological meaning of the wave function only. The protective measurement requires a full a priori knowledge of the measured state. The intermediate cases, in which only partial a priori information is given, are also discussed.

  2. Acoustic Measurements in Opera Houses: Comparison Between Different Techniques and Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FAUSTI, P.; FARINA, A.

    2000-04-01

    In room acoustics, many objective parameters to quantify subjective impressions have been introduced. These quantities can be measured by using a wide variety of powerful tools and equipment. The results can be influenced by the measurement techniques and instruments used. Furthermore, the results also depend on the measurement positions and on the condition of the hall (full, empty, etc.). The aim of this work is to define a tightly standardized measurement procedure for the collection of a complete objective description of an opera house's acoustics. In this paper some of the results obtained by the authors after measurements made in three different halls are presented. Comparisons were made both between different hardware and software tools (real-time analyzer, DAT, PC-board, source, microphones, post-processing software) and between different measurement methods (interrupted stationary noise, true-impulse, pseudo-random white noise with impulse-response doconvolution, sine sweep) as well as between different positions in the halls, with and without the presence of musicians and audience. The results have shown that the differences obtained when using different measurement techniques and equipment are not of significant importance. The only effective differences were found regarding the recording techniques, as the monaural measurements give appreciably different results from the average of left and right channel of binaural measurements. Slightly different results were alsofound between true impulsive sources (pistol shots, balloons) and omni-directional (dodecahedral) loudspeakers. Attention must be paid to the signal-to-noise ratio, as this can influence the correct calculation of some acoustical parameters. Some differences, not as great as expected, were found in the results with and without the musicians in the orchestra shell and with and without the audience in the hall. This is probably due to the high sound absorption that is typical in Italian opera

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  4. Preliminary Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters By NuMI/MINOS and Calibration Studies for Improving this Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Symes, Philip Andrew

    2005-11-01

    This thesis explains the origins of neutrinos and their interactions, and the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. Experiments for measuring neutrino oscillations are mentioned and the experiment investigated in this thesis, the ''Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search'', and its neutrino beam, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's ''Neutrinos At The Main Injector'', are described. MINOS is a long baseline (735 km) neutrino oscillation experiment with a near and a far detector, intended to make precision measurements of the atmospheric sector neutrino oscillation parameters. A measurement is made of the ''atmospheric'' neutrino oscillation parameters, {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin {sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}), using neutrinos from the NuMI beam. The results of this analysis are compared to measurements at MINOS using neutrinos from the atmosphere and with other experiments. A more detailed method of beam neutrino analysis is discussed, and the extra calibrations needed to perform that analysis properly are described, with special attention paid to two aspects of the calibration, which comprise the bulk of work for this thesis. The light injection calibration system uses LEDs to illuminate the detector readout and provides a normalization of the stability of the detector over time. The hardware and different modi operandi of the system are described. There is a description of installation and commissioning of the system at one of the MINOS detectors. The response normalization of each detector with cosmic ray muons is described. Special attention is paid to the explanation of necessary corrections that must be made to the muon sample in order for the sample to be used to calibrate each detector to the specified accuracy. The performance of the calibration is shown.

  5. Surface acoustical intensity measurements on a diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.; Crocker, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of surface intensity measurements as an alternative to the conventional selective wrapping technique of noise source identification and ranking on diesel engines was investigated. A six cylinder, in line turbocharged, 350 horsepower diesel engine was used. Sound power was measured under anechoic conditions for eight separate parts of the engine at steady state operating conditions using the conventional technique. Sound power measurements were repeated on five separate parts of the engine using the surface intensity at the same steady state operating conditions. The results were compared by plotting sound power level against frequency and noise source rankings for the two methods.

  6. A Comparison of Measured and Predicted XV-15 Tiltrotor Surface Acoustic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Burley, Casey L.; Prichard, Devon S.

    1997-01-01

    Predicted XV-15 exterior surface acoustic pressures are compared with previously published experimental data. Surface acoustic pressure transducers were concentrated near the tip-path-plane of the rotor in airplane mode. The comparison emphasized cruise conditions which are of interest for tiltrotor interior noise - level flight for speeds ranging from 72 m/s to 113 m/s. The predictions were produced by components of the NASA Langley Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) system of computer codes. Comparisons between measurements and predictions were made in both the time and frequency domains, as well as overall sound pressure levels. In general, the predictions replicated the measured data well. Discrepancies between measurements and predictions were noted. Some of the discrepancies were due to poor correlation of the measured data with the rotor tach signal. In other cases limitations of the predictive methodology have been indicated.

  7. Evading surface and detector frequency noise in harmonic oscillator measurements of force gradients

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eric W.; Lee, SangGap; Hickman, Steven A.; Harrell, Lee E.; Marohn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a method of measuring small force gradients acting on a harmonic oscillator in which the force-gradient signal of interest is used to parametrically up-convert a forced oscillation below resonance into an amplitude signal at the oscillator’s resonance frequency. The approach, which we demonstrate in a mechanically detected electron spin resonance experiment, allows the force-gradient signal to evade detector frequency noise by converting a slowly modulated frequency signal into an amplitude signal. PMID:20733934

  8. Acoustic Measurement of Surface Wave Damping by a Meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Guillaume; Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the reflection of gravity-capillary surface waves by a plane vertical barrier. The size of the meniscus is found to strongly affect reflection: the energy of the reflected wave with a pinned contact line is around twice the one corresponding to a fully developed meniscus. To perform these measurements, a new experimental setup similar to an acousto-optic modulator is developed and offers a simple way to measure the amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation of surface waves.

  9. Determination of delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on in-pile oscillation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yedvab, Y.; Reiss, I.; Bettan, M.; Harari, R.; Grober, A.; Ettedgui, H.; Caspi, E. N.

    2006-07-01

    A method for determining delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on measuring power oscillations in a non-critical reactor is presented. This method is unique in the sense that the delayed neutrons source is derived from the dynamic behavior of the reactor, which serves as the measurement system. An algorithm for analyzing power oscillation measurements was formulated, which avoids the need for a multi-parameter non-linear fit process used by other methods. Using this algorithm results of two sets of measurements performed in IRR-I and IRR-II (Israeli Research Reactors I and II) are presented. The agreement between measured values from both reactors and calculated values based on Keepin (and JENDL-3.3) group parameters is very good. (authors)

  10. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies. PMID:23117538

  11. Hydrophone arrays for instantaneous measurement of high-pressure acoustic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2010-03-01

    Electrohydraulic lithotripter acoustic fields are measured with single-element hydrophones even though the acoustic fields are not highly repeatable. The ability to obtain an instantaneous "snapshot" of the sound field would have broad implications for advancing the understanding of how lithotripters fragment stones and damage kidney tissue. To better characterize the acoustic field of lithotripters, linear hydrophone arrays were fabricated by bonding a 9 μm piezopolymer film to a copper-clad polyimide which had an array pattern etched on the copper layer. After bonding, the devices were backed with an epoxy plug in order to provide structural support. The array elements were each 0.5 by 0.5 mm, spaced 1.25 mm center to center, and there were 20 elements. The relative sensitivity of each hydrophone element was measured at 5.25 MHz for an acoustic pressure of 4.5 kPa and the elements were found to vary by ≈ 6%. The arrays were then placed in the focus of a piezoelectric lithotripter and were found to maintain their sensitivity for roughly 500 shock waves before gradually losing sensitivity.

  12. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  13. Integration of Acoustic Radiation Force and Optical Imaging for Blood Plasma Clot Stiffness Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline W.; Perez, Matthew J.; Helmke, Brian P.; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood’s transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  14. Identification of source of oscillations in apparent sarcomere length measured by laser diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, K; Huxley, A F

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for dynamic estimates of sarcomere length in muscle is laser light diffraction. We have identified conditions under which artifactual oscillations can arise in apparent sarcomere length measured by this technique and report methods to reduce the effect. Altringham et al. (1984) first reported that the diffraction angle can exhibit one cycle of oscillation for each sarcomere length displacement of the illuminated portion of the fiber. We find that the amplitude of similar oscillations is strongly dependent on the intensity of light scattered from objects near the fiber and on the spacing between fiber and scatterer. The oscillations can be eliminated by minimizing scattered light and positioning the fiber a few millimeters from sources of scattering. A theoretical description shows that oscillations of this kind are expected from interference of scattered and diffracted light. Interference fringes were observed along the meridian of the pattern, and these moved during translation of either a fiber or a grating. The movement of fringes across the diffraction order shifts the centroid back and forth and, when associated with steady shortening, can give rise to "steps" and "pauses" in apparent striation spacing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7647247

  15. Slow spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations during sleep measured with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Näsi, Tiina; Noponen, Tommi; Toppila, Jussi; Salmi, Tapani; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic oscillations below 100 mHz reflect the level of cerebral activity, modulate hemodynamic responses to tasks and stimuli, and may aid in detecting various pathologies of the brain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is ideally suited for both measuring spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations and monitoring sleep, but little research has been performed to combine these two applications. We analyzed 30 all-night NIRS-electroencephalography (EEG) sleep recordings to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic activity relative to sleep stages determined by polysomnography. Signal power of hemodynamic oscillations in the low-frequency (LF, 40-150 mHz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-40 mHz) bands decreased in slow-wave sleep (SWS) compared to light sleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in oscillation power between LS and REM were observed. However, the period of VLF oscillations around 8 mHz increased in REM sleep in line with earlier studies with other modalities. These results increase our knowledge of the physiology of sleep, complement EEG data, and demonstrate the applicability of NIRS to studying spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations during sleep.

  16. Measuring Stellar Oscillations Using Spitzer: P-Modes in the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek; Preston, Heather

    2005-06-01

    Observations of oscillations in solar-like stars are limited by the fact that the level of variability involved is typically very small (approximately 4-5 parts per million at optical wavelengths). While heroic efforts have made it possible to detect oscillations in a few solar-like stars from the ground, the most astrophysically interesting targets -- those in nearby open clusters -- are unreachable and likely to remain so for many years. Solar observations have shown that the amplitude of oscillations seen in the 4.7-micron CO lines is nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that seen at optical wavelengths. For solar-like stars, such lines dominate the spectrum in IRAC Band 2. In fact, we estimate that the amplitude of p-mode oscillations in that band will be approximately 200 parts per million. This is 40 times the level in the optical, and easily accessible using Spizer. We propose a long time series of observations of the star VB 64, in the Hyades. We anticipate being able to detect a number of distinct oscillation modes, and thus to determine the large separation. In combination with other, previously measured, physical parameters of VB 64, we expect to be able to determine values for mass, age, and chemical composition which are at least an order of magnitude more precise that has been previously possible for any star in the Hyades.

  17. Low-cost FM oscillator for capacitance type of blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The frequency-modulated (FM) oscillator described is part of a blade tip clearance measurement system that meets the needs of a wide class of fans, compressors, and turbines. As a result of advancements in the technology of ultra-high-frequency operational amplifiers, the FM oscillator requires only a single low-cost integrated circuit. Its carrier frequency is 42.8 MHz when it is used with an integrated probe and connecting cable assembly consisting of a 0.81 cm diameter engine-mounted capacitance probe and a 61 cm long hermetically sealed coaxial cable. A complete circuit analysis is given, including amplifier negative resistance characteristics. An error analysis of environmentally induced effects is also derived, and an error-correcting technique is proposed. The oscillator can be calibrated in the static mode and has a negative peak frequency deviation of 400 kHz for a rotor blade thickness of 1.2 mm. High-temperature performance tests of the probe and 13 cm of the adjacent cable show good accuracy up to 600 C, the maximum permissible seal temperature. The major source of error is the residual FM oscillator noise, which produces a clearance error of + or - 10 microns at a clearance of 0.5 mm. The oscillator electronics accommodates the high rotor speeds associated with small engines, the signals from which may have frequency components as high as 1 MHz.

  18. Quasi-biennial oscillation in total ozone: Global behaviour derived from ground-based measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruzdev, Alexander N.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    1994-01-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone (TO) is studied on the basis of TO measurements at the world ground-ased ozone network during 1972-1988. The TO content is on the whole greater in the tropical belt and smaller in high latitudes during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric 50 mb wind than during the easterly phase in all seasons. The appropriate TO difference (westerly category minus easterly category) displays certain space structures changing during a year. There are regions with the peculiar annual evolution of this difference, particularly in the Arctic and Antarctic. Spectral analysis reveals bimodality of TO power spectra in the frequency range of QBO periods, with spectral maxima corresponding to 17-23 months and 28-35 months. The large period oscillations are predominant on the whole. The small period oscillations are likely the consequence of interaction between an annual cycle and QBO.

  19. Measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Sudhir, V.; Piro, N.; Schilling, R.; Ghadimi, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    In real-time quantum feedback protocols, the record of a continuous measurement is used to stabilize a desired quantum state. Recent years have seen successful applications of these protocols in a variety of well-isolated micro-systems, including microwave photons and superconducting qubits. However, stabilizing the quantum state of a tangibly massive object, such as a mechanical oscillator, remains very challenging: the main obstacle is environmental decoherence, which places stringent requirements on the timescale in which the state must be measured. Here we describe a position sensor that is capable of resolving the zero-point motion of a solid-state, 4.3-megahertz nanomechanical oscillator in the timescale of its thermal decoherence, a basic requirement for real-time (Markovian) quantum feedback control tasks, such as ground-state preparation. The sensor is based on evanescent optomechanical coupling to a high-Q microcavity, and achieves an imprecision four orders of magnitude below that at the standard quantum limit for a weak continuous position measurement--a 100-fold improvement over previous reports--while maintaining an imprecision-back-action product that is within a factor of five of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. As a demonstration of its utility, we use the measurement as an error signal with which to feedback cool the oscillator. Using radiation pressure as an actuator, the oscillator is cold damped with high efficiency: from a cryogenic-bath temperature of 4.4 kelvin to an effective value of 1.1 +/- 0.1 millikelvin, corresponding to a mean phonon number of 5.3 +/- 0.6 (that is, a ground-state probability of 16 per cent). Our results set a new benchmark for the performance of a linear position sensor, and signal the emergence of mechanical oscillators as practical subjects for measurement-based quantum control.

  20. Acoustic Measurement of Surface Wave Damping by a Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Michel, Guillaume; Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan

    2016-04-29

    We investigate the reflection of gravity-capillary surface waves by a plane vertical barrier. The size of the meniscus is found to strongly affect reflection: the energy of the reflected wave with a pinned contact line is around twice the one corresponding to a fully developed meniscus. To perform these measurements, a new experimental setup similar to an acousto-optic modulator is developed and offers a simple way to measure the amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation of surface waves. PMID:27176523

  1. Spontaneous oscillation of tension and sarcomere length in skeletal myofibrils. Microscopic measurement and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Anazawa, T; Yasuda, K; Ishiwata, S

    1992-01-01

    We have devised a simple method for measuring tension development of single myofibrils by micromanipulation with a pair of glass micro-needles. The tension was estimated from the deflection of a flexible needle under an inverted phase-contrast microscope equipped with an image processor, so that the tension development is always accompanied by the shortening of the myofibril (auxotonic condition) in the present setup. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of tension (1/30 s for time resolution and about 0.05 micrograms for accuracy of tension measurement; 0.05 microns as a spatial resolution for displacement of the micro-needle) and the observation of sarcomere structure are possible at the same time, and the technique to hold myofibrils, even single myofibrils, is very simple. This method has been applied to study the tension development of glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under the condition where spontaneous oscillation of sarcomeres is induced, i.e., the coexistence of MgATP, MgADP and inorganic phosphate without free Ca2+. Under this condition, we found that the tension of myofibrils spontaneously oscillates accompanied by the oscillation of sarcomere length with a main period of a few seconds; the period was lengthened and shortened with stretch and release of myofibrils. A possible mechanism of the oscillation is discussed. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1600075

  2. Acoustical measurement separates core noise and jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Measuring technique discriminates between jet noise and core noise of jet engine. Results of experimentation confirmed that core noise and jet noise can be separated by examining cross-correlation of far-field microphone signals and that crossover point between core noise and jet noise moves toward higher velocities at higher angles with respect to jet axis.

  3. Acoustic method for measuring air temperature and humidity in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanev, N. G.

    2014-05-01

    A method is proposed to determine air temperature and humidity in rooms with a system of sound sources and receivers, making it possible to find the sound velocity and reverberation time. Nomograms for determining the air temperature and relative air humidity are constructed from the found sound velocity and time reverberation values. The required accuracy of measuring these parameters is estimated.

  4. The effect of artificial rain on backscattered acoustic signal: first measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titchenko, Yuriy; Karaev, Vladimir; Meshkov, Evgeny; Goldblat, Vladimir

    The problem of rain influencing on a characteristics of backscattered ultrasonic and microwave signal by water surface is considered. The rain influence on backscattering process of electromagnetic waves was investigated in laboratory and field experiments, for example [1-3]. Raindrops have a significant impact on backscattering of microwave and influence on wave spectrum measurement accuracy by string wave gauge. This occurs due to presence of raindrops in atmosphere and modification of the water surface. For measurements of water surface characteristics during precipitation we propose to use an acoustic system. This allows us obtaining of the water surface parameters independently on precipitation in atmosphere. The measurements of significant wave height of water surface using underwater acoustical systems are well known [4, 5]. Moreover, the variance of orbital velocity can be measure using these systems. However, these methods cannot be used for measurements of slope variance and the other second statistical moments of water surface that required for analyzing the radar backscatter signal. An original design Doppler underwater acoustic wave gauge allows directly measuring the surface roughness characteristics that affect on electromagnetic waves backscattering of the same wavelength [6]. Acoustic wave gauge is Doppler ultrasonic sonar which is fixed near the bottom on the floating disk. Measurements are carried out at vertically orientation of sonar antennas towards water surface. The first experiments were conducted with the first model of an acoustic wave gauge. The acoustic wave gauge (8 mm wavelength) is equipped with a transceiving antenna with a wide symmetrical antenna pattern. The gauge allows us to measure Doppler spectrum and cross section of backscattered signal. Variance of orbital velocity vertical component can be retrieved from Doppler spectrum with high accuracy. The result of laboratory and field experiments during artificial rain is presented

  5. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths.

    PubMed

    Olfert, J S; Checkel, M D; Koch, C R

    2007-05-01

    Acoustic "phase shift" methods have been used in the past to accurately measure the sound speed of gases. In this work, a phase shift method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths is presented. We have called this method the discrete acoustic wave and phase detection (DAWPD) method. Experimental results show that the DAWPD method gives accurate (+/-3.2 ms) and predictable measurements that closely match theory. The sources of uncertainty in the DAWPD method are examined and it is found that ultrasonic reflections and changes in the frequency ratio of the transducers (the ratio of driving frequency to resonant frequency) can be major sources of error. Experimentally, it is shown how these sources of uncertainty can be minimized. PMID:17552851

  6. Acoustical studies of the steelpan and HANG: Phase-sensitive holography and sound intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew C. H.

    The Caribbean steelpan and an instrument closely related, the HANG, are two of the most, interesting acoustic musical instruments developed in the last century. Although simple in design, the acoustic properties of the steelpan and HANG are surprisingly complicated. Holographic interferometry was used to determine the resonances of a low tenor steelpan and a pentatonic HANG. Placement of a vibrating mirror in the optical path of the reference beam expands the capabilities of the holography system to include phase measurements. Phase maps and phase response curves of several low resonances of notes on a steelpan and HANG are shown. Sound intensity measurements were acquired to explore the relationship between the resonances and the radiated sound field. The instruments were placed in an anechoic chamber, and selected notes were excited electromagnetically with a swept sinusoid signal. A two-microphone probe was used to gather sound intensity measurements. Sound intensity reaps of the first three harmonics are shown for notes on both instruments.

  7. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  8. Appearance and disappearance of motional sideband asymmetry in measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, Vivishek; Wilson, Dalziel; Schilling, Ryan; Schuetz, Hendrik; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Kippenberg, Tobias

    Measurement-based feedback provides an avenue to study the delicate interplay between the quantum correlations established during the process of measurement, and their progressive obfuscation when exposed to uncorrelated noise in the form of fundamental quantum fluctuations in the feedback path. Here we demonstrate this tradeoff using a feedback strategy whose objective is to cool a nano-mechanical oscillator close to its ground state. The correlations established due to the measurement are revealed in the appearance of motional sideband asymmetry. The latter, faithfully measured using an optical heterodyne interferometer with an imprecision ~17 dB below that at the standard quantum limit, increases to 6% as the oscillator is feedback cooled to an occupation of 15 phonons. Further increase in the gain of the feedback loop leads to a decrease in the asymmetry. This is due to the addition of unavoidable quantum fluctuations in a feedback amplifier - photon shot-noise amplified by a homodyne detector in our case.

  9. Acoustic device and method for measuring gas densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy (Inventor); Kwack, Eug Y. (Inventor); Back, Lloyd (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Density measurements can be made in a gas contained in a flow through enclosure by measuring the sound pressure level at a receiver or microphone located near a dipole sound source which is driven at constant velocity amplitude at low frequencies. Analytical results, which are provided in terms of geometrical parameters, wave numbers, and sound source type for systems of this invention, agree well with published data. The relatively simple designs feature a transmitter transducer at the closed end of a small tube and a receiver transducer on the circumference of the small tube located a small distance away from the transmitter. The transmitter should be a dipole operated at low frequency with the kL value preferable less that about 0.3.

  10. Acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2016-09-01

    In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0.3-4 kHz, we used electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle and a laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the vibration response. At low frequencies, harmonic displacements were imposed on the columella using piezo stimulation and the resulting force response was measured with a force sensor. From these measurement data, the acoustic impedance of the inner ear could be determined. A simple RLC model in series of the impedance measurements resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20·10(12) Pa/m³, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652·10(6) Pa s(2)/m³, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57·10(9) Pa s/m. We found that values of the inner ear impedance in the ostrich are one to two orders in magnitude smaller than what is found in mammal ears. PMID:27473506

  11. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golykh, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  12. Local perturbations of the upper layers of a sun-like star: The impact on the acoustic oscillation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt

    2014-02-10

    In the last decade, the quality and the amount of observational asteroseismic data that has been made available by space based missions had a tremendous upgrowth. The determination of asteroseismic parameters to estimate the fundamental physical processes occurring in stars' interiors can be done today in a way that has never been possible before. In this work, we propose to compute the seismic observable β, which is a proxy of the phase shift of the acoustic modes propagating in the envelope of the Sun-like stars. This seismic parameter β can be used to identify rapid variation regions usually known as glitches. We show that a small variation in the structure, smaller than 1% in the sound speed, produces a glitch in the acoustic potential that could explain the oscillatory character of β. This method allows us to determine the location and the thickness of the glitch with precision. We applied this idea to the Sun-like star α Centauri A and found a glitch located at approximately 0.94 R (1400 s) and with a thickness of 0.2% of the stars' radius. This is fully consistent with the data and also validates other seismic tests.

  13. Objective Measures and Musician Preference for Concert Stage Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Daniel C.

    The purpose of this research was to examine musician preference for various stage enclosures in an actual concert hall setting and to determine the extent to which preference relates to objective measures of reflected energy and on -stage sound pressure levels. Twelve string and brass trios performed standard musical selections in four stage shell configurations and gave preference ratings for the configurations based on Ease of Ensemble, Ability to Hear Oneself, and Ability to Hear the Other Players. The judgments indicate differences in preference between string and brass players for Ease of Ensemble, and a stage preference across all subjects for Ability to Hear Oneself. Objective measurements of reflected energy ratios conducted in the performance spaces indicate relatively low degrees of correlation with subjective preference, with approximately 29% as the highest level of subjective variance accounted for by the ratios. Stage shell configuration had minimal effect on sound pressure levels within the four stages. It was determined that, in terms of the influence of stage shell configuration, reflected energy ratios are preferred over measures of sound pressure level as indicators of musician preference.

  14. Measurements of Infrared and Acoustic Source Distributions in Jet Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Femi A.; Bridges, James; Saiyed, Naseem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use the linear phased array (LPA) microphones and infrared (IR) imaging to study the effects of advanced nozzle-mixing techniques on jet noise reduction. Several full-scale engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the linear phased array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array consisted of 16 sparsely distributed microphones. The phased array microphone measurements were taken at a distance of 51.0 ft (15.5 m) from the jet axis, and the results were used to obtain relative overall sound pressure levels from one nozzle design to the other. The IR imaging system was used to acquire real-time dynamic thermal patterns of the exhaust jet from the nozzles tested. The IR camera measured the IR radiation from the nozzle exit to a distance of six fan diameters (X/D(sub FAN) = 6), along the jet plume axis. The images confirmed the expected jet plume mixing intensity, and the phased array results showed the differences in sound pressure level with respect to nozzle configurations. The results show the effects of changes in configurations to the exit nozzles on both the flows mixing patterns and radiant energy dissipation patterns. By comparing the results from these two measurements, a relationship between noise reduction and core/bypass flow mixing is demonstrated.

  15. Oscillator strength measurements in samarium(II), neodymium(II) and praseodymium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruohong

    A knowledge of the abundances of lanthanide ions in stellar photospheres is valuable in astrophysics, especially for chemically peculiar stars. However, the determination of elemental abundances is often limited by inadequate knowledge of oscillator strengths. Combining independently measured values of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions is an effective and precise method to measure oscillator strengths. It avoids absolute intensity measurements, requiring a knowledge of the absolute number density of particles and absolute measurements of intensity, and furthermore decreases the systematic error greatly. In the previous work of our group, the lifetimes of Sm II, Nd II and Pr II were obtained. In this thesis work, we measured the corresponding branching fractions of these lanthanide ions using a fast-ion-beam laser-induced- fluorescence technique. The power of this technique is that ions are selectively excited by a laser, which ensures that every branch comes from a single upper level and gets rid of spectral blends. Besides, the low ion-beam density ensures that the systematic errors due to collisions and radiation trapping are negligible. Combining the branching fractions with our previously measured lifetimes, we obtained 608, 430 and 260 oscillator strength values for Sm II, Nd II and Pr II transitions, respectively, over the wavelength range 350-850 nm. These transitions originate from 69 upper levels in the range 21 655 cm -1 -29 388 cm -1 for Sm II, 46 upper levels in the range 22 697 cm -1 -29 955 cm -1 for Nd II, and 32 levels in the range 22 040 cm -1 -28 577 cm -1 for Pr II. Of the 260 measured oscillator strength values of Pr II, 183 have been determined accurately for the first time. The uncertainties arise principally from systematic uncertainties of the efficiency calibration of the optical detection system (7.1%), with smaller statistical contributions (1.5%). Comparisons are made to prior measurements.

  16. Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption-oscillator-strength measurements for the principal series in cesium were measured using a multiple-path-length cell. The optical arrangement included a movable transverse path for checking the uniformity of the alkali density along the length of the cell and which also allowed strength measurements to be made simultaneously on both strong and weak lines. The strengths measured on the first 10 doublets indicate an increasing trend in the doublet ratio. The individual line strengths are in close agreement with the high resolution measurements of Pichler (1974) and with the calculations of Norcross (1973).

  17. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    PubMed

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (<15 min) acoustic exposure, but at extremes of use, may generate sufficient noise to warrant ear protection with prolonged (>8 h) exposure. PMID:24582370

  18. The acoustical cues to sound location in the rat: Measurements of directional transfer functions

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Read, Heather L.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The acoustical cues for sound location are generated by spatial- and frequency-dependent filtering of propagating sound waves by the head and external ears. Although rats have been a common model system for anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics of localization, there have been few studies of the acoustical cues available to rats. Here, directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, were measured in six adult rats. The cues to location were computed from the DTFs. In the frontal hemisphere, spectral notches were present for frequencies from ∼16 to 30 kHz; in general, the frequency corresponding to the notch increased with increases in source elevation and in azimuth toward the ipsilateral ear. The maximum high-frequency envelope-based interaural time differences (ITDs) were 130 μs, whereas low-frequency (<3.5 kHz) fine-structure ITDs were 160 μs; both types of ITDs were larger than predicted from spherical head models. Interaural level differences (ILDs) strongly depended on location and frequency. Maximum ILDs were <10 dB for frequencies <8 kHz and were as large as 20–40 dB for frequencies >20 kHz. Removal of the pinna eliminated the spectral notches, reduced the acoustic gain and ILDs, altered the acoustical axis, and reduced the ITDs. PMID:18537381

  19. Estimation of acoustical streaming: theoretical model, Doppler measurements and optical visualisation.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Kowalewski, T; Secomski, W; Wójcik, J

    1998-02-01

    An approximate solution for the streaming velocity generated by flat and weakly focused transducers was derived by directly solving the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the Poisson equation, the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the axial components of the streaming velocity. The theoretical model was verified experimentally using a 32 MHz pulsed Doppler unit. The experimental acoustical fields were produced by three different 4 mm diameter flat and focused transducers driven by the transmitter generating the average acoustic power within the range from 1 microW to 6 mW. The streaming velocity was measured along the ultrasonic beam from 0 to 2 cm. Streaming was induced in a solution of water and corn starch. The experimental results showed that for a given acoustic power the streaming velocity was independent of the starch density in water, changed from 0.3 to 40 grams of starch in 1 l of distilled water. For applied acoustic powers, the streaming velocity changed linearly from 0.2 to 40 mm/s. Both, the theoretical solutions for plane and focused waves and the experimental results were in good agreement. The streaming velocity field was also visualised using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and two different evaluation methods. The first based on the FFT-based cross-correlation analysis between small sections for each pair of images and the second employing the algorithm of searching for local displacements between several images. PMID:9614292

  20. The acoustical cues to sound location in the rat: measurements of directional transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Read, Heather L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    The acoustical cues for sound location are generated by spatial- and frequency-dependent filtering of propagating sound waves by the head and external ears. Although rats have been a common model system for anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics of localization, there have been few studies of the acoustical cues available to rats. Here, directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, were measured in six adult rats. The cues to location were computed from the DTFs. In the frontal hemisphere, spectral notches were present for frequencies from approximately 16 to 30 kHz; in general, the frequency corresponding to the notch increased with increases in source elevation and in azimuth toward the ipsilateral ear. The maximum high-frequency envelope-based interaural time differences (ITDs) were 130 mus, whereas low-frequency (<3.5 kHz) fine-structure ITDs were 160 mus; both types of ITDs were larger than predicted from spherical head models. Interaural level differences (ILDs) strongly depended on location and frequency. Maximum ILDs were <10 dB for frequencies <8 kHz and were as large as 20-40 dB for frequencies >20 kHz. Removal of the pinna eliminated the spectral notches, reduced the acoustic gain and ILDs, altered the acoustical axis, and reduced the ITDs. PMID:18537381