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Sample records for acoustic phonon branch

  1. Direct observation of confined acoustic phonon polarization branches in free-standing semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Fariborz; Debnath, Bishwajit; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Säynätjoki, Antti; Lipsanen, Harri; Nika, Denis L.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Similar to electron waves, the phonon states in semiconductors can undergo changes induced by external boundaries. However, despite strong scientific and practical importance, conclusive experimental evidence of confined acoustic phonon polarization branches in individual free-standing nanostructures is lacking. Here we report results of Brillouin—Mandelstam light scattering spectroscopy, which reveal multiple (up to ten) confined acoustic phonon polarization branches in GaAs nanowires with a diameter as large as 128 nm, at a length scale that exceeds the grey phonon mean-free path in this material by almost an order-of-magnitude. The dispersion modification and energy scaling with diameter in individual nanowires are in excellent agreement with theory. The phonon confinement effects result in a decrease in the phonon group velocity along the nanowire axis and changes in the phonon density of states. The obtained results can lead to more efficient nanoscale control of acoustic phonons, with benefits for nanoelectronic, thermoelectric and spintronic devices. PMID:27830698

  2. Pre-transitional evolution of central peaks and transverse acoustic phonon branch in single crystal lead zirconate titanate with Ti concentration 0.7%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikova, D. A.; Bronwald, I. A.; Burkovsky, R. G.; Leontiev, I. N.; Leontiev, N. G.; Bosak, A. A.; Filimonov, A. V.; Vakhrushev, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering measurements have been done to study the lattice dynamics in lead zirconate titanate solid solution with 0.7% of PbTiO3. The temperature evolution of central peak and low-energy transverse phonon branches has been traced. Temperature dependent in-plane transverse polarized acoustic phonon branch in <1 1 0> direction has been revealed. The central peaks of two types have been found. The central peak at small wave vectors can be attributed to the relaxational-type soft ferroelectric mode, while the latter at Q = (1.5 -0.5 0) could be linked to the formation of M-superstructure in the intermediate ferroelectric phase.

  3. Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine Oudich, Mourad

    2014-12-08

    We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.

  4. Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad

    2014-12-01

    We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.

  5. Depth-Dependent Defect Studies Using Coherent Acoustic Phonons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-29

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 coherent acoustic phonons, diamond, silicon, photelastic coefficients , refractive index, graphene, Second...attributed to the cooling of the subsystem of hot optical phonons by optical- acoustic phonon scattering . We observe that at different pump energy and...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Presented is our scientific progress in two areas of research. The first is coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy of

  6. Monolithic phononic crystals with a surface acoustic band gap from surface phonon-polariton coupling.

    PubMed

    Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R

    2014-11-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics.

  7. Phononic glass: a robust acoustic-absorption material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Wang, Yuren

    2012-08-01

    In order to achieve strong wide band acoustic absorption under high hydrostatic pressure, an interpenetrating network structure is introduced into the locally resonant phononic crystal to fabricate a type of phononic composite material called "phononic glass." Underwater acoustic absorption coefficient measurements show that the material owns high underwater sound absorption coefficients over 0.9 in 12-30 kHz. Moreover, the quasi-static compressive behavior shows that the phononic glass has a compressive strength over 5 MPa which is crucial for underwater applications.

  8. Acoustic phonons, surface plasmons and surface acoustic plasmons in a superlattice and their nonreciprocal device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derov, John S.

    1987-05-01

    The literature was surveyed to determine potential applications of acoustic and plasma phenomena in superlattices. The use of folded zone acoustic phonons and acoustic surface plasmons in 3 to 5 compounds like AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices is addressed. A dielectric phonon filter is presented and an acoustic resonator is considered. Surface plasmons and surface acoustic plasmons are discussed and a transducer, delay line and mixer are proposed as applications. A 500 GHz isolator utilizing surface magnetoplasmons is also presented.

  9. Single Circuit Parallel Computing with Phonons through Magneto-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklan, Sophia; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Phononic computing - the use of (typically thermal) vibrations for information processing - is a nascent technology; its capabilities are still being discovered. We analyze an alternative form of phononic computing inspired by optical, rather than electronic, computing. Using the acoustic Faraday effect, we design a phonon gyrator and thereby a means of performing computation through the manipulation of polarization in transverse phonon currents. Moreover, we establish that our gyrators act as generalized transistors and can construct digital logic gates. Exploiting the wave nature of phonons and the similarity of our logic gates, we demonstrate parallel computation within a single circuit, an effect presently unique to phonons. Finally, a generic method of designing these parallel circuits is introduced and used to analyze the feasibility of magneto-acoustic materials in realizing these circuits. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.

  10. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; ...

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysismore » of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.« less

  11. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.

  12. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  13. The phononic crystals: An unending quest for tailoring acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2016-07-01

    Periodicity (in time or space) is a part and parcel of every living being: one can see, hear and feel it. Everyday examples are locomotion, respiration and heart beat. The reinforced N-dimensional periodicity over two or more crystalline solids results in the so-called phononic band gap crystals. These can have dramatic consequences on the propagation of phonons, vibrations and sound. The fundamental physics of cleverly fabricated phononic crystals can offer a systematic route to realize the Anderson localization of sound and vibrations. As to the applications, the phononic crystals are envisaged to find ways in the architecture, acoustic waveguides, designing transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, ultrasonics, medical imaging and acoustic cloaking, to mention a few. This review focuses on the brief sketch of the progress made in the field that seems to have prospered even more than was originally imagined in the early nineties.

  14. Probing confined acoustic phonons in free standing small gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K.; Ravindran, T. R.

    2013-02-21

    Polarized and depolarized spectra from gold (Au) nanoparticles of different sizes are investigated in the small size range, between 3 and 7 nm, using low frequency Raman spectroscopy. Acoustic vibrations of the free-standing Au nanoparticles are demonstrated with frequencies ranging from 5 to 35 cm{sup -1}, opening the way to the development of the acoustic resonators. A blue shift in the phonon peaks along with the broadening is observed with a decrease in particle size. Comparison of the measured frequencies with vibrational dynamics calculation and an examination as from the transmission electron microscopy results ascertain that the low frequency phonon modes are due to acoustic phonon quantization. Our results show that the observed low frequency Raman scattering originates from the spherical (l = 0) and quadrupolar (l = 2) vibrations of the spheroidal mode due to plasmon mediated acoustic vibrations in Au nanoparticles.

  15. Stimulated emission of phonons in an acoustic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert

    2001-10-01

    This thesis will present experiments on stimulated emission of phonons in dilute ruby following complete population inversion of the Zeeman-split E(2E) Kramers doublet by selective pulsed optical pumping into its upper component. The resulting phonon avalanches are detected by use of the R1 luminescence emanating from the inverted zone, located near the end face where the laser beam enters the crystal. The phonons appear to team up into a highly directional phonon beam. The phonon frequency is tunable from, say, 10-100 GHz via the magnetic field splitting of the doublet. Remarkably, the population of the lower doublet component, which is a measure of the number of phonons generated, evolves with a sequence of distinct steps. The time interval in between these steps equals 2L/v, corresponding to the time the phonons need to return to the inverted zone by reflection at the opposite end face at a distance L. The end faces of the ruby crystal thus form an acoustic cavity. The phonon beam passes the inverted zone repeatedly to be amplified further, in a manner similar to light in an optical laser. In other words, the basic ingredients for a phonon laser have been established.

  16. Slow light and slow acoustic phonons in optophononic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafañe, V.; Soubelet, P.; Bruchhausen, A. E.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaître, A.; Fainstein, A.

    2016-11-01

    Slow and confined light have been exploited in optoelectronics to enhance light-matter interactions. Here we describe the GaAs/AlAs semiconductor microcavity as a device that, depending on the excitation conditions, either confines or slows down both light and optically generated acoustic phonons. The localization of photons and phonons in the same place of space amplifies optomechanical processes. Picosecond laser pulses are used to study through time-resolved reflectivity experiments the coupling between photons and both confined and slow acoustic phonons when the laser is tuned either with the cavity (confined) optical mode or with the stop-band edge (slow) optical modes. A model that fully takes into account the modified propagation of the acoustic phonons and light in these resonant structures is used to describe the laser detuning dependence of the coherently generated phonon spectra and amplitude under these different modes of laser excitation. We observe that confined light couples only to confined mechanical vibrations, while slow light can generate both confined and slow coherent vibrations. A strong enhancement of the optomechanical coupling using confined photons and vibrations, and also with properly designed slow photon and phonon modes, is demonstrated. The prospects for the use of these optoelectronic devices in confined and slow optomechanics are addressed.

  17. Phononic crystal structures for acoustically driven microfluidic manipulations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rab; Reboud, Julien; Bourquin, Yannyk; Neale, Steven L; Zhang, Yi; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2011-01-21

    The development of microfluidic systems is often constrained both by difficulties associated with the chip interconnection to other instruments and by limitations imposed by the mechanisms that can enable fluid movement and processing. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have shown promise in allowing samples to be manipulated, although designing complex fluid operations involves using multiple electrode transducers. We now demonstrate a simple interface between a piezoelectric SAW device and a disposable microfluidic chip, patterned with phononic structures to control the acoustic wave propagation. The surface wave is coupled from the piezoelectric substrate into the disposable chip where it interacts with the phononic lattice. By implementing both a phononic filter and an acoustic waveguide, we illustrate the potential of the technique by demonstrating microcentrifugation for particle and cell concentration in microlitre droplets. We show for the first time that the interaction of the fluid within this metamaterial phononic lattice is dependent upon the frequency of the acoustic wave, providing a route to programme complex fluidic functions into a microchip (in much the same way, by analogy, that a holographic element would change the phase of a light wave in optical tweezers). A practical realisation of this involves the centrifugation of blood on the chip.

  18. Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Kamil

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.

  19. Acoustic phonon transmission spectra in piezoelectric AlN/GaN Fibonacci phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Chesman, C.; Freire, V. N.

    2007-08-01

    We study the acoustic-phonon transmission spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from the III-V nitride materials AlN and GaN. The phonon dynamics is described by a coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations within the static field approximation model, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon transmission coefficients. Numerical results, for the normal incidence case, show a strike self-similar pattern for both hexagonal (class 6 mm) and cubic symmetries crystalizations of the nitrides.

  20. Finite element analysis of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Graczykowski, B. Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-14

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of surface acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional phononic crystal. Using finite element method eigenfrequency and frequency response studies, we develop two model geometries suitable to distinguish true and pseudo (or leaky) surface acoustic waves and determine their propagation through finite size phononic crystals, respectively. The novelty of the first model comes from the application of a surface-like criterion and, additionally, functional damping domain. Exemplary calculated band diagrams show sorted branches of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves and their quantified surface confinement. The second model gives a complementary study of transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses of Rayleigh surface waves in the case of a phononic crystal with a finite number of periods. Here, we demonstrate that a non-zero transmission within non-radiative band gaps can be carried via leaky modes originating from the coupling of local resonances with propagating waves in the substrate. Finally, we show that the transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses can be effectively optimised by tuning the geometrical properties of a stripe.

  1. Guiding and confinement of interface acoustic waves in solid-fluid pillar-based phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razip Wee, M. F. Mohd; Addouche, Mahmoud; Siow, Kim S.; Zain, A. R. Md; Elayouch, Aliyasin; Chollet, Franck; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2016-12-01

    Pillar-based phononic crystals exhibit some unique wave phenomena due to the interaction between surface acoustic modes of the substrate and local resonances supported by pillars. In this paper, we extend the investigations by taking into account the presence of a liquid medium. We particularly demonstrate that local resonances dramatically decrease the phase velocity of Scholte-Stoneley wave, which leads to a slow wave at the solid/fluid interface. Moreover, we show that increasing the height of pillars introduces a new set of branches of interface modes and drastically affects the acoustic energy localization. Indeed, while some modes display a highly confined pressure between pillars, others exponentially decay in the fluid or only propagate in the solid without disturbing the fluid pressure. These theoretical results, performed by finite element method, highlight a new acoustic wave confinement suitable in various applications such as acoustophoresis, lab on chip and microfluidics.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-03-01

    Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.

  3. Acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2012-08-01

    The acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals (MEFL PCs) is theoretically investigated. The MEFL PCs consist of fluid matrix and fluid-like inclusions with extremely anisotropic-density. The dispersion relations are calculated via the plane wave expansion method, which are in good agreement with the transmitted sound pressure level spectra obtained by the finite element method. The results show that the width of absolute band gap in MEFL PCs depends sensitively upon the orientation of the extremely anisotropic-density inclusions and reaches maximum at the rotating angle of 45°, with the gap position nearly unchanged. Also, the inter-mode conversion inside anisotropic-density inclusions can be ignored due to large acoustic mismatch. The study gives a possibility to realize greater flexibility and stronger effects in tuning the acoustic band gaps, which is very significant in the enhanced control over sound waves and has potential applications in ultrasonic imaging and therapy.

  4. Magnetophonon oscillations caused by acoustic phonons in bulk conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons under a magnetic field leads to a remarkable kind of magnetophonon oscillation of transport coefficients, recently discovered in two-dimensional electron systems. The present study shows that similar oscillations exist in bulk conductors and provides a theory of this phenomenon for the case of spherical Fermi surfaces. The resonance peaks occur when the product of the Fermi surface diameter by the sound velocity is a multiple of the cyclotron frequency. Theoretical predictions may facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon.

  5. Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.

  6. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu; Li, Xiaoqin E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu

    2015-02-02

    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.

  7. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-02-01

    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.

  8. Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketata, H.; Hédi Ben Ghozlen, M.

    2012-06-01

    An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW). The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.

  9. Effect of electron heating on femtosecond laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jincheng; Guo, Chunlei

    2007-05-01

    We employ a surface plasmon technique to resolve the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals. Clear acoustic oscillations are observed in our experiments. We further study the dependence of the initial phase of the oscillations on pump fluence, and we find that the initial phase decreases linearly with pump fluence. Our model calculations show that hot electrons instantaneously excited by femtosecond pulses contribute to the generation of coherent acoustic phonons in metals.

  10. Piezoelectric surface acoustical phonon amplification in graphene on a GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O. A. C.

    2014-06-21

    We study the interaction of Dirac Fermions in monolayer graphene on a GaAs substrate in an applied electric field by the combined action of the extrinsic potential of piezoelectric surface acoustical phonons of GaAs (piezoelectric acoustical (PA)) and of the intrinsic deformation potential of acoustical phonons in graphene (deformation acoustical (DA)). We find that provided the dc field exceeds a threshold value, emission of piezoelectric (PA) and deformation (DA) acoustical phonons can be obtained in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at low and high temperatures. We found that the phonon amplification rate R{sup PA,DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup S−1} (S=PA,DA), T{sub BG}{sup S} being the Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen temperature. In the high-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, extrinsic PA phonon scattering is suppressed by intrinsic DA phonon scattering, where the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with ≈1/√(n), n being the carrier concentration. We found that only for carrier concentration n≤10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In the low-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, and for n=10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup DA}/T{sub BG}{sup PA}≈7.5 and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In this regime, PA phonon dominates the electron scattering and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}<1 otherwise. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as an acoustical phonon amplifier and a frequency-tunable acoustical phonon device.

  11. Influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Radioelectric field in a Quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Do Tuan; Quang Bau, Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Radioelectric field in a quantum well has been studied in the presence of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave and a laser radiation. By using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons with confined electrons - confined acoustic phonons interaction, the analytical expression for the Radio electric field is obtained. The formula of the Radio electric field contains the quantum number m characterizing the phonons confinement and comes back to the case of unconfined phonons when m reaches to zero. The dependence of the Radio electric field on the frequency of the laser radiation, in case of confined acoustic phonons, is also achieved by numerical method for a specific quantum well AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs. Results show that the Radio electric field has a peak and reaches saturation as the frequency of the laser radiation increases.

  12. Waveform-preserved unidirectional acoustic transmission based on impedance-matched acoustic metasurface and phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ai-Ling; Chen, Tian-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le

    2016-08-01

    The waveform distortion happens in most of the unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) devices proposed before. In this paper, a novel type of waveform-preserved UAT device composed of an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface (AMS) and a phononic crystal (PC) structure is proposed and numerically investigated. The acoustic pressure field distributions and transmittance are calculated by using the finite element method. The subwavelength AMS that can modulate the wavefront of the transmitted wave at will is designed and the band structure of the PC structure is calculated and analyzed. The sound pressure field distributions demonstrate that the unidirectional acoustic transmission can be realized by the proposed UAT device without changing the waveforms of the output waves, which is the distinctive feature compared with the previous UAT devices. The physical mechanism of the unidirectional acoustic transmission is discussed by analyzing the refraction angle changes and partial band gap map. The calculated transmission spectra show that the UAT device is valid within a relatively broad frequency range. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The proposed UAT device provides a good reference for designing waveform-preserved UAT devices and has potential applications in many fields, such as medical ultrasound, acoustic rectifiers, and noise insulation.

  13. Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA+/MA+/Cs+, X=I−/Br−) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials. PMID:28106061

  14. Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-01-20

    The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA(+)/MA(+)/Cs(+), X=I(-)/Br(-)) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials.

  15. Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA+/MA+/Cs+, X=I-/Br-) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials.

  16. Propagation and localization of acoustic waves in Fibonacci phononic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynaou, H.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Akjouj, A.; Velasco, V. R.

    2005-07-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic bandgap structures made of slender tube loops pasted together with slender tubes of finite length according to a Fibonacci sequence. The band structure and transmission spectrum is studied for two particular cases. (i) Symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to diameter-modulated slender tubes. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear in the transmission spectra inside the gaps as defect modes. The spatial localization of the modes lying in the middle of the bands and at their edges is examined by means of the local density of states. The dependence of the bandgap structure on the slender tube diameters is presented. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the speed of sound. (ii) Asymmetric tube loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence new gaps unnoticed in the case of simple diameter-modulated slender tubes. The Fibonacci scaling property has been checked for both cases (i) and (ii), and it holds for a periodicity of three or six depending on the nature of the substrates surrounding the structure.

  17. Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.

  18. Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.

  19. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  20. Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons

    PubMed Central

    Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Yartsev, Arkady

    2017-01-01

    Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3. PMID:28176755

  1. Electron-acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons.

    PubMed

    Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Yartsev, Arkady

    2017-02-08

    Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.

  2. Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons

    DOE PAGES

    Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; ...

    2017-02-08

    The intrinsic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 are still largely unknown in spite of the great amount of attention it has received for its solar cell application. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, we apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal.We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using themore » deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. These results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2V-1 s -1 , respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.« less

  3. Electron-acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Yartsev, Arkady

    2017-02-01

    Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.

  4. Acoustic beam splitting at low GHz frequencies in a defect-free phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuning; Brick, Delia; Großmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The directional waveguiding in a 2D phononic crystal is simulated based on the analysis of equifrequency contours. This approach is utilized to investigate acoustic beam splitting in a defect-free nanostructure in the low GHz range. We find relaxed limitations regarding the source parameters compared to similar approaches in the sonic regime. Finally, we discuss the possibility to design an acoustic interferometer device at the nanoscale at GHz frequencies.

  5. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2015-04-01

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6-40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (˜100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ˜35 to ˜70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi2Se3 films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi2Se3.

  6. Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-04-20

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.

  7. Acoustic phonon dynamics in strained cubic and hexagonal GaN/Al2O3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; Freire, V. N.

    2006-06-01

    We study the acoustic-phonon spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from III V nitride materials (GaN) intercalated by sapphire (Al2O3). Due to the misalignments between the sapphire and the GaN layers that can lead to threading dislocation densities as high as 108-1010 cm-1, and a significant lattice mismatch (~14%), the phonon dynamics is described beyond the continuum elastic model using coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon dispersion relation. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the phonon's spectra, as well as their scale law and the parametric spectrum of singularities f(α), are presented and discussed.

  8. Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko

    2011-06-01

    To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials.

  9. Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-01

    This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers.

  10. Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves in two-dimensional locally-resonant phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aichao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Lingang; Ma, Jian; Zou, Yang; Li, Min; Wu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves through a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) is demonstrated by substituting dual Helmholtz resonators (DHRs) for acoustically-rigid scatterers in the PC. Due to the coupling of the incident waves with the acoustic multi-resonance modes of the DHRs, acoustic waves can tunnel through the PC at specific frequencies which lie inside the band gaps of the PC. This wave tunneling transmission can be further broadened by using the multilayer Helmholtz resonators. Thus, a PC consisting of an array of dual/multilayer Helmholtz resonators can serve as an acoustic band-pass filter, used to pick out acoustic waves with certain frequencies from noise.

  11. Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceban, V.; Macovei, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.

  12. Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Ceban, V. Macovei, M. A.

    2015-11-15

    The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.

  13. Peculiar transmission property of acoustic waves in a one-dimensional layered phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Degang; Wang, Wengang; Liu, Zhengyou; Shi, Jing; Wen, Weijia

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we report both theoretical calculation and experimental observation of acoustic waves abnormally through a one-dimensional layered transmitted phononic crystal at frequencies within the band gap into a material of large acoustic impedance mismatch, with an efficiency as high as unity. The transmission peaks can be interpreted as a result of the interference of acoustic waves reflected from all periodically aligned interfaces. The condition for the appearance of peaks is analyzed in detail and the optimized layer number is given for different configurations.

  14. Role of acoustic phonons in frequency dependent electronic thermal conductivity of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Pankaj

    2017-03-01

    We study the effect of the electron-phonon interaction on the finite frequency dependent electronic thermal conductivity of two dimensional graphene. We calculate it for various acoustic phonons present in graphene and characterized by different dispersion relations using the memory function approach. It is found that the electronic thermal conductivity κe (T) in the zero frequency limit follows different power law for the longitudinal/transverse and the flexural acoustic phonons. For the longitudinal/transverse phonons, κe (T) ∼T-1 at the low temperature and saturates at the high temperature. These signatures qualitatively agree with the results calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation analytically and numerically. Similarly, for the flexural phonons, we find that κe (T) shows T 1 / 2 law at the low temperature and then saturates at the high temperature. In the finite frequency regime, we observe that the real part of the electronic thermal conductivity, Re [κe (ω , T) ] follows ω-2 behavior at the low frequency and becomes frequency independent at the high frequency.

  15. Acting on Lessons Learned: A NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Lessons learned from the International Space Station have indicated that early attention to acoustics will be key to achieving safer, more productive environments for new long duration missions. Fans are known to be dominant noise sources, and reducing fan noise poses challenges for fan manufacturers and systems engineers. The NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch has considered ways in which expertise and capabilities traditionally used to understand and mitigate aircraft engine noise can be used to address small fan noise issues in Exploration and Information Technology applications. Many could benefit if NASA can capture what is known about small fan aero and acoustic performance in a "Guide for the Design, Selection, and Installation of Fans for Spaceflight Applications." A draft outline for this document will be offered as a useful starting point for brainstorming ideas for the various smaller, near-term research projects that would need to be addressed first.

  16. Acoustic phonon propagation in ultra-thin Si membranes under biaxial stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczykowski, B.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J. S.; Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-07-01

    We report on stress induced changes in the dispersion relations of acoustic phonons propagating in 27 nm thick single crystalline Si membranes. The static tensile stress (up to 0.3 GPa) acting on the Si membranes was achieved using an additional strain compensating silicon nitride frame. Dispersion relations of thermally activated hypersonic phonons were measured by means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. The theory of Lamb wave propagation is developed for anisotropic materials subjected to an external static stress field. The dispersion relations were calculated using the elastic continuum approximation and taking into account the acousto-elastic effect. We find an excellent agreement between the theoretical and the experimental dispersion relations.

  17. Decoupling of multiple coupled phononic crystal waveguides: application to acoustic demultiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Liu, Wenxing; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua

    2017-03-01

    We show that the decoupling of two coupled phononic crystal waveguides (PnCWs) by a proper design can be achieved. And this decoupling property can be extended to the coupling of any number of parallel coupled PnCWs. The acoustic wavelength for decoupling is insensitive to the number of coupled PnCWs. Decoupling induces the extinction of neighbor PnCWs’ power transfer and makes the design of compact acoustic components easier. As a possible application of our work, a new kind of 1-to-2 acoustic demultiplexers are numerically demonstrated by employing the decoupling at the crossing-point frequency in two and three coupled PnCWs. This design concept provides a novel method and compact model for acoustic demultiplexing and can present practical applications in future acoustic wave circuits.

  18. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  19. Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.

    2006-01-31

    We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.

  20. Piezoelectric Response to Coherent Longitudinal and Transverse Acoustic Phonons in a Semiconductor Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanthreddy, D.; Glavin, B. A.; Poyser, C. L.; Henini, M.; Lehmann, D.; Jasiukiewicz, Cz.; Akimov, A. V.; Kent, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the generation of microwave electronic signals by pumping a (311) GaAs Schottky diode with compressive and shear acoustic phonons, generated by the femtosecond optical excitation of an Al film transducer and mode conversion at the Al-GaAs interface. They propagate through the substrate and arrive at the Schottky device on the opposite surface, where they induce a microwave electronic signal. The arrival time, the amplitude, and the polarity of the signals depend on the phonon mode. A theoretical analysis is made of the polarity of the experimental signals. This analysis includes the piezoelectric and deformation potential mechanisms of electron-phonon interaction in a Schottky contact and shows that the piezoelectric mechanism is dominant for both transverse and longitudinal modes with frequencies below 250 and 70 GHz, respectively.

  1. Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin

    2015-10-14

    We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.

  2. Acoustic phonon lifetimes and thermal transport in free-standing and strained graphene.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Nicola; Garg, Jivtesh; Marzari, Nicola

    2012-06-13

    We use first-principles methods based on density functional perturbation theory to characterize the lifetimes of the acoustic phonon modes and their consequences on the thermal transport properties of graphene. We show that using a standard perturbative approach, the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons in free-standing graphene display finite lifetimes in the long-wavelength limit, making them ill-defined as elementary excitations in samples of dimensions larger than ∼1 μm. This behavior is entirely due to the presence of the quadratic dispersions for the out-of-plane phonon (ZA) flexural modes that appear in free-standing low-dimensional systems. Mechanical strain lifts this anomaly, and all phonons remain well-defined at any wavelength. Thermal transport is dominated by ZA modes, and the thermal conductivity is predicted to diverge with system size for any amount of strain. These findings highlight strain and sample size as key parameters in characterizing or engineering heat transport in graphene.

  3. Cooling phonons with phonons: Acoustic reservoir engineering with silicon-vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepesidis, K. V.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Norambuena, A.; Maze, J. R.; Rabl, P.

    2016-12-01

    We study a setup where a single negatively-charged silicon-vacancy center in diamond is magnetically coupled to a low-frequency mechanical bending mode and via strain to the high-frequency phonon continuum of a semiclamped diamond beam. We show that under appropriate microwave driving conditions, this setup can be used to induce a laser-cooling-like effect for the low-frequency mechanical vibrations, where the high-frequency longitudinal compression modes of the beam serve as an intrinsic low-temperature reservoir. We evaluate the experimental conditions under which cooling close to the quantum ground state can be achieved and describe an extended scheme for the preparation of a stationary entangled state between two mechanical modes. By relying on intrinsic properties of the mechanical beam only, this approach offers an interesting alternative for quantum manipulation schemes of mechanical systems, where otherwise efficient optomechanical interactions are not available.

  4. Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; ...

    2016-10-31

    The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (–1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. Lastly, this manuscript shows the complete design processmore » for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.« less

  5. Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; Reinke, C. M.; Leseman, Z. C.; El-Kady, I.

    2016-10-31

    The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (–1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. Lastly, this manuscript shows the complete design process for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.

  6. Anomalous negative reflection of acoustic waves from a two-dimensional phononic crystal immersed in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hwi Suk; Yoon, Suk Wang; Lee, Kang Il

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated anomalous negative reflection of acoustic waves obliquely incident upon the boundary of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of periodic square arrays of stainless-steel cylinders immersed in water. The angular spectrogram showing the frequency as a function of the angle was measured for the reflection from the PC when the incidence angle of the sound beam was fixed to be 20°. To understand the negative reflection from the PC, we considered the boundary of the PC to behave as an acoustic diffraction grating, and we calculated the acoustic pressure fields at specific frequencies of interest by using the finite element method. We found that the grating law could be successfully applied to the boundary of the PC in order to determine the direction of the acoustic waves diffracted in water.

  7. Acoustic resonance in MEMS scale cylindrical tubes with side branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, John F.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Marcus, Logan S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a useful monitoring technique that is well suited for trace gas detection. This method routinely exhibits detection limits at the parts-per-million (ppm) or parts-per-billion (ppb) level for gaseous samples. PAS also possesses favorable detection characteristics when the system dimensions are scaled to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) design. One of the central issues related to sensor miniaturization is optimization of the photoacoustic cell geometry, especially in relationship to high acoustical amplification and reduced system noise. Previous work relied on a multiphysics approach to analyze the resonance structures of the MEMS scale photo acoustic cell. This technique was unable to provide an accurate model of the acoustic structure. In this paper we describe a method that relies on techniques developed from musical instrument theory and electronic transmission line matrix methods to describe cylindrical acoustic resonant cells with side branches of various configurations. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ease and accuracy of this method. All experimental results were within 2% of those predicted by this theory.

  8. Intrinsic coherent acoustic phonons in the indirect band gap semiconductors Si and GaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Kunie; Rustagi, Avinash; Höfer, Ulrich; Petek, Hrvoje; Stanton, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the intrinsic optical generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons at (001)-oriented bulk Si and GaP without metallic phonon transducer structures. Photoexcitation by a 3.1-eV laser pulse generates a normal strain pulse within the ˜100 -nm penetration depth in both semiconductors. The subsequent propagation of the strain pulse into the bulk is detected with a delayed optical probe as a periodic modulation of the optical reflectivity. Our theoretical model explains quantitatively the generation of the acoustic pulse via the deformation potential electron-phonon coupling and detection in terms of the spatially and temporally dependent photoelastic effect for both semiconductors. Comparison with our theoretical model reveals that the experimental strain pulses have finite buildup times of 1.2 and 0.4 ps for GaP and Si, which are comparable with the time required for the photoexcited electrons to transfer to the lowest X valley through intervalley scattering. The deformation potential coupling related to the acoustic pulse generation for GaP is estimated to be twice as strong as that for Si from our experiments, in agreement with a previous theoretical prediction.

  9. Wave propagation and acoustic band gaps of two-dimensional liquid crystal/solid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltulu, Oral; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of acoustic wave propagation in phononic band studies has been usually carried out by scattering inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic medium, such as air or water. In this study, we present calculated band structure results for the two-dimensional square array geometry of a solid cylindrical scatterer surrounded by a liquid crystal (LC) matrix. Liquid crystals provide a unique combination of liquid-like and crystal-like properties as well as anisotropic properties. The purpose of using LC material is to take advantage of longitudinal acoustic waves propagating parallel (||) and perpendicular (⊥) to the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) director n. The compound used in this study was a room temperature NLC, called 5CB (4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl). The acoustic band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal containing a 5CB NLC and lithium tantalate was investigated by the plane wave expansion method. The theoretical results show that the solid/LC system can be tuned in a favorable configuration for adjusting or shifting acoustic band gaps.

  10. Superlensing effect for surface acoustic waves in a pillar-based phononic crystal with negative refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.

  11. Probing Thermomechanics at the Nanoscale: Impulsively Excited Pseudosurface Acoustic Waves in Hypersonic Phononic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system’s initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system’s excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426

  12. Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.

  13. Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in three-dimensional supracrystals of cobalt nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lisiecki, Isabelle; Polli, Dario; Yan, Cong; Soavi, Giancarlo; Duval, Eugène; Cerullo, Giulio; Pileni, Marie-Paule

    2013-10-09

    We use broadband picosecond acoustics to detect longitudinal acoustic phonons with few-gigahertz frequency in three-dimensional supracrystals (with face-centered cubic lattice) of 7 nm cobalt nanocrystal spheres. In full analogy with atomic crystals, where longitudinal acoustic phonons propagate with the speed of sound through coherent movements of atoms of the lattice out of their equilibrium positions, in these supracrystals atoms are replaced by (uncompressible) nanocrystals and atomic bonds by coating agents (carbon chains) that act like mechanical springs holding together the nanocrystals. By repeating the measurements at different laser angles of incidence it was possible to accurately determine both the index of refraction of the supracrystal (n = 1.26 ± 0.03) and the room-temperature longitudinal speed of sound (v(s)= 1235 ± 12 m/s), which is quite low due to the heavy weight of the spheres (with respect to atoms in a crystal) and the soft carbon chains (with respect to atomic bonds). Interestingly, the speed of sound inside the supracrystal was found to dramatically increase by decreasing the sample temperature due to a change in the stiffness of the dodecanoic acid chains which coat the Co nanocrystals.

  14. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.

  15. Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2015-09-15

    A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented.

  16. Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288

  17. Coherent acoustic phonon generation in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Joshya, R. S.; Kini, R. N.; Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2014-03-03

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to generate coherent acoustic phonons in the dilute Bismide alloy, GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}. The observed oscillation periods match well with the oscillation periods calculated using the propagating strain pulse model. We attribute the generation process predominantly to electronic stress due to the absorption of the laser pulse at the surface of the GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} layer. Our initial estimates suggest that the incorporation of Bi in GaAs causes an enhancement of the hydrostatic deformation potential because of the resonant state in the valence band due to isolated Bi impurities.

  18. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  19. Continuum approach for long-wavelength acoustic phonons in quasi-two-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Every, Arthur G.; Tománek, David

    2016-10-01

    As an alternative to atomistic calculations of long-wavelength acoustic modes of atomically thin layers, which are known to converge very slowly, we propose a quantitatively predictive and physically intuitive approach based on continuum elasticity theory. We describe a layer, independent of its thickness, by a membrane and characterize its elastic behavior by a (3 ×3 ) elastic matrix as well as the flexural rigidity. We present simple quantitative expressions for frequencies of long-wavelength acoustic modes, which we determine using two-dimensional elastic constants calculated by ab initio density functional theory. The calculated spectra accurately reproduce observed and calculated long-wavelength phonon spectra of graphene and phosphorene, the monolayer of black phosphorus. Our approach also correctly describes the observed dependence of the radial breathing mode frequency on the diameters of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes.

  20. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-07

    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  1. Ultralow frequency acoustic bandgap and vibration energy recovery in tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.

  2. Amplification of terahertz frequency acoustic phonons by drifting electrons in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    The amplification coefficient α of acoustic phonons is theoretically investigated in a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal (3DDS) driven by a dc electric field E causing the drift of the electrons. It is numerically studied as a function of the frequency ωq, drift velocity vd, electron concentration ne, and temperature T in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2. We find that the amplification of acoustic phonons (α ˜ hundreds of cm-1) takes place when the electron drift velocity vd is greater than the sound velocity vs. The amplification is found to occur at small E (˜few V/cm) due to large electron mobility. The frequency dependence of α shows amplification in the THz regime with a maximum αm occurring at the same frequency ωqm for different vd. The αm is found to increase with increasing vd. α vs ωq for different ne also shows a maximum, with αm shifting to higher ωq for larger ne. Each maximum is followed by a vanishing α at nearly "2kf cutoff," where kf is the Fermi wave vector. It is found that αm/ne and ωqm/ne1/3 are nearly constant. The αm ˜ ne can be used to identify the 3DDS phase as it differs from αm ˜ ne1/3 dependence in conventional bulk Cd3As2 semiconductor.

  3. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2015-04-28

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.

  4. Beam paths of flexural Lamb waves at high frequency in the first band within phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.

    2014-12-15

    This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.

  5. Tunability of acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.

  6. Investigation of phononic crystals for dispersive surface acoustic wave ozone sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westafer, Ryan S.

    The object of this research was to investigate dispersion in surface phononic crystals (PnCs) for application to a newly developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) ozone sensor. Frequency band gaps and slow sound already have been reported for PnC lattice structures. Such engineered structures are often advertised to reduce loss, increase sensitivity, and reduce device size. However, these advances have not yet been realized in the context of surface acoustic wave sensors. In early work, we computed SAW dispersion in patterned surface structures and we confirmed that our finite element computations of SAW dispersion in thin films and in one dimensional surface PnC structures agree with experimental results obtained by laser probe techniques. We analyzed the computations to guide device design in terms of sensitivity and joint spectral operating point. Next we conducted simulations and experiments to determine sensitivity and limit of detection for more conventional dispersive SAW devices and PnC sensors. Finally, we conducted extensive ozone detection trials on passive reflection mode SAW devices, using distinct components of the time dispersed response to compensate for the effect of temperature. The experimental work revealed that the devices may be used for dosimetry applications over periods of several days.

  7. Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles.

  8. Electron Transport Parameters Study for Transition Metal-Doped Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon via Acoustical Phonon Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Ankur; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-04-01

    Electron transport parameters such as electron effective mass, Fermi velocity of an electron and electron mobility are calculated for transition metal [manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co)]-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (aGNR) via polar acoustical phonon [piezoelectric (PZ)] scattering and acoustical deformation potential (ADP) scattering under a high electric field and different doping concentrations. Moreover, the effect of dopant site on these electron transport parameters is also investigated. It is observed that the electron effective mass is reduced significantly in doped aGNR in comparison to pure GNR. It is observed that the net electron mobility contributed by both ADP and PZ mechanisms for Mn-doped aGNR as well as Co-doped aGNR varies in similar fashion as semiconductors wherein the net electron mobility (ADP + PZ) for Mn-doped aGNR is greater than that for the Co-doped graphene nanoribbon. Moreover, it is found that there is no impact of variation in dopant site on the electron transport parameters considered in this study.

  9. Acoustic Resonance in Cylindrical Tubes with Side Branches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    branches and tubes that change diameter. 4. Musical Instrument Design A flute is essentially a hollow tube with a way at one end to modulate the...an integer (1,2,3,…). 12 Figure 5. Tube with no holes. The addition of a side branch effectively changes the length of the tube, so in a flute

  10. High-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator for enhanced acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-05-01

    A high-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator (Cr-PCR) coupled with an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is proposed to improve acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting. Owing to the strongly directional wave-scattering effect of the cross-plate corners, strong confinement of acoustic waves emerges. Consequently, the proposed Cr-PCR structure exhibits ∼353.5 times higher Q value and ∼6.1 times greater maximum pressure amplification than the phononic crystal resonator (Cy-PCR) (consisting of cylindrical scatterers) of the same size. Furthermore, the harvester using the proposed Cr-PCR and the EMHR has ∼22 times greater maximum output-power volume density than the previous harvester using Cy-PCR and EMHR structures.

  11. Intervalley scattering by acoustic phonons in two-dimensional MoS2 revealed by double-resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno R; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H; Malard, Leandro M; Pimenta, Marcos A

    2017-03-09

    Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2.

  12. Intervalley scattering by acoustic phonons in two-dimensional MoS2 revealed by double-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bruno R.; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H.; Malard, Leandro M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2017-01-01

    Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2. PMID:28276472

  13. Intervalley scattering by acoustic phonons in two-dimensional MoS2 revealed by double-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Bruno R.; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H.; Malard, Leandro M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2.

  14. Phonons and elasticity of cementite through the Curie temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, L.; Herriman, J. E.; Hellman, O.; Tracy, S. J.; Lucas, M. S.; Muñoz, J. A.; Xiao, Yuming; Li, J.; Fultz, B.

    2017-01-01

    Phonon partial densities of states (pDOS) of Fe573C were measured from cryogenic temperatures through the Curie transition at 460 K using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The cementite pDOS reveal that low-energy acoustic phonons shift to higher energies (stiffen) with temperature before the magnetic transition. This unexpected stiffening suggests strongly nonharmonic vibrational behavior that impacts the thermodynamics and elastic properties of cementite. Density functional theory calculations reproduced the anomalous stiffening observed experimentally in cementite by accounting for phonon-phonon interactions at finite temperatures. The calculations show that the low-energy acoustic phonon branches with polarizations along the [010] direction are largely responsible for the anomalous thermal stiffening. The effect was further localized to the motions of the FeII site within the orthorhombic structure, which participates disproportionately in the anomalous phonon stiffening.

  15. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2016-03-01

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.

  16. Acoustic phonon modes in asymmetric AlxGa1-xN/GaN/AlyGa1-yN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Y. H.; Ban, S. L.; Chai, Y. J.; Qu, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Using an elastic continuum model, the dispersion relations and phonon modes of propagating, confined, half space and interface acoustic phonons in asymmetric AlxGa1-xN/GaN/Al1-yGayN quantum wells (QWs) have been solved theoretically with the varieties of Al components x and y. Contrary to the previous conclusions, some regulations for the existence of the above different acoustic phonons are revealed as well as the transition conditions among these modes are also discussed. With increase of wave vectors, the dispersion relations split into several groups. Because the classification of these groups is related to the eigen frequencies of bulk materials forming QWs, phonon modes in these groups will be confined or propagating in different layers of QWs. Furthermore, the gradients of the dispersion relations' asymptotes are the velocities of longitudinal and the transverse acoustic phonons propagating in bulk materials in turns. The properties of the dispersion relations and their phonon modes are also analyzed in depth based on the cut-off conditions. By the changing of Al components x and y, the bottom of these groups will be modified to adjust eigen frequencies of AlxGa1-xN or Al1-yGayN layers. But the propagation properties of acoustic phonon modes will remain unchanged in each section.

  17. Modelling of acoustic waves propagating in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Qi, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jia-Hui; Xie, Ya-Zhuo; Zhang, Xing-Gan; Gao, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Herein, we report construction of one kind of nesting-Fibonacci-super-lattice phononic crystal, in which the super-lattice cell is a well-defined Fibonacci generation sequence. We present a comparative study on band-gap structures of acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional, nesting Fibonacci-periodic structure and simple-periodic structure. We find that there are more band gaps in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice models, and that they present behavior different from the split-up of band gaps with different generation numbers. With the increase of generation number, more band gaps split and occur. Additionally, when generation number becomes larger, Bragg scattering becomes more significant: the characteristic curves become flatter and band gaps become wider. Furthermore, we study the effect of various parameters such as density, thickness and defects on band-gap structures. Our work is significant both for understanding the intrinsic physical properties of nesting Fibonacci sequences and for providing flexible choices to meet real engineering requirements.

  18. Coherent acoustic phonons in YBa2Cu3O7/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Xiaoran; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2016-03-01

    We investigate photo-induced coherent acoustic phonons in complex oxide superlattices consisting of high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferromagnetic manganite La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 epitaxial layers with broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Two oscillatory components have been observed in time-resolved differential reflectivity spectra. Based on the analysis, the slow oscillation mode with a frequency sensitive to the probe wavelength is ascribed to the stimulated Brillouin scattering due to the photon reflection by propagating train of coherent phonons. The fast oscillation mode with a probe-wavelength-insensitive frequency is attributed to the Bragg oscillations caused by specular phonon reflections at oxide interfaces or the electron-coupling induced modulation due to free carrier absorption in the metallic superlattices. Our findings suggest that oxide superlattice is an ideal system to tailor the coherent behaviors of acoustic phonons and to manipulate the thermal and acoustic properties.

  19. Strong Amplification of Coherent Acoustic Phonons by Intraminiband Currents in a Semiconductor Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos

    2016-02-01

    Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8 ×103 cm-1 is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters.

  20. Acoustic-phonon-assisted quantum control of qubit states near the Si/SiO2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Bing-Ping; Zhao, Peiji; Kong, Xiao-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The waiting time between load/initialization and readout of electron spin qubit is related to electron tunneling between the donor and Si/SiO2 interface. Impacts of energy valley interference in silicon, lattice temperature, and screening of metallic gate on the waiting time associated with acoustic-phonon-assisted electron tunneling have been investigated. The results show that interface valley-orbit coupling causes its oscillation with donor depth and the influence of gate screening is significant when the SiO2 thickness is smaller than 10 nm. Moreover, the influences of these factors are strongest at critical electric field.

  1. A computational approach for flow-acoustic coupling in closed side branches.

    PubMed

    Radavich, P M; Selamet, A; Novak, J M

    2001-04-01

    The quarter-wave resonator, which produces a narrow band of high acoustic attenuation at regularly spaced frequency intervals, is a common type of silencer used in ducts. The presence of mean flow in the main duct, however, is likely to promote an interaction between these acoustic resonances and the flow. The coupling for some discrete flow conditions leads to the production of both large wave amplitudes in the side branch and high noise levels in the main duct, thereby transforming the quarter-wave silencer into a noise generator. The present approach employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model this complex interaction between the flow and acoustic resonances at low Mach number by solving the unsteady, turbulent, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Comparisons between the present computations and the experiments of Ziada [PVP-Vol. 258, ASME, 35-59 (1993)] for a system with two coaxial side branches show that the method is capable of reproducing the physics of the flow-acoustic coupling and predicting the flow conditions when the coupling occurs. The theory of Howe [IMA J. Appl. Math. 32, 187-209 (1984)] is then employed to determine the location and timing of the acoustic power production during a cycle.

  2. Strong Amplification of Coherent Acoustic Phonons by Intraminiband Currents in a Semiconductor Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos

    2016-02-19

    Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8×10^{3}  cm^{-1} is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters.

  3. Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffy, Etienne; Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2015-12-01

    An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.

  4. Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Coffy, Etienne Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2015-12-07

    An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.

  5. Observing backfolded and unfolded acoustic phonons by broadband optical light scattering.

    PubMed

    Maerten, L; Bojahr, A; Bargheer, M

    2015-02-01

    We use broadband time domain Brillouin scattering to observe coherently generated phonon modes in bulk and nanolayered samples. We transform the measured transients into a frequency-wavevector diagram and compare the resulting dispersion relations to calculations. The detected oscillation amplitude depends on the occupation of phonon modes induced by the pump pulse. For nanolayered samples with an appropriately large period, the whole wavevector range of the Brillouin zone becomes observable by broadband optical light scattering. The backfolded modes vanish, when the excitation has passed the nanolayers and propagates through the substrate underneath.

  6. Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-06-24

    Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.

  7. Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar

    Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.

  8. Ultrafast dynamics of quasiparticles and coherent acoustic phonons in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873

  9. Detecting the Photoexcited Carrier Distribution Across GaAs/Transition Metal Oxide Interfaces by Coherent Longitudinal Acoustic Phonons.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kevin L; Doan, Hoang Q; Rustagi, Avinash; Stanton, Christopher J; Cuk, Tanja

    2017-03-02

    A prominent architecture for solar energy conversion layers diverse materials, such as traditional semiconductors (Si, III-V) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), into a monolithic device. The efficiency with which photoexcited carriers cross each layer is critical to device performance and dependent on the electronic properties of a heterojunction. Here, by time-resolved changes in the reflectivity after excitation of an n-GaAs/p-GaAs/TMO (Co3O4, IrO2) device, we detect a photoexcited carrier distribution specific to the p-GaAs/TMO interface through its coupling to phonons in both materials. The photoexcited carriers generate two coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons (CLAPs) traveling in opposite directions, one into the TMO and the other into the p-GaAs. This is the first time a CLAP is reported to originate at a semiconductor/TMO heterojunction. Therefore, these experiments seed future modeling of the built-in electric fields, the internal Fermi level, and the photoexcited carrier density of semiconductor/TMO interfaces within multilayered heterostructures.

  10. Preface to special topic: Selected articles from phononics 2013: The second international conference on phononic crystals/metamaterials, phonon transport and optomechanics, 2-7 June 2013, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

    DOE PAGES

    Hussein, Mahmoud I.; El-Kady, Ihab; Li, Baowen; ...

    2014-12-31

    “Phononics” is an interdisciplinary branch of physics and engineering that deals with the behavior of phonons, and more broadly elastic and acoustic waves in similar context, and their manipulation in solids and/or fluids to benefit technological applications. Compared to resembling disciplines, such as electronics and photonics, phononics is a youthful field. It is growing at a remarkable rate, especially when viewed liberally with no limiting constraints on any particular length scale, discipline or application.

  11. A branch of energetic-particle driven geodesic acoustic modes due to magnetic drift resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Kasuya, N.; Itoh, K.; Hallatschek, K.; Lesur, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-10-01

    Eigenmode analysis of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) driven by fast ions is performed, based on a set of gyrokinetic equations. Resonance to the magnetic drift of the fast ions can destabilize GAMs. A new branch is found in the family of GAMs, whose frequency is close to the magnetic drift frequency of the fast ions. The poloidal eigenfunction of this branch has bump structures in the poloidal direction where the resonance of the magnetic drift with the mode is strong. The ion heating rate by the GAMs is evaluated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. The heating is localized poloidally around the resonance locations. Owing to the bumps in the eigenfunction, the magnitude of the heating is much larger than that estimated without the magnetic drift resonance.

  12. Tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission based on a waveguide with phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ailing; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Wan, Lele

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) device composed of a bended tube and a superlattice with square columns is proposed and numerically investigated by using finite element method. The UAT is realized in the proposed UAT device within two wide frequency ranges. And the effectiveness of the UAT device is demonstrated by analyzing the sound pressure distributions when the acoustic waves are incident from different directions. The unidirectional band gaps can be effectively tuned by mechanically rotating the square columns, which is a highlight of this paper. Besides, a bidirectional acoustic isolation (BAI) device is obtained by placing two superlattices in the bended tube, in which the acoustic waves cannot propagate along any directions. The physical mechanisms of the proposed UAT device and BAI device are simply discussed. The proposed models show potential applications in some areas, such as unidirectional sonic barrier or noise insulation.

  13. Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent

    2016-02-01

    It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes.

  14. Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.

  15. Dispersion and absorption in one-dimensional nonlinear lattices: A resonance phonon approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lubo; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Based on the linear response theory, we propose a resonance phonon (r-ph) approach to study the renormalized phonons in a few one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. Compared with the existing anharmonic phonon (a-ph) approach, the dispersion relations derived from this approach agree with the expectations of the effective phonon (e-ph) theory much better. The application is also largely extended, i.e., it is applicable in many extreme situations, e.g., high frequency, high temperature, etc., where the existing one can hardly work. Furthermore, two separated phonon branches (one acoustic and one optical) with a clear gap in between can be observed by the r-ph approach in a diatomic anharmonic lattice. While only one combined branch can be detected in the same lattice with both the a-ph approach and the e-ph theory.

  16. Low-concentration liquid sensing by an acoustic Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a two-dimensional phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent

    2015-06-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by liquid-filled linear defect waveguides in a two-dimensional phononic crystal is numerically realized for sensing low concentrations of an analyte. The waveguides in the square phononic crystal of void cylinders in steel, as well as their T branches and sharp bends are utilized to construct interferometer arms. Sensing low concentrations of ethanol on the order of 0.1% in a binary mixture with water is achieved by replacing the contents of a number of waveguide core cells on one arm of the interferometer with the analyte. Computations are carried out through the finite-element method in an approach that takes the solid-liquid interaction at the waveguide core cells into account. Band analyses reveal linear variation of the central frequency of the transmission band within a band gap for ethanol concentrations up to 3.0%. Phase difference due to the imbalance of the sample and reference arms of the interferometer also varies linearly with ethanol concentration, leading in turn to a cosine variation of the Fourier component of the temporal interferometer response at the central input-pulse frequency. The induced phase difference in the investigated configuration becomes a -0.78π and -0.65π per percent increase of ethanol concentration as calculated from the band-structure and transient data, respectively. This is confirmed by transient finite-element simulations where totally destructive interference occurs for a concentration of approximately 1.5%. The proposed scheme, which can easily be adopted to other binary mixtures, offers a compact implementation requiring small amounts of analyte.

  17. Phonons in Ge nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The phonon spectra of thin freestanding, hydrogen passivated, Ge nanowires are calculated by ab initio techniques. The effect of confinement on the phonon modes as caused by the small diameters of the wires is investigated. Confinement causes a hardening of the optical modes and a softening of the longitudinal acoustic modes. The stability of the nanowires, undoped or doped with B or P atoms, is investigated using the obtained phonon spectra. All considered wires were stable, except for highly doped, very thin nanowires.

  18. Electron-phonon interaction model and prediction of thermal energy transport in SOI transistor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jae Sik; Lee, Joon Sik

    2007-11-01

    An electron-phonon interaction model is proposed and applied to thermal transport in semiconductors at micro/nanoscales. The high electron energy induced by the electric field in a transistor is transferred to the phonon system through electron-phonon interaction in the high field region of the transistor. Due to this fact, a hot spot occurs, which is much smaller than the phonon mean free path in the Si-layer. The full phonon dispersion model based on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with the relaxation time approximation is applied for the interactions among different phonon branches and different phonon frequencies. The Joule heating by the electron-phonon scattering is modeled through the intervalley and intravalley processes for silicon by introducing average electron energy. The simulation results are compared with those obtained by the full phonon dispersion model which treats the electron-phonon scattering as a volumetric heat source. The comparison shows that the peak temperature in the hot spot region is considerably higher and more localized than the previous results. The thermal characteristics of each phonon mode are useful to explain the above phenomena. The optical mode phonons of negligible group velocity obtain the highest energy density from electrons, and resides in the hot spot region without any contribution to heat transport, which results in a higher temperature in that region. Since the acoustic phonons with low group velocity show the higher energy density after electron-phonon scattering, they induce more localized heating near the hot spot region. The ballistic features are strongly observed when phonon-phonon scattering rates are lower than 4 x 10(10) S(-1).

  19. Picosecond x-ray strain rosette reveals direct laser excitation of coherent transverse acoustic phonons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616

  20. Picosecond x-ray strain rosette reveals direct laser excitation of coherent transverse acoustic phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2016-01-11

    Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Finally, using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz.

  1. Acoustic phonon-limited resistivity of spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas: the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2013-01-23

    We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.

  2. Phonon transport properties of two-dimensional group-IV materials from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Xu, Yuanfeng; Ni, Gang; Zhang, Rongjun; Zhu, Heyuan

    2016-12-01

    It has been argued that stanene has lowest lattice thermal conductivity among two-dimensional (2D) group-IV materials because of its largest atomic mass, weakest interatomic bonding, and enhanced ZA phonon scattering due to the breaking of an out-of-plane symmetry selection rule. However, we show that, although the lattice thermal conductivity κ for graphene, silicene, and germanene decreases monotonically with decreasing Debye temperature, unexpected higher κ is observed in stanene. By enforcing all the invariance conditions in 2D materials and including Ge 3 d and Sn 4 d electrons as valence electrons for germanene and stanene, respectively, the lattice dynamics in these materials are accurately described. A large acoustic-optical gap and the bunching of the acoustic-phonon branches significantly reduce phonon scattering in stanene, leading to higher thermal conductivity than germanene. The vibrational origin of the acoustic-optical gap can be attributed to the buckled structure. Interestingly, a buckled system has two competing influences on phonon transport: the breaking of the symmetry selection rule leads to reduced thermal conductivity, and the enlarging of the acoustic-optical gap results in enhanced thermal conductivity. The size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated as well. In nanoribbons, the κ of silicene, germanene, and stanene is much less sensitive to size effect due to their short intrinsic phonon mean-free paths. This work sheds light on the nature of phonon transport in buckled 2D materials.

  3. Phonon dispersion in hypersonic two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczykowski, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Reparaz, J. S.; Wagner, M. R.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the acoustic phonon propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes. Solid-air and solid-solid phononic crystals were made of square lattices of holes and Au pillars in and on 250 nm thick single crystalline Si membrane, respectively. The hypersonic phonon dispersion was investigated using Brillouin light scattering. Volume reduction (holes) or mass loading (pillars) accompanied with second-order periodicity and local resonances are shown to significantly modify the propagation of thermally activated GHz phonons. We use numerical modeling based on the finite element method to analyze the experimental results and determine polarization, symmetry, or three-dimensional localization of observed modes.

  4. Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics.

  5. Observation of acoustic-phonon-like mode driven by magnetic imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms in Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Garlea, Ovidiu

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the evolution with temperature of the low-energy inelastic spectra of Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12), a parent compound of the iron-chalcogenide superconductor family, revealing an acoustic mode at an unexpected position. Recently, we found evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave leading to ferro-orbital order in the monoclinic phase, in part due to the observation of an elastic structural peak at (100) in the low-temperature monoclinic phase [D. Fobes, et al., arXiv:1307.7162]. In the inelastic spectra we observe a sharp acoustic-phonon-like mode dispersing out of the (100) position in the monoclinic phase. Surprisingly, the mode survives in the tetragonal phase, despite the absence of a Bragg peak at (100); such a peak is forbidden by symmetry. LDA calculations suggest this mode could involve significant magnetic scattering. By assuming in-phase virtual displacement of the Fe atoms from their equilibrium position in a frozen phonon calculation, we have found a small but significant imbalance in the magnetic moments between the two Fe atoms within the unit cell, suggesting magnetic contribution to the mode. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research conducted at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.

  6. Characteristics of ultrasonic acoustic emissions from walnut branches during freeze-thaw-induced embolism formation.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Charrier, Guillaume; Uemura, Matsuo; Améglio, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emission (UAE) methods have been applied for the detection of freeze-thaw-induced embolism formation in water conduits of tree species. Until now, however, the exact source(s) of UAE has not been identified especially in angiosperm species, in which xylem tissues are composed of diverse types of cells. In this study, UAE was recorded from excised branches of walnut (Juglans regia cv. Franquette) during freeze-thaw cycles, and attempts were made to characterize UAEs generated by cavitation events leading to embolism formation according to their properties. During freeze-thaw cycles, a large number of UAEs were generated from the sample segments. However, the cumulative numbers of total UAE during freeze-thawing were not correlated with the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity after thawing, suggesting that the sources of UAE were not only cavitation leading to embolism formation in vessels. Among the UAEs, cumulative numbers of UAEs with absolute energy >10.0 fJ strongly correlated with the increase in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity. The high absolute energy of the UAEs might reflect the formation of large bubbles in the large lumen of vessels. Therefore, UAEs generated by cavitation events in vessels during freeze-thawing might be distinguished from other signals according to their magnitudes of absolute energy. On the other hand, the freezing of xylem parenchyma cells was followed by a certain number of UAEs. These results indicate the possibility that UAE methods can be applied to the detection of both freeze-thaw-induced embolism and supercooling breakdown in parenchyma cells in xylem.

  7. Resonance damping of the terahertz-frequency transverse acoustic phonon in the relaxor ferroelectric KT a1 -xN bxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, J.; Iolin, E.; Hennion, B.; Petitgrand, D.; Erwin, R.

    2016-12-01

    The damping (Γ a ) of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon in single crystals of the relaxor KT a1 -xN bxO3 with x =0.15 -0.17 was studied by means of high resolution inelastic cold neutron scattering near the (200) Brillouin Zone (BZ) point where diffuse scattering is absent, although it is present near (110). In a wide range of temperatures centered on the phase transition, T =195 K ÷108 K , the TA phonon width (damping) exhibits a step increase around momentum q =0.07 , goes through a shallow maximum at q =0.09 -0.12 , and remains high above and up to the highest momentum studied of q =0.16 . These experimental results are explained in terms of a resonant interaction between the TA phonon and the collective or correlated reorientation through tunneling of the off-center N b+5 ions. The observed TA damping is successfully reproduced in a simple model that includes an interaction between the TA phonon and a dispersionless localized mode (LM) with frequency ωL and damping ΓL(ΓL<ωL) , itself coupled to the transverse optic (TO) mode. Maximum damping of the TA phonon occurs when its frequency is ωa≈ωL . The values of ωL and ΓL are moderately dependent on temperature, but the oscillator strength, M2, of the resonant damping exhibits a strong maximum in the range T ˜120 K ÷150 K in which neutron diffuse scattering near the (110) BZ point is also maximum and the dielectric susceptibility exhibits the relaxor behavior. The maximum value of M appears to be due to the increasing number of polar nanodomains. In support of the proposed model, the observed value of ωL≈0.7 THz is found to be similar to the estimate previously obtained by Girshberg and Yacoby [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 015901 (2012)], 10.1088/0953-8984/24/1/015901. Alternatively, the TA phonon damping can be successfully fitted in the framework of an empirical Havriliak-Negami (HN) relaxation model that includes a strong resonancelike transient contribution.

  8. Electron-Phonon Coupling and Energy Flow in a Simple Metal beyond the Two-Temperature Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph; Vorberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The electron-phonon coupling and the corresponding energy exchange are investigated experimentally and by ab initio theory in nonequilibrium states of the free-electron metal aluminium. The temporal evolution of the atomic mean-squared displacement in laser-excited thin freestanding films is monitored by femtosecond electron diffraction. The electron-phonon coupling strength is obtained for a range of electronic and lattice temperatures from density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations. The electron-phonon coupling parameter extracted from the experimental data in the framework of a two-temperature model (TTM) deviates significantly from the ab initio values. We introduce a nonthermal lattice model (NLM) for describing nonthermal phonon distributions as a sum of thermal distributions of the three phonon branches. The contributions of individual phonon branches to the electron-phonon coupling are considered independently and found to be dominated by longitudinal acoustic phonons. Using all material parameters from first-principles calculations except the phonon-phonon coupling strength, the prediction of the energy transfer from electrons to phonons by the NLM is in excellent agreement with time-resolved diffraction data. Our results suggest that the TTM is insufficient for describing the microscopic energy flow even for simple metals like aluminium and that the determination of the electron-phonon coupling constant from time-resolved experiments by means of the TTM leads to incorrect values. In contrast, the NLM describing transient phonon populations by three parameters appears to be a sufficient model for quantitatively describing electron-lattice equilibration in aluminium. We discuss the general applicability of the NLM and provide a criterion for the suitability of the two-temperature approximation for other metals.

  9. Systematic investigation of effects of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering on photoluminescence rise times of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-07

    We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.

  10. Acoustic phonon assisted free-carrier optical absorption in an n-type monolayer MoS{sub 2} and other transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargavi, K. S.; Patil, Sukanya; Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-07-28

    The theory of free-carrier absorption (FCA) is given for monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides, particularly for molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}), when carriers are scattered by phonons. Explicit expressions for the absorption coefficient α are obtained and discussed for acoustic phonon scattering via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric coupling taking polarization of the radiation in the plane of the layer. It is found that α monotonously decreases with the increasing photon frequency Ω, increases with the increasing temperature T, and linearly depends on two-dimensional electron concentration n{sub s}. Effect of screening, which is ignored in all the earlier FCA studies, is found to reduce α significantly, attributing to the larger effective mass of the electrons. Results are also obtained in the classical and quantum limit giving the power laws α ∼ Ω{sup −2} and T. Comparison of the results is made with those in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells.

  11. Low-energy phonons and superconductivity in Sn0.8In0.2Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhong, R. D.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Harriger, L. W.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-02-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on low-energy phonons from a superconducting (Tc=2.7 K ) Sn0.8In0.2Te single-crystal sample. The longitudinal acoustic phonon mode and one transverse acoustic branch have been mapped out around the (002) Bragg peak for temperatures of 1.7 and 4.2 K. We observe a substantial energy width of the transverse phonons at energies comparable to twice the superconducting gap; however, there is no change in this width between the superconducting and normal states, and the precise origin of this energy width anomaly is not entirely clear. We also confirm that the compound is well ordered, with no indications of structural instability.

  12. Phononic crystal diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Herbison, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    When a phononic crystal is interrogated by an external source of acoustic waves, there is necessarily a phenomenon of diffraction occurring on the external enclosing surfaces. Indeed, these external surfaces are periodic and the resulting acoustic diffraction grating has a periodicity that depends on the orientation of the phononic crystal. This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the diffraction of bulk ultrasonic waves on the external surfaces of a 2D phononic crystal that consists of a triangular lattice of steel rods in a water matrix. The results of transmission experiments are compared with theoretical band structures obtained with the finite-element method. Angular spectrograms (showing frequency as a function of angle) determined from diffraction experiments are then compared with finite-element simulations of diffraction occurring on the surfaces of the crystal. The experimental results show that the diffraction that occurs on its external surfaces is highly frequency-dependent and has a definite relation with the Bloch modes of the phononic crystal. In particular, a strong influence of the presence of bandgaps and deaf bands on the diffraction efficiency is found. This observation opens perspectives for the design of efficient phononic crystal diffraction gratings.

  13. Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sklan, Sophia R.

    2015-05-15

    Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic. .

  14. Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

  15. Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons. PMID:26469629

  16. Phonon thermal properties of graphene from molecular dynamics using different potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ji-Hang; Ye, Zhen-Qiang; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2016-10-01

    Phonon thermal transport in graphene has attracted significant interest in recent years. Phonon thermal properties of graphene are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using the Tersoff, Tersoff-2010, REBO, and AIREBO potentials. By calculating the phonon properties and thermal conductivity of graphene, the performance of the potentials is evaluated based on comparisons with experimental data. It shows that the Tersoff-2010 and REBO display better dispersion curves for graphene than the original Tersoff and AIREBO. The Tersoff-2010 correctly provides the Γ point phonon velocities of the LA and TA branches as well as the G peak frequency with a value of 46 THz. In addition, the acoustic phonon relaxation time derived from the Tersoff-2010 satisfies the ideal relation "τ-1 ∝ ν2." It is also found that the Tersoff-2010 provides the highest graphene thermal conductivity among the used potentials, and estimates about 30.0% contribution for flexural phonons to the total thermal conductivity. By comparison, the Tersoff-2010 potential is demonstrated to be the most suitable one to describe the phonon thermal properties of graphene.

  17. Using coupling slabs to tailor surface-acoustic-wave band structures in phononic crystals consisting of pillars attached to elastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Yu, SiYuan; Liu, FuKang; Wang, Zhen; Lu, MingHui; Hu, XiaoBo; Chen, YanFeng; Xu, XianGang

    2017-04-01

    The propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PnCs) with and without coupling-enhancement slabs was theoretically investigated using a three-dimensional finite element method. Different piezoelectric substrates, for example, lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium nitride (GaN), and aluminium nitride (AlN), were taken into account. Compared to the PnCs without coupling-enhancement slabs, the coupling between each pillar and its nearest neighbor was largely enhanced in the presence of slabs. The bandwidth of the first directional band gap increased markedly compared with its initial value for the PnCs without a slab (within square symmetry). In addition, with increasing thicknesses of the slabs bonded between neighboring pillars, the first directional band-gap and second directional band gap of the PnCs tend to merge. Therefore, the structure with coupling-enhancement slabs can be used as an excellent electrical band elimination filter for most electro-SAW devices, offering a new strategy to realize chip-scale applications in electroacoustic signal processing, optoacoustic modulation, and even SAW microfluidic devices.

  18. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  19. Nonlinear control of high-frequency phonons in spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Dirk; Gomopoulos, Nikolaos; Koh, Cheong Y.; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Kremer, Friedrich; Thomas, Edwin L.; Fytas, George

    2016-10-01

    Spider dragline silk possesses superior mechanical properties compared with synthetic polymers with similar chemical structure due to its hierarchical structure comprised of partially crystalline oriented nanofibrils. To date, silk’s dynamic mechanical properties have been largely unexplored. Here we report an indirect hypersonic phononic bandgap and an anomalous dispersion of the acoustic-like branch from inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering experiments under varying applied elastic strains. We show the mechanical nonlinearity of the silk structure generates a unique region of negative group velocity, that together with the global (mechanical) anisotropy provides novel symmetry conditions for gap formation. The phononic bandgap and dispersion show strong nonlinear strain-dependent behaviour. Exploiting material nonlinearity along with tailored structural anisotropy could be a new design paradigm to access new types of dynamic behaviour.

  20. Preface: Phonons 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Conference logo The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how

  1. Thermal conductivity in large-J two-dimensional antiferromagnets: Role of phonon scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Chernyshev, A. L.; Brenig, Wolfram

    2015-08-05

    Different types of relaxation processes for magnon heat current are discussed, with a particular focus on coupling to three-dimensional phonons. There is thermal conductivity by these in-plane magnetic excitations using two distinct techniques: Boltzmann formalism within the relaxation-time approximation and memory-function approach. Also considered are the scattering of magnons by both acoustic and optical branches of phonons. We demonstrate an accord between the two methods, regarding the asymptotic behavior of the effective relaxation rates. It is strongly suggested that scattering from optical or zone-boundary phonons is important for magnon heat current relaxation in a high-temperature window of ΘD≲T<< J.

  2. Non-equilibrium optical phonon dynamics in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, G. P.

    2007-02-01

    We present theoretical investigations of the intrinsic dynamics of long-wavelength non-equilibrium optical phonons in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors. The theory is based on the application of Fermi's golden rule formula, with phonon dispersion relations as well as crystal anharmonicity considered in the framework of isotropic continuum model. Contributions to the decay rates of the phonon modes are discussed in terms of four possible channels: Klemens channel (into two acoustic daughter modes), generalised Ridley channel (into one acoustic and one optical mode), generalised Vallee-Bogani channel (into a lower mode of the same branch and an acoustic mode), and Barman-Srivastava channel (into two lower-branch optical modes). The role of crystal structure and cation/anion mass ratio in determining the lifetime of such modes in bulk semiconductors is highlighted. Estimates of lifetimes of such modes in silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes will also be presented. The results support and explain available experimental data, and make predictions in some cases.

  3. Phonon spectra of alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeković, S.; Vukajlović, F.; Veljković, V.

    1982-10-01

    In this work we used a simple local model pseudopotential which includes screening for the phonon spectra calculations of alkali metals. The results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data. In some branches of phonon spectra the differences between theoretical and experimental results are within 1-2%, while the maximum error is about 6%. The suggested form of the pseudopotential allows us to describe the phonon spectra of Na, K and Rb with only one, and, at the same time, a unique, parameter. In this case, the maximum disagreements from experiment are 9% for Na, 8% for K and 7% for Rb.

  4. Phonons in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Nika, Denis L.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-07-01

    We theoretically investigate phonon dispersion in AA-stacked, AB-stacked, and twisted bilayer graphene with various rotation angles. The calculations are performed using the Born-von Karman model for the intralayer atomic interactions and the Lennard-Jones potential for the interlayer interactions. It is found that the stacking order affects the out-of-plane acoustic phonon modes the most. The difference in the phonon densities of states in the twisted bilayer graphene and in AA- or AB-stacked bilayer graphene appears in the phonon frequency range 90-110 cm-1. Twisting bilayer graphene leads to the emergence of different phonon branches—termed hybrid folded phonons—which originate from the mixing of phonon modes from different high-symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone. The frequencies of the hybrid folded phonons depend strongly on the rotation angle and can be used for noncontact identification of the twist angles in graphene samples. The obtained results and the tabulated frequencies of phonons in twisted bilayer graphene are important for the interpretation of experimental Raman data and in determining the thermal conductivity of these material systems.

  5. Al2C Monolayer Sheet and Nanoribbons with Unique Direction-Dependent Acoustic-Phonon-Limited Carrier Mobility and Carrier Polarity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuehua; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-21

    The intrinsic acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobility (μ) of Al2C monolayer sheet and nanoribbons are investigated using ab initio computation and deformation potential theory. It is found that the polarity of the room-temperature carrier mobility of the Al2C monolayer is direction-dependent, with μ of electron (e) and hole (h) being 2348 and 40.77 cm(2)/V/s, respectively, in the armchair direction and 59.95 (e) and 705.8 (h) in the zigzag direction. More interestingly, one-dimensional Al2C nanoribbons not only can retain the direction-dependent polarity but also may entail even higher mobility, in contrast to either the graphene nanoribbons which tend to exhibit lower μ compared to the two-dimensional graphene or the MoS2 nanoribbons which have reversed polarity compared to the MoS2 sheet. As an example, the Al-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width of 4.1 nm exhibits μ of 212.6 (e) and 2087 (h) cm(2)/V/s, while the C-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.6 nm exhibits μ of 1090 (e) and 673.9 (h) cm(2)/V/s; the C-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width 3.7 nm exhibits μ of 177.6 (e) and 1889 (h) cm(2)/V/s, and the Al-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.4 nm exhibits μ of 6695 (e) and 518.4 (h) cm(2)/V/s. The high carrier mobility, μ, coupled with polarity and direction dependence endows the Al2C sheet and nanoribbons with unique transport properties that can be exploited for special applications in nanoelectronics.

  6. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-01

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k ) ˜2000 W m-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ˜200 W m-1K-1 . To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single-crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k . This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very-high-quality single-crystal samples can be synthesized.

  7. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; ...

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the mainmore » reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.« less

  8. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.

  9. Microfabricated phononic crystal devices and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, R. H., III; El-Kady, I.

    2009-01-01

    Phononic crystals are the acoustic wave analogue of photonic crystals. Here a periodic array of scattering inclusions located in a homogeneous host material forbids certain ranges of acoustic frequencies from existence within the crystal, thus creating what are known as acoustic bandgaps. The majority of previously reported phononic crystal devices have been constructed by hand, assembling scattering inclusions in a viscoelastic medium, predominantly air, water or epoxy, resulting in large structures limited to frequencies below 1 MHz. Recently, phononic crystals and devices have been scaled to VHF (30-300 MHz) frequencies and beyond by utilizing microfabrication and micromachining technologies. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of micro-phononic crystals including design techniques, material considerations, microfabrication processes, characterization methods and reported device structures. Micro-phononic crystal devices realized in low-loss solid materials are emphasized along with their potential application in radio frequency communications and acoustic imaging for medical ultrasound and nondestructive testing. The reported advances in batch micro-phononic crystal fabrication and simplified testing promise not only the deployment of phononic crystals in a number of commercial applications but also greater experimentation on a wide variety of phononic crystal structures.

  10. Slow light and broadband coherent phonon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Recent advance in controlling optical forces using nanostructures suggests that nanoscale optical waveguides are capable of generating coherent acoustic phonons efficiently through a combination of radiation pressure and electrostriction. We discuss the critical roles of group velocity in such processes. This photon-phonon coupling would allow an acoustic intermediary to perform on-chip optical delay with a capacity 105 greater than photonic delay lines of the same size.

  11. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  12. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    PubMed Central

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  13. Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning.

    PubMed

    Behunin, R O; Kharel, P; Renninger, W H; Rakich, P T

    2017-03-01

    Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.

  14. Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.

    2016-12-01

    Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.

  15. Second Harmonic Generation of Nanoscale Phonon Wave Packets.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, A; Gohlke, M; Leitenberger, W; Pudell, J; Reinhardt, M; von Reppert, A; Roessle, M; Sander, M; Gaal, P; Bargheer, M

    2015-11-06

    Phonons are often regarded as delocalized quasiparticles with certain energy and momentum. The anharmonic interaction of phonons determines macroscopic properties of the solid, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, and a detailed understanding becomes increasingly important for functional nanostructures. Although phonon-phonon scattering processes depicted in simple wave-vector diagrams are the basis of theories describing these macroscopic phenomena, experiments directly accessing these coupling channels are scarce. We synthesize monochromatic acoustic phonon wave packets with only a few cycles to introduce nonlinear phononics as the acoustic counterpart to nonlinear optics. Control of the wave vector, bandwidth, and consequently spatial extent of the phonon wave packets allows us to observe nonlinear phonon interaction, in particular, second harmonic generation, in real time by wave-vector-sensitive Brillouin scattering with x-rays and optical photons.

  16. Wide-Stopband Aperiodic Phononic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, Karwan; Chuss, David; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6-10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.

  17. Off-axis phonon and photon propagation in porous silicon superlattices studied by Brillouin spectroscopy and optical reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, L. C. Andrews, G. T.

    2014-07-21

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.

  18. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  19. Surface phononic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Ni, Xu; Wang, Qing; Yan, Xue-Jun; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Feng, Liang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Strategic manipulation of wave and particle transport in various media is the key driving force for modern information processing and communication. In a strongly scattering medium, waves and particles exhibit versatile transport characteristics such as localization, tunnelling with exponential decay, ballistic, and diffusion behaviours due to dynamical multiple scattering from strong scatters or impurities. Recent investigations of graphene have offered a unique approach, from a quantum point of view, to design the dispersion of electrons on demand, enabling relativistic massless Dirac quasiparticles, and thus inducing low-loss transport either ballistically or diffusively. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of an artificial phononic graphene tailored for surface phonons on a LiNbO3 integrated platform. The system exhibits Dirac quasiparticle-like transport, that is, pseudo-diffusion at the Dirac point, which gives rise to a thickness-independent temporal beating for transmitted pulses, an analogue of Zitterbewegung effects. The demonstrated fully integrated artificial phononic graphene platform here constitutes a step towards on-chip quantum simulators of graphene and unique monolithic electro-acoustic integrated circuits.

  20. Surface phononic graphene.

    PubMed

    Yu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Ni, Xu; Wang, Qing; Yan, Xue-Jun; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Feng, Liang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Strategic manipulation of wave and particle transport in various media is the key driving force for modern information processing and communication. In a strongly scattering medium, waves and particles exhibit versatile transport characteristics such as localization, tunnelling with exponential decay, ballistic, and diffusion behaviours due to dynamical multiple scattering from strong scatters or impurities. Recent investigations of graphene have offered a unique approach, from a quantum point of view, to design the dispersion of electrons on demand, enabling relativistic massless Dirac quasiparticles, and thus inducing low-loss transport either ballistically or diffusively. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of an artificial phononic graphene tailored for surface phonons on a LiNbO3 integrated platform. The system exhibits Dirac quasiparticle-like transport, that is, pseudo-diffusion at the Dirac point, which gives rise to a thickness-independent temporal beating for transmitted pulses, an analogue of Zitterbewegung effects. The demonstrated fully integrated artificial phononic graphene platform here constitutes a step towards on-chip quantum simulators of graphene and unique monolithic electro-acoustic integrated circuits.

  1. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  2. Three material and four material one-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we studied one-dimensional phononic structures for selective acoustic filtering. The structures are composed of three and four materials which have different elastic properties. We have observed that the phononic band gaps split in two and three transmission valleys for the three-material and the four-material based phononic structures, respectively. Furthermore, the number of transmission peaks between the split gaps is directly related to the number of unit cells composing the phononic structures. The observations of this work can be useful for the fabrication of acoustic filters with the possibility to select the transmission of particular frequencies.

  3. Engineering interactions between superconducting qubits and phononic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2016-12-01

    Nanomechanical systems can support highly coherent microwave-frequency excitations at cryogenic temperatures. However, generating sufficient coupling between these devices and superconducting quantum circuits is challenging due to the vastly different length scales of acoustic and electromagnetic excitations. Here we demonstrate a general method for calculating piezoelectric interactions between quantum circuits and arbitrary phononic nanostructures. We illustrate our technique by studying the coupling between a transmon qubit and bulk acoustic-wave, Lamb-wave, and phononic crystal resonators, and show that very large coupling rates are possible in all three cases. Our results suggest a route to phononic circuits and systems that are nonlinear at the single-phonon level.

  4. Hypersonic phonon propagation in one-dimensional surface phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczykowski, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Kehagias, N.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    Hypersonic, thermally activated surface acoustic waves propagating in the surface of crystalline silicon patterned with periodic stripes were studied by Brillouin light scattering. Two characteristic directions (normal and parallel to the stripes) of surface acoustic waves propagation were examined exhibiting a distinctive propagation behavior. The measured phononic band structure exhibits diverse features, such as zone folding, band gap opening, and hybridization to local resonance for waves propagating normal to the stripes, and a variety of dispersive modes propagating along the stripes. Experimental results were supported by theoretical calculations performed using finite element method.

  5. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power

  6. Origin of the "waterfall" effect in phonon dispersion of relaxor perovskites.

    PubMed

    Hlinka, J; Kamba, S; Petzelt, J; Kulda, J; Randall, C A; Zhang, S J

    2003-09-05

    We have undertaken an inelastic neutron scattering study of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 with 8% PbTiO3 (PZN-8%PT) in order to elucidate the origin of the previously reported unusual kink on the low frequency transverse phonon dispersion curve (known as the "waterfall effect"). We show that its position (q(wf)) depends on the choice of the Brillouin zone and that the relation of q(wf) to the size of the polar nanoregions is highly improbable. The waterfall phenomenon is explained in the framework of a simple model of coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the acoustic and optic phonon branches.

  7. Phonon spectral functions of photo-generated hot carrier plasmas: effects of carrier screening and plasmon-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung

    2017-02-15

    We investigate spectral behavior of phonon spectral functions in an interacting multi-component hot carrier plasma. Spectral analysis of various phonon spectral functions is performed considering carrier-phonon channels of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic deformation-potential, and piezoelectric Coulomb couplings. Effects of phonon self-energy corrections are examined at finite temperature within a random phase approximation extended to include the effects of dynamic screening, plasmon-phonon coupling, and local-field corrections of the plasma species. We provide numerical data for the case of a photo-generated electron-hole plasma formed in a wurtzite GaN. Our result shows the clear significance of the multiplicity of the plasma species in the phonon spectral functions of a multi-component plasma giving rise to a variety of spectral behaviors of carrier-phonon coupled collective modes. A useful sum rule on the plasma-species-resolved dielectric functions is also found.

  8. Phonon spectral functions of photo-generated hot carrier plasmas: effects of carrier screening and plasmon-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung

    2017-02-01

    We investigate spectral behavior of phonon spectral functions in an interacting multi-component hot carrier plasma. Spectral analysis of various phonon spectral functions is performed considering carrier-phonon channels of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic deformation-potential, and piezoelectric Coulomb couplings. Effects of phonon self-energy corrections are examined at finite temperature within a random phase approximation extended to include the effects of dynamic screening, plasmon-phonon coupling, and local-field corrections of the plasma species. We provide numerical data for the case of a photo-generated electron-hole plasma formed in a wurtzite GaN. Our result shows the clear significance of the multiplicity of the plasma species in the phonon spectral functions of a multi-component plasma giving rise to a variety of spectral behaviors of carrier-phonon coupled collective modes. A useful sum rule on the plasma-species-resolved dielectric functions is also found.

  9. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    SciTech Connect

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-12-15

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  10. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  11. Suppression of phonon transport in molecular Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Colin John; Famili, Marjan; Grace, Iain; Sadeghi, Hatef

    2017-02-27

    Minimising the phonon thermal conductance of self-assembled molecular films, whilst preserving their electrical properties, is highly desirable, both for thermal management at the nanoscale and for the design of high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Here we highlight a new strategy for minimising the phonon thermal conductance of Christmas-tree-like molecules composed of a long trunk, along which phonons can propagate, attached to pendant molecular branches. We demonstrate that phonon transport along the trunk is suppressed by Fano resonances associated with internal vibrational modes of the branches and that thermal conductance is suppressed most-effectively in molecules with pendant branches of different lengths. As examples, we use density functional theory to demonstrate the reduction in phonon transport in tree-like molecules formed from alkane or acene trunks with various pendant branches.

  12. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  13. Thermal conductivity in large-J two-dimensional antiferromagnets: Role of phonon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyshev, A. L.; Brenig, Wolfram

    2015-08-05

    Different types of relaxation processes for magnon heat current are discussed, with a particular focus on coupling to three-dimensional phonons. There is thermal conductivity by these in-plane magnetic excitations using two distinct techniques: Boltzmann formalism within the relaxation-time approximation and memory-function approach. Also considered are the scattering of magnons by both acoustic and optical branches of phonons. We demonstrate an accord between the two methods, regarding the asymptotic behavior of the effective relaxation rates.

    It is strongly suggested that scattering from optical or zone-boundary phonons is important for magnon heat current relaxation in a high-temperature window of ΘD≲T<< J.

  14. Flexocoupling impact on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon modes in the ordered phase of ferroics

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Silibin, Maxim V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

    2015-09-29

    The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic soft mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.

  15. Flexocoupling impact on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon modes in the ordered phase of ferroics

    DOE PAGES

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; ...

    2015-09-29

    The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic softmore » mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.« less

  16. Phononic crystal devices

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  17. Optic phonons and anisotropic thermal conductivity in hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lindsay, Lucas; Singh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5 (h-GST) is studied via direct first-principles calculations. We find significant intrinsic anisotropy (κa/κc~2) of κ in bulk h-GST, with the dominant contribution to κ from optic phonons, ~75%. This is extremely unusual as the acoustic phonon modes are the majority heat carriers in typical semiconductors and insulators. The anisotropy derives from varying bonding along different crystal directions, specifically from weak interlayer bonding along the c-axis, which gives anisotropic phonon dispersions. The phonon spectrum of h-GST has very dispersive optic branches with higher group velocities along the a-axis as compared to flat optic bands along the c-axis. The large optic mode contributions to the thermal conductivity in low-κ h-GST is unusual, and development of fundamental physical understanding of these contributions may be critical to better understanding of thermal conduction in other complex layered materials. PMID:27848985

  18. Effects of vacancies on phonon entropy of B2 FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, M.S.; Delaire, O.; Winterrose, M.L.; Swan-Wood, T.; Kresch, M.; Halevy, I.; Fultz, B.; Hu, Jingzhu; Lerche, M.; Hu, M.Y.; Somayazulu, M.; CIT; ORNL; CIW; UC

    2010-01-12

    The phonon density of states (DOS) and phonon entropy of B2 FeAl were determined as functions of the Fe site vacancy concentration using several scattering techniques and were computed from first principles. Measurements at elevated temperature and pressure were performed to explore volume effects, test the usefulness of the quasiharmonic (QH) approximation, and provide comparison for the first-principles calculations. The average temperature and pressure dependencies of phonons were consistent with the QH model. The decrease in specific volume associated with the introduction of vacancies causes a stiffening of the DOS that was captured well with the experimentally determined Grueneisen parameter. Features associated with vacancies in the DOS are not well explained by this model, however, especially in the gap between the acoustic and optic branches. First-principles calculations indicated that these modes are primarily associated with vibrations of Al atoms in the first-nearest-neighbor shell of the vacancy, with some vibration amplitude also involving the second-nearest-neighbor Fe atoms. At the vacancy concentrations of study, the phonon entropy of vacancy formation was found to be approximately -1.7k{sub B}/atom, about half as large and of opposite sign as the configurational entropy of vacancy formation.

  19. Optic phonons and anisotropic thermal conductivity in hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lindsay, Lucas; Singh, David J.

    2016-11-01

    The lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5 (h-GST) is studied via direct first-principles calculations. We find significant intrinsic anisotropy (κa/κc~2) of κ in bulk h-GST, with the dominant contribution to κ from optic phonons, ~75%. This is extremely unusual as the acoustic phonon modes are the majority heat carriers in typical semiconductors and insulators. The anisotropy derives from varying bonding along different crystal directions, specifically from weak interlayer bonding along the c-axis, which gives anisotropic phonon dispersions. The phonon spectrum of h-GST has very dispersive optic branches with higher group velocities along the a-axis as compared to flat optic bands along the c-axis. The large optic mode contributions to the thermal conductivity in low-κ h-GST is unusual, and development of fundamental physical understanding of these contributions may be critical to better understanding of thermal conduction in other complex layered materials.

  20. Optic phonons and anisotropic thermal conductivity in hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5

    DOE PAGES

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Singh, David

    2016-11-16

    The lattice thermal conductivity ($κ$) of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Tesub>5 (h-GST) is studied via direct first-principles calculations. We find significant intrinsic anisotropy of ( $κ$a/$κ$c~2) of $κ$ in bulk h-GST along different transport directions. The dominant contribution to$κ$ is from optic phonons, ~75%. This is extremely unusual as the acoustic phonon modes carry most of the heat in typical semiconductors and insulators with small unit cells. Very recently, Lee et. al. observed anisotropic in GST thin films and attributed this to thermal resistance of amorphous regions near grain boundaries. However, our results suggest an additional strong intrinsic anisotropy for the pure hexagonalmore » phase. This derives from bonding anisotropy along different crystal directions, specifically from weak interlayer coupling, which gives anisotropic phonon dispersions. The phonon spectrum of h-GST has very dispersive optic branches with higher group velocities along the a-axis as compared to flat optic bands along the c-axis. The importance of optic mode contributions for the thermal conductivity in low-$κ$ h-GST is unusual, and development of fundamental physical understanding of these contributions may be critical to better understanding of thermal conduction in other complex layered materials.« less

  1. Multiple Quantum Wells for P T -Symmetric Phononic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Poddubny, A. N.; Fainstein, A.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate that the parity-time symmetry for sound is realized in laser-pumped multiple-quantum-well structures. Breaking of the parity-time symmetry for the phonons with wave vectors corresponding to the Bragg condition makes the structure a highly selective acoustic wave amplifier. Single-mode distributed feedback phonon lasing is predicted for structures with realistic parameters.

  2. Net electron-phonon scattering rates in InN/GaN multiple quantum wells: The effects of an energy dependent acoustic deformation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, H. Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2014-08-11

    The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, energy and momentum resolved deformation potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These deformation potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The energy dependence of the deformation potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at energies more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.

  3. Electronic structure, transport, and phonons of SrAgChF (Ch = S,Se,Te): Bulk superlattice thermoelectrics

    DOE PAGES

    Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; ...

    2015-07-15

    Here, we report calculations of the electronic structure, vibrational properties, and transport for the p-type semiconductors, SrAgChF (Ch = S, Se, and Te). We find soft phonons with low frequency optical branches intersecting the acoustic modes below 50 cm–1, indicative of a material with low thermal conductivity. The bands at and near the valence-band maxima are highly two-dimensional, which leads to high thermopowers even at high carrier concentrations, which is a combination that suggests good thermoelectric performance. These materials may be regarded as bulk realizations of superlattice thermoelectrics.

  4. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling. PMID:28262786

  5. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-06

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  6. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  7. Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W.

    2013-12-21

    Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.

  8. Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.

  9. Phononic crystals of poroelastic spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alevizaki, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Morvan, B.; Stefanou, N.

    2016-11-01

    An extension of the layer-multiple-scattering method to phononic crystals of poroelastic spheres immersed in a fluid medium is developed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on specific examples of close-packed fcc crystals of submerged water-saturated meso- and macroporous silica microspheres. It is shown that, by varying the pore size and/or the porosity, the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of finite slabs of these crystals are significantly altered. Strong absorption, driven by the slow waves in the poroelastic material and enhanced by multiple scattering, leads to negligible transmittance over an extended frequency range, which might be useful for practical applications in broadband acoustic shielding. The results are analyzed by reference to relevant phononic dispersion diagrams in the viscous and inertial coupling limits, and a consistent interpretation of the underlying physics is provided.

  10. Phononic Origins of Friction in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Matukumilli V D; Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    2017-03-01

    Phononic coupling can have a significant role in friction between nanoscale surfaces. We find frictional dissipation per atom in carbon nanotube (CNT) oscillators to depend significantly on interface features such as contact area, commensurability, and by end-capping of the inner core. We perform large-scale phonon wavepacket MD simulations to study phonon coupling between a 250 nm long (10,10) outer tube and inner cores of four different geometries. Five different phonon polarizations known to have dominant roles in thermal transport are selected, and transmission coefficient plots for a range of phonon energies along with phonon scattering dynamics at specific energies are obtained. We find that the length of interface affects friction only through LA phonon scattering and has a significant nonlinear effect on total frictional force. Incommensurate contact does not always give rise to superlubricity: the net effect of two competing interaction mechanisms shown by longitudinal and transverse phonons decides the role of commensurability. Capping of the core has no effect on acoustic phonons but destroys the coherence of transverse optical phonons and creates diffusive scattering. In contrast, the twisting and radial breathing phonon modes have perfect transmission at all energies and can be deemed as the enablers of ultralow friction in CNT oscillators. Our work suggests that tuning of interface geometries can give rise to desirable friction properties in nanoscale devices.

  11. Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Leseman, Zayd Chad

    2015-07-09

    There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.

  12. Atomistic modeling of phonon bandstructure and transport for optimal thermal management in nanoscale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Sasi Sekaran

    Monte Carlo based statistical approach to solve Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) has become a norm to investigate heat transport in semiconductors at sub-micron regime, owing mainly to its ability to characterize realistically sized device geometries qualitatively. One of the primary issues with this technique is that the approach predominantly uses empirically fitted phonon dispersion relations as input to determine the properties of phonons so as to predict the thermal conductivity of specified material geometry. The empirically fitted dispersion relations assume harmonic approximation thereby failing to account for thermal expansion, interaction of lattice waves, effect of strain on spring stiffness, and accurate phonon-phonon interaction. To circumvent this problem, in this work, a coupled molecular mechanics-Monte Carlo (MM-MC) platform has been developed and used to solve the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for the calculation of thermal conductivity of several novel and emerging nanostructures. The use of the quasi-anharmonic MM approach (as implemented in the open source NEMO 3-D software toolkit) not only allows one to capture the true atomicity of the underlying lattice but also enables the simulation of realistically-sized structures containing millions of atoms. As compared to the approach using an empirically fitted phonon dispersion relation, here, a 17% increase in the thermal conductivity for a silicon nanowire due to the incorporation of atomistic corrections in the LA (longitudinal acoustic) branch alone has been reported. The atomistically derived thermal conductivity as calculated from the MM-MC framework is then used in the modular design and analysis of (i) a silicon nanowire based thermoelectric cooler (TEC) unit, and (ii) a GaN/InN based nanostructured light emitting device (LED). It is demonstrated that the use of empirically fitted phonon bandstructure parameters overestimates the temperature difference between the hot and the

  13. Phonon Scattering Dynamics of Thermophoretic Motion in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Matukumilli V D; Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    2016-04-13

    Using phonon wave packet molecular dynamics simulations, we find that anomalous longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode phonon scattering in low to moderate energy ranges is responsible for initiating thermophoretic motion in carbon nanotube oscillators. The repeated scattering of a single mode LA phonon wave packet near the ends of the inner nanotube provides a net unbalanced force that, if large enough, initiates thermophoresis. By applying a coherent phonon pulse on the outer tube, which generalizes the single mode phonon wave packet, we are able to achieve thermophoresis in a carbon nanotube oscillator. We also find the nature of the unbalanced force on end-atoms to be qualitatively similar to that under an imposed thermal gradient. The thermodiffusion coefficient obtained for a range of thermal gradients and core lengths suggest that LA phonon scattering is the dominant mechanism for thermophoresis in longer cores, whereas for shorter cores, it is the highly diffusive mechanism that provides the effective force.

  14. Temperature dependent magnon-phonon coupling in bcc Fe from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Körmann, F; Grabowski, B; Dutta, B; Hickel, T; Mauger, L; Fultz, B; Neugebauer, J

    2014-10-17

    An ab initio based framework for quantitatively assessing the phonon contribution due to magnon-phonon interactions and lattice expansion is developed. The theoretical results for bcc Fe are in very good agreement with high-quality phonon frequency measurements. For some phonon branches, the magnon-phonon interaction is an order of magnitude larger than the phonon shift due to lattice expansion, demonstrating the strong impact of magnetic short-range order even significantly above the Curie temperature. The framework closes the previous simulation gap between the ferro- and paramagnetic limits.

  15. Weak coupling of pseudoacoustic phonons and magnon dynamics in the incommensurate spin-ladder compound S r14C u24O41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Bansal, Dipanshu; Sullivan, Sean; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Aczel, Adam A.; Zhou, Jianshi; Delaire, Olivier; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    Intriguing lattice dynamics have been predicted for aperiodic crystals that contain incommensurate substructures. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon and magnon dispersions in S r14C u24O41 , which contains incommensurate one-dimensional (1D) chain and two-dimensional (2D) ladder substructures. Two distinct pseudoacoustic phonon modes, corresponding to the sliding motion of one sublattice against the other, are observed for atomic motions polarized along the incommensurate axis. In the long wavelength limit, it is found that the sliding mode shows a remarkably small energy gap of 1.7-1.9 meV, indicating very weak interactions between the two incommensurate sublattices. The measurements also reveal a gapped and steep linear magnon dispersion of the ladder sublattice. The high group velocity of this magnon branch and weak coupling with acoustic and pseudoacoustic phonons can explain the large magnon thermal conductivity in S r14C u24O41 crystals. In addition, the magnon specific heat is determined from the measured total specific heat and phonon density of states and exhibits a Schottky anomaly due to gapped magnon modes of the spin chains. These findings offer new insights into the phonon and magnon dynamics and thermal transport properties of incommensurate magnetic crystals that contain low-dimensional substructures.

  16. Weak coupling of pseudoacoustic phonons and magnon dynamics in the incommensurate spin-ladder compound Sr14Cu24O41

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xi; Bansal, Dipanshu; Sullivan, Sean; ...

    2016-10-21

    Intriguing lattice dynamics have been predicted for aperiodic crystals that contain incommensurate substructures. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon and magnon dispersions in Sr14Cu24O41, which contains incommensurate one-dimensional (1D) chain and two-dimensional (2D) ladder substructures. Two distinct pseudoacoustic phonon modes, corresponding to the sliding motion of one sublattice against the other, are observed for atomic motions polarized along the incommensurate axis. In the long wavelength limit, it is found that the sliding mode shows a remarkably small energy gap of 1.7–1.9 meV, indicating very weak interactions between the two incommensurate sublattices. The measurements also reveal a gappedmore » and steep linear magnon dispersion of the ladder sublattice. The high group velocity of this magnon branch and weak coupling with acoustic and pseudoacoustic phonons can explain the large magnon thermal conductivity in Sr14Cu24O41 crystals. In addition, the magnon specific heat is determined from the measured total specific heat and phonon density of states and exhibits a Schottky anomaly due to gapped magnon modes of the spin chains. Furthermore, these findings offer new insights into the phonon and magnon dynamics and thermal transport properties of incommensurate magnetic crystals that contain low-dimensional substructures.« less

  17. Probing Phonons in Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joe

    2004-03-01

    The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

  18. Temperature dependence of the Raman-active phonon frequencies in indium sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.; Özkan, H.; Aydinli, A.; Yilmaz, İ.

    1999-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the Raman-active mode frequencies in indium sulfide was measured in the range from 10 to 300 K. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the A g intralayer optical modes show that Raman frequency shift results from the change of harmonic frequency with volume expansion and anharmonic coupling to phonons of other branches. The pure-temperature contribution (phonon-phonon coupling) is due to three- and four-phonon processes.

  19. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the {Lambda} point are: C{sub 11} = 35.3 {+-} 1.4 GPa, C{sub 12} = 25.5 {+-} 1.5 GPa and C{sub 44} = 30.53 {+-} 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure {delta}-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which {delta}-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the

  20. Maximizing phononic band gaps in piezocomposite materials by means of topology optimization.

    PubMed

    Vatanabe, Sandro L; Paulino, Glaucio H; Silva, Emílio C N

    2014-08-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) can exhibit phononic band gaps within which sound and vibrations at certain frequencies do not propagate. In fact, PCs with large band gaps are of great interest for many applications, such as transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, and vibration shields. Previous work in the field concentrated on PCs made of elastic isotropic materials; however, band gaps can be enlarged by using non-isotropic materials, such as piezoelectric materials. Because the main property of PCs is the presence of band gaps, one possible way to design microstructures that have a desired band gap is through topology optimization. Thus in this work, the main objective is to maximize the width of absolute elastic wave band gaps in piezocomposite materials designed by means of topology optimization. For band gap calculation, the finite element analysis is implemented with Bloch-Floquet theory to solve the dynamic behavior of two-dimensional piezocomposite unit cells. Higher order frequency branches are investigated. The results demonstrate that tunable phononic band gaps in piezocomposite materials can be designed by means of the present methodology.

  1. Optic phonon bandwidth and lattice thermal conductivity: The case of Li2X ( X=O , S, Se, Te)

    DOE PAGES

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lindsay, L.; Parker, D. S.

    2016-06-07

    Here, we examine the lattice thermal conductivities ( l) of Li2X (X=O, S, Se, Te) using a first-principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport methodology. We find low l values ranging between 12 and 30 W/m-K despite light Li atoms, a large mass difference between constituent atoms and tightly bunched acoustic branches, all features that give high l in other materials including BeSe (630 W/m-1K-1), BeTe (370 W/m-1K-1) and cubic BAs (3150 W/m-1K-1). Together these results suggest a missing ingredient in the basic guidelines commonly used to understand and predict l. Unlike typical simple systems (e.g., Si, GaAs, SiC), the dominant resistance to heat-carryingmore » acoustic phonons in Li2Se and Li2Te comes from interactions of these modes with two optic phonons. These interactions require significant bandwidth and dispersion of the optic branches, both present in Li2X materials. Finally, these considerations are important for the discovery and design of new materials for thermal management applications, and give a more comprehensive understanding of thermal transport in crystalline solids.« less

  2. Broadband magnetoelastic coupling in magnonic-phononic crystals for high-frequency nanoscale spin-wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Piotr; Kłos, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    Spin waves are promising candidates for information carriers in advanced technology. The interactions between spin waves and acoustic waves in magnetic nanostructures are of much interest because of their potential application for spin-wave generation, amplification, and transduction. We investigate numerically the dynamics of magnetoelastic excitations in a one-dimensional magnonic-phononic crystal consisting of alternating layers of permalloy and cobalt. We use the plane-wave method and the finite-element method for frequency- and time-domain simulations, respectively. The studied structure is optimized for hybridization of specific spin-wave and acoustic dispersion branches in the entire Brillouin zone in a broad frequency range. We show that this type of periodic structure can be used for efficient generation of high-frequency spin waves.

  3. Electronic structure, transport, and phonons of SrAgChF (Ch = S,Se,Te): Bulk superlattice thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Singh, David J.; Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Mahanti, Subhendra D.

    2015-07-15

    Here, we report calculations of the electronic structure, vibrational properties, and transport for the p-type semiconductors, SrAgChF (Ch = S, Se, and Te). We find soft phonons with low frequency optical branches intersecting the acoustic modes below 50 cm–1, indicative of a material with low thermal conductivity. The bands at and near the valence-band maxima are highly two-dimensional, which leads to high thermopowers even at high carrier concentrations, which is a combination that suggests good thermoelectric performance. These materials may be regarded as bulk realizations of superlattice thermoelectrics.

  4. Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons. We examine the effect of the gate-induced one-phonon scattering on the mobility for several gate geometries and dielectric environments using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Boltzmann equation. We demonstrate that this scattering mechanism can be a mobility-limiting factor, and show how the carrier density and temperature scaling of the mobility depends on the electrostatic environment. Our findings may explain the high deformation potential for in-plane acoustic phonons extracted from experiments and, furthermore, suggest a direct relation between device symmetry and resulting mobility.

  5. Hot carrier and hot phonon coupling during ultrafast relaxation of photoexcited electrons in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, J. M.; Martín, M. J.; Pascual, E.; Rengel, R.

    2016-01-25

    We study, by means of a Monte Carlo simulator, the hot phonon effect on the relaxation dynamics in photoexcited graphene and its quantitative impact as compared with considering an equilibrium phonon distribution. Our multi-particle approach indicates that neglecting the hot phonon effect significantly underestimates the relaxation times in photoexcited graphene. The hot phonon effect is more important for a higher energy of the excitation pulse and photocarrier densities between 1 and 3 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. Acoustic intervalley phonons play a non-negligible role, and emitted phonons with wavelengths limited up by a maximum (determined by the carrier concentration) induce a slower carrier cooling rate. Intrinsic phonon heating is damped in graphene on a substrate due to the additional cooling pathways, with the hot phonon effect showing a strong inverse dependence with the carrier density.

  6. Significant reduction of lattice thermal conductivity due to phonon confinement in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissimagoudar, A. S.; Sankeshwar, N. S.

    2014-06-01

    Lattice thermal conductivity, κp, of suspended and supported graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied over a wide temperature range, taking into account the dispersive nature of confined acoustic phonon modes. Employing a modified Callaway model, an expression for κp is developed, considering the explicit contributions from in-plane longitudinal, transverse, and torsional acoustic, and out-of-plane flexural acoustic phonon modes. Numerical calculations of κp(T) are presented assuming the confined acoustic phonons to be scattered by sample boundaries, impurities, and other phonons via both normal and umklapp processes. The effect of phonon confinement is to modify the phonon group velocities and the temperature dependence of κp. In a suspended 5-nm-wide GNR at room temperature, a decrease in κp by ˜70% is predicted. Our study brings out the relative importance of the contributing phonon modes and reveals the influence of flexural phonons on κp as a marked shoulder at low temperatures. The role of the various sample-dependent scattering mechanisms is examined. The substrate, in supported GNRs, is shown to curtail the phonon mean free path and suppress the low-temperature κp. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data of Bae et al. [M. H. Bae, Z. Li, Z. Aksamija, P. N. Martin, F. Xiong, Z. Y. Ong, I. Knezevic, and E. Pop, Nat. Commun. 4, 1734 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms2755] for supported GNRs.

  7. Phononic Frequency Comb via Intrinsic Three-Wave Mixing.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin

    2017-01-20

    Optical frequency combs have resulted in significant advances in optical frequency metrology and found wide applications in precise physical measurements and molecular fingerprinting. A direct analogue of frequency combs in the phononic or acoustic domain has not been reported to date. In this Letter, we report the first clear experimental evidence for a phononic frequency comb. We show that the phononic frequency comb is generated through the intrinsic coupling of a driven phonon mode with an autoparametrically excited subharmonic mode. The experiments depict the comb generation process evidenced by a spectral response consisting of equally spaced discrete and phase coherent comb lines. Through systematic experiments at different drive frequencies and amplitudes, we portray the well-connected process of phononic frequency comb formation and define the attributes to control the features associated with comb formation in such a system. In addition to the demonstration of frequency comb, the interplay between the nonlinear resonances and the well-known Duffing phenomenon is also observed.

  8. Phononic Frequency Comb via Intrinsic Three-Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have resulted in significant advances in optical frequency metrology and found wide applications in precise physical measurements and molecular fingerprinting. A direct analogue of frequency combs in the phononic or acoustic domain has not been reported to date. In this Letter, we report the first clear experimental evidence for a phononic frequency comb. We show that the phononic frequency comb is generated through the intrinsic coupling of a driven phonon mode with an autoparametrically excited subharmonic mode. The experiments depict the comb generation process evidenced by a spectral response consisting of equally spaced discrete and phase coherent comb lines. Through systematic experiments at different drive frequencies and amplitudes, we portray the well-connected process of phononic frequency comb formation and define the attributes to control the features associated with comb formation in such a system. In addition to the demonstration of frequency comb, the interplay between the nonlinear resonances and the well-known Duffing phenomenon is also observed.

  9. Landau-Zener-Stückelberg Interferometry in Quantum Dots with Fast Rise Times: Evidence for Coherent Phonon Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusinski, M.; Studenikin, S. A.; Aers, G.; Granger, G.; Kam, A.; Sachrajda, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    Manipulating qubits via electrical pulses in a piezoelectric material such as GaAs can be expected to generate incidental acoustic phonons. In this Letter we determine theoretically and experimentally the consequences of these phonons for semiconductor spin qubits using Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry. Theoretical calculations predict that phonons in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction produce both phonon-Rabi fringes and accelerated evolution at the singlet-triplet anticrossing. Observed features confirm the influence of these mechanisms. Additionally, evidence is found that the pulsed gates themselves act as phonon cavities increasing the influence of phonons under specific resonant conditions.

  10. Landau-Zener-Stückelberg Interferometry in Quantum Dots with Fast Rise Times: Evidence for Coherent Phonon Driving.

    PubMed

    Korkusinski, M; Studenikin, S A; Aers, G; Granger, G; Kam, A; Sachrajda, A S

    2017-02-10

    Manipulating qubits via electrical pulses in a piezoelectric material such as GaAs can be expected to generate incidental acoustic phonons. In this Letter we determine theoretically and experimentally the consequences of these phonons for semiconductor spin qubits using Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry. Theoretical calculations predict that phonons in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction produce both phonon-Rabi fringes and accelerated evolution at the singlet-triplet anticrossing. Observed features confirm the influence of these mechanisms. Additionally, evidence is found that the pulsed gates themselves act as phonon cavities increasing the influence of phonons under specific resonant conditions.

  11. Optical studies of terahertz phonons dynamics in small-grain polycrystalline corundum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilov, S. P.; Kaplyanskii, A. A.; Kulinkin, A. B.; Zakharchenya, R. I.

    1999-03-01

    The dynamics of terahertz acoustic phonons generated by optical pumping in ceramic-like α-Al 2O 3 with grain size ∼100 nm produced with the help of sol-gel technology was studied with the technique of optical detection of phonons by observation of probe Cr 3+ and Mn 4+ ions fluorescence. The dynamics of phonon distribution is very slow (∼ms) and drastically differs from that in regular α-Al 2O 3 ceramics with micron grain size and is similar to that observed earlier in oxide glasses. The results are discussed in the framework of studies of phonons in different structured and spatially restricted Al 2O 3 materials with different ratios between phonon wavelength λ and crystallite size a. It is shown that the acoustic mismatch model which describes phonon scattering in regular ceramics is not valid for small-grain sol-gel produced ceramics-like material.

  12. Optic phonons and anisotropic thermal conductivity in hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Singh, David

    2016-11-16

    The lattice thermal conductivity ($κ$) of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Tesub>5 (h-GST) is studied via direct first-principles calculations. We find significant intrinsic anisotropy of ( $κ$a/$κ$c~2) of $κ$ in bulk h-GST along different transport directions. The dominant contribution to$κ$ is from optic phonons, ~75%. This is extremely unusual as the acoustic phonon modes carry most of the heat in typical semiconductors and insulators with small unit cells. Very recently, Lee et. al. observed anisotropic in GST thin films and attributed this to thermal resistance of amorphous regions near grain boundaries. However, our results suggest an additional strong intrinsic anisotropy for the pure hexagonal phase. This derives from bonding anisotropy along different crystal directions, specifically from weak interlayer coupling, which gives anisotropic phonon dispersions. The phonon spectrum of h-GST has very dispersive optic branches with higher group velocities along the a-axis as compared to flat optic bands along the c-axis. The importance of optic mode contributions for the thermal conductivity in low-$κ$ h-GST is unusual, and development of fundamental physical understanding of these contributions may be critical to better understanding of thermal conduction in other complex layered materials.

  13. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Sylvie; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  14. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-Hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-07-26

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction.

  15. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction. PMID:27457385

  16. Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragas, A. V.; Aku-Leh, C.; Costantino, S.; Ingale, Alka; Zhao, J.; Merlin, R.

    2004-05-01

    We report on the impulsive generation of coherent optical phonons in CdTe0.68Se0.32 nanocrystallites embedded in a glass matrix. Pump-probe experiments using femtosecond laser pulses were performed by tuning the laser central energy to resonate with the absorption edge of the nanocrystals. We identify two longitudinal optical phonons, one longitudinal acoustic phonon and a fourth mode of a mixed longitudinal-transverse nature. The amplitude of the optical phonons as a function of the laser central energy exhibits a resonance that is well described by a model based on impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. The phases of the coherent phonons reveal coupling between different modes. At low power density excitations, the frequency of the optical coherent phonons deviates from values obtained from spontaneous Raman scattering. This behavior is ascribed to the presence of electronic impurity states which modify the nanocrystal dielectric function and, thereby, the frequency of the infrared-active phonons.

  17. Strong acoustic coupling to a superconducting qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Martin; Aref, Thomas; Frisk Kockum, Anton; Ekström, Maria; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per

    2014-03-01

    Micromechanical resonators can be used to store quantum information, as shown in several recent experiments. These resonators typically have the form of membranes or beams, and phonons are localized to their vibrational eigenmodes. We present a different kind of mechanical quantum device, where propagating phonons serve as carriers for quantum information. At the core of our device is a superconducting qubit, designed to couple to Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in the underlying substrate through the piezoelectric effect. This type of coupling can be very strong, and in our case exceeds the coupling to any external electromagnetic modes. The acoustic waves propagate freely on the surface of the substrate, and we use a remote electro-acoustic transducer to address the qubit acoustically and listen to its emission of phonons. This presentation focuses on the basic properties of our acoustic quantum system, and we include experimental data that demonstrate the quantized coupling between the qubit and the propagating acoustic waves.

  18. Phonons in NaO/sub 2/ near the order-disorder transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, N.; Alefeld, B.; Buhrer, W.; Smith, H.G.

    1982-10-15

    The acoustic phonons in cubic NaO/sub 2/ have been studied above and below the order-disorder transition by inelastic neutron scattering. Above the transition the O/sub 2/ /sup -/ ions are disordered and undergoing rapid reorientation about the body diagonals. This reorientation couples with and affects certain acoustic modes in the crystal. The results are described in terms of a phonon-pseudospin coupling theory.

  19. Research on micro-sized acoustic bandgap structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, James Grant; McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Olsson, Roy H., III; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2010-01-01

    Phononic crystals (or acoustic crystals) are the acoustic wave analogue of photonic crystals. Here a periodic array of scattering inclusions located in a homogeneous host material forbids certain ranges of acoustic frequencies from existence within the crystal, thus creating what are known as acoustic (or phononic) bandgaps. The vast majority of phononic crystal devices reported prior to this LDRD were constructed by hand assembling scattering inclusions in a lossy viscoelastic medium, predominantly air, water or epoxy, resulting in large structures limited to frequencies below 1 MHz. Under this LDRD, phononic crystals and devices were scaled to very (VHF: 30-300 MHz) and ultra (UHF: 300-3000 MHz) high frequencies utilizing finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling, microfabrication and micromachining technologies. This LDRD developed key breakthroughs in the areas of micro-phononic crystals including physical origins of phononic crystals, advanced FDTD modeling and design techniques, material considerations, microfabrication processes, characterization methods and device structures. Micro-phononic crystal devices realized in low-loss solid materials were emphasized in this work due to their potential applications in radio frequency communications and acoustic imaging for medical ultrasound and nondestructive testing. The results of the advanced modeling, fabrication and integrated transducer designs were that this LDRD produced the 1st measured phononic crystals and phononic crystal devices (waveguides) operating in the VHF (67 MHz) and UHF (937 MHz) frequency bands and established Sandia as a world leader in the area of micro-phononic crystals.

  20. Functional crossover in the dispersion relations of magnons and phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoser, A.; Köbler, U.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data are presented showing that the dispersion relations of magnons and acoustic phonons can consist of two sections with different functions of wave vector. In the low wave vector range a power function of wave vector often holds over a finite q-range while dispersions for larger wave vector values better approach the atomistic model predictions. In the magnon spectra ∼⃒qx power functions with exponents x=1.25, 1.5 and 2 are identified. The dispersion of the acoustic phonons can be a linear function of wave vector over a surprisingly large range of energy. Since the slope of the linear section agrees with the known sound velocities it can be concluded that the dispersion of the acoustic phonons has got attracted by the linear dispersion of the mass less Debye bosons (sound waves). Due to the different (translational) symmetries of bosons and atomistic excitations (magnons, phonons) the associated dispersions can attract each other. In the same way the different ∼⃒qx power functions in the magnon dispersions indicate that magnon dispersions are attracted by the dispersion of the bosons of the magnetic continuum (Goldstone bosons). This allows evaluation of the otherwise difficult to obtain dispersions of the Goldstone bosons from the known magnon dispersions. Interestingly, the dispersions of Goldstone bosons (Debye bosons) attract magnon dispersions (phonon dispersions) and not vice versa.

  1. ``Forbidden'' phonon in the iron chalcogenide series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we uncovered evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave (BOW) leading to ferro-orbital order at low temperature, acting to stabilize the bicollinear AFM order, in the iron-rich parent compound, Fe1+yTe. Investigating the inelastic spectra centered near (100) in Fe1+yTe, a signature peak for the BOW formation in the monoclinic phase, we observed an acoustic phonon dispersion in both tetragonal and monoclinic phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the monoclinic phase, in the tetragonal phase Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry, and we observed no elastic peak. This phonon mode was also observed in superconducting FeTe0.6Se0.4, where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed. LDA frozen phonon calculations suggested that this mode could result from a spin imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms, but polarized neutron measurements revealed no additional magnetic scattering. We propose that this ``forbidden'' phonon mode may originate from dynamically broken symmetry, perhaps related to the strong dynamic spin correlations in these materials. Work at BNL was supported by BES, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research at ORNL's HFIR and SNS sponsored by Scientific User Facilities Division, BES, US DOE. We acknowledge the support of NIST, in providing neutron research facilities.

  2. Structure of crystalline oxide ceramics studied by phonon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Taranov, A V; Khazanov, E N

    2013-03-31

    This paper describes a method for gaining detailed insight into the structure and phonon spectrum of polycrystalline oxide ceramics. We examine how the diffusion coefficient of subterahertz phonons is related to the properties of a system of grain boundaries and to the grain size and structure and demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the phonon diffusion coefficient at liquid-helium temperatures is determined by the spectral properties of the intergranular layer, which allows one to estimate the volumeaveraged intergranular layer thickness and acoustic impedance. We also analyse the effect of plastic deformation via twinning on the formation of the structure of grains and intergranular layers, which determine the thermophysical, acoustic and optical properties of ceramic materials. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  3. Molecular Detection and Phonon Filtering in Heat-Transfer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk

    2014-03-01

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. The resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-dimensionality effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Specifically, we show that the heat-transfer-based characterization method may be used to identify individual molecules or filter out specific phonon modes from the whole frequency spectrum. This work is supported by AFOSR grant.

  4. Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping

    PubMed Central

    Bebek, M. B.; Stanley, C. M.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463

  5. Phonon dispersion relation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Daniel; Bruna, Pere; Valles, Araceli; Pineda, Eloi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data on the phase sound speed of metallic glasses show anomalies in the terahertz range, reflecting an underlying complex behavior of their phonon dispersion spectrum not yet explained. We determine the phonon dispersion curve of metallic glasses by means of massive molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to obtain the low-q region behavior with unprecedented detail. Results confirm that the sound speed is constant below the THz range, down to the macroscopic limit. On the contrary, a hardening of the sound speed, more notable in the transverse case, is found in the THz range. This behavior is modeled in terms of a relaxation model. The model gives quantitative agreement and allows us to determine a new threshold frequency ωh, at the end of the boson-peak region. Above ωh the shear modulus increases dramatically, reflecting the end of the amorphous-like acoustic propagation region characterized by the excess density of vibrational states.

  6. Broadband evolution of phononic-crystal-waveguide eigenstates in real- and k-spaces.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, P H; Nanri, K; Matsuda, O; Tomoda, M; Profunser, D M; Veres, I A; Danworaphong, S; Khelif, A; Benchabane, S; Laude, V; Wright, O B

    2013-11-27

    Control of sound in phononic band-gap structures promises novel control and guiding mechanisms. Designs in photonic systems were quickly matched in phononics, and rows of defects in phononic crystals were shown to guide sound waves effectively. The vast majority of work in such phononic guiding has been in the frequency domain, because of the importance of the phononic dispersion relation in governing acoustic confinement in waveguides. However, frequency-domain studies miss vital information concerning the phase of the acoustic field and eigenstate coupling. Using a wide range of wavevectors k, we implement an ultrafast technique to probe the wave field evolution in straight and L-shaped phononic crystal surface-phonon waveguides in real- and k-space in two spatial dimensions, thus revealing the eigenstate-energy redistribution processes and the coupling between different frequency-degenerate eigenstates. Such use of k-t space is a first in acoustics, and should have other interesting applications such as acoustic-metamaterial characterization.

  7. Effect of phonon focusing on Knudsen flow of phonon gas in single-crystal nanowires made of spintronics materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleev, I. I.; Bakharev, S. M.; Kuleev, I. G.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Effect of anisotropy of elastic energy on the phonon propagation in single-crystal nanowires made of Fe, Cu, MgO, InSb, and GaAs materials that are used to fabricate spintronics devices in the regime of the Knudsen flow of phonon gas has been studied. A new method of analyzing the focusing of quasi-transverse modes has been suggested, which made it possible to determine the average values of the densities of phonon states in the regions of focusing and defocusing slow and fast quasi-transverse modes. The effect of phonon focusing on the anisotropy of heat conductivity and lengths of the phonon free paths has been analyzed for all acoustic modes that exist in spintronics nanostructures. It has been shown that for all the nanowires investigated the angular dependences of the free paths of fast and slow transverse modes in the {100} and {110} planes correlate with the angular dependences of the densities of phonon states for these modes. Directions of the heat flux that ensure the maximum and minimum phonon heat conductivity in the nanowires have been determined.

  8. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; ...

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the lowmore » temperature phase.« less

  9. First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui

    2015-01-14

    There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ∼10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

  10. Optical Generation and Detection of Local Nonequilibrium Phonons in Suspended Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Sean; Vallabhaneni, Ajit; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Ruan, Xiulin; Murthy, Jayathi; Shi, Li

    2017-03-01

    The measured frequencies and intensities of different first- and second- order Raman peaks of suspended graphene are used to show that optical phonons and different acoustic phonon polarizations are driven out of local equilibrium inside a sub-micron laser spot. The experimental results are correlated with a first principles-based multiple temperature model to suggest a considerably lower equivalent local temperature of the flexural phonons than those of other phonon polarizations. The finding reveals weak coupling between the flexural modes with hot electrons and optical phonons. Since the ultrahigh intrinsic thermal conductivity of graphene has been largely attributed to contributions from the flexural phonons, the observed local non-equilibrium phenomena have important implications for understanding energy dissipation processes in graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices, as well as in Raman measurements of thermal transport in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

  11. Combined effect of edge roughness and phonon scattering on the electronic properties of ultra scaled graphene nano-ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondali, Hossein; Goharrizi, Arash Yazdanpanah; Sharifi, Mohammad Javad

    2014-11-01

    The effect of optical and acoustic phonon-scattering in the presence of line-edge-roughness (LER) on the electronic properties of ultra-scaled armchair graphene nano-ribbons (AGNRs) is investigated. Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF) is employed using a Hamiltonian formed from tight bonding model with consideration of first and third nearest neighbors. The combined effect of phonons and line edge roughness on the transmission, transport gap, and conductance are studied for different roughness strengths and AGNR lengths. Results show edge roughness slightly reduces the onset of optical phonon emission, acoustic phonons reduce off-state conductance and optical phonons reduce on-state conductance. In both cases, the degree and behavior of reduction is totally dependent on the intensity of edge roughness. Also, in the longer AGNRs with high edge roughness intensity, phonons increase the transport gap.

  12. Phonon waveguides for electromechanical circuits.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, D; Mahboob, I; Onomitsu, K; Yamaguchi, H

    2014-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), utilizing localized mechanical vibrations, have found application in sensors, signal processors and in the study of macroscopic quantum mechanics. The integration of multiple mechanical elements via electrical or optical means remains a challenge in the realization of NEMS circuits. Here, we develop a phonon waveguide using a one-dimensional array of suspended membranes that offers purely mechanical means to integrate isolated NEMS resonators. We demonstrate that the phonon waveguide can support and guide mechanical vibrations and that the periodic membrane arrangement also creates a phonon bandgap that enables control of the phonon propagation velocity. Furthermore, embedding a phonon cavity into the phonon waveguide allows mobile mechanical vibrations to be dynamically switched or transferred from the waveguide to the cavity, thereby illustrating the viability of waveguide-resonator coupling. These highly functional traits of the phonon waveguide architecture exhibit all the components necessary to permit the realization of all-phononic NEMS circuits.

  13. Surface Phonons and Polaritons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    for an impurity in the surface of a crystal could be observed in the one phonon cross section for the resonant absorption or e.ission of ,—rays by...localized at the surface. The w5 — dependence has a simple physical origin. It is well known that the cross section for scattering of bulk phonons by a...propagate. In Section II of the present Chapter we present the theory underlying the surface induced vibrational properties of crystals which we have

  14. Acoustic Source Bearing Estimation (ASBE) computer program development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    A new bearing estimation algorithm (Acoustic Source Analysis Technique - ASAT) and an acoustic analysis computer program (Acoustic Source Bearing Estimation - ASBE) are described, which were developed by Computer Sciences Corporation for NASA Langley Research Center. The ASBE program is used by the Acoustics Division/Applied Acoustics Branch and the Instrument Research Division/Electro-Mechanical Instrumentation Branch to analyze acoustic data and estimate the azimuths from which the source signals radiated. Included are the input and output from a benchmark test case.

  15. Design and Optimization of Omnidirectional Band Gap for One-Dimensional Periodic and Quasiperiodic Phononic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of one-dimensional multilayer phononic heterostructure is constructed to obtain a broad acoustic omnidirectional reflection (ODR) band. The heterostructure is formed by combining finite periodic phononic crystals (PnCs) and Fibonacci (or Thue—Morse) quasiperiodic PnCs. From the numerical results performed by the transfer matrix method, it is found that the ODR bands can be enlarged obviously by using the combination of periodic and quasi-periodic PnCs. Moreover, an application of particle swarm optimization in designing and optimizing acoustic ODR bands is reported. With regards to different thickness ratios and periodic numbers in the heterostructure, we give some optimization examples and finally achieve phononic heterostructure with a very broad ODR bandwidth. The result provides a new approach to achieve broad acoustic ODR bandwidth, and will be applied in design of omnidirectional acoustic mirrors.

  16. Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3.

    PubMed

    Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio

    2014-07-09

    We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc (D(4)(6h)) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm(-1) (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm(-1), with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm(-1), with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm(-1) corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by perturbation enhancing the TA

  17. Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.

  18. Electron–phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron–phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329

  19. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ~40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  20. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-05-26

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  1. Electron-phonon interactions and the intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol-Hwan; Bonini, Nicola; Sohier, Thibault; Samsonidze, Georgy; Kozinsky, Boris; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2014-03-12

    We present a first-principles study of the temperature- and density-dependent intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene. We use density-functional theory and density-functional perturbation theory together with very accurate Wannier interpolations to compute all electronic and vibrational properties and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements; the phonon-limited resistivity is then calculated within a Boltzmann-transport approach. An effective tight-binding model, validated against first-principles results, is also used to study the role of electron-electron interactions at the level of many-body perturbation theory. The results found are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data on graphene samples at high carrier densities and elucidate the role of the different phonon modes in limiting electron mobility. Moreover, we find that the resistivity arising from scattering with transverse acoustic phonons is 2.5 times higher than that from longitudinal acoustic phonons. Last, high-energy, optical, and zone-boundary phonons contribute as much as acoustic phonons to the intrinsic electrical resistivity even at room temperature and become dominant at higher temperatures.

  2. Phonon-lifetimes in demixing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davaasambuu, J.; Güthoff, F.; Petri, M.; Hradil, K.; Schober, H.; Ollivier, J.; Eckold, G.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of silver-alkali halide mixed single crystals (AgxNa1-xBr, x = 0.23, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.70) were studied by inelastic neutron scattering during the process of spinodal decomposition. Using the thermal three-axes spectrometer PUMA as well as the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5, the time evolution of phonons was observed in time-resolved, stroboscopic measurements. Complementary to the study of long wavelength acoustic phonons, as studied previously, we extended these investigations to Brillouin-zone boundary modes that are particularly sensitive to variations of the local structure. Starting from the homogeneous mixed phase the behaviour of these modes during demixing is observed in real-time. A simple dynamical model based on local structure variants helps to interpret the results. It is shown that the phonon lifetimes vary strongly during the phase separation and increase drastically during the coarsening process. Up to a critical size of precipitates of about 10 nm, zone-boundary modes are found to be strongly damped, while beyond the line widths are reduced to the experimental resolution. This finding leads to the conclusion that the typical mean free path of these modes is of the order of 10 nm, which corresponds to 20 unit cells.

  3. ThermoPhonon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, Nikolai

    2014-11-24

    ThermoPhonon is a stand-alone code, which can be integrated into other software packages. Typically, it is used together with a density functional theory (DFT) code (such as VASP, Wien2k, AbInit, SIESTA) and a phonon code (such as Phonopy or Phon). The workflow is the following. Molecular dynamics (MD) in a supercell at a given temperature T is performed using another code. After sufficient equilibration, the output in the form of atomic positions and forces for a large number of selected MD steps is recorded into a file. If needed, one can modify this file by applying additional constraints, such as enforced crystal symmetry or subtracted motion of the center of mass. ThermoPhonon reads the file with atomic positions and forces and writes a new file with the force constants. Force constants can be used by another code (such as Phonopy or Phon) to produce phonon spectrum for plotting, in the assumption of known equilibrium atomic positions provided in a separate file.

  4. Phonons, Atoms, and Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are how the thermal vibrations of a solid are described in terms of lattice waves, how these waves interact with other waves, or with themselves, and how one is led from such a description in terms of waves to the concept of a phonon. (Author/MA)

  5. Phonon quarticity induced by changes in phonon-tracked hybridization during lattice expansion and its stabilization of rutile TiO2

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; ...

    2015-08-11

    Although the rutile structure of TiO2 is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO2 from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizingmore » the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.« less

  6. Phonon properties of americium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.

  7. Phonons of the anomalous element cerium

    PubMed Central

    Krisch, Michael; Farber, D. L.; Xu, R.; Antonangeli, Daniele; Aracne, C. M.; Beraud, Alexandre; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Zarestky, J.; Kim, Duck Young; Isaev, Eyvaz I.; Ahuja, Rajeev; Johansson, Börje

    2011-01-01

    Many physical and chemical properties of the light rare-earths and actinides are governed by the active role of f electrons, and despite intensive efforts the details of the mechanisms of phase stability and transformation are not fully understood. A prominent example which has attracted a lot of interest, both experimentally and theoretically over the years is the isostructural γ - α transition in cerium. We have determined by inelastic X-ray scattering, the complete phonon dispersion scheme of elemental cerium across the γ → α transition, and compared it with theoretical results using ab initio lattice dynamics. Several phonon branches show strong changes in the dispersion shape, indicating large modifications in the interactions between phonons and conduction electrons. This is reflected as well by the lattice Grüneisen parameters, particularly around the X point. We derive a vibrational entropy change , illustrating the importance of the lattice contribution to the transition. Additionally, we compare first principles calculations with the experiments to shed light on the mechanism underlying the isostructural volume collapse in cerium under pressure. PMID:21597000

  8. Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupitsyn, Igor S.; Mishchenko, Andrey S.; Nagaosa, Naoto; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and consistent theory of phonons in metals requires that all long-range Coulomb interactions between charged particles (electrons and ions) be treated on equal footing. So far, all attempts to deal with this nonperturbative system were relying on uncontrolled approximations in the absence of small parameters. In this paper, we develop the diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for a two-component Coulomb system that obtains the solution to this fundamental problem in an approximation-free way by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton graphs. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by calculating the spectrum of longitudinal acoustic phonons in a simple cubic lattice, determining their sound velocity, and obtaining the phonon spectral densities by analytic continuation of the Matsubara-Green's functions. Final results are checked against the lowest-order fully self-consistent G W approximation in both adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes.

  9. A GaAs phononic crystal with shallow noncylindrical holes.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Joseph A; Mathew, Reuble; Stotz, James A H

    2014-02-01

    A square lattice of shallow, noncylindrical holes in GaAs is shown to act as a phononic crystal (PnC) reflector. The holes are produced by wet-etching a GaAs substrate using a citric acid:H2O2 etching procedure and a photolithographed array pattern. Although nonuniform and asymmetric etch rates limit the depth and shape of the phononic crystal holes, the matrix acts as a PnC, as demonstrated by insertion loss measurements together with interferometric imaging of surface acoustic waves propagating on the GaAs surface. The measured vertical displacement induced by surface phonons compares favorably with finite-difference time-domain simulations of a PnC with rounded-square holes.

  10. Phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars connected by thin bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yabin; Pennec, Yan; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    A new type of phononic crystal plate consisting of hollow pillars on a bar-connected plate is proposed. With respect to usual pillar based phononic crystal plates, the Bragg band gap can be tuned to be much wider and extended to a sub-wavelength region, and the low frequency gap can be moved to an extremely low frequency range. Such a structure can generate quadrapolar, hexapolar and octopolar whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) inside the band gaps with very high confinement and quality factors. By filling the hollow pillars with a liquid, these WGMs, together with additional localized compressional and solid-liquid coupling modes, can be tuned either by varying the inner radius of the pillars or controlling the height of the liquid. We discuss some possible functionalities of these phononic crystals for the purpose of sensing the acoustic properties of liquids, multiplexer and wireless communication.

  11. Weak coupling of pseudoacoustic phonons and magnon dynamics in the incommensurate spin-ladder compound Sr14Cu24O41

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Bansal, Dipanshu; Sullivan, Sean; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Aczel, Adam A.; Zhou, Jianshi; Delaire, Olivier A.; Shi, Li

    2016-10-21

    Intriguing lattice dynamics have been predicted for aperiodic crystals that contain incommensurate substructures. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon and magnon dispersions in Sr14Cu24O41, which contains incommensurate one-dimensional (1D) chain and two-dimensional (2D) ladder substructures. Two distinct pseudoacoustic phonon modes, corresponding to the sliding motion of one sublattice against the other, are observed for atomic motions polarized along the incommensurate axis. In the long wavelength limit, it is found that the sliding mode shows a remarkably small energy gap of 1.7–1.9 meV, indicating very weak interactions between the two incommensurate sublattices. The measurements also reveal a gapped and steep linear magnon dispersion of the ladder sublattice. The high group velocity of this magnon branch and weak coupling with acoustic and pseudoacoustic phonons can explain the large magnon thermal conductivity in Sr14Cu24O41 crystals. In addition, the magnon specific heat is determined from the measured total specific heat and phonon density of states and exhibits a Schottky anomaly due to gapped magnon modes of the spin chains. Furthermore, these findings offer new insights into the phonon and magnon dynamics and thermal transport properties of incommensurate magnetic crystals that contain low-dimensional substructures.

  12. Dispersive Phonon Imaging in Iii-V Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebboul, Saad Eddine

    Low-temperature transport properties of high-frequency acoustic phonons are investigated in GaAs, InSb, InP and InAs using the phonon-imaging technique. In this method, a focused laser beam provides a movable heat source on one side of a cooled crystal (<=q2 K). A single small phonon detector on the opposite face records the transmitted heat flux as a function of propagation direction. Ballistic phonons channel along directions in the crystal which are completely determined by the detailed shape of constant-energy surfaces in wavevector space. The resulting focusing patterns are characterized by sharp phonon caustics which are clearly identified from the continuous background due to scattered phonons. In the dispersive regime, where phonon wavelength is comparable to atomic spacing, the angular positions of these caustic lines are very sensitive to phonon frequency, thus providing a novel test for lattice dynamics theories. Experiments are performed with superconducting tunnel junctions and Al bolometers to probe both the high-frequency and low -frequency regimes, respectively. We find that large-k ballistic phonons give rise to distinct focusing patterns in all four types of crystals, with thicknesses varying between 0.4 and 0.8 mm. Due to isotope scattering in the bulk, tunnel-junction experiments yield well-defined caustic patterns with a dominant frequency given by the detector gap 2Delta. In InSb, where zone boundary frequencies are small (nu_ {TA} ~ 1.2 THz), the frequency dependence of the dispersive phonon focusing patterns are measured using PbTl (0.43, 0.59 THz) and PbBi (0.69, 0.73, 0.78, 0.82 THz) tunnel junction detectors. The results are interpreted with Monte Carlo calculations based on rigid, dipole, shell, and bond-charge models. Although each model yields satisfactory fits to the previously measured dispersion curves, the predicted patterns show remarkable differences in the caustic structures. This result underscores the utility of phonon imaging

  13. Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Hsun

    2015-05-01

    We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.

  14. Gallium nitride electro-acoustic devices and acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2016-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) being one of a few piezoelectric semiconductors with low acoustic loss is a perfect material for electro-acoustic applications. Interactions of electrons and phonons are facilitated by the piezoelectric effect in addition to the deformation coupling in GaN, a property that can be used to implement a variety of very interesting devices and metamaterials, such as resonant transistors, acoustic amplifiers, circulators, and couplers. This talk covers theoretical basis of such devices and overviews recent advances in this technology.

  15. Femtosecond electron imaging of defect-modulated phonon dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Plemmons, Dayne A.; Flannigan, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Precise manipulation and control of coherent lattice oscillations via nanostructuring and phonon-wave interference has the potential to significantly impact a broad array of technologies and research areas. Resolving the dynamics of individual phonons in defect-laden materials presents an enormous challenge, however, owing to the interdependent nanoscale and ultrafast spatiotemporal scales. Here we report direct, real-space imaging of the emergence and evolution of acoustic phonons at individual defects in crystalline WSe2 and Ge. Via bright-field imaging with an ultrafast electron microscope, we are able to image the sub-picosecond nucleation and the launch of wavefronts at step edges and resolve dispersion behaviours during propagation and scattering. We discover that the appearance of speed-of-sound (for example, 6 nm ps−1) wavefronts are influenced by spatially varying nanoscale strain fields, taking on the appearance of static bend contours during propagation. These observations provide unprecedented insight into the roles played by individual atomic and nanoscale features on acoustic-phonon dynamics. PMID:27079790

  16. Electron-phonon coupling and thermal transport in thermoelectric compound Mo3Sb7-xTex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Chen; Said, Ayman; Abernathy, Douglas; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier

    Complex interactions between solid-state excitations, such as phonon-phonon, phonon-electron, and phonon-magnon couplings are often responsible for unusual material properties. In this presentation, we report on our investigations of phonon propagation and thermal transport in thermoelectric Mo3Sb7-xTex. We have performed extensive inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering measurements of phonons in Mo3Sb7-xTex, mapping the phonon dispersions and density of states, as function of temperature and composition. Our first-principles density functional theory simulations, coupled with experimental measurements, reveal the importance of electron-phonon coupling, which dominates the scattering rates over alloy disorder scattering. Doping with Te shifts the Fermi surface near the top of the valence band, suppressing screening and causing phonons to stiffen markedly. Our measurements of acoustic dispersions and linewidths, coupled with DFT simulations and models of phonon scattering enable us to quantify the impact of the electron-phonon coupling on the thermal conductivity.

  17. Temperature induced phonon behaviour in germanium selenide thin films probed by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taube, A.; Łapińska, A.; Judek, J.; Wochtman, N.; Zdrojek, M.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report a detailed study of temperature-dependent phonon properties of exfoliated germanium selenide thin films (several tens of nanometers thick) probed by Raman spectroscopy in the 70-350 K temperature range. The temperature-dependent behavior of the positions and widths of the Raman modes was nonlinear. We concluded that the observed effects arise from anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions and are explained by the phenomenon of optical phonon decay into acoustic phonons. At temperatures above 200 K, the position of the Raman modes tended to be linearly dependent, and the first order temperature coefficients χ were  -0.0277, -0.0197 and  -0.031 cm-1 K-1 for B 3g , A g(1) and A g(2) modes, respectively.

  18. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; Said, A. H.; Leu, B. M.; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, G. M.; Lee, Y. S.

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the low temperature phase.

  19. Yoctocalorimetry: phonon counting in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, M. L.

    1999-03-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three-dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  20. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatch between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.

  1. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    DOE PAGES

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatchmore » between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.« less

  2. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor; Hearing loss - acoustic; Tinnitus - acoustic ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  3. Geometric tuning of thermal conductivity in three-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiyong; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Dames, Chris; Chen, Yunfei

    2016-10-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the thermal transport properties of a three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic phononic crystal consisting of silicon nanowires and films. The calculation shows that the in-plane thermal conductivity is negatively correlated with the out-of-plane thermal conductivity upon making geometric changes, whether varying the nanowire diameter or the film thickness. This enables the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity to be tailored over a wide range, in some cases by more than a factor of 20. Similar trends in thermal conductivity are also observed from an independent phonon ray tracing simulation considering only diffuse boundary scattering effects, though the range of anisotropy ratios is smaller than that obtained in MD simulation. By analyzing the phonon dispersion relation with varied geometric parameters, it is found that increasing the nanowire diameter increases the out-of-plane acoustic phonon group velocities, but reduces the in-plane longitudinal and fast transverse acoustic phonon group velocities. The calculated phonon irradiation further verified the negative correlation between the in-plane and the out-of-plane thermal conductivity. The proposed 3D phononic crystal may find potential application in thermoelectrics, energy storage, catalysis and sensing applications owing to its widely tailorable thermal conductivity.

  4. Size-Dependent Coherent-Phonon Plasmon Modulation and Deformation Characterization in Gold Bipyramids and Nanojavelins

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, Matthew S.; Lethiec, Clotilde M.; Lin, Xiao-Min; Schatz, George C.; Chen, Lin X.; Schaller, Richard D.

    2016-05-18

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from metallic nanoparticles offer an array of prospective applications that range from chemical sensing to biotherapies. Bipyramidal particles exhibit particularly narrow ensemble LSPR resonances that reflect small dispersity of size and shape but until recently were only synthetically accessible over a limited range of sizes with corresponding aspect ratios. Narrow size dispersion offers the opportunity to examine ensemble dynamical phenomena such as coherent phonons that induce periodic oscillations of the LSPR energy. Here, we characterize transient optical behavior of a large range of gold bipyramid sizes, as well as higher aspect ratio nanojavelin ensembles with specific attention to the lowest-order acoustic phonon mode of these nanoparticles. We report coherent phonon-driven oscillations of the LSPR position for particles with resonances spanning 670 to 1330 nm. Nanojavelins were shown to behave similarly to bipyramids but offer the prospect of separate control over LSPR energy and coherent phonon oscillation period. We develop a new methodology for quantitatively measuring mechanical expansion caused by photogenerated coherent phonons. Using this method, we find an elongation of approximately 1% per photon absorbed per unit cell and that particle expansion along the lowest frequency acoustic phonon mode is linearly proportional to excitation fluence for the fluence range studied. These characterizations provide insight regarding means to manipulate phonon period and transient mechanical deformation.

  5. Electron-phonon coupling and thermal transport in the thermoelectric compound Mo3Sb7–xTex

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Chen W.; Said, Ayman H.; ...

    2015-12-07

    Phonon properties of Mo3Sb7–xTex (x = 0, 1.5, 1.7), a potential high-temperature thermoelectric material, have been studied with inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering, and with first-principles simulations. The substitution of Te for Sb leads to pronounced changes in the electronic struc- ture, local bonding, phonon density of states (DOS), dispersions, and phonon lifetimes. Alloying with tellurium shifts the Fermi level upward, near the top of the valence band, resulting in a strong suppression of electron-phonon screening, and a large overall stiffening of interatomic force- constants. The suppression in electron-phonon coupling concomitantly increases group velocities and suppresses phonon scattering rates, surpassingmore » the effects of alloy-disorder scattering, and re- sulting in a surprising increased lattice thermal conductivity in the alloy. We also identify that the local bonding environment changes non-uniformly around different atoms, leading to variable perturbation strengths for different optical phonon branches. The respective roles of changes in phonon group velocities and phonon lifetimes on the lattice thermal conductivity are quantified. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the electron-phonon coupling on phonon mean-free-paths in this compound, and also estimates the contributions from boundary scattering, umklapp scattering, and point-defect scattering.« less

  6. Phonons and thermal transport in graphene and graphene-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Denis L.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    A discovery of the unusual thermal properties of graphene stimulated experimental, theoretical and computational research directed at understanding phonon transport and thermal conduction in two-dimensional material systems. We provide a critical review of recent results in the graphene thermal field focusing on phonon dispersion, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and comparison of different models and computational approaches. The correlation between the phonon spectrum in graphene-based materials and the heat conduction properties is analyzed in details. The effects of the atomic plane rotations in bilayer graphene, isotope engineering, and relative contributions of different phonon dispersion branches are discussed. For readers’ convenience, the summaries of main experimental and theoretical results on thermal conductivity as well as phonon mode contributions to thermal transport are provided in the form of comprehensive annotated tables.

  7. Phonons and defects in semiconductors and nanostructures: Phonon trapping, phonon scattering, and heat flow at heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Estreicher, S. K. Gibbons, T. M.; Kang, By.; Bebek, M. B.

    2014-01-07

    Defects in semiconductors introduce vibrational modes that are distinct from bulk modes because they are spatially localized in the vicinity of the defect. Light impurities produce high-frequency modes often visible by Fourier-transform infrared absorption or Raman spectroscopy. Their vibrational lifetimes vary by orders of magnitude and sometimes exhibit unexpectedly large isotope effects. Heavy impurities introduce low-frequency modes sometimes visible as phonon replicas in photoluminescence bands. But other defects such as surfaces or interfaces exhibit spatially localized modes (SLMs) as well. All of them can trap phonons, which ultimately decay into lower-frequency bulk phonons. When heat flows through a material containing defects, phonon trapping at localized modes followed by their decay into bulk phonons is usually described in terms of phonon scattering: defects are assumed to be static scattering centers and the properties of the defect-related SLMs modes are ignored. These dynamic properties of defects are important. In this paper, we quantify the concepts of vibrational localization and phonon trapping, distinguish between normal and anomalous decay of localized excitations, discuss the meaning of phonon scattering in real space at the atomic level, and illustrate the importance of phonon trapping in the case of heat flow at Si/Ge and Si/C interfaces.

  8. Switchable topological phonon channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Zimmermann, Philipp; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2017-01-01

    Guiding energy deliberately is one of the central elements in engineering and information processing. It is often achieved by designing specific transport channels in a suitable material. Topological metamaterials offer a way to construct stable and efficient channels of unprecedented versatility. However, due to their stability it can be tricky to terminate them or to temporarily shut them off without changing the material properties massively. While a lot of effort was put into realizing mechanical topological metamaterials, almost no works deal with manipulating their edge channels in sight of applications. Here, we take a step in this direction, by taking advantage of local symmetry breaking potentials to build a switchable topological phonon channel.

  9. Imaging carrier and phonon transport in Si using ultrashort optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Hurley; O. B. Wright; O. Matsuda; B. E. McCandless; S. Shinde

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted that microscopically image thermal diffusion and surface acoustic phonon propagation within a single crystallite of a polycrystalline Si sample. The experimental approach employs ultrashort optical pulses to generate an electron-hole plasma and a second probe pulse is used to image the evolution of the plasma. By decomposing the signal into a component that varies with delay time and a steady state component that varies with pump modulation frequency, the respective influence of carrier recombination and thermal diffusion are identified. Additionally, the coherent surface acoustic phonon component to the signal is imaged using a Sagnac interferometer to monitor optical phase.

  10. Phonon properties of graphene derived from molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Kalosakas, George; Galiotis, Costas; Papagelis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A method that utilises atomic trajectories and velocities from molecular dynamics simulations has been suitably adapted and employed for the implicit calculation of the phonon dispersion curves of graphene. Classical potentials widely used in the literature were employed. Their performance was assessed for each individual phonon branch and the overall phonon dispersion, using available inelastic x-ray scattering data. The method is promising for systems with large scale periodicity, accounts for anharmonic effects and non-bonding interactions with a general environment, and it is applicable under finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the phonon dispersion curves has been examined with emphasis on the doubly degenerate Raman active Γ-E2g phonon at the zone centre, where experimental results are available. The potentials used show diverse behaviour. The Tersoff-2010 potential exhibits the most systematic and physically sound behaviour in this regard, and gives a first-order temperature coefficient of χ = −0.05 cm−1/K for the Γ-E2g shift in agreement with reported experimental values. PMID:26316252

  11. Soft Phonons in (delta)-Phase Plutonium Near the (delta)-(alpha)' Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, R; Wong, J; Zshack, P; Hong, H; Chiang, T

    2007-09-13

    Plutonium and its alloys exhibit complex phase diagrams that imply anomalous lattice dynamics near phase stability boundaries. Specifically, the TA [111] phonon branch in Ga-stabilized {delta}-Pu at room temperature shows a pronounced soft mode at the zone boundary, which suggests a possible connection to the martensitic transformation from the fcc {delta}-phase to the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-phase at low temperatures. This work is a study of the lattice dynamics of this system by x-ray thermal diffuse scattering. The results reveal little temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies, thus indicating that kinetic phonon softening is not responsible for this phase transition.

  12. Giant nonlinearity via breaking parity-time symmetry: A route to low-threshold phonon diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Peng, Bo; Ã-zdemir, Şahin Kaya; Liu, Yu-xi; Jing, Hui; Lü, Xin-you; Liu, Yu-long; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Nonreciprocal devices that permit wave transmission in only one direction are indispensible in many fields of science including, e.g., electronics, optics, acoustics, and thermodynamics. Manipulating phonons using such nonreciprocal devices may have a range of applications such as phonon diodes, transistors, switches, etc. One way of achieving nonreciprocal phononic devices is to use materials with strong nonlinear response to phonons. However, it is not easy to obtain the required strong mechanical nonlinearity, especially for few-phonon situations. Here we present a general mechanism to amplify nonlinearity using parity-time (PT )-symmetric structures, and show that an on-chip microscale phonon diode can be fabricated using a PT -symmetric mechanical system, in which a lossy mechanical resonator with very weak mechanical nonlinearity is coupled to a mechanical resonator with mechanical gain but no mechanical nonlinearity. When this coupled system transits from the PT -symmetric regime to the broken-PT -symmetric regime, the mechanical nonlinearity is transferred from the lossy resonator to the one with gain, and the effective nonlinearity of the system is significantly enhanced. This enhanced mechanical nonlinearity is almost lossless because of the gain-loss balance induced by the PT -symmetric structure. Such an enhanced lossless mechanical nonlinearity is then used to control the direction of phonon propagation, and can greatly decrease (by over three orders of magnitude) the threshold of the input-field intensity necessary to observe the unidirectional phonon transport. We propose an experimentally realizable lossless low-threshold phonon diode of this type. Our study opens up perspectives for constructing on-chip few-phonon devices and hybrid phonon-photon components.

  13. Basic phononic diagnostic measurements in fluid columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazony, D.; Hazony, Y.

    2010-07-01

    A pre-selected 21 MHz ultrasonic transducer was used to produce characteristic pulses, arbitrarily similar to the quantum-mechanical concept of a phonon, describable as having a single-frequency modulated Gaussian shape. The propagation of such pulses in water-acoustic channels was studied in conjunction with nonlinear regression analysis and an Erlangian model for size distribution of molecular aggregates. Experimental results obtained distinguish between surface and bulk phenomena and provide quantitative measures of an average molecular cluster size in water. The relevance of the Erlangian model, in studying the near front of the channel, provides a significant distinction between the behavior of pure water and Ringer's solution of water. The inherent consistency between the various results re-enforces the theoretical approach, implying new venues for future research.

  14. Optimal design of tunable phononic bandgap plates under equibiaxial stretch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, M. S.; Guest, James K.

    2016-05-01

    Design and application of phononic crystal (PhCr) acoustic metamaterials has been a topic with tremendous growth of interest in the last decade due to their promising capabilities to manipulate acoustic and elastodynamic waves. Phononic controllability of waves through a particular PhCr is limited only to the spectrums located within its fixed bandgap frequency. Hence the ability to tune a PhCr is desired to add functionality over its variable bandgap frequency or for switchability. Deformation induced bandgap tunability of elastomeric PhCr solids and plates with prescribed topology have been studied by other researchers. Principally the internal stress state and distorted geometry of a deformed phononic crystal plate (PhP) changes its effective stiffness and leads to deformation induced tunability of resultant modal band structure. Thus the microstructural topology of a PhP can be altered so that specific tunability features are met through prescribed deformation. In the present study novel tunable PhPs of this kind with optimized bandgap efficiency-tunability of guided waves are computationally explored and evaluated. Low loss transmission of guided waves throughout thin walled structures makes them ideal for fabrication of low loss ultrasound devices and structural health monitoring purposes. Various tunability targets are defined to enhance or degrade complete bandgaps of plate waves through macroscopic tensile deformation. Elastomeric hyperelastic material is considered which enables recoverable micromechanical deformation under tuning finite stretch. Phononic tunability through stable deformation of phononic lattice is specifically required and so any topology showing buckling instability under assumed deformation is disregarded. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) NSGA-II is adopted for evolutionary multiobjective topology optimization of hypothesized tunable PhP with square symmetric unit-cell and relevant topologies are analyzed through finite

  15. Phonon dispersion relation in PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeno, Izumi; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime; Marty, Karol; Oka, Kunihiko; Tsunoda, Yorihiko

    2013-03-01

    The phonon dispersion relations for cubic PbTiO3 (Tc = 763 K) have been determined along the high symmetry directions at T = 793 K using inelastic neutron scattering. A set of the TO branches drops significantly toward the zone center. This is quite different from the soft mode anomaly in the Pb-based relaxors, named as the waterfall phenomenon. The zone-center TO mode energy softens with decreasing temperature from 1173 to 793 K. The TA branch along [ ξ , ξ , ξ ] shows significant softening around ξ = 0.25 and 0.5. These two anomalies persist up to 1173 K and are weakly temperature dependent. Moreover, the TA branches along [1,0,0] and [1,1,0] soften in the entire q range as the temperature approaches Tc. Although the phonon softening occurs simultaneously, the softening of the zone center TO mode plays an important role in the single phase transition. The phonon dispersion relations for cubic and tetragonal PbTiO3 are discussed in connection with BaTiO3, KTaO3, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. U.S.-Japan cooperative program on neutron scattering

  16. Phonon analog of topological nodal semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2016-05-01

    Topological band structures in electronic systems like topological insulators and semimetals give rise to highly unusual physical properties. Analogous topological effects have also been discussed in bosonic systems, but the novel phenomena typically occur only when the system is excited by finite-frequency probes. A mapping recently proposed by C. L. Kane and T. C. Lubensky [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2835], however, establishes a closer correspondence. It relates the zero-frequency excitations of mechanical systems to topological zero modes of fermions that appear at the edges of an otherwise gapped system. Here we generalize the mapping to systems with an intrinsically gapless bulk. In particular, we construct mechanical counterparts of topological semimetals. The resulting gapless bulk modes are physically distinct from the usual acoustic Goldstone phonons and appear even in the absence of continuous translation invariance. Moreover, the zero-frequency phonon modes feature adjustable momenta and are topologically protected as long as the lattice coordination is unchanged. Such protected soft modes with tunable wave vector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  17. Thermoelectric amplification of phonons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompreh, K. A.; Mensah, N. G.; Mensah, S. Y.; Fosuhene, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Amplification of acoustic in-plane phonons due to an external temperature gradient (∇T) in single-layer graphene (SLG) was studied theoretically. The threshold temperature gradient (∇ T ) 0 g and the threshold voltage (V T ) 0 g in SLG were evaluated. For T = 77 K , the calculated value for (∇ T ) 0 g = 746.8 K / cm and (V T ) 0 g = 6.6 mV . The calculation was done in the hypersound regime. Further, the dependence of the normalized amplification ( Γ / Γ 0 ) on the frequency ω q and ∇ T / T were evaluated numerically and presented graphically. The calculated threshold temperature gradient (V T ) 0 g for SLG was higher than that obtained for homogeneous semiconductors (n-InSb) (∇ T ) 0 hom ≈ 10 3 K / cm , superlattices (∇ T ) 0 S L ≈ 384 K / cm , and cylindrical quantum wire (∇ T ) 0 c q w ≈ 10 2 K / cm . This makes SLG a much better material for thermoelectric phonon amplification.

  18. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  19. Raman electron spin-lattice relaxation with the Debye-type and with real phonon spectra in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Lijewski, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation temperature dependence was measured for Ti2+ (S = 1) and for Cu2+ (S = 1/2) ions in SrF2 single crystal by electron spin echo method in temperature range 4-109 K. The spin relaxation was governed by the two-phonon Raman processes. The relaxation theory is outlined and presented in a form suitable for applying with real phonon spectra. The experimental relaxation results were described using Debye-type phonon spectrum and the real phonon spectrum of SrF2 crystal. The Debye approximation does not fit well the results for SrF2 both at low and at high temperature. The relaxation rate is faster than that predicted by Debye-type phonon spectrum at low temperatures where excess of lattice vibrations over the Debye model exists but is slower at higher temperatures (above 50 K) where density of phonon states continuously decreases when approaching to the maximal acoustic phonon frequency. The expected deviation from Debye approximation was analyzed also for Cu2+ in NaCl and MgSiO3 crystals for which phonon spectra are available. The fitting with the real phonon spectrum allowed us to calculate spin-phonon coupling parameter as 267 cm-1 for Ti2+ and 1285 cm-1 for Cu2+ in SrF2.

  20. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  1. Compositional Variation of the Phonon Dispersion Curves of bcc Fe-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zarestky, Jerel L; Garlea, Vasile O; Lograsso, Tom; Schlagel, D. L.; Stassis, C.

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering techniques have been used to measure the phonon dispersion curves of bcc Fe1?xGax x=10.8, 13.3, 16.0, 22.5 alloys as a function of Ga concentration. The phonon frequencies of every branch were found to decrease significantly with increasing Ga concentration. The softening was most pronounced for the T2 0 branch and, to a lesser extent, the L branch in the vicinity of = 2 3. The concentration dependence of the shear elastic constant C =1/2 C11?C12 , calculated from the slope of the T2 0 branch, was found to agree with the results of sound velocity measurements. For the higher concentration sample measured, 22.5 at. % Ga, new branches appeared, an effect associated with the increase in the number of atoms per unit cell.

  2. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  3. Structural engineering of three-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpero, Tommaso; Schoenwald, Stefan; Zemp, Armin; Bergamini, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Artificially-structured materials are attracting the research interest of a growing community of scientists for the possibility to develop novel materials with advantageous properties that arise from the ability to tailor the propagation of elastic waves, and thus energy, through them. In this work, we propose a three-dimensional phononic crystal whose unit cell has been engineered to obtain a strong wave-attenuation band in the middle of the acoustic frequency range. The combination of its acoustic properties with the dimensions of the unit cell and its static mechanical properties makes it an interesting material for possibly several applications in civil and mechanical engineering, for instance as the core of an acoustically insulating sandwich panel. A sample of this crystal has been manufactured and experimentally tested with respect to its acoustic transmissibility. The performance of the phononic crystal core is remarkable both in terms of amplitude reduction in the transmissibility and width of the attenuation band. A parametric study has been finally conducted on selected geometrical parameters of the unit cell and on their effect on the macroscopic properties of the crystal. This work represents an application-oriented example of how the macroscopic properties of an artificially-structured material can be designed, according to specific needs, by a conventional engineering of its unit cell.

  4. Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators

    SciTech Connect

    He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ming-Hui Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-18

    We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.

  5. Multi-band asymmetric acoustic transmission in a bended waveguide with multiple mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-lei; Sun, Hong-xiang; Xia, Jian-ping; Yuan, Shou-qi; Ding, Xin-lei

    2016-07-01

    We report the realization of a multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission by placing a phononic crystal inside a bended waveguide immersed in water, as determined both experimentally and numerically. The asymmetric acoustic transmission exists in three frequency bands below 500 kHz induced by multiple mechanisms. Besides the band gap of the phononic crystal, we also introduce the deaf mode and interaction between the phononic crystal and waveguide. More importantly, this asymmetric transmission can be systematically controlled by mechanically rotating the square rods of the phononic crystal. The device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and adjustable property, showing promising applications in ultrasonic devices.

  6. Optic phonon bandwidth and lattice thermal conductivity: The case of Li2X ( X=O , S, Se, Te)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lindsay, L.; Parker, D. S.

    2016-06-07

    Here, we examine the lattice thermal conductivities ( l) of Li2X (X=O, S, Se, Te) using a first-principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport methodology. We find low l values ranging between 12 and 30 W/m-K despite light Li atoms, a large mass difference between constituent atoms and tightly bunched acoustic branches, all features that give high l in other materials including BeSe (630 W/m-1K-1), BeTe (370 W/m-1K-1) and cubic BAs (3150 W/m-1K-1). Together these results suggest a missing ingredient in the basic guidelines commonly used to understand and predict l. Unlike typical simple systems (e.g., Si, GaAs, SiC), the dominant resistance to heat-carrying acoustic phonons in Li2Se and Li2Te comes from interactions of these modes with two optic phonons. These interactions require significant bandwidth and dispersion of the optic branches, both present in Li2X materials. Finally, these considerations are important for the discovery and design of new materials for thermal management applications, and give a more comprehensive understanding of thermal transport in crystalline solids.

  7. Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic output of the device as a function of time after applying electrical pumping. The emission builds in intensity reaching a steady state on a timescale of order 0.1 μs. We show that the results are consistent with a model of the dynamics of a saser cavity exactly analogous to the models used for describing laser dynamics. We also obtain estimates for the gain coefficient, steady-state acoustic power output and efficiency of the device.

  8. THz Acoustic Spectroscopy by using Double Quantum Wells and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fan Jun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lin, Kung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    GaN is a pivotal material for acoustic transducers and acoustic spectroscopy in the THz regime, but its THz phonon properties have not been experimentally and comprehensively studied. In this report, we demonstrate how to use double quantum wells as a THz acoustic transducer for measuring generated acoustic phonons and deriving a broadband acoustic spectrum with continuous frequencies. We experimentally investigated the sub-THz frequency dependence of acoustic attenuation (i.e., phonon mean-free paths) in GaN, in addition to its physical origins such as anharmonic scattering, defect scattering, and boundary scattering. A new upper limit of attenuation caused by anharmonic scattering, which is lower than previously reported values, was obtained. Our results should be noteworthy for THz acoustic spectroscopy and for gaining a fundamental understanding of heat conduction. PMID:27346494

  9. Confinement of phonon propagation in laser deposited tungsten/polycarbonate multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Florian; Ulrichs, Henning; Pagel, Sinja; Müller, Markus; Mansurova, Maria; Müller, Matthias; Eberl, Christian; Erichsen, Torben; Huebner, Dennis; Vana, Philipp; Mann, Klaus; Münzenberg, Markus; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale multilayer thin films of W and PC (Polycarbonate) show, due to the great difference of the components’ characteristics, fascinating properties for a variety of possible applications and provide an interesting research field, but are hard to fabricate with low layer thicknesses. Because of the great acoustic mismatch between the two materials, such nanoscale structures are promising candidates for new phononic materials, where phonon propagation is strongly reduced. In this article we show for the first time that W/PC-multilayers can indeed be grown with high quality by pulsed laser deposition. We analyzed the polymer properties depending on the laser fluence used for deposition, which enabled us to find best experimental conditions for the fabrication of high-acoustic-mismatch W/PC multilayers. The multilayers were analyzed by fs pump-probe spectroscopy showing that phonon dynamics on the ps time-scale can strongly be tailored by structural design. While already periodic multilayers exhibit strong phonon localization, especially aperiodic structures present outstandingly low phonon propagation properties making such 1D-layered W/PC nano-structures interesting for new phononic applications.

  10. Acoustic studies of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Granato, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic technique have proven to be very useful in getting basic information on the configuration and dynamics of defects. Although the technique is indirect, the sensitivity is such that it often competes very favorably with more direct techniques such as neutron, x-ray, or phonon scattering. The symmetry information that comes directly from polarization control often also proves decisive in determining configurations. Many of the concepts that have been developed in explaining the various effects that have been seen in dislocation and point defect studies have proven also to be very useful when taken over almost directly into other areas of physics. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Low-temperature semiconductor band-gap thermal shifts: T4 shifts from ordinary acoustic and T2 from piezoacoustic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Philip B.; Nery, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    At low temperature, the experimental gap of silicon decreases as Eg(T ) =Eg(0 ) -A T4 . The main reason is electron-phonon renormalization. The physics behind the T4-power law is more complex than has been realized. Renormalization at low T by intraband scattering requires a nonadiabatic treatment in order to correctly include acoustic phonons and avoid divergences from piezoacoustic phonon interactions. The result is an unexpected low T term Eg(0 ) +A'Tp with positive coefficient A', and power p =4 for nonpiezoelectric materials, and power p =2 for piezoelectric materials. The acoustic phonons in piezoelectric semiconductors generate a piezoelectric field, modifying the electron-phonon coupling. However, at higher T , thermally excited acoustic phonons of energy ℏ vsq and intraband excitation energies ɛq-ɛ0=ℏ2q2/2 m* become comparable in size. Above this temperature, the low q and higher q intraband acoustic phonon contributions to Tp rapidly cancel, leaving little thermal effect. Then the contribution from interband scattering by acoustic phonons is dominant. This has the power law T4 for both nonpiezoelectric and piezoelectric semiconductors. The shift can then have either sign, but usually reduces the size of gaps as T increases. It arises after cancellation of the T2 terms that appear separately in Debye-Waller and Fan parts of the acoustic phonon interband renormalization. The cancellation occurs because of the acoustic sum rule.

  12. 25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Koh, Cheong Yang; Singer, Jonathan P; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Maldovan, Martin; Stein, Ori; Thomas, Edwin L

    2014-01-01

    The engineering of optical and acoustic material functionalities via construction of ordered local and global architectures on various length scales commensurate with and well below the characteristic length scales of photons and phonons in the material is an indispensable and powerful means to develop novel materials. In the current mature status of photonics, polymers hold a pivotal role in various application areas such as light-emission, sensing, energy, and displays, with exclusive advantages despite their relatively low dielectric constants. Moreover, in the nascent field of phononics, polymers are expected to be a superior material platform due to the ability for readily fabricated complex polymer structures possessing a wide range of mechanical behaviors, complete phononic bandgaps, and resonant architectures. In this review, polymer-centric photonic and phononic crystals and metamaterials are highlighted, and basic concepts, fabrication techniques, selected functional polymers, applications, and emerging ideas are introduced. PMID:24338738

  13. 25th anniversary article: ordered polymer structures for the engineering of photons and phonons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Koh, Cheong Yang; Singer, Jonathan P; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Maldovan, Martin; Stein, Ori; Thomas, Edwin L

    2014-01-01

    The engineering of optical and acoustic material functionalities via construction of ordered local and global architectures on various length scales commensurate with and well below the characteristic length scales of photons and phonons in the material is an indispensable and powerful means to develop novel materials. In the current mature status of photonics, polymers hold a pivotal role in various application areas such as light-emission, sensing, energy, and displays, with exclusive advantages despite their relatively low dielectric constants. Moreover, in the nascent field of phononics, polymers are expected to be a superior material platform due to the ability for readily fabricated complex polymer structures possessing a wide range of mechanical behaviors, complete phononic bandgaps, and resonant architectures. In this review, polymer-centric photonic and phononic crystals and metamaterials are highlighted, and basic concepts, fabrication techniques, selected functional polymers, applications, and emerging ideas are introduced.

  14. Phonon symmetries in hexagonal boron nitride probed by incoherent light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Jacques, V.; Van Der Lee, A.; Zobelli, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Gil, B.

    2017-03-01

    Layered compounds are stacks of weakly bound two-dimensional atomic crystals, with a prototypal hexagonal structure in graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and boron nitride. This crystalline anisotropy results in vibrational modes with specific symmetries depending on the in-plane or out-of-plane atomic displacements. We show that polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements in hexagonal boron nitride reflect the phonon symmetries in this layered semiconductor. Experiments performed with a detection on the sample edge, perpendicular to the c-axis, reveal the strong polarization-dependence of the emission lines corresponding to the recombination assisted by the three acoustic phonon modes. We elucidate the dipole orientation of the fundamental indirect exciton. We demonstrate evidence of the so-far missing phonon replica due to the optical out-of-plane phonon mode.

  15. Band structures of two dimensional solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Tian, X. G.; Chen, C. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The hierarchical phononic crystals to be considered show a two-order “hierarchical” feature, which consists of square array arranged macroscopic periodic unit cells with each unit cell itself including four sub-units. Propagation of acoustic wave in such two dimensional solid/air phononic crystals is investigated by the finite element method (FEM) with the Bloch theory. Their band structure, wave filtering property, and the physical mechanism responsible for the broadened band gap are explored. The corresponding ordinary phononic crystal without hierarchical feature is used for comparison. Obtained results show that the solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals possess tunable outstanding band gap features, which are favorable for applications such as sound insulation and vibration attenuation.

  16. Coupling of nitrogen vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by means of phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2013-08-01

    Realizing controlled quantum dynamics via the magnetic interactions between colour centres in diamond remains a challenge despite recent demonstrations for nanometre separated pairs. Here we propose to use the intrinsic acoustical phonons in diamond as a data bus for accomplishing this task. We show that for nanodiamonds the electron-phonon coupling can take significant values that together with mode frequencies in the THz range can serve as a resource for conditional gate operations. Based on these results, we analyse how to use this phonon-induced interaction for constructing quantum gates among the electron-spin triplet ground states, introducing the phonon dependence via Raman transitions. Combined with decoupling pulses this offers the possibility for creating entangled states within nanodiamonds on the scale of several tens of nanometres, a promising prerequisite for quantum sensing applications.

  17. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  18. Phonon dynamics of neptunium chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, Balwant S.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2012-06-01

    We have performed phonon calculations of Neptunium Chalcogenides (NpX) (X= S, Se, Te) based on breathing shell model (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electron of the Np-atoms due to f-d hybridization. The model predicts that the short range breathing phenomenon play a dominant role in the phonon properties. We also report, for the first time specific heat for these compounds.

  19. Electron and Phonon Dynamics in Hexagonal Pd Nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag Sandwich Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sagaguchi, Takuya; Okuhata, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Motohiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2017-02-28

    Pd and its hybrid nanostructures have attracted considerable attention over the past decade, with both catalytic and plasmonic properties. The electron and phonon properties directly govern conversion efficiencies in applications such as energy collectors and photocatalysts. We report the dynamic processes of electron-phonon coupling and coherent acoustic phonon vibration in hexagonal Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag sandwich nanoplates using transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron-phonon coupling constant of Pd nanosheets, GPd-nanosheet (8.7 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)) is larger than that of the bulk GPd (5.0 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)). The effective coupling constant Geff of Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates decreases with increasing Ag shell thickness, finally approaching the bulk GAg. The variation of Geff is explained in terms of reduced density of states near Fermi level of Pd nanosheets with 1.8 nm ultrathin thickness. Coherent acoustic phonon vibration in Pd nanosheets is assigned to a fundamental breathing mode, similar to the vibration of benzene. The period increases with increasing Ag shell thickness. For Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates with 20 nm thick Ag shells, the vibrational mode is ascribed to a quasi-extensional mode. The results show that the modes of the coherent acoustic phonon vibration transform with the geometric variation of Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates. Our results represent an understanding of quantum-confinement related electron dynamics and bulk-like phonon kinetics in the ultrathin Pd nanosheets and their hybrid nanostructures.

  20. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.

    2016-11-01

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements, isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach, the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance via modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where κ values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH ,7L i2H , and 6LiF ) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these κ differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This paper provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.

  1. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    DOE PAGES

    Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2016-11-08

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance viamore » modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH, 7Li2H and 6LiF) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This work provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.« less

  2. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2016-11-08

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance via modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH, 7Li2H and 6LiF) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This work provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.

  3. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  4. Giant Anharmonic Phonon Scattering in PbTe

    SciTech Connect

    Delaire, Olivier A; Ma, Jie; Marty, Karol J; May, Andrew F; McGuire, Michael A; Singh, David J; Lumsden, Mark D; Sales, Brian C; Du, Mao-Hua; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the microscopic processes affecting the bulk thermal conductivity is crucial to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials. PbTe is currently one of the leading thermoelectric materials, largely thanks to its low thermal conductivity. However, the origin of this low thermal conductivity in a simple rocksalt structure has so far been elusive. Using a combination of inelastic neutron scattering measurements and first-principles computations of the phonons, we identify a strong anharmonic coupling between the ferroelectric transverse optic (TO) mode and the longitudinal acoustic (LA) modes in PbTe. This interaction extends over a large portion of reciprocal space, and directly affects the heat-carrying LA phonons. The LA-TO anharmonic coupling is likely to play a central role in explaining the low thermal conductivity of PbTe. The present results provide a microscopic picture of why many good thermoelectric materials are found near a lattice instability of the ferroelectric type.

  5. Anomalous phonon characteristics of unconventional novel III-N superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Talwar, Devki N.

    2014-03-31

    Comprehensive results of atomic vibrations are reported in the unconventional short-period zb BN/GaN superlatices (SLs) by exploiting a rigid-ion-model and taking into account both the short- and long-range Coulomb interactions. Besides anisotropic mode behavior of optical phonons, our study provided evidence of acoustic-mode anti-crossing, mini-gap formation, confinement as well as BN-like modes falling within the gap that separates optical phonon bands of the two materials. A bond-polarizability scheme is employed within the second-nearest-neighbor linear-chain model to simulate the Raman intensity profiles of BN/GaN SLs revealing major expected trends of the vibrational characteristics observed experimentally in many conventional superlattice systems while eliciting some interesting contrasts.

  6. Phonon quarticity induced by changes in phonon-tracked hybridization during lattice expansion and its stabilization of rutile TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; Kim, D. S.; Muñoz, Jorge A.; Smith, Hillary; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Fultz, B.

    2015-08-11

    Although the rutile structure of TiO2 is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO2 from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizing the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.

  7. Comparing the anomalous phonons in Fe(Te,Se) and (Fe,Ni)(Te,Se) via neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeloch, John; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Zaliznyak, Igor; Winn, Barry; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose; Birgeneau, Robert; Xu, Guangyong; Tranquada, John

    We studied the anomalous acoustic-type phonons in the Fe(Te,Se) iron-based superconductor family that arise from the (100) Bragg peak, which is forbidden according to the reported crystal structure for these materials. Inelastic neutron scattering was performed on superconducting and non-superconducting crystals of various compositions. The (100) phonons were much weaker in a non-superconducting nickel-doped crystal than in a superconducting crystal with similar selenium fraction, but comparison with another non-superconducting crystal suggests the difference is not simply related to superconductivity. This composition dependence was observed for both transverse and longitudinal phonons. The temperature dependences of the (100) phonons resembled those of conventional phonons. We will discuss these results and possible explanations for the relation between composition and lattice dynamics in this system.

  8. Revealing the mechanism of passive transport in lipid bilayers via phonon-mediated nanometre-scale density fluctuations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Bolmatov, Dima; Soloviov, Dmitry; ...

    2016-05-12

    We report the high resolution inelastic x-ray study of the in-plane phonon excitations in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) above and below main transition temperature. In the Lβ' gel phase, we observe high frequency longitudinal phonon mode previously predicted by the molecular dynamics simulations and for the first time, we reveal low frequency weakly dispersive transverse acoustic mode which softens and exhibits a low-frequency phonon gap when the DPPC lipid transitions into the Lα fluid phase. The phonon softening of the high frequency longitudinal excitations and the transformation of the transverse excitations upon the phase transition from the Lβ' to Lα phasemore » is explained within the framework of the phonon theory of liquids. These findings illustrate the importance of the collective dynamics of biomembranes and reveal that hydrocarbon tails can act as an efficient mediator in controlling the passive transport across the bilayer plane.« less

  9. Anomalous Infrared Spectra of Hybridized Phonons in Type-I Clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kei; Kushibiki, Shunsuke; Honda, Hironori; Kajitani, Shuhei; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hideki; Toyota, Naoki; Suekuni, Koichiro; Avila, Marcos A.; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2013-02-01

    The optical conductivity spectra of the rattling phonons in the clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30 are investigated in detail by use of the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiment has revealed that the lowest-lying vibrational mode of Ba(2)2+ ions consist of a sharp Lorentzian peak at 1.2 THz superimposed on a broad tail weighted in the lower frequency regime around 1.0 THz. With decreasing temperature, an unexpected linewidth broadening of the phonon peak is observed, together with monotonic softening of the phonon peak and enhancement of the tail structure. These observed anomalies are discussed in terms of impurity scattering effects on the hybridized phonon system of rattling and acoustic phonons.

  10. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-02-10

    In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.

  11. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3

    DOE PAGES

    Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; ...

    2015-02-10

    In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in thismore » multiferroic material are coupled.« less

  12. Phonon-drag thermopower and hot-electron energy-loss rate in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron system.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2013-07-03

    We theoretically study the phonon-drag contribution to the thermoelectric power and the hot-electron energy-loss rate in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron system in the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime. We assume that electrons interact with longitudinal acoustic phonons through a deformation potential and with both longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons through a piezoelectric potential. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the magnitude and temperature dependence of the phonon-drag thermoelectric power and hot-electron energy-loss rate is discussed. We numerically extract the exponent of temperature dependence of the phonon-drag thermopower and the energy-loss rate. We find that the exponents are suppressed due to the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling.

  13. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  14. Spectral phonon mean free path and thermal conductivity accumulation in defected graphene: The effects of defect type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianli; Ruan, Xiulin; Ye, Zhenqiang; Cao, Bingyang

    2015-06-01

    The spectral phonon properties in defected graphene have been unclear due to the lack of advanced techniques for predicting the phonon-defect scattering rate without fitting parameters. Taking advantage of the extended phonon normal mode analysis, we obtained the spectral phonon relaxation time and mean free path (MFP) in defected graphene and studied the impacts of three common types of defects: Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defect, double vacancy (DV), and monovacancy (MV). The phonon-STW defect scattering rate is found to have no significant frequency dependence, and as a result, the relative contribution of long-wavelength phonons sharply decreases. In contrast, the phonon scattering by DVs or MVs exhibits a frequency dependence of τp-d -1˜ω1.1 -1.3 except for a few long-wavelength phonons, revisiting the traditionally used ˜ω4 dependence. We note that although MV-defected graphene has the lowest thermal conductivity as compared to the other two defected graphene samples at the same defect concentration, it has a portion of phonons with the longest MFP. The contribution from the long-MFP and long-wavelength phonons does not decrease much as the vacancy concentration increases. STW defect and MV block more out-of-plane modes than in-plane modes, while DV has less bias for which mode to block. As the MV concentration increases from 0 to 1.1%, the relative contribution from out-of-plane modes decreases from 30% to 18%, while that of the transverse acoustic mode remains at around 30%. These findings of spectral phonon properties can provide more insight than the effective properties and benefit the prospective phononic engineering.

  15. Direct measurement of lattice dynamics and optical phonon excitation in semiconductor nanocrystals using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Daniel C; Brown, Kristen E; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Co, Dick T; Schaller, Richard D

    2013-09-06

    We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy measurements of lattice dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize longitudinal optical (LO) phonon production during confinement-enhanced, ultrafast intraband relaxation. Stimulated Raman signals from unexcited CdSe nanocrystals produce a spectral shape similar to spontaneous Raman signals. Upon photoexcitation, stimulated Raman amplitude decreases owing to experimentally resolved ultrafast phonon generation rates within the lattice. We find a ∼600  fs, particle-size-independent depletion time attributed to hole cooling, evidence of LO-to-acoustic down-conversion, and LO phonon mode softening.

  16. Surface-phonon dispersion of a NiO(100) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, K. L.; Polzin, S.; Saha, S. K.; Brovko, O.; Stepanyuk, V.; Widdra, W.

    2013-06-01

    A well-ordered 25 ML epitaxial NiO(100) film on Ag(100) as prepared by layer-by-layer growth has been characterized by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Six different phonon branches have been identified in the Γ¯X¯ direction of the surface Brillouin zone and are compared with first-principles phonon calculations. Whereas the surface Rayleigh mode shows a strong upward dispersion of 173 cm-1 in agreement with observations for the NiO(100) single crystal, the other surface phonons and surface resonances show only smaller dispersion widths in Γ¯X¯ direction. The Wallis and the Lucas phonons are localized at 425 and 367 cm-1 at the Γ¯ point, respectively. Additionally, two phonons are identified that have stronger weight at the zone boundary at 194 and 285 cm-1 and that become surface resonances at the zone center. The dominant spectral feature is the Fuchs-Kliewer (FK) phonon polariton at 559 cm-1, which is excited by dipole scattering and exhibits a rather broad non-Lorentzian lineshape. The lineshape is explained by a FK splitting resulting from the splitting of bulk optical phonons due to antiferromagnetic order. This view is supported by calculations of the surface-loss function from bulk reflectivity data.

  17. Universal relationships for the phonon spectra in BCC, FCC, and HCP crystals with a short-range interatomic interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vaks, V. G. Zhuravlev, I. A.; Zabolotskii, A. D.

    2012-03-15

    The frequencies of the phonon branches that correspond to the vibrations of the close-packed atomic planes in bcc, fcc, and hcp crystals with short-range interatomic interaction are shown to be described by a universal relationship, which only contains two parameters for each branch, for any polarization {lambda}. These phonon branches correspond to the ({xi}, {xi}, 0) direction in bcc crystals, the ({xi}, {xi}, {xi}) direction in fcc crystals, and the (0, 0, {xi}) direction in hcp crystals. This universal relationship can only be violated by long-range interactions, namely, the interactions outside the sixth coordination shell in a bcc crystal, the fifth coordination shell in an fcc crystal, and the eleventh or tenth coordination shell in an hcp crystal. The effect of these long-range interactions for each phonon branch can be quantitatively characterized by certain parameters {Delta}{sub n{lambda}}, which are simply expressed in terms of the frequencies of three phonons of the branch. The values of these parameters are presented for all bcc, fcc, and hcp metals whose phonon spectra are measured. In most cases, the proposed relationships for the frequencies are found to be fulfilled accurate to several percent. In the cases where the {Delta}{sub n{lambda}} parameters are not small, they can give substantial information on the type and scale of long-range interaction effects in various metals.

  18. Nonmonotonic Diameter Dependence of Thermal Conductivity of Extremely Thin Si Nanowires: Competition between Hydrodynamic Phonon Flow and Boundary Scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanguang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming

    2017-02-08

    By carefully and systematically performing Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the thermal conductivity (κ) of Si nanowires (NWs) does not diverge but converges and increases steeply when NW diameter (D) becomes extremely small (dκ/dD < 0), a long debate of one-dimensional heat conduction in history. The κ of the thinnest possible Si NWs reaches a superhigh level that is as large as more than 1 order of magnitude higher than its bulk counterpart. The abnormality is explained in terms of the dominant normal (N) process (energy and momentum conservation) of low frequency acoustic phonons that induces hydrodynamic phonon flow in the Si NWs without being scattered. With D increasing, the downward shift of optical phonons triggers strong Umklapp (U) scattering with acoustic phonons and attenuates the N process, leading to the regime of phonon boundary scattering (dκ/dD < 0). The two competing mechanisms result in nonmonotonic diameter dependence of κ with minima at critical diameter of 2-3 nm. Our results unambiguously demonstrate the converged κ and the clear trend of κ ∼ D for extremely thin Si NWs by fully elucidating the competition between the hydrodynamic phonon flow and phonon boundary scattering.

  19. Electron-phonon coupling and thermal transport in the thermoelectric compound Mo3Sb7–xTex

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Chen W.; Said, Ayman H.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.

    2015-12-07

    Phonon properties of Mo3Sb7–xTex (x = 0, 1.5, 1.7), a potential high-temperature thermoelectric material, have been studied with inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering, and with first-principles simulations. The substitution of Te for Sb leads to pronounced changes in the electronic struc- ture, local bonding, phonon density of states (DOS), dispersions, and phonon lifetimes. Alloying with tellurium shifts the Fermi level upward, near the top of the valence band, resulting in a strong suppression of electron-phonon screening, and a large overall stiffening of interatomic force- constants. The suppression in electron-phonon coupling concomitantly increases group velocities and suppresses phonon scattering rates, surpassing the effects of alloy-disorder scattering, and re- sulting in a surprising increased lattice thermal conductivity in the alloy. We also identify that the local bonding environment changes non-uniformly around different atoms, leading to variable perturbation strengths for different optical phonon branches. The respective roles of changes in phonon group velocities and phonon lifetimes on the lattice thermal conductivity are quantified. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the electron-phonon coupling on phonon mean-free-paths in this compound, and also estimates the contributions from boundary scattering, umklapp scattering, and point-defect scattering.

  20. Phonons in active microfluidic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    One-dimensional crystals of driven particles confined in quasi two-dimensional microfluidic channels have been shown to exhibit propagating sound waves in the form of 'phonons', including both transverse and longitudinal normal modes. Here, we focus on one-dimensional crystals of motile particles in uniform external flows. We study the propagation of phonons in the context of an idealized model that accounts for hydrodynamic interactions among the motile particles. We obtain a closed-form analytical expression for the dispersion relation of the phonons. In the moving frame of reference of the crystals, the traveling directions of the phonons depend on the intensity of the external flow, and are exactly opposite for the transverse and longitudinal modes. We further investigate the stability of the phonons and show that the longitudinal mode is linearly stable, whereas the transverse mode is subject to an instability arising from the activity and orientation dynamics of the motile particles. These findings are important for understanding the propagation of disturbances and instabilities in confined motile particles, and could generate practical insights into the transport of motile cells in microfluidic devices.

  1. Band structures in the nematic elastomers phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2017-02-01

    As one kind of new intelligent materials, nematic elastomers (NEs) represent an exciting physical system that combines the local orientational symmetry breaking and the entropic rubber elasticity, producing a number of unique physical phenomena. In this paper, the potential application of NEs in the band tuning is explored. The band structures in two kinds of NE phononic crystals (PCs) are investigated. Through changing NE intrinsic parameters, the influence of the porosity, director rotation and relaxation on the band structures in NE PCs are analyzed. This work is a meaningful try for application of NEs in acoustic field and proposes a new intelligent strategy in band turning.

  2. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... search IRSA's site Unique Hits since January 2003 Acoustic Neuroma Click Here for Acoustic Neuroma Practice Guideline ... to microsurgery. One doctor's story of having an acoustic neuroma In August 1991, Dr. Thomas F. Morgan ...

  3. Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Prafulla K. E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com; Soni, Himadri R.

    2014-01-14

    In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k{sup →} while out of plane mode varies as k{sup 2}. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.

  4. Influence of magnetism on phonons in CaFe2As2 as seen via inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.E.; Lee, Y.; Ni, N.; Canfield, P.C.; Goldman, A.I.; McQueeney, R.J.; Harmon, B.N.; Alatas, A.; Leu, B.M.; Alp, E.E.; Chung, D.Y.; Todorov, I.S.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    2009-06-19

    In the iron pnictides, the strong sensitivity of the iron magnetic moment to the arsenic position suggests a significant relationship between phonons and magnetism. We measured the phonon dispersion of several branches in the high-temperature tetragonal phase of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} using inelastic x-ray scattering on single-crystal samples. These measurements were compared to ab initio calculations of the phonons. Spin-polarized calculations imposing the antiferromagnetic order present in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase dramatically improve agreement between theory and experiment. This is discussed in terms of the strong antiferromagnetic correlations that are known to persist in the tetragonal phase.

  5. Phonon dynamics of americium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Ahirwar, Ashok K.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    We report for the first time the complete phonon dispersion curves for Americium telluride (AmTe) using a breathing shell models (BSM) to establish their predominant ionic nature. The results obtained in the present study show the general features of the phonon spectrum. We could not compare our results with the experimental measurements as they are not available so far. We emphasize the need of neutron scattering measurements to compare our results. We also report, for the first time specific heat for this compound.

  6. Scattering of phonons by vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Ratsifaritana, C.A.; Klemens, P.G.

    1987-11-01

    The scattering of phonons by vacancies is estimated by a perturbation technique in terms of the missing mass and the missing linkages. An argument is given why distortion effects can be disregarded. The resonance frequency of the defect is sufficiently high so that resonance effects can be disregarded for phonons in the important frequency range for thermal conduction. The theory is applied to the thermal resistance by vacancies in cases where the vacancy concentration is known: potassium chloride with divalent cations, nonstoichiometric zirconium carbide, and tin telluride.

  7. Generation and detection of incoherent phonons in picosecond ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Perrin, B; Péronne, E; Belliard, L

    2006-12-22

    In picosecond ultrasonics experiments the absorption of a femtosecond laser pulse in a thin metallic transducer is used to generate very short acoustic pulses. These pulses are made of coherent longitudinal waves with a frequency spectrum that can reach 100-200 GHz. The laser pulse absorption gives rise to a heating of the film of a few Kelvin within a typical time of 1 ps. Later on, the heat goes in the substrate through an interface thermal resistance and is diffused by thermal conduction. At very low temperature and in pure crystals the thermal phonons emitted by the heated metallic film can propagate ballistically over large distances and produce a so-called heat pulse. We report on the experimental evidence of the coexistence of the coherent acoustic pulse and the incoherent heat pulse generated and detected by laser ultrasonics.

  8. Modulations of thermal properties of graphene by strain-induced phonon engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Kento; Funatani, Takashi; Konabe, Satoru; Sasaoka, Kenji; Ogawa, Matsuto; Souma, Satofumi; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2017-02-01

    Modulation of the thermal properties of graphene due to strain-induced phononic band engineering was theoretically investigated by first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The high-energy phonon modes are found to exhibit softening owing to the strain, whereas a low-energy acoustic mode (out-of-plane mode) exhibits hardening. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the out-of-plane mode associated with the strain essentially changes from quadratic (∝ k 2) to linear (∝ k). Accordingly, the temperature dependence of the low-temperature specific heat also changes from linear (∝ T) to quadratic (∝ T 2).

  9. The effects of substrate phonon mode scattering on transport in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Perebeinos, Vasili; Rotkin, Slava V; Petrov, Alexey G; Avouris, Phaedon

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have large intrinsic carrier mobility due to weak acoustic phonon scattering. However, unlike two-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), substrate surface polar phonon (SPP) scattering has a dramatic effect on the CNTFET mobility, due to the reduced vertical dimensions of the latter. We find that for the van der Waals distance between CNT and an SiO2 substrate, the low-field mobility at room temperature is reduced by almost an order of magnitude depending on the tube diameter. We predict additional experimental signatures of the SPP mechanism in dependence of the mobility on density, temperature, tube diameter, and CNT-substrate separation.

  10. Current & Heat Transport in Graphene Nanoribbons: Role of Non-Equilibrium Phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Gary; Finkenstadt, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    The conducting channel of a graphitic nanoscale device is expected to experience a larger degree of thermal isolation when compared to traditional inversion channels of electronic devices. This leads to enhanced non-equilibrium phonon populations which are likely to adversely affect the mobility of graphene-based nanoribbons due to enhanced phonon scattering. Recent reports indicating the importance of carrier scattering with substrate surface polar optical phonons in carbon nanotubes^1 and graphene^2,3 show that this mechanism may allow enhanced heat removal from the nanoribbon channel. To investigate the effects of hot phonon populations on current and heat conduction, we solve the graphene nanoribbon multiband Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo transport techniques are used since phonon populations may be tracked and updated temporally.^4 The electronic structure is solved using the NRL Tight-Binding method,^5 where carriers are scattered by confined acoustic, optical, edge and substrate polar optical phonons. [1] S. V. Rotkin et al., Nano Lett. 9, 1850 (2009). [2] J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami and M. S. Fuhrer, Nature Nanotech. 3, 206 (2008). [3] V. Perebeinos and P. Avouris, arXiv:0910.4665v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (2009). [4] P. Lugli et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1251 (1987). [5] D. Finkenstadt, G. Pennington & M.J. Mehl, Phys. Rev. B 76, 121405(R) (2007).

  11. Low temperature phonon-drag thermopower in a monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargavi, K. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-06-24

    Phonon-drag thermopower S{sup g} is studied theoretically in a monolayer MoS{sub 2} as a function of temperature T. Electron-acoustic phonon (el-ap) interaction via deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA (LA) phonons is taken to be unscreened (screened) and piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is taken to be screened. S{sup g} due to DP coupling of TA phonons is found to be dominant over all other mechanisms. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime power law S{sup g} ∼ T{sup 3} (T {sup 5}) is predicted for unscreened (screened) el-ap interaction a characteristic of two-dimensional phonons with linear dispersion. Screening strongly suppresses S{sup g} due to large effective mass of the electrons. We find that, S{sup g} due to screened DP and PE couplings are nearly same in contrast with the results in GaAs heterojunctions. With the increasing T its exponent decreases and reaches a sublinear value.

  12. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-07

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  13. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-01

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  14. Coherent phonon-grain boundary scattering in silicon inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Parajuli, Bibek R; Ghossoub, Marc G; Mihi, Agustin; Sadhu, Jyothi; Braun, Paul V; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2013-02-13

    We report measurements and modeling of thermal conductivity in periodic three-dimensional dielectric nanostructures, silicon inverse opals. Such structures represent a three-dimensional "phononic crystal" but affect heat flow instead of acoustics. Employing the Stober method, we fabricate high quality silica opal templates that on filling with amorphous silicon, etching and recrystallizing produce silicon inverse opals. The periodicities and shell thicknesses are in the range 420-900 and 18-38 nm, respectively. The thermal conductivity of inverse opal films are relatively low, ~0.6-1.4 W/mK at 300 K and arise due to macroscopic bending of heat flow lines in the structure. The corresponding material thermal conductivity is in the range 5-12 W/mK and has an anomalous ~T(1.8) dependence at low temperatures, distinct from the typical ~T(3) behavior of bulk polycrystalline silicon. Using phonon scattering theory, we show such dependence arising from coherent phonon reflections in the intergrain region. This is consistent with an unconfirmed theory proposed in 1955. The low thermal conductivity is significant for applications in photonics where they imply significant temperature rise at relatively low absorption and in thermoelectrics, where they suggest the possibility of enhancement in the figure of merit for polysilicon with optimal doping.

  15. Phonon impedance matching: minimizing interfacial thermal resistance of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos; Zhang, Jingjie; Ghosh, Avik

    2014-03-01

    The challenge to minimize interfacial thermal resistance is to allow a broad band spectrum of phonons, with non-linear dispersion and well defined translational and rotational symmetries, to cross the interface. We explain how to minimize this resistance using a frequency dependent broadening matrix that generalizes the notion of acoustic impedance to the whole phonon spectrum including symmetries. We show how to ``match'' two given materials by joining them with a single atomic layer, with a multilayer material and with a graded superlattice. Atomic layer ``matching'' requires a layer with a mass close to the arithmetic mean (or spring constant close to the harmonic mean) to favor high frequency phonon transmission. For multilayer ``matching,'' we want a material with a broadening close to the geometric mean to maximize transmission peaks. For graded superlattices, a continuous sequence of geometric means translates to an exponentially varying broadening that generates a wide-band antireflection coating for both the coherent and incoherent limits. Our results are supported by ``first principles'' calculations of thermal conductance for GaAs / Gax Al1 - x As / AlAs thin films using the Non-Equilibrium Greens Function formalism coupled with Density Functional Perturbation Theory. NSF-CAREER (QMHP 1028883), NSF-IDR (CBET 1134311), XSEDE.

  16. Enhancement of phonon backscattering due to confinement of ballistic phonon pathways in silicon as studied with a microfabricated phonon spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Otelaja, O. O.; Robinson, R. D.

    2015-10-26

    In this work, the mechanism for enhanced phonon backscattering in silicon is investigated. An understanding of phonon propagation through substrates has implications for engineering heat flow at the nanoscale, for understanding sources of decoherence in quantum systems, and for realizing efficient phonon-mediated particle detectors. In these systems, phonons that backscatter from the bottom of substrates, within the crystal or from interfaces, often contribute to the overall detector signal. We utilize a microscale phonon spectrometer, comprising superconducting tunnel junction emitters and detectors, to specifically probe phonon backscattering in silicon substrates (∼500 μm thick). By etching phonon “enhancers” or deep trenches (∼90 μm) around the detectors, we show that the backscattered signal level increases by a factor of ∼2 for two enhancers versus one enhancer. Using a geometric analysis of the phonon pathways, we show that the mechanism of the backscattered phonon enhancement is due to confinement of the ballistic phonon pathways and increased scattering off the enhancer walls. Our result is applicable to the geometric design and patterning of substrates that are employed in phonon-mediated detection devices.

  17. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  18. Negative refraction imaging of acoustic metamaterial lens in the supersonic range

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jianning; Wen, Tingdun; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lu

    2014-05-15

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative refraction index is the most promising method to overcome the diffraction limit of acoustic imaging to achieve ultrahigh resolution. In this paper, we use localized resonant phononic crystal as the unit cell to construct the acoustic negative refraction lens. Based on the vibration model of the phononic crystal, negative quality parameters of the lens are obtained while excited near the system resonance frequency. Simulation results show that negative refraction of the acoustic lens can be achieved when a sound wave transmiting through the phononic crystal plate. The patterns of the imaging field agree well with that of the incident wave, while the dispersion is very weak. The unit cell size in the simulation is 0.0005 m and the wavelength of the sound source is 0.02 m, from which we show that acoustic signal can be manipulated through structures with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave.

  19. Nanoscale control of phonon excitations in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Wonhee; Ku, JiYeon; Jeon, Insu; Kim, Donggyu; Kwon, Hyeokshin; Oh, Youngtek; Ryu, Seunghwa; Kuk, Young; Hwang, Sung Woo; Suh, Hwansoo

    2015-01-01

    Phonons, which are collective excitations in a lattice of atoms or molecules, play a major role in determining various physical properties of condensed matter, such as thermal and electrical conductivities. In particular, phonons in graphene interact strongly with electrons; however, unlike in usual metals, these interactions between phonons and massless Dirac fermions appear to mirror the rather complicated physics of those between light and relativistic electrons. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics through systematic studies of phonon interactions and excitations in graphene is crucial for realising graphene-based devices. In this study, we demonstrate that the local phonon properties of graphene can be controlled at the nanoscale by tuning the interaction strength between graphene and an underlying Pt substrate. Using scanning probe methods, we determine that the reduced interaction due to embedded Ar atoms facilitates electron–phonon excitations, further influencing phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunnelling. PMID:26109454

  20. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  1. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  2. Giant Phonon Anharmonicity and Anomalous Pressure Dependence of Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Y2Si2O7 silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yixiu; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Yiran; Wang, Jingyang

    2016-07-01

    Modification of lattice thermal conductivity (κL) of a solid by means of hydrostatic pressure (P) has been a crucially interesting approach that targets a broad range of advanced materials from thermoelectrics and thermal insulators to minerals in mantle. Although it is well documented knowledge that thermal conductivity of bulk materials normally increase upon hydrostatic pressure, such positive relationship is seriously challenged when it comes to ceramics with complex crystal structure and heterogeneous chemical bonds. In this paper, we predict an abnormally negative trend dκL/dP < 0 in Y2Si2O7 silicate using density functional theoretical calculations. The mechanism is disclosed as combined effects of slightly decreased group velocity and significantly augmented scattering of heat-carrying acoustic phonons in pressured lattice, which is originated from pressure-induced downward shift of low-lying optic and acoustic phonons. The structural origin of low-lying optic phonons as well as the induced phonon anharmonicity is also qualitatively elucidated with respect to intrinsic bonding heterogeneity of Y2Si2O7. The present results are expected to bring deeper insights for phonon engineering and modulation of thermal conductivity in complex solids with diverging structural flexibility, enormous bonding heterogeneity, and giant phonon anharmonicity.

  3. Giant Phonon Anharmonicity and Anomalous Pressure Dependence of Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Y2Si2O7 silicate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yixiu; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Yiran; Wang, Jingyang

    2016-01-01

    Modification of lattice thermal conductivity (κL) of a solid by means of hydrostatic pressure (P) has been a crucially interesting approach that targets a broad range of advanced materials from thermoelectrics and thermal insulators to minerals in mantle. Although it is well documented knowledge that thermal conductivity of bulk materials normally increase upon hydrostatic pressure, such positive relationship is seriously challenged when it comes to ceramics with complex crystal structure and heterogeneous chemical bonds. In this paper, we predict an abnormally negative trend dκL/dP < 0 in Y2Si2O7 silicate using density functional theoretical calculations. The mechanism is disclosed as combined effects of slightly decreased group velocity and significantly augmented scattering of heat-carrying acoustic phonons in pressured lattice, which is originated from pressure-induced downward shift of low-lying optic and acoustic phonons. The structural origin of low-lying optic phonons as well as the induced phonon anharmonicity is also qualitatively elucidated with respect to intrinsic bonding heterogeneity of Y2Si2O7. The present results are expected to bring deeper insights for phonon engineering and modulation of thermal conductivity in complex solids with diverging structural flexibility, enormous bonding heterogeneity, and giant phonon anharmonicity. PMID:27430670

  4. Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os

    DOE PAGES

    Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; ...

    2015-03-31

    The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads tomore » softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less

  5. Energy loss to intravalley acoustic modes in nano-dimensional wire structures at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S.; Das, B.; Basu, A.; Das, J.; Bhattacharya, D. P.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The theory of rate of loss of energy of non-equilibrium electrons due to inelastic interaction with the intravalley acoustic phonons in a nano-dimensional semiconductor wire has been developed under the condition of low lattice temperature, when the approximations of the well known traditional theory are not valid. Numerical results are obtained for narrow-channel GaAs-GaAlAs wires structures. On comparison with other available results it is revealed that the finite energy of the intravalley acoustic phonons and, the use of the full form of the phonon distribution without truncation to the equipartition law, produce significant changes in the energy loss characteristics at low temperatures.

  6. Phonon assisted resonant tunneling and its phonons control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmartsev, F. V.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Filatov, D. O.; Shorokhov, A. V.; Bukharaev, A. A.; Dakhnovsky, Y.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Pyataev, N. A.; Zaytsev, R. V.; Krevchik, P. V.; Egorov, I. A.; Yamamoto, K.; Aringazin, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    We observe a series of sharp resonant features in the tunneling differential conductance of InAs quantum dots. We found that dissipative quantum tunneling has a strong influence on the operation of nanodevices. Because of such tunneling the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel contact created between atomic force microscope tip and a surface of InAs/GaAs quantum dots display many interesting peaks. We found that the number, position, and heights of these peaks are associated with the phonon modes involved. To describe the found effect we use a quasi-classical approximation. There the tunneling current is related to a creation of a dilute instanton-anti-instanton gas. Our experimental data are well described with exactly solvable model where one charged particle is weakly interacting with two promoting phonon modes associated with external medium. We conclude that the characteristics of the tunnel nanoelectronic devices can thus be controlled by a proper choice of phonons existing in materials, which are involved.

  7. Ab initio study of phonon-induced dephasing of plasmon excitations in silver quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhenyu; Habenicht, Bradley F.; Liang, Wan-Zhen; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2010-03-01

    Phonon-induced pure dephasing of electronic excitations in silver quantum dots (QDs) is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics at ambient and low temperatures. Three types of electronic states are studied corresponding to bulk, surface, and plasmon excitations. The electron-phonon coupling is strongest for bulk states and decreases for surface and plasmon states. The plasmon states dephase within 30-40 fs, which is consistent with the recent experiments [M. Z. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035418 (2009)]. The dephasing time shows weak dependence on the QD size but changes significantly with temperature. The bulk, surface, and plasmon states couple primarily to low-frequency acoustic phonons.

  8. Amplitude-dependent phononic processes in a diatomic granular chain in the weakly nonlinear regime.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Jérémy; Tournat, Vincent; Béquin, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear acoustic processes of second harmonic generation and nonlinear resonances in a diatomic granular chain (a granular phononic crystal) with static precompression are reported. The observed nonlinear self-action process which manifests itself as shifts in resonance frequencies of the chain leads to amplitude-dependent band edges: the properties of the phononic crystal change as a function of wave amplitude. Observed nonlinear effects at the band edges are exceptionally strong (self-induced attenuation and self-induced transparency) due to the peculiar frequency dependence of the attenuation in these frequency regions. The reported effects open the way for applications in wave tailoring by nonlinear phononic crystals, using amplitude-dependent processes, such as passive amplitude-dependent attenuators or amplifiers and various logical elements.

  9. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D.; Li, Ju

    2015-09-01

    PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.

  10. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D; Li, Ju

    2015-09-23

    PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.

  11. A new type of magnetoresistance oscillations: Interaction of a two-dimensional electron gas with leaky interface phonons

    SciTech Connect

    ZUDOV,M.A.; PONOMAREV,I.V.; EFROS,A.L.; DU,R.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.

    2000-05-11

    The authors report a new type of oscillations in magnetoresistance observed in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in GaAs-AIGaAs heterostructures. Being periodic in 1/B these oscillations appear in weak magnetic field (B < 0.3 T) and only in a narrow temperature range (3 K < T < 7 K). Remarkably, these oscillations can be understood in terms of magneto-phonon resonance originating from the interaction of 2DEG and leaky interface-acoustic phonon modes. The existence of such modes on the GaAs:AIGaAs interface is demonstrated theoretically and their velocities are calculated. It is shown that the electron-phonon scattering matrix element exhibits a peak for the phonons carrying momentum q = 2k{sub F} (k{sub F} is the Fermi wave-vector of 2DEG).

  12. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  13. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  14. Phonon transport at the interfaces of vertically stacked graphene and hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish

    2016-02-21

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C-B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C-N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C-B matched interfaces have stronger phonon-phonon coupling than the C-N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C-B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.

  15. Phonon transport at the interfaces of vertically stacked graphene and hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish

    2016-02-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C-B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C-N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C-B matched interfaces have stronger phonon-phonon coupling than the C-N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C-B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.

  16. Measuring phonons in protein crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward; Markelz, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Using Terahertz near field microscopy we find orientation dependent narrow band absorption features for lysozyme crystals. Here we discuss identification of protein collective modes associated with the observed features. Using normal mode calculations we find good agreement with several of the measured features, suggesting that the modes arise from internal molecular motions and not crystal phonons. Such internal modes have been associated with protein function.

  17. Prospective Solid-state Photonic Cryocooler Based on the "Phonon-deficit Effect"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkonyan, Gurgen; Gulian, Armen

    In this design microwave photons are propagating in a sapphire rod, and are being absorbed by a superconductor deposited on the surface of the rod. The frequency of the radiation is tuned to be less than the energy gap in the superconductor, so that the pair breaking is not taking place. This photon pumping redistributes the electron-hole quasiparticles: their distribution function is non-equilibrium, and the "phonon-deficit effect" takes place. There is a dielectric material deposited on top of superconductor, which serves asthe "cold finger" of the cooler. Its "acoustical density" is supposed to be smaller than that of the superconducting material, so phonons are being "rectified" and propagate from, but not to it: the energy flows from the "cold finger" into the superconductor. The best reported rectification achieved as of today is about factor of five, which is marginal for our design. To further enhance the rectification, one can use the acoustical filtering. It can be arranged between the superconductor and the "cold finger". Having a remarkably high heat conductivity and high acoustic density, the sapphire rod serves not only as a photonic wave-guide, but also as a thermal heat sink. It is thermally anchored to the bigger external heat-bath. Spectral phonon filters are arranged between sapphire and superconducting film, so that sapphire would only receive and absorb excess phonons without supplying deficient phonons to the superconductor. We performed calculations using parameters of existing materials;majordetails characterizing the designhave been taken into account. Opportunities are "cool" enough to be pursued experimentally.

  18. The manipulation of self-collimated beam in phononic crystals composed of orientated rectangular inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chia-Nien; Chen, Lien-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Self-collimation is wave propagation in straight path without diffraction. The performance is evaluated by bandwidth, angular collimating range and straightness of equi-frequency contours. The present study aims to manipulate the self-collimated beam in square-array phononic crystals by means of orientated rectangular inclusions. Finite element simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio and orientation angle of rectangular inclusions on the self-collimated beam. The simulation results show that the proposed design successfully achieves all-angle self-collimation phenomenon. In addition, it also shows that the propagation direction of a self-collimated beam can be effectively manipulated by varying the orientation angle of inclusions. Numerical simulation result of the S-shaped bend demonstrates that acoustic collimated beam can be steered with negligible diffraction. Overall, the proposed design has significant potential for the realization of applications such as collimators, acoustic waveguides and other phononic crystals-based systems.

  19. Phonon-Induced Dephasing of Excitons in Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Multiple Exciton Generation, Fission, and Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Angeline; Kim, Hyeon-Deuk; Habenicht, Bradley; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2010-03-01

    Phonon-induced dephasing processes that govern optical line widths, multiple exciton (ME) generation (MEG), and ME fission (MEF) in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Using Si QDs as an example, we propose that MEF occurs by phonon-induced dephasing and, for the first time, estimate its time scale to be 100 fs. In contrast, luminescence and MEG dephasing times are all sub-10 fs. Generally, dephasing is faster for higher-energy and higher-order excitons and increased temperatures. MEF is slow because it is facilitated only by low-frequency acoustic modes. Luminescence and MEG couple to both acoustic and optical modes of the QD, as well as ligand vibrations. The detailed atomistic simulation of the dephasing processes advances understanding of exciton dynamics in QDs and other nanoscale materials.

  20. Using van Hove singularities of the two-phonon density of states to investigate the intrinsically localized vibrations of NaI crystal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agyare, Benjamin; Riseborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically Localized Modes (ILMs) have purportedly been observed in NaI but only for wave-vectors, q at the corner of the 3-D Brillouin Zone. It has been suggested that, for high-symmetry q vectors, several van Hove singularities may converge at one frequency producing a large peak in the two-phonon density of state and giving rise to ILMs with these q values. We fit the experimentally determined acoustic and the optic phonon modes using a nearest neighbor and a next-nearest neighbor force constant. We find that the two-phonon density of states, for fixed q exhibits non-divergent van Hove singularities. The frequencies of these features are found to vary as q is varied. We intend to search for q values at which the two-phonon density of states is enhanced and then examine whether the anharmonic interactions can bind the two-phonon excitations to produce a quantized ILM.

  1. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Check, Michael H; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Robinson, Joshua A; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-02-22

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Check, Michael H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature. PMID:28225066

  3. Scanning phononic lattices with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.; Every, A.V.

    1999-11-01

    A method for probing the elastic properties of newly developed periodic structures using acoustic waves is introduced. Highly anisotropic transmission of surface acoustic waves is observed by continuously scanning the wave vector angle. Preliminary models of wave propagation through multilayers and two-dimensional lattices explain some of the experimental features, while other features can be attributed to the resonant excitation of interface waves. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  5. Coherent Phonon Rabi Oscillations with a High-Frequency Carbon Nanotube Phonon Cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Kong, Wei-Cheng; Deng, Guang-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guang-Can; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-02-08

    Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics. The first- and second-order coherent phonon transfers are observed with Rabi frequencies 591 and 125 kHz, respectively. The frequency quality factor product fQm ∼ 2 × 10(12) Hz achieved here is larger than kBTbase/h, which may enable the future realization of Rabi oscillations in the quantum regime.

  6. Fine structure of the phonon in one dimension from quantum hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Tom; Lamacraft, Austen

    2014-12-01

    We show that the resonant interactions between phonons in one dimension may be treated consistently within quantum hydrodynamics by the introduction of phonon dispersion. In this way the physics of a nonlinear Luttinger liquid may be described in terms of hydrodynamic (i.e., bosonized) variables without the introduction of impurities at the outset, and gives a complementary view on the mobile impurity model from the hydrodynamics. We focus on the calculation of the dynamic structure factor for a model with quadratic dispersion, which has the Benjamin-Ono equation of fluid dynamics as its equation of motion. We find singular behavior in the vicinity of upper and lower energetic thresholds corresponding to phonon and soliton branches of the classical theory, which may be benchmarked against known results for the Calogero-Sutherland model.

  7. A first principle study for the comparison of phonon dispersion of armchair carbon and silicon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandel, Surjeet Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Bharti, Ankush; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    Using first principles density functional theoretical calculations, the present paper reports a systematic study of phonon dispersion curves in pristine carbon (CNT) and silicon nanotubes (SiNT) having chirality (6,6) in the armchair configuration. Some of the phonon modes are found to have negative frequencies which leads to instability of the systems under study. The number of phonon branches has been found to be thrice as much as the number of atoms. The frequency of the higher optical bands varies from 1690 to 1957 cm{sup −1} for CNT(6,6) while it is 596 to 658 cm{sup −1} for SiNT.

  8. Extraordinary lateral beaming of sound from a square-lattice phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Chunyin; He, Hailong; Peng, Shasha; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-03-01

    This work revisits the sound transmission through a finite phononic crystal of square lattice. In addition to a direct, ordinary transmission through the sample, an extraordinary lateral beaming effect is also observed. The phenomenon stems from the equivalence of the states located around the four corners of the first Brillouin zone. The experimental result agrees well with the theoretical prediction. The lateral beaming behavior enables a simple design for realizing acoustic beam splitters.

  9. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  10. Strong coupling between phonons and optical beating in backward Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huy, Kien Phan; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Tchahame, Joël-Cabrel; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2016-10-01

    Brillouin scattering is a fundamental nonlinear interaction between two optical waves and an acoustic wave mediated by electrostriction and photoelasticity. In this paper, we revisit the usual theory of this inelastic scattering to get a joint system in which the acoustic wave is strongly coupled to the interference pattern between the optical waves. We show in particular that when the coupling rate exceeds the phonon damping rate, the system enters the strong-coupling regime, giving rise to anticrossing in the dispersion relation and Rabi-like splitting. We further find numerically that strong coupling can, in principle, be observed using backward Brillouin scattering in subwavelength-diameter optical waveguides.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.

  12. Phonon-induced diamagnetic force and its effect on the lattice thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyungyu; Restrepo, Oscar D; Antolin, Nikolas; Boona, Stephen R; Windl, Wolfgang; Myers, Roberto C; Heremans, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Phonons are displacements of atoms around their rest positions in a crystalline solid. They carry sound and heat, but are not classically associated with magnetism. Here, we show that phonons are, in fact, sensitive to magnetic fields, even in diamagnetic materials. We do so by demonstrating experimentally that acoustic phonons in a diamagnetic semiconductor (InSb) scatter more strongly from one another when a magnetic field is applied. We attribute this observation to the magnetic-field sensitivity of the anharmonicity of the interatomic bonds that govern the probability of phonon-phonon interactions. The displacements of atoms locally affect the orbital motion of valence band electrons, which, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatially modulates the orbital diamagnetism around the displaced atoms. The spatial gradient in magnetic moment results in an anharmonic magnetic force exerted on the displaced atom. The process is modelled by ab initio calculations that, without the use of a single adjustable parameter, reproduce the observed 12% decrease in the lattice thermal conductivity under a 7 T magnetic field at a temperature of 5.2 K.

  13. Influence of phonon reservoir on photon blockade in a driven quantum dot-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhu, Jia-pei; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the influence of the phonon bath on photon blockade in a simultaneously driven dot-cavity system. An optimal condition for avoiding two-photon excitation of a cavity field is put forward which can be achieved by modulating the phase difference and the strengths of the driving fields. The second-order correlation function and the mean photon number of the cavity field are discussed. In the absence of phonon effect, the strong photon blockade in a moderate quantum dot (QD)-cavity coupling regime occurs, which can be attributed to the destructive quantum interference arisen from different transition paths induced by simultaneously driving the dressed QD-cavity system. The participation of acoustic-phonon reservoir produces new transition channels for the QD-cavity system, which leads to the damage of destructive interference. As a result, the photon blockade effect is hindered when taking the electron-phonon interaction into account. It is also found that the temperature of the phonon reservoir is disadvantageous for the generation of photon blockade.

  14. Acoustic Seaglider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    a national naval responsibility. Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial...problem and acoustic navigation and communications within the context of distributed autonomous persistent undersea surveillance sensor networks...Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial coherence and the description of ambient

  15. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  16. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  17. Electron-phonon interactions from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustino, Feliciano

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the theory of electron-phonon interactions in solids from the point of view of ab initio calculations. While the electron-phonon interaction has been studied for almost a century, predictive nonempirical calculations have become feasible only during the past two decades. Today it is possible to calculate from first principles many materials properties related to the electron-phonon interaction, including the critical temperature of conventional superconductors, the carrier mobility in semiconductors, the temperature dependence of optical spectra in direct and indirect-gap semiconductors, the relaxation rates of photoexcited carriers, the electron mass renormalization in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, and the nonadiabatic corrections to phonon dispersion relations. In this article a review of the theoretical and computational framework underlying modern electron-phonon calculations from first principles as well as landmark investigations of the electron-phonon interaction in real materials is given. The first part of the article summarizes the elementary theory of electron-phonon interactions and their calculations based on density-functional theory. The second part discusses a general field-theoretic formulation of the electron-phonon problem and establishes the connection with practical first-principles calculations. The third part reviews a number of recent investigations of electron-phonon interactions in the areas of vibrational spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, transport, and superconductivity.

  18. Phonon-assisted transient electroluminescence in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Chu-Su, Yu; Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-06-30

    The phonon-replica infrared emission is observed at room temperature from indirect band gap Si light-emitting diode under forward bias. With increasing injection current density, the broadened electroluminescence spectrum and band gap reduction are observed due to joule heating. The spectral-resolved temporal response of electroluminescence reveals the competitiveness between single (TO) and dual (TO + TA) phonon-assisted indirect band gap transitions. As compared to infrared emission with TO phonon-replica, the retarder of radiative recombination at long wavelength region (∼1.2 μm) indicates lower transition probability of dual phonon-replica before thermal equivalent.

  19. Effect of Rattling Phonons on Sommerfeld Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    By employing a numerical renormalization group technique, we evaluate electronic specific heat coefficient γ of the Anderson model coupled with local anharmonic phonons for the oscillation of a caged atom. For the rattling-type cage potential with a flat and wide region in the bottom, we find that phonon-mediated attraction is largely enhanced. When the potential shape is deformed from the rattling type, there occurs a cancellation between Coulomb repulsion and the phonon-mediated attraction. In such a situation, spin and charge fluctuations are comparable to each other, leading to the realization of exotic electron-phonon complex state with large and magnetically robust γ.

  20. Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.

  1. Thin Superconducting Film Characterization by Surface Acoustic Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CA ALOG NUMBER ~~AFOSR TR -0 8 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Thin Superconducting ...thin film superconductor surface acoustic waves I SAW electron phonon interaction superconducting energy gap electron mean free path vortex...electrical resistivity and the attenuation of surface ,e J -acoustic waves (SAW) were measured in the superconducting state of a L granular lead film

  2. Nonlinear ultrafast acoustics at the nano scale.

    PubMed

    van Capel, P J S; Péronne, E; Dijkhuis, J I

    2015-02-01

    Pulsed femtosecond lasers can generate acoustic pulses propagating in solids while displaying either diffraction, attenuation, nonlinearity and/or dispersion. When acoustic attenuation and diffraction are negligible, shock waves or solitons can form during propagation. Both wave types are phonon wavepackets with characteristic length scales as short as a few nanometer. Hence, they are well suited for acoustic characterization and manipulation of materials on both ultrafast and ultrashort scales. This work presents an overview of nonlinear ultrasonics since its first experimental demonstration at the beginning of this century to the more recent developments. We start by reviewing the main properties of nonlinear ultrafast acoustic propagation based on the underlying equations. Then we show various results obtained by different groups around the world with an emphasis on recent work. Current issues and directions of future research are discussed.

  3. Applications of time-domain spectroscopy to electron-phonon coupling dynamics at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2014-10-01

    Photochemistry is one of the most important branches in chemistry to promote and control chemical reactions. In particular, there has been growing interest in photoinduced processes at solid surfaces and interfaces with liquids such as water for developing efficient solar energy conversion. For example, photoinduced charge transfer between adsorbates and semiconductor substrates at the surfaces of metal oxides induced by photogenerated holes and electrons is a core process in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. In these photoinduced processes, electron-phonon coupling plays a central role. This paper describes how time-domain spectroscopy is applied to elucidate electron-phonon coupling dynamics at metal and semiconductor surfaces. Because nuclear dynamics induced by electronic excitation through electron-phonon coupling take place in the femtosecond time domain, the pump-and-probe method with ultrashort pulses used in time-domain spectroscopy is a natural choice for elucidating the electron-phonon coupling at metal and semiconductor surfaces. Starting with a phenomenological theory of coherent phonons generated by impulsive electronic excitation, this paper describes a couple of illustrative examples of the applications of linear and nonlinear time-domain spectroscopy to a simple adsorption system, alkali metal on Cu(111), and more complex photocatalyst systems.

  4. Thermal Boundary Resistance between GaN and Cubic Ice and THz Acoustic Attenuation Spectrum of Cubic Ice from Complex Acoustic Impedance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-11-27

    A phonon nanoscopy method, based on the picosecond ultrasonics technique, capable of studying the complex acoustic reflection coefficient at frequency up to 1 THz is proposed and demonstrated. By measuring the reflection coefficient at the same surface location at the interface between GaN and air, and between GaN and the material to characterize, we get access to the THz amplitude and phase spectra of the acoustic phonon reflection. The retrieval of both these pieces of information then allows the calculation of the attenuation in a wide range of frequency and gives new insight into the Kapitza anomaly. This method is then applied to cubic ice, and the measurements of the elastic properties, the phonon anharmonic decay spectrum up to 1 THz, as well as the measurements of the thermal phonon lifetime at 150 K are all achieved.

  5. Scattering Tools for Nanostructure Phonon Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    Arlington, VA 22203 AFOSR The vibrational properties of solids have crucial roles underpinning functional properties ranging from thermal conductivity... thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) techniques to nanoscale systems. With this approach we can probe phonons across the nanomaterials, phonons, x-ray...scattering, nanomembrane fabrication, flatness, large-wavevector vibrational properties, synchrotron x-rays, thermal diffuse scattering, silicon

  6. Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi (M =Ir , Os )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, I. I.; May, A. F.; Li, C. W.; Sales, B. C.; Niedziela, J. L.; Ma, J.; Matsuda, M.; Abernathy, D. L.; Berlijn, T.

    2015-03-01

    The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M = Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x =0 ,0.02 ,0.04 ,0.1 ) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S (Q ,E ) , for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers, leads to softened interatomic force constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S (Q ,E ) from INS through a Green's-function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory simulations, and we study the disorder-induced lifetimes on large supercells. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.

  7. Influence of magnetism on phonons in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} as seen via inelastic x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S. E.; Lee, Y.; Ni, N.; Canfield, P. C.; Goldman, A. I.; McQueeney, R. J.; Harmon, B. N.; Alatas, A.; Leu, B. M.; Alp, E. E.; Chung, D. Y.; Todorov, I. S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Iowa State Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    In the iron pnictides, the strong sensitivity of the iron magnetic moment to the arsenic position suggests a significant relationship between phonons and magnetism. We measured the phonon dispersion of several branches in the high-temperature tetragonal phase of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} using inelastic x-ray scattering on single-crystal samples. These measurements were compared to ab initio calculations of the phonons. Spin-polarized calculations imposing the antiferromagnetic order present in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase dramatically improve agreement between theory and experiment. This is discussed in terms of the strong antiferromagnetic correlations that are known to persist in the tetragonal phase.

  8. Phonon Analysis in Multiphonon Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; Gu, Zongquan

    In the investigation of multiphonon transitions, single-mode or single-frequency models are widely used. In view of the fact that such oversimplified models can be seriously inadequate, the present work bridges the gap between the complexity of the general formal theory and the simplicity required for concrete applications by introducing the concept of multi-frequency models. That is, the theory is so formulated that a general system can be approximated by multi-frequency models of any degree of elaboration. A statistical thermodynamic formalism is developed for treating such multi-frequency models, which, on the one hand, greatly reduces the labour of calculation with such models and, on the other hand, leads directly to a simple statistical distribution law for numbers of phonons of each frequency participating in a multiphonon transition. Applications of the theory to concrete models lead to certain general conclusions on frequency dispersion effects in multiphonon transitions. The use of the theory is further demonstrated by fully accounting for the paradoxical experimental results reported by Jia and Yen that the isotopic substitution of H by D in CsMn Cl3· 2H2O reduces the multiphonon nonradiative transition probability of excited Mn2+ ion by more than ten-fold, and yet leaves the corresponding luminescence phonon sideband little changed. In the last section of the paper, the relation between the statistical thermodynamic formalism and existing multiphonon transition theory is elucidated, thereby the theoretical basis of the statistical formalism becomes clearly defined.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of phonon transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran

    2016-06-01

    A novel lattice Boltzmann scheme is proposed for phonon transport based on the phonon Boltzmann equation. Through the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the phonon lattice Boltzmann equation under the gray relaxation time approximation recovers the classical Fourier's law in the diffusive limit. The numerical parameters in the lattice Boltzmann model are therefore rigorously correlated to the bulk material properties. The new scheme does not only eliminate the fictitious phonon speed in the diagonal direction of a square lattice system in the previous lattice Boltzmann models, but also displays very robust performances in predicting both temperature and heat flux distributions consistent with analytical solutions for diverse numerical cases, including steady-state and transient, macroscale and microscale, one-dimensional and multi-dimensional phonon heat transport. This method may provide a powerful numerical tool for deep studies of nonlinear and nonlocal heat transports in nanosystems.

  10. Ultrafast Structure Switching through Nonlinear Phononics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juraschek, D. M.; Fechner, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a mechanism by which nonlinear phononics allows ultrafast coherent and directional control of transient structural distortions. With ErFeO3 as a model system, we use density functional theory to calculate the structural properties as input into an anharmonic phonon model that describes the response of the system to a pulsed optical excitation. We find that the trilinear coupling of two orthogonal infrared-active phonons to a Raman-active phonon causes a transient distortion of the lattice. In contrast to the quadratic-linear coupling that has been previously explored, the direction of the distortion is determined by the polarization of the exciting light, introducing a novel mechanism for nonlinear phononic switching. Since the occurrence of the coupling is determined by the symmetry of the system we propose that it is a universal feature of orthorhombic and tetragonal perovskites.

  11. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L.; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M.; Ruddle, David G.; Krisch, Michael

    2016-08-19

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Lastly, our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.

  12. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M; Ruddle, David G; Krisch, Michael

    2016-08-19

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.

  13. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L.; Bosak, Alexei; ...

    2016-08-19

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Lastly, ourmore » results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.« less

  14. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L.; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M.; Ruddle, David G.; Krisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V. PMID:27539662

  15. Phonon Transport at the Interfaces of Vertically Stacked Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; ...

    2016-01-12

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boronmore » atom (C–B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C–N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C–B matched interfaces have stronger phonon–phonon coupling than the C–N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C–B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.« less

  16. Phonon Transport at the Interfaces of Vertically Stacked Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-12

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C–B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C–N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C–B matched interfaces have stronger phonon–phonon coupling than the C–N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C–B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.

  17. Electron-Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Libai

    2016-11-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomically thin perovskites with strongly bound excitons are highly promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the nature of nonradiative processes that limit the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency remains elusive. Here, we present time-resolved and temperature-dependent PL studies to systematically address the intrinsic exciton relaxation pathways in layered (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) structures. Our results show that scatterings via deformation potential by acoustic and homopolar optical phonons are the main scattering mechanisms for excitons in ultrathin single exfoliated flakes, exhibiting a T(γ) (γ = 1.3 to 1.9) temperature dependence for scattering rates. We attribute the absence of polar optical phonon and defect scattering to efficient screening of Coulomb potential, similar to what has been observed in 3D perovskites. These results establish an understanding of the origins of nonradiative pathways and provide guidelines for optimizing PL efficiencies of atomically thin 2D perovskites.

  18. Double simple-harmonic-oscillator formulation of the thermal equilibrium of a fluid interacting with a coherent source of phonons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defacio, B.; Vannevel, Alan; Brander, O.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation is given for a collection of phonons (sound) in a fluid at a non-zero temperature which uses the simple harmonic oscillator twice; one to give a stochastic thermal 'noise' process and the other which generates a coherent Glauber state of phonons. Simple thermodynamic observables are calculated and the acoustic two point function, 'contrast' is presented. The role of 'coherence' in an equilibrium system is clarified by these results and the simple harmonic oscillator is a key structure in both the formulation and the calculations.

  19. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures [Twisting Phonons in Higher Manganese Silicides with a Complex Nowotny Chimney Ladder Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.; Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  20. Dispersion of electron-phonon resonances in one-layer graphene and its demonstration in micro-Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Strelchuk, V V; Nikolenko, A S; Gubanov, V O; Biliy, M M; Bulavin, L A

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, we used Raman spectroscopy as sensitive tool for characterization of dispersion of electron-phonon resonances in one-layer graphene. We analyzed Stokes and anti-Stokes components of the Raman spectra to investigate the temperature dependence of the graphene G-band on the power of exciting radiation. Appearance and drastic intensity increase of zone-edge D-like modes caused by introduction of structural defects and/or deformations in the graphene layer were observed in the Raman spectra at high powers of excitation. We investigated phonon dispersion of one-layer graphene for iTO phonon branch at K point along K-M direction, which is involved in double-resonance Raman scattering. Raman dispersion slope of D-band is in good agreement with results of theoretical calculations based on the Green's functions approach based on the screened electron-electron interaction. Deviation of the experimental iTO phonon frequency from the linear dependence on excitation energy was observed at excitation E(exc) = 3.81 eV. Self-consistent classification of phonon states according to the symmetry for all dispersion branches of one-layer graphene was carried out.

  1. Phonovoltaic. III. Electron-phonon coupling and figure of merit of graphene:BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-12-01

    The phonovoltaic cell harvests optical phonons like a photovoltaic harvests photons, that is, a nonequilibrium (hot) population of optical phonons (at temperature Tp ,O) more energetic than the band gap produces electron-hole pairs in a p -n junction, which separates these pairs to produce power. A phonovoltaic material requires an optical phonon mode more energetic than its band gap and much more energetic than the thermal energy (Ep ,O>Δ Ee ,g≫kBT ), which relaxes by generating electrons and power (at rate γ˙e -p) rather than acoustic phonons and heat (at rate γ˙p -p). Graphene (h-C) is the most promising material candidate: when its band gap is tuned to its optical phonon energy without greatly reducing the electron-phonon (e -p ) coupling, it reaches a substantial figure of merit [ZpV=Δ Ee ,gγ˙e -p/Ep ,O(γ˙e -p+γ˙p -p) ≈0.8 ] . A simple tight-binding (TB) model presented here predicts that lifting the sublattice symmetry of graphene in order to open a band gap proscribes the e -p interaction at the band edge, such that γ˙e -p→0 as Δ Ee ,g→Ep ,O . However, ab initio (DFT-LDA) simulations of layered h-C/BN and substitutional h-C:BN show that the e -p coupling remains substantial in these asymmetric crystals. Indeed, h-C:BN achieves a high figure of merit (ZpV≈0.6 ). At 300 K and for a Carnot limit of 0.5 (Tp ,O=600 K) , a h-C:BN phonovoltaic can reach an efficiency of ηpV≈0.2 , double the thermoelectric efficiency (Z T ≈1 ) under similar conditions.

  2. Flow stabilization by subsurface phonons

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, M. I.; Biringen, S.; Bilal, O. R.; Kucala, A.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between a fluid and a solid surface in relative motion represents a dynamical process that is central to the problem of laminar-to-turbulent transition (and consequent drag increase) for air, sea and land vehicles, as well as long-range pipelines. This problem may in principle be alleviated via a control stimulus designed to impede the generation and growth of instabilities inherent in the flow. Here, we show that phonon motion underneath a surface may be tuned to passively generate a spatio-temporal elastic deformation profile at the surface that counters these instabilities. We theoretically demonstrate this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism of frequency-dependent destructive interference of the unstable flow waves. The converse process of flow destabilization is illustrated as well. This approach provides a condensed-matter physics treatment to fluid–structure interaction and a new paradigm for flow control. PMID:27547095

  3. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  4. Acoustically trapped colloidal crystals that are reconfigurable in real time.

    PubMed

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2014-04-29

    Photonic and phononic crystals are metamaterials with repeating unit cells that result in internal resonances leading to a range of wave guiding and filtering properties and are opening up new applications such as hyperlenses and superabsorbers. Here we show the first, to our knowledge, 3D colloidal phononic crystal that is reconfigurable in real time and demonstrate its ability to rapidly alter its frequency filtering characteristics. Our reconfigurable material is assembled from microspheres in aqueous solution, trapped with acoustic radiation forces. The acoustic radiation force is governed by an energy landscape, determined by an applied high-amplitude acoustic standing wave field, in which particles move swiftly to energy minima. This creates a colloidal crystal of several milliliters in volume with spheres arranged in an orthorhombic lattice in which the acoustic wavelength is used to control the lattice spacing. Transmission acoustic spectroscopy shows that the new colloidal crystal behaves as a phononic metamaterial and exhibits clear band-pass and band-stop frequencies which are adjusted in real time.

  5. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits.

    PubMed

    Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.

  6. A realistic analysis of the phonon growth characteristics in a degenerate semiconductor using a simplified model of Fermi-Dirac distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A.; Das, B.; Middya, T. R.; Bhattacharya, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The phonon growth characteristic in a degenerate semiconductor has been calculated under the condition of low temperature. If the lattice temperature is high, the energy of the intravalley acoustic phonon is negligibly small compared to the average thermal energy of the electrons. Hence one can traditionally assume the electron-phonon collisions to be elastic and approximate the Bose-Einstein (B.E.) distribution for the phonons by the simple equipartition law. However, in the present analysis at the low lattice temperatures, the interaction of the non equilibrium electrons with the acoustic phonons becomes inelastic and the simple equipartition law for the phonon distribution is not valid. Hence the analysis is made taking into account the inelastic collisions and the complete form of the B.E. distribution. The high-field distribution function of the carriers given by Fermi-Dirac (F.D.) function at the field dependent carrier temperature, has been approximated by a well tested model that apparently overcomes the intrinsic problem of correct evaluation of the integrals involving the product and powers of the Fermi function. Hence the results thus obtained are more reliable compared to the rough estimation that one may obtain from using the exact F.D. function, but taking recourse to some over simplified approximations.

  7. Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os

    SciTech Connect

    Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom

    2015-03-31

    The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads to softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.

  8. Electron-phonon superconductivity in YIn3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billington, D.; Llewellyn-Jones, T. M.; Maroso, G.; Dugdale, S. B.

    2013-08-01

    First-principles calculations of the electron-phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn3. The electron-phonon coupling constant was found to be λep = 0.42. Using the Allen-Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a Tc of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron-phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound.

  9. Electrons and Phonons in Semiconductor Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. K.

    2014-08-01

    Introduction; 1. Simple models of the electron-phonon interaction; 2. Quantum confinement of carriers; 3. Quasicontinuum theory of lattice vibrations; 4. Bulk vibratory modes in an isotropic continuum; 5. Optical modes in a quantum well; 6. Superlattice modes; 7. Optical modes in various structures; 8. Electron-phonon interaction in a quantum well; 9. Other scattering mechanisms; 10. Quantum screening; 11. The electron distribution function; 12. Spin relaxation; 13. Electrons and phonons in the Wurtzite lattice; 14. Nitride heterostructures; 15. Terahertz sources; References; Index.

  10. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  11. Size and temperature dependence of the electron-phonon scattering by donors in nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bescond, M.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Berrada, S.; Cavassilas, N.; Lannoo, M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the constant size reduction, single-donor-based nanowire transistors receive an increasing interest from the semi-conductor industry. In this work we theoretically investigate the coupled influence of electron-phonon scattering, temperature and size (cross-section and channel length) on the properties of such systems. The aim is to determine under what conditions the localized character of the donor has a remarkable impact on the current characteristics. We use a quantum non-equilibrium Green's function approach in which the acoustic electron-phonon scattering is treated through local self-energies. We first show how this widely used approach, valid at high temperatures, can be extended to lower temperatures. Our simulations predict a hysteresis in the current when reducing the temperature down to 150 K. We also find that acoustic phonons degrade the current characteristics while their optical counterparts might have a beneficial impact with an increase of the ON-current. Finally we discuss the influence of nanowire length and cross-section and emphasize the complexity of precisely controlling the dopant level at room temperature.

  12. Enhancing phonon flow through one-dimensional interfaces by impedance matching

    SciTech Connect

    Polanco, Carlos A. Ghosh, Avik W.

    2014-08-28

    We extend concepts from microwave engineering to thermal interfaces and explore the principles of impedance matching in 1D. The extension is based on the generalization of acoustic impedance to nonlinear dispersions using the contact broadening matrix Γ(ω), extracted from the phonon self energy. For a single junction, we find that for coherent and incoherent phonons, the optimal thermal conductance occurs when the matching Γ(ω) equals the Geometric Mean of the contact broadenings. This criterion favors the transmission of both low and high frequency phonons by requiring that (1) the low frequency acoustic impedance of the junction matches that of the two contacts by minimizing the sum of interfacial resistances and (2) the cut-off frequency is near the minimum of the two contacts, thereby reducing the spillage of the states into the tunneling regime. For an ultimately scaled single atom/spring junction, the matching criterion transforms to the arithmetic mean for mass and the harmonic mean for spring constant. The matching can be further improved using a composite graded junction with an exponential varying broadening that functions like a broadband antireflection coating. There is, however, a trade off as the increased length of the interface brings in additional intrinsic sources of scattering.

  13. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2015-03-05

    Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics--which supports GHz frequencies--we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.

  14. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes. PMID:25740405

  15. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2015-03-05

    We report that rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.

  16. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; ...

    2015-03-05

    We report that rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction,more » which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.« less

  17. Hawking Radiation from an Acoustic Black Hole on an Ion Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Horstmann, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Reznik, B.; Fagnocchi, S.

    2010-06-25

    In this Letter we propose to simulate acoustic black holes with ions in rings. If the ions are rotating with a stationary and inhomogeneous velocity profile, regions can appear where the ion velocity exceeds the group velocity of the phonons. In these regions phonons are trapped like light in black holes, even though we have a discrete field theory and a nonlinear dispersion relation. We study the appearance of Hawking radiation in this setup and propose a scheme to detect it.

  18. Electron-phonon superconductivity in BaSn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billington, David; Ernsting, David; Millichamp, Thomas E.; Dugdale, Stephen B.

    2015-05-01

    First-principles calculations of the electronic structure and phonon dispersion relation of the superconducting compound ? were performed. This has allowed the calculation of the electron-phonon matrix elements from which the electron-phonon coupling constant was found to be ?. Application of the Allen-Dynes formula with ? yielded a superconducting transition temperature of ? K. The calculated ? agrees well with the available experimental data and indicates that ? is an electron-phonon superconductor with intermediate strength electron-phonon coupling.

  19. Stationary Phonon Squeezing by Optical Polaron Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenkort, T.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate that a stationary squeezed phonon state can be prepared by a pulsed optical excitation of a semiconductor quantum well. Unlike previously discussed scenarios for generating squeezed phonons, the corresponding uncertainties become stationary after the excitation and do not oscillate in time. The effect is caused by two-phonon correlations within the excited polaron. We demonstrate by quantum kinetic simulations and by a perturbation analysis that the energetically lowest polaron state comprises two-phonon correlations which, after the pulse, result in an uncertainty of the lattice momentum that is continuously lower than in the ground state of the semiconductor. The simulations show the dynamics of the polaron formation process and the resulting time-dependent lattice uncertainties.

  20. Nanoscale pillar hypersonic surface phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudistira, D.; Boes, A.; Graczykowski, B.; Alzina, F.; Yeo, L. Y.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mitchell, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on nanoscale pillar-based hypersonic phononic crystals in single crystal Z-cut lithium niobate. The phononic crystal is formed by a two-dimensional periodic array of nearly cylindrical nanopillars 240 nm in diameter and 225 nm in height, arranged in a triangular lattice with a 300-nm lattice constant. The nanopillars are fabricated by the recently introduced nanodomain engineering via laser irradiation of patterned chrome followed by wet etching. Numerical simulations and direct measurements using Brillouin light scattering confirm the simultaneous existence of nonradiative complete surface phononic band gaps. The band gaps are found below the sound line at hypersonic frequencies in the range 2-7 GHz, formed from local resonances and Bragg scattering. These hypersonic structures are realized directly in the piezoelectric material lithium niobate enabling phonon manipulation at significantly higher frequencies than previously possible with this platform, opening new opportunities for many applications in plasmonic, optomechanic, microfluidic, and thermal engineering.

  1. Phonon stop bands in amorphous superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblinger, O.; Mebert, J.; Dittrich, E.; Döttinger, S.; Eisenmenger, W.; Santos, P. V.; Ley, L.

    1987-06-01

    In periodically layered media the phonon-dispersion relation shows energy ranges in which phonon propagation is not possible. The existence of such phonon stop bands in crystalline superlattices has been observed in work by V. Narayanamurti, H. L. Störmer, M. A. Chin, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 2012 (1979)]. In this Communication we report the observation of phonon stop bands in amorphous superlattices. The filter characteristic of these amorphous superlattices is much sharper than in the case of the crystalline superlattices studied earlier. The investigated superlattices have been prepared by alternating evaporation of Si and SiO2 layers as well as by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H films in a glow-discharge reactor.

  2. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  3. Close correlation between magnetic properties and the soft phonon mode of the structural transition in BaFe2As2 and SrFe2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; ...

    2015-04-27

    Pmore » arent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe2As2 and SrFe2As2. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.« less

  4. Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Bariani, F; Meystre, P

    2015-11-27

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  5. Phonon Enhancement of Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    2 Task #1 Phonon Engineering for the Development of Terahertz Lasers Based On...terms of the MURI program highlights and outcome, the following merit special mention: (a) the project area involving Terahertz lasers (Task #1, led by...design an all-optical experiment on GHz range GaN /AIGaN FETs with considerable input from H. Maris (modulation spectroscopy; coherent phonon generation

  6. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.; Dubois, E.

    2015-03-01

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of "thermocrystals" or "nanophononic crystals" that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known "electron crystal-phonon glass" dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  7. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F. Dubois, E.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-03-16

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  8. ARL’S Acoustic Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    1 Heng Tan, Visual Basic /SQL Server Primer, ETN Press, Montoursville, PA (1995), p. 46. Removable Hard Drives 500-CD...the user and the server, the Acoustic Signal Processing Branch has developed an innovative user-friendly Visual Basic front-end program. Residing on...Microsoft Visual Basic , Professional Edition, Version 6.0 was selected as the development language for the database user-interface program

  9. Tunable evolutions of wave modes and bandgaps in quasi-1D cylindrical phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidani, Mehrashk; Kim, Eunho; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu; Ngo, Duc

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the tunable characteristics of mechanical waves propagating in quasi-1D phononic crystals composed of horizontally stacked short cylinders at various contact angles and offsets. According to the Hertzian contact theory, elastic compression of laterally-touching cylindrical bodies exhibits a various range of contact stiffness depending on their alignment angles. In this study, we first assemble cylindrical particles in various combinations of inclination angles and systematically examine their forming mechanisms of frequency bandgaps. We also investigate the effect of the rattling motions of cylindrical particles by introducing asymmetric center-of-mass offsets with respect to their contact points. We find that the frequency responses of these quasi-1D phononic crystals evolve into multiple band structures as we employ higher deviations of contact angles and offsets. We calculate the dispersive behavior of propagating waves using a discrete particle model for simple zero-offset cases, while we use a finite element method for simulating the rattling motions of particles under non-zero offsets. We report branching behavior of frequency band structures and the evolution of their vibration modes as we manipulate the contact angles and offsets of the phononic crystals. This study implies that we can leverage the versatile wave filtering characteristics of quasi-1D phononic crystals to construct tunable wave filtering devices for engineering applications.

  10. From Modal Mixing to Tunable Functional Switches in Nonlinear Phononic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a paradigm for spatial and modal wave manipulation based on nonlinear phononic crystals and explore its potential for engineering wave control systems with tunable, adaptive, and multifunctional characteristics. Our approach exploits nonlinear mechanisms to stretch the frequency signature of the wave response and distribute it over multiple modes, thereby activating a mixture of modal characteristics and enabling functionalities associated with high-frequency optical modes, even while operating in the low-frequency regime. To elucidate the versatility of this approach, we consider different granular crystal configurations that span the available landscape of crystal topologies and wave control functionalities. The ability to switch between complementary functionalities allows rethinking nonlinear phononic crystals as programmable acoustic ports that form the building blocks of a new structural logic framework enabled by nonlinearity.

  11. Phonon spectroscopy with sub-meV resolution by femtosecond x-ray diffuse scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Diling; Robert, Aymeric; Henighan, Tom; ...

    2015-08-10

    We present a reconstruction of the transverse acoustic phonon dispersion of germanium from femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffuse scattering measurements at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate an energy resolution of 0.3 meV with a momentum resolution of 0.01 nm-1 using 10-keV x rays with a bandwidth of ~ 1 eV. This high resolution was achieved simultaneously for a large section of reciprocal space including regions closely following three of the principal symmetry directions. The phonon dispersion was reconstructed with less than 3 h of measurement time, during which neither the x-ray energy, the sample orientation, nor the detector positionmore » were scanned. In conclusion, these results demonstrate how time-domain measurements can complement conventional frequency domain inelastic-scattering techniques.« less

  12. Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices.

  13. Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-10

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices.

  14. Spin-flip relaxation via optical phonon scattering in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zi-Wu; Liu, Lei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2013-12-14

    Based on the spin-orbit coupling admixture mechanism, we theoretically investigate the spin-flip relaxation via optical phonon scattering in quantum dots by considering the effect of lattice relaxation due to the electron-acoustic phonon deformation potential coupling. The relaxation rate displays a cusp-like structure (or a spin hot spot) that becomes more clearly with increasing temperature. We also calculate the relaxation rate of the spin-conserving process, which follows a Gaussian form and is several orders of magnitude larger than that of spin-flip process. Moreover, we find that the relaxation rate displays the oscillatory behavior due to the interplay effects between the magnetic and spatial confinement for the spin-flip process not for the spin-conserving process. The trends of increasing and decreasing temperature dependence of the relaxation rates for two relaxation processes are obtained in the present model.

  15. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Carrete, Jesús; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Delaire, Olivier; Stewart, Derek A; Mingo, Natalio; Girard, Steven N; Ma, Jie; Abernathy, Douglas L; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sheshka, Raman; Sellan, Daniel P; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song; Zhou, Jianshi; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  16. Pressure behavior of phonons and phase transition effects in Hg2I2 model virtual ferroelastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. F.; Mirovitskii, V. Yu.; Roginskii, E. M.

    2014-11-01

    The Raman spectra of virtual ferroelastic Hg2I2 crystals have been studied in a broad range of hydrostatic pressures. Linear pressure dependences of phonon frequencies are obtained at P < P c, which exhibit jumps and breaks at the phase transition point ( P c = 9 kbar). Grüneisen parameters of the Hg2I2 crystals are determined. The spectra of a ferroelastic phase ( P > P c) in various polarizations exhibit the excitation of new lines from the X point of the Brillouin zone, including transverse (TA) and longitudinal (LA) acoustic phonons. Based on analysis of the experimental and theoretical results, the Raman spectra of ferroelastic Hg2I2 crystals are interpreted and a model of the phase transition in these crystals is proposed.

  17. Phonon spectroscopy with sub-meV resolution by femtosecond x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Diling; Robert, Aymeric; Lemke, Henrik T.; Trigo, Mariano

    2015-08-10

    We present a reconstruction of the transverse acoustic phonon dispersion of germanium from femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffuse scattering measurements at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate an energy resolution of 0.3 meV with a momentum resolution of 0.01 nm-1 using 10-keV x rays with a bandwidth of ~ 1 eV. This high resolution was achieved simultaneously for a large section of reciprocal space including regions closely following three of the principal symmetry directions. The phonon dispersion was reconstructed with less than 3 h of measurement time, during which neither the x-ray energy, the sample orientation, nor the detector position were scanned. In conclusion, these results demonstrate how time-domain measurements can complement conventional frequency domain inelastic-scattering techniques.

  18. Phonon-assisted coherent control of injected carriers in indirect bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Nastos, Fred; Sipe, John E.

    2007-03-01

    Charge and spin currents can be generated in direct semiconductors by quantum interference between one- and two-photon absorption. For semiconductors such as Si and Ge, optical injection of carriers over the indirect bandgap must be assisted by momentum transfer from phonon scattering. We consider the optical properties for such 1+2 photon processes in the presence of the electron-phonon interaction. The latter is modelled by acoustic deformation potential. Indirect transitions involve double Brillouin zone integrations, which are computed by a linearized tetrahedron method. We compare our results to those for bulk GaAs. M.J. Stevens, R.D.R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, H.M. van Driel, J.E. Sipe and A.L. Smirl, in Optics of Semiconductors and Their Nanostructures, edited by H. Kalt and M. Hetterich (Springer, Berlin, 2004), vol. 146 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, p. 209.

  19. Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices. PMID:28071736

  20. Controlling Electron-Phonon Interactions in Graphene at Ultrahigh Carrier Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.; Kim, Philip

    2010-12-01

    We report on the temperature dependent electron transport in graphene at different carrier densities n. Employing an electrolytic gate, we demonstrate that n can be adjusted up to 4×1014cm-2 for both electrons and holes. The measured sample resistivity ρ increases linearly with temperature T in the high temperature limit, indicating that a quasiclassical phonon distribution is responsible for the electron scattering. As T decreases, the resistivity decreases more rapidly following ρ(T)˜T4. This low temperature behavior can be described by a Bloch-Grüneisen model taking into account the quantum distribution of the two-dimensional acoustic phonons in graphene. We map out the density dependence of the characteristic temperature ΘBG defining the crossover between the two distinct regimes, and show that, for all n, ρ(T) scales as a universal function of the normalized temperature T/ΘBG.

  1. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  2. The conflicting role of buckled structure in phonon transport of 2D group-IV and group-V materials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Zhang, Dequan; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Ni, Gang; Zhu, Yongyuan; Zhu, Heyuan

    2017-03-20

    Controlling heat transport through material design is one important step toward thermal management in 2D materials. To control heat transport, a comprehensive understanding of how structure influences heat transport is required. It has been argued that a buckled structure is able to suppress heat transport by increasing the flexural phonon scattering. Using a first principles approach, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of 2D mono-elemental materials with a buckled structure. Somewhat counterintuitively, we find that although 2D group-V materials have a larger mass and higher buckling height than their group-IV counterparts, the calculated κ of blue phosphorene (106.6 W mK(-1)) is nearly four times higher than that of silicene (28.3 W mK(-1)), while arsenene (37.8 W mK(-1)) is more than fifteen times higher than germanene (2.4 W mK(-1)). We report for the first time that a buckled structure has three conflicting effects: (i) increasing the Debye temperature by increasing the overlap of the pz orbitals, (ii) suppressing the acoustic-optical scattering by forming an acoustic-optical gap, and (iii) increasing the flexural phonon scattering. The former two, corresponding to the harmonic phonon part, tend to enhance κ, while the last one, corresponding to the anharmonic part, suppresses it. This relationship between the buckled structure and phonon behaviour provides insight into how to control heat transport in 2D materials.

  3. Ab initio phonon limited transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Matthieu

    We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)

  4. Acoustically induced stark effect for excitons in intrinsic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A L; Littlewood, P B

    2001-09-24

    A Stark effect for excitons parametrically driven by coherent acoustic phonons is proposed. Our scheme refers to a low-temperature intrinsic semiconductor or semiconductor nanostructure pumped by an acoustic wave (frequency band nu(ac) approximately equal to 1-40 GHz and intensity range I(ac) approximately equal to 10(-2)-10(2) W/cm(2)) and probed by low-intensity light. Tunable optical band gaps, which strongly change the spectral shape of the exciton line, are induced in the polariton spectrum by acoustic pumping. We develop an exactly solvable model of the acoustic Stark effect and apply our results to GaAs driven by bulk or surface acoustic waves.

  5. Conceptual architectural/acoustical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. Harold

    2004-05-01

    The thinking which characterizes acoustics as a branch of physics and engineering has difficulty with the architectural design process-the process that generates a room concept in the imagination and experience of the architect. The architect has learned to ``sense'' the visual properties of a room as the design develops in the interaction between mind and media. Phrases such as ``wanting to be'' express the architectural intention but too often such intentions are dismissed as arbitrary; acoustics may then be about fixing the design with acoustical add-ons. Occasionally there is a true meeting of minds-a creative and receptive architect and an acoustician able to communicate at the level of the architectural intention. There is evidently an auditory dimension of wanting to be which is one with the visual. This paper explores the idea in several examples and concludes with suggestions for the training of acousticians.

  6. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Ralph E.; Scrivner, Christine M.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  7. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  8. Measuring, interpreting, and translating electron quasiparticle - Phonon interactions on the surfaces of the topological insulators bismuth selenide and bismuth telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Colin

    The following dissertation presents a comprehensive study of the interaction between Dirac fermion quasiparticles (DFQs) and surface phonons on the surfaces of the topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te 3. Inelastic helium atom surface scattering (HASS) spectroscopy and time of flight (TOF) techniques were used to measure the surface phonon dispersion of these materials along the two high-symmetry directions of the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ). Two anomalies common to both materials are exhibited in the experimental data. First, there is an absence of Rayleigh acoustic waves on the surface of these materials, pointing to weak coupling between the surface charge density and the surface acoustic phonon modes and potential applications for soundproofing technologies. Secondly, both materials exhibit an out-of-plane polarized optical phonon mode beginning at the SBZ center and dispersing to lower energy with increasing wave vector along both high-symmetry directions of the SBZ. This trend terminates in a V-shaped minimum at a wave vector corresponding to 2 kF for each material, after which the dispersion resumes its upward trend. This phenomenon constitutes a strong Kohn anomaly and can be attributed to the interaction between the surface phonons and DFQs. To quantify the coupling between the optical phonons experiencing strong renormalization and the DFQs at the surface, a phenomenological model was constructed based within the random phase approximation. Fitting the theoretical model to the experimental data allowed for the extraction of the matrix elements of the coupling Hamiltonian and the modifications to the surface phonon propagator encoded in the phonon self energy. This allowed, for the first time, calculation of phonon mode-specific quasiparticle-phonon coupling lambdanu( q) from experimental data. Additionally, an averaged coupling parameter was determined for both materials yielding bar lambdaTe ≈ 2 and bar lambdaSe ≈ 0.7. These values are

  9. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  10. Squeezed Phonons: Modulating Quantum Fluctuations of Atomic Displacements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco

    1997-03-01

    We have studied phonon squeezed states and also put forward several proposals for their generation(On phonon parametric process, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2294 (1996); on polariton mechanism, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 53, 2419 (1996); on second-order Raman scattering, X. Hu and F. Nori, preprint.. Here, we compare the relative merits and limitations of these approaches, including several factors that will limit the amount of phonon squeezing. In particular, we investigate the effect of the initial thermal states on the phonon modes. Using a model for the phonon density matrix, we also study the mixing of the phonon squeezed states with thermal states, which describes the decay of the phonon coherence. Finally, we calculate the maximum possible squeezing from a phonon parametric process limited by phonon decay.

  11. Resonant interactions between discrete phonons in quinhydrone driven by nonlinear electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.

    2016-06-01

    This study reports experimental, computational, and theoretical evidence for a previously unobserved coherent phonon-phonon interaction in an organic solid that can be described by the application of Fano's analysis to a case without the presence of a continuum. Using Raman spectroscopy of the hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer material quinhydrone, two peaks appear near 700 cm-1 we assign as phonons whose position and line-shape asymmetry depend on the sample temperature and light scattering excitation energy. Density functional theory calculations find two nearly degenerate phonons possessing frequencies near the values found in experiment that share similar atomic motion out of the aromatic plane of electron donor and acceptor molecules of quinhydrone. Further analytical modeling of the steady-state light scattering process using the Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian and time-dependent perturbation theory motivates assignment of the physical origin of the asymmetric features of each peak's line shape to an interaction between two discrete phonons via nonlinear electron-phonon coupling. In the context of analytical model results, characteristics of the experimental spectra upon 2.33 eV excitation of the Raman scattering process are used to qualify the temperature dependence of the magnitude of this coupling in the valence band of quinhydrone. These results broaden the range of phonon-phonon interactions in materials in general while also highlighting the rich physics and fundamental attributes specific to organic solids that may determine their applicability in next generation electronics and photonics technologies.

  12. Non-equilibrium Phonons in CaWO4: Issues for Phonon Mediated Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msall, Madeleine; Head, Timothy; Jumper, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The CRESST experiment looks for evidence of dark matter particles colliding with nuclei in CaWO4, using cryogenic bolometers sensitive to energy deposition ˜ 10 keV with a few percent accuracy. Calibration of the energy deposited in the phonon system depends upon the details of the evolution of the non-equilibrium energy in the CaWO4 absorber. Our phonon images sensitively measure variations in angular phonon flux, providing key information about the elastic constants and scattering rates that determine the energy evolution. Phonon pulses, created by focused photoexcitation of a 150 nm Cu film, are detected after propagation through 3 mm of CaWO4. The 20 ns Ar-ion laser pulse creates a localized (10-3 mm^2) source of 10-20 K blackbody phonons. The sample is at 2 K. Our images show that the elastic constants derived from ultrasonic velocities along high symmetry axes do not accurately predict the total phonon flux along non-symmetry directions. We present new data on the dependence of phonon flux on excitation level and discuss the influence of isotope and anharmonic decay on the shape of phonon pulses in these ultrapure samples. Thanks to J.P. Wolfe and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, Urbana, IL, for partial support of this work.

  13. Calomel-made crystalline acousto-optical cell designed for an advanced regime of noncollinear two-phonon light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2016-03-01

    We study the potentials of a wide-aperture crystalline calomel-made acousto-optical cell. Characterizing this cell is nontrivial due to the chosen regime based on an advanced noncollinear two-phonon light scattering. Recently revealed important features of this phenomenon are essentially exploited in the cell and are investigated in more detail. These features can be observed more easily and simply in tetragonal crystals, e.g., calomel, exhibiting specific acousto-optical nonlinearity caused by the acoustic waves of finite amplitude. This parametric nonlinearity manifests itself at low acoustic powers in calomel possessing linear acoustic attenuation. The formerly identified additional degree of freedom, unique to this regime, is exploited for designing the cell with an eye to doubling the resolution due to two-phonon processes. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using that degree of freedom. Then the efficiency of calomel is exploited to expand the cell's bandwidth with a cost of its efficiency. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative techniques of optical spectrum analysis with the improved resolution. The achieved spectral resolution of 0.205 Å at 405 nm and the resolving power 19,800 are the best for acousto-optical spectrometers dedicated to space or airborne operations to date as far as we know.

  14. Blocking Phonon Transport by Structural Resonances in Alloy-Based Nanophononic Metamaterials Leads to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Sääskilahti, Kimmo; Kosevich, Yuriy A.; Han, Haoxue; Donadio, Davide; Volz, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the design rules to obtain materials that enable a tight control of phonon transport over a broad range of frequencies would aid major developments in thermoelectric energy harvesting, heat management in microelectronics, and information and communication technology. Using atomistic simulations we show that the metamaterials approach relying on localized resonances is very promising to engineer heat transport at the nanoscale. Combining designed resonant structures to alloying can lead to extremely low thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires. The hybridization between resonant phonons and propagating modes greatly reduces the group velocities and the phonon mean free paths in the low frequency acoustic range below 4 THz. Concurrently, alloy scattering hinders the propagation of high frequency thermal phonons. Our calculations establish a rationale between the size, shape, and period of the resonant structures, and the thermal conductivity of the nanowire, and demonstrate that this approach is even effective to block phonon transport in wavelengths much longer than the size and period of the surface resonant structures. A further consequence of using resonant structures is that they are not expected to scatter electrons, which is beneficial for thermoelectric applications.

  15. Revealing the mechanism of passive transport in lipid bilayers via phonon-mediated nanometre-scale density fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Bolmatov, Dima; Soloviov, Dmitry; Zhernenkov, Kirill; Toperverg, Boris P.; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Bosak, Alexey; Cai, Yong

    2016-05-12

    We report the high resolution inelastic x-ray study of the in-plane phonon excitations in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) above and below main transition temperature. In the Lβ' gel phase, we observe high frequency longitudinal phonon mode previously predicted by the molecular dynamics simulations and for the first time, we reveal low frequency weakly dispersive transverse acoustic mode which softens and exhibits a low-frequency phonon gap when the DPPC lipid transitions into the Lα fluid phase. The phonon softening of the high frequency longitudinal excitations and the transformation of the transverse excitations upon the phase transition from the Lβ' to Lα phase is explained within the framework of the phonon theory of liquids. These findings illustrate the importance of the collective dynamics of biomembranes and reveal that hydrocarbon tails can act as an efficient mediator in controlling the passive transport across the bilayer plane.

  16. Thermal transport in phononic crystals and the observation of coherent phonon scattering at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Alaie, Seyedhamidreza; Goettler, Drew F; Su, Mehmet; Leseman, Zayd C; Reinke, Charles M; El-Kady, Ihab

    2015-06-24

    Large reductions in the thermal conductivity of thin silicon membranes have been demonstrated in various porous structures. However, the role of coherent boundary scattering in such structures has become a matter of some debate. Here we report on the first experimental observation of coherent phonon boundary scattering at room temperature in 2D phononic crystals formed by the introduction of air holes in a silicon matrix with minimum feature sizes >100 nm. To delaminate incoherent from coherent boundary scattering, phononic crystals with a fixed minimum feature size, differing only in unit cell geometry, were fabricated. A suspended island technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity. We introduce a hybrid thermal conductivity model that accounts for partially coherent and partially incoherent phonon boundary scattering. We observe excellent agreement between this model and experimental data, and the results suggest that significant room temperature coherent phonon boundary scattering occurs.

  17. PHON: A program to calculate phonons using the small displacement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfè, Dario

    2009-12-01

    The program PHON calculates force constant matrices and phonon frequencies in crystals. From the frequencies it also calculates various thermodynamic quantities, like the Helmholtz free energy, the entropy, the specific heat and the internal energy of the harmonic crystal. The procedure is based on the small displacement method, and can be used in combination with any program capable to calculate forces on the atoms of the crystal. In order to examine the usability of the method, I present here two examples: metallic Al and insulating MgO. The phonons of these two materials are calculated using density functional theory. The small displacement method results are compared with those obtained using the linear response method. In the case of Al the method provides accurate phonon frequencies everywhere in the Brillouin Zone (BZ). In the case of MgO the longitudinal branch of the optical phonons near the centre of the BZ is incorrectly described as degenerate with the two transverse branches, because the non-analytical part of the dynamical matrix is ignored here; however, thermodynamic properties like the Helmholtz free are essentially unaffected. Program summaryProgram title: PHON Catalogue identifier: AEDP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 580 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 612 193 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any Unix, Linux Operating system: Unix RAM: Depends on super-cell size, but usually negligible Classification: 7.8 External routines: Subprograms ZHEEV and DSYEV (Lapack); needs BLAS. A tutorial is provided with the distribution which requires the installation of the quantum-espresso package ( http

  18. Universality of the Phonon-Roton Spectrum in Liquids and Superfluidity of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Viktor; Trigger, Sergey; Litinski, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Based on numerous experimental data on inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering in liquids, we assert that the phonon-roton spectrum of collective excitations, predicted by Landau for superfluid helium, is a universal property of the liquid state. We show that the existence of the roton minimum in the spectrum of collective excitations is caused by the short-range order in liquids. Using the virial theorem, we assume that one more branch of excitations should exist in He II, whose energy spectrum differs from the phonon-roton spectrum. Such excitations are associated with the pole of single-particle Green function, which can have a gap at small values of momenta.

  19. Dispersion of Phonon Surface Polaritons in ZnGeP2: Anisotropy and Temperature Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shportko, K. V.; Otto, A.; Venger, E. F.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP2) is an attractive and promising functional material for different devices of the nano- and optoelectronics. In this paper, dispersion of phonon surface polaritons (PSPs) in ZnGeP2 has been studied in the 200-500-cm-1 spectral range at 4 and 300 K. Dispersion of "real" and "virtual" PSPs were calculated for C-axis being normal and parallel to the surface. Anisotropy in ZnGeP2 leads to the different numbers of PSP dispersion branches for different orientations of the sample. The temperature-dependent phonon contributions in the dielectric permittivity shift dispersion of the surface polaritons in ZnGeP2 to the higher wavenumbers at 4 K. We have shown that experimental dispersion of PSP is in agreement with theory.

  20. Symmetry-adapted phonon analysis of nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, Amin; Dayal, Kaushik; Elliott, Ryan S.

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of phonons, i.e. linearized normal modes of vibration, provide important insights into many aspects of crystals, e.g. stability and thermodynamics. In this paper, we use the Objective Structures framework to make concrete analogies between crystalline phonons and normal modes of vibration in non-crystalline but highly symmetric nanostructures. Our strategy is to use an intermediate linear transformation from real-space to an intermediate space in which the Hessian matrix of second derivatives is block-circulant. The block-circulant nature of the Hessian enables us to then follow the procedure to obtain phonons in crystals: namely, we use the Discrete Fourier Transform from this intermediate space to obtain a block-diagonal matrix that is readily diagonalizable. We formulate this for general Objective Structures and then apply it to study carbon nanotubes of various chiralities that are subjected to axial elongation and torsional deformation. We compare the phonon spectra computed in the Objective Framework with spectra computed for armchair and zigzag nanotubes. We also demonstrate the approach by computing the Density of States. In addition to the computational efficiency afforded by Objective Structures in providing the transformations to almost-diagonalize the Hessian, the framework provides an important conceptual simplification to interpret the phonon curves. Our findings include that, first, not all non-optic long-wavelength modes are zero energy and conversely not all zero energy modes are long-wavelength; second, the phonon curves accurately predict both the onset as well as the soft modes for instabilities such as torsional buckling; and third, unlike crystals where phonon stability does not provide information on stability with respect to non-rank-one deformation modes, phonon stability in nanotubes is sufficient to guarantee stability with respect to all perturbations that do not involve structural modes. Our finding of characteristic

  1. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Arafa H. E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-14

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  2. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-01

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  3. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  4. Reduction of heat capacity and phonon group velocity in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchbanks, Christopher; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    We report on ab initio linear-response calculations of lattice vibrations in narrow silicon nanowires on the order of 1 nm along the [001], [011], and [111] growth directions. The confinement and nanowire structure substantially alter phonon distributions, resulting in an 15% to 23% reduction in heat capacity and an averaged decrease of 31% in acoustic velocities compared with bulk silicon. Based on these, we estimate an improvement up to 4 fold on thermoelectric performance due solely to the modified lattice vibrations in narrow silicon nanowires over bulk silicon.

  5. Application of the sublattice method to the investigation of phonon spectra and frequency density of fluorite-structure crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirienko, T. P.; Poplavnoy, A. S.

    2010-09-01

    Phonon spectra and state densities of MeF2 (Me = Ca, Sr, Cd, Ba, or Pb) crystals are calculated in the basis of sublattice state vectors using the Born-Mayer model. The phonon spectra and the sublattice state densities are calculated in the field of the second frozen sublattice. It is demonstrated that optical crystal branches are mainly due to oscillations of fluorine ions; moreover, the topology of optical branches in the spectrum and the crystal state densities are close to the topology of the spectra and state densities of the fluorine sublattice in the frozen metal sublattice. Exception is CaF2 whose ion and cation masses are close in values.

  6. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  7. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors.

  8. Influence of phonon emission on intersubband lifetimes in wide GaAs/AlGaAs and Si/SiGe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Murdin, B.N.; Pidgeon, C.R.; Lee, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    We have previously used the picosecond far-infrared free electron laser FELIX, at Rijnhuizen, to make the first direct excite-probe determination of the intersubband relaxation rate in wide GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with the subband separation smaller than the optical phonon energy. This measurement yielded short (40ps) lifetimes while acoustic phonon emission occurs on a 200ps scale. This is also in contrast with, among others, saturation measurements of swide wells with the UCSB FEL which gave lifetimes of 600ps. We discuss here the interpretation of the range of published results by calculation of the LO-phonon scattering rate, including the effects of finite electron temperature, T{sub e}. We have shown that relaxation can be dominated by LO-phonon emission even in wide wells, through the high energy tail of the distribution. The rate is very sensitive to T{sub e} between 30-70K, and also to carrier concentration, making it possible to account for the wide variety of published results with a single mechanism. We have extended our measurements to wide Si/SiGe quantum Wells, and find similarly short times (20-30ps). However, in non-polar materials such as SiGe the deformation potential scattering is much weaker and acoustic phonon emission (order 10ps in n-silicon) is expected to dominate.

  9. On Minkowskian branching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, Leszek; Placek, Tomasz

    In Belnap's [Branching space-time. Synthese, 92, 385-434. 'Postprint' archived at http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001003] theory of branching space-times (BST) Our World's possible histories are thought of as space-times, yet the theory has models in which histories do not resemble relativistic space-times or any other physical space-times. The aim of this paper is to define a certain class of BST models, called 'Minkowskian Branching Structures' (MBSs), in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski space-time. By focusing on these models rather than on general BST models, we hope that one may be able to improve on earlier BST analyses of physical phenomena. Also, introducing MBSs sets the stage for recent discussions about whether or not branching is physically feasible.

  10. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  11. Hot carriers relaxation in highly excited polar semiconductors: Hot phonons versus phonon-plasmon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tea, Eric; Hamzeh, Hani; Aniel, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    We present a study of the photo-excited charge carriers relaxation dynamics in polar semiconductors comparing calculations to pump probe experiments. Hot carrier densities in the 1018cm-3 range can easily be photo-generated using moderately intense optical excitations. This can lead to known phenomena, namely, hot phonon populations and the coupling of polar optical phonons with plasmon modes. However, these two phenomena can affect the hot carriers relaxation and have never been examined together. This is a problem for the theoretical study of future Hot Carrier Solar Cells, where the conditions allow both of these phenomena to occur. The charge carriers dynamics and the coupling of polar optical phonons with plasmon modes are treated by a Full Band Ensemble Monte Carlo simulation code featuring a self-consistent dielectric function. To take into consideration hot phonon populations and the subsequent phonon bottleneck for the carriers relaxation, the charge carriers simulation code is coupled to a phonon dedicated Ensemble Monte Carlo code. This enables for the first time an accurate study of both the charge carriers and phonon systems dynamics, the latter being most of the time overly simplified in previous studies. The present work explores to which extent the two aforementioned phenomena affect the photo-generated charge carriers relaxation in GaAs and can be easily adapted to other polar semiconductors.

  12. Polaron action for multimode dispersive phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilovitch, P. E.

    2006-03-01

    The path-integral approach to the tight-binding polaron is extended to multiple optical phonon modes of arbitrary dispersion and polarization. The nonlinear lattice effects are neglected. Only one electron band is considered. The electron-phonon interaction is of the density-displacement type, but can be of arbitrary spatial range and shape. Feynman’s analytical integration of ion trajectories is performed by transforming the electron-ion forces to the basis in which the phonon dynamical matrix is diagonal. The resulting polaron action is derived for the periodic and shifted boundary conditions in imaginary time. The former can be used for calculating polaron thermodynamics while the latter for the polaron mass and spectrum. The developed formalism is the analytical basis for numerical analysis of such models by path-integral Monte Carlo methods.

  13. Calculating the Phonon Dispersion From First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Frank; O'Hara, Andy; Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to construct a user-friendly tool that can compute the phonon dispersion for any solid with a periodic crystal structure. The phonon dispersion describes the crystal's vibrational properties and thermodynamic properties of the solid. Using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) we compute the forces between the atoms. Assuming harmonic approximation we numerically evaluate force constant matrix. The lattice Fourier transform of the force constants yields the dynamical matrix, whose eigenvalues and eigenvectors represent the allowed phonon frequencies and displacement patterns for specific k-vectors. Our code then plots the frequencies along high symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone. We will present our results for silicon, GaAs and ZrO2.

  14. Refraction characteristics of phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2015-08-01

    Some of the most interesting refraction properties of phononic crystals are revealed by examining the anti-plane shear waves in doubly periodic elastic composites with unit cells containing rectangular and/or elliptical multi-inclusions. The corresponding band structure, group velocity, and energy-flux vector are calculated using a powerful mixed variational method that accurately and efficiently yields all the field quantities over multiple frequency pass-bands. The background matrix and the inclusions can be anisotropic, each having distinct elastic moduli and mass densities. Equifrequency contours and energy-flux vectors are readily calculated as functions of the wave-vector components. By superimposing the energy-flux vectors on equifrequency contours in the plane of the wave-vector components, and supplementing this with a three-dimensional graph of the corresponding frequency surface, a wealth of information is extracted essentially at a glance. This way it is shown that a composite with even a simple square unit cell containing a central circular inclusion can display negative or positive energy and phase velocity refractions, or simply performs a harmonic vibration (standing wave), depending on the frequency and the wave-vector. Moreover, that the same composite when interfaced with a suitable homogeneous solid can display: (1) negative refraction with negative phase velocity refraction; (2) negative refraction with positive phase velocity refraction; (3) positive refraction with negative phase velocity refraction; (4) positive refraction with positive phase velocity refraction; or even (5) complete reflection with no energy transmission, depending on the frequency, and direction and the wavelength of the plane-wave that is incident from the homogeneous solid to the interface. For elliptical and rectangular inclusion geometries, analytical expressions are given for the key calculation quantities. Expressions for displacement, velocity, linear momentum

  15. Acoustic charge transport induced by the surface acoustic wave in chemical doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijun; Zhang, Hao; Feng, Zhihong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Chongling; Liu, Jing; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-10-01

    A graphene/LiNbO3 hybrid device is used to investigate the acoustic induced charge transport in chemical doped graphene. The chemical doping of graphene via its physisorption of gas molecules affects the surface acoustic wave (SAW) charge carrier transport in a manner different from electric field drift. That transport induces doping dependent macroscopic acoustoelectric current. The chemical doping can manipulate majority carriers and induces unique acoustoelectric features. The observation is explained by a classical relaxation model. Eventually the device based on acoustoelectric current is proved to outperform the common chemiresistor for chemicals. Our finding provides insight into acoustic charge carrier transport during chemical doping. The doping affects interaction of carriers with SAW phonon and facilitates the understanding of nanoscale acoustoelectric effect. The exploration inspires potential acoustoelectric application for chemical detection involving emerging 2D nanomaterials.

  16. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  17. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448

  18. Phononic Phase Conjugation in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Lukas; Wright, Ewan; Meystre, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    We study theoretically the phase conjugation of a phononic field in an optomechanical system with two mechanical modes coupled to a common optical field. Phase conjugation becomes the dominant process for an appropriate choice of driving field parameters, and he effective coupling coefficients between phonon modes can result in amplification and entanglement, phase-conjugation or a mixture thereof. We discuss surprising consequences of mechanical phase-conjugation that could lead to the preparation of mechanical states with negative temperature, the improvement of quantum memories and the study of the quantum-classical transition. Supported by DARPA ORCHID program.

  19. Phonon-Josephson resonances in atomtronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidasyuk, Y. M.; Prikhodko, O. O.; Weyrauch, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study the resonant excitation of sound modes from Josephson oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates. From the simulations for various setups using the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equations and Josephson equations we observe additional tunneling currents induced by resonant phonons. The proposed experiment may be used for spectroscopy of phonons as well as other low-energy collective excitations in Bose-Einstein condensates. We also argue that the observed effect may mask the observation of Shapiro resonances if not carefully controlled.

  20. THZ Phonon Spectroscopy of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212: Evidence for Phonon Pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Ya. G.; Van, Hoang Hoai

    Facts are presented evidencing the strong electron-phonon interaction and the scaling of a superconducting gap and a critical temperature in doped Bi-2212 single crystals. A sharp extra structure in the current-voltage characteristics (CVC's) of Bi-2212 contacts is attributed to the presence of the extended van Hove singularity (EVHS) close to the Fermi level in slightly overdoped and slightly underdoped samples. THZ phonon spectroscopy studies of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 are overviewed. An observed giant instability in I(V) - characteristics of Bi-2223 nanosteps is probably caused by a resonant emission of 2Δ - optical phonons in a process of recombination of nonequilibrium quasiparticles (Krasnov model).

  1. Manipulating Heat Flow through 3 Dimensional Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-02

    Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861214047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Baowen Li 5d...through computer simulation, how the three dimensional (3D) phononic crystal structures can confine phonon and thus reduce thermal conductivity...phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. The

  2. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  3. Propagation of elastic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals composed of viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tomioka, Shunsuke; Shimomura, Yukito; Nishiguchi, Norihiko

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the transmission characteristics of acoustic waves through two-dimensional phononic crystals composed of viscoelastic materials such as silicon rubber. In the present work, we improve a previously proposed method in which it was assumed that the Poisson ratio of silicon rubber is independent of time. The improved method removes the assumption and independently handles two parameters that describe a viscoelastic material: time-dependent bulk modulus and shear rate. We find that the time-dependent shear rates can modulate the frequency dependences of the transmission rate to various degrees. Therefore, in acoustic wave transmission, we can obtain large gaps in the audible domain by choosing the substrate material appropriately. In addition, we find that the viscoelasticity of the substrate makes the fine structure for the transmission rates smooth.

  4. Thermal tuning of omnidirectional reflection bands in one-dimensional finite phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaojiang

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the temperature-tuned omnidirectional reflection (ODR) bands in a one-dimensional (1D) finite phononic crystal (PnC), formed by alternating layers of nitinol and epoxy. An analytical model, based on the transfer matrix method, is developed to study reflection and transmission characteristics of the acoustic waves including shear and compressional waves in a 1D PnC. Existence criteria and the sensitive and continuous temperature-tunability of ODR bands in the nitinol/epoxy PnC are demonstrated using the analyses of projected-band structures and reflection spectra. The width and location of the ODR bands shift markedly with temperature variations of nitinol across the phase transition from martensite to austenite. The effects of temperature, filling fraction of nitinol layers, and the Si clad layer on ODR bands are considered. The results will be of benefit in the design and optimization of thermal tuning of omnidirectional acoustic mirrors.

  5. Acoustic-like dynamics of amorphous drugs in the THz regime

    PubMed Central

    Pogna, E. A. A.; Rodríguez-Tinoco, C.; Krisch, M.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.; Scopigno, T.

    2013-01-01

    The high frequency dynamics of Indomethacin and Celecoxib glasses has been investigated by inelastic x-ray scattering, accessing a momentum-energy region still unexplored in amorphous pharmaceuticals. We find evidence of phonon-like acoustic dynamics, and determine the THz behavior of sound velocity and acoustic attenuation. Connections with ordinary sound propagation are discussed, along with the relation between fast and slow degrees of freedom as represented by non-ergodicity factor and kinetic fragility, respectively. PMID:23989304

  6. First principles calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of metals considering phonon-phonon and phonon-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Lu, Zexi; Ruan, Xiulin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of phonon-electron (p-e) scattering on lattice thermal conductivity is investigated for Cu, Ag, Au, Al, Pt, and Ni. We evaluate both phonon-phonon (p-p) and p-e scattering rates from first principles and calculate the lattice thermal conductivity (κL). It is found that p-e scattering plays an important role in determining the κL of Pt and Ni at room temperature, while it has negligible effect on the κL of Cu, Ag, Au, and Al. Specifically, the room temperature κLs of Cu, Ag, Au, and Al predicted from density-functional theory calculations with the local density approximation are 16.9, 5.2, 2.6, and 5.8 W/m K, respectively, when only p-p scattering is considered, while it is almost unchanged when p-e scattering is also taken into account. However, the κL of Pt and Ni is reduced from 7.1 and 33.2 W/m K to 5.8 and 23.2 W/m K by p-e scattering. Even though Al has quite high electron-phonon coupling constant, a quantity that characterizes the rate of heat transfer from hot electrons to cold phonons in the two-temperature model, p-e scattering is not effective in reducing κL owing to the relatively low p-e scattering rates in Al. The difference in the strength of p-e scattering in different metals can be qualitatively understood by checking the amount of electron density of states that is overlapped with the Fermi window. Moreover, κL is found to be comparable to the electronic thermal conductivity in Ni.

  7. Physically founded phonon dispersions of few-layer materials and the case of borophene

    DOE PAGES

    Carrete, Jesús; Li, Wu; Lindsay, Lucas; ...

    2016-04-21

    By building physically sound interatomic force constants,we offer evidence of the universal presence of a quadratic phonon branch in all unstrained 2D materials, thus contradicting much of the existing literature. Through a reformulation of the interatomic force constants (IFCs) in terms of internal coordinates, we find that a delicate balance between the IFCs is responsible for this quadraticity. We use this approach to predict the thermal conductivity of Pmmn borophene, which is comparable to that of MoS2, and displays a remarkable in-plane anisotropy. Ultimately, these qualities may enable the efficient heat management of borophene devices in potential nanoelectronic applications

  8. Physically founded phonon dispersions of few-layer materials and the case of borophene

    SciTech Connect

    Carrete, Jesús; Li, Wu; Lindsay, Lucas; Broido, David A.; Gallego, Luis J.; Mingo, Natalio

    2016-04-21

    By building physically sound interatomic force constants,we offer evidence of the universal presence of a quadratic phonon branch in all unstrained 2D materials, thus contradicting much of the existing literature. Through a reformulation of the interatomic force constants (IFCs) in terms of internal coordinates, we find that a delicate balance between the IFCs is responsible for this quadraticity. We use this approach to predict the thermal conductivity of Pmmn borophene, which is comparable to that of MoS2, and displays a remarkable in-plane anisotropy. Ultimately, these qualities may enable the efficient heat management of borophene devices in potential nanoelectronic applications

  9. Nonlinear Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-14

    Wester- velt. [60] Streaming. In 1831, Michael Faraday [61] noted that currents of air were set up in the neighborhood of vibrating plates-the first... ducei in the case of a paramettc amy (from Berktay an Leahy 141). C’ "". k•, SEC 10.1 NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 345 The principal results of their analysis

  10. Rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves in chirped phononic crystal plates.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2017-01-05

    The rainbow trapping effect has been demonstrated in electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this study, rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves is achieved in chirped phononic crystal plates that spatially modulate the dispersion, group velocity, and stopband. The rainbow trapping is related to the progressively slowing group velocity, and the extremely low group velocity near the lower boundary of a stopband that gradually varies in chirped phononic crystal plates. As guided waves propagate along the phononic crystal plate, waves gradually slow down and finally stop forward propagating. The energy of guided waves is concentrated at the low velocity region near the stopband. Moreover, the guided wave energy of different frequencies is concentrated at different locations, which manifests as rainbow guided waves. We believe implementing the rainbow trapping will open new paradigms for guiding and focusing of guided waves. Moreover, the rainbow guided waves with energy concentration and spatial separation of frequencies may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation, spatial wave filtering, energy harvesting, and acoustofluidics.

  11. Rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves in chirped phononic crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    The rainbow trapping effect has been demonstrated in electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this study, rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves is achieved in chirped phononic crystal plates that spatially modulate the dispersion, group velocity, and stopband. The rainbow trapping is related to the progressively slowing group velocity, and the extremely low group velocity near the lower boundary of a stopband that gradually varies in chirped phononic crystal plates. As guided waves propagate along the phononic crystal plate, waves gradually slow down and finally stop forward propagating. The energy of guided waves is concentrated at the low velocity region near the stopband. Moreover, the guided wave energy of different frequencies is concentrated at different locations, which manifests as rainbow guided waves. We believe implementing the rainbow trapping will open new paradigms for guiding and focusing of guided waves. Moreover, the rainbow guided waves with energy concentration and spatial separation of frequencies may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation, spatial wave filtering, energy harvesting, and acoustofluidics.

  12. Rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves in chirped phononic crystal plates

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    The rainbow trapping effect has been demonstrated in electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this study, rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves is achieved in chirped phononic crystal plates that spatially modulate the dispersion, group velocity, and stopband. The rainbow trapping is related to the progressively slowing group velocity, and the extremely low group velocity near the lower boundary of a stopband that gradually varies in chirped phononic crystal plates. As guided waves propagate along the phononic crystal plate, waves gradually slow down and finally stop forward propagating. The energy of guided waves is concentrated at the low velocity region near the stopband. Moreover, the guided wave energy of different frequencies is concentrated at different locations, which manifests as rainbow guided waves. We believe implementing the rainbow trapping will open new paradigms for guiding and focusing of guided waves. Moreover, the rainbow guided waves with energy concentration and spatial separation of frequencies may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation, spatial wave filtering, energy harvesting, and acoustofluidics. PMID:28054601

  13. Control of elastic wave propagation in one-dimensional piezomagnetic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Croënne, Charles; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Bou Matar, Olivier; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Dubus, Bertrand

    2016-06-01

    Two ways of controlling the acoustic waves propagation by external inductance or capacitance in a one-dimensional (1-D) piezomagnetic phononic crystal are investigated. The structure is made of identical bars, constituted of a piezomagnetic material, surrounded by a coil and connected to an external impedance. A model of propagation of longitudinal elastic waves through the periodic structure is developed and the dispersion equation is obtained. Reflection and transmission coefficients are derived from a 2 × 2 transfer matrix formalism that also allows for the calculation of elastic effective parameters (density, Young modulus, speed of sound, impedance). The effect of shunting impedances is numerically investigated. The results reveal that a connected external inductance tunes the Bragg band gaps of the 1-D phononic crystal. When the elements are connected via a capacitance, a hybridization gap, due to the resonance of the LC circuit made of the piezomagnetic element and the capacitance, coexists with the Bragg band gap. The value of the external capacitance modifies the boundaries of both gaps. Calculation of the effective characteristics of the phononic crystal leads to an analysis of the physical mechanisms involved in the wave propagation. When periodically connected to external capacitances, a homogeneous piezomagnetic stack behaves as a dispersive tunable metamaterial.

  14. Rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves in chirped phononic crystal plates

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2017-01-05

    The rainbow trapping effect has been demonstrated in electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this study, rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves is achieved in chirped phononic crystal plates that spatially modulate the dispersion, group velocity, and stopband. The rainbow trapping is related to the progressively slowing group velocity, and the extremely low group velocity near the lower boundary of a stopband that gradually varies in chirped phononic crystal plates. As guided waves propagate along the phononic crystal plate, waves gradually slow down and finally stop forward propagating. The energy of guided waves is concentrated at the low velocity region nearmore » the stopband. Moreover, the guided wave energy of different frequencies is concentrated at different locations, which manifests as rainbow guided waves. We believe implementing the rainbow trapping will open new paradigms for guiding and focusing of guided waves. Furthermore, the rainbow guided waves with energy concentration and spatial separation of frequencies may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation, spatial wave filtering, energy harvesting, and acoustofluidics.« less

  15. Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Siyuan

    2015-03-01

    Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers [Science, 343, 1125-1129 (2014)]. Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in heterostructures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN. Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ``hyperlens'' for subdiffractional imaging and focusing using a slab of hBN.

  16. Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

    2014-08-01

    Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

  17. Phononic subsurface: Flow stabilization by crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahmoud I.; Biringen, Sedat; Bilal, Osama R.; Kucala, Alec

    2015-11-01

    Flow control is a century-old problem where the goal is to alter a flow's natural state to achieve improved performance, such as delay of laminar-to-turbulent transition or reduction of drag in a fully developed turbulent flow. Meeting this goal promises to significantly reduce the dependence on fossil fuels for global transport. In this work, we show that phonon motion underneath a surface interacting with a flow may be tuned to cause the flow to stabilize, or destabilize, as desired. This concept is demonstrated by simulating a fully developed plane Poiseuille (channel) flow whereby a small portion of an otherwise rigid wall is replaced with a one-dimensional phononic crystal. A Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is introduced to the flow as an evolving disturbance. Upon tuning the frequency-dependent phase and amplitude relations of the surface of the phononic crystal that interfaces with the flow, the TS wave is shown to stabilize, or destabilize, as needed. A theory of subsurface phonons is presented that provides an accurate prediction of this behavior without the need for a flow simulation. This represents an unprecedented capability to passively synchronize wave propagation across a fluid-structure interface and achieve favorable, and predictable, alterations to the flow properties. National Science Foundation, Grant No. 1131802.

  18. Phonon dispersion in red mercuric iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, H.; Chang, Y. ); James, R.B. )

    1994-02-15

    We present theoretical studies of phonon modes of undoped HgI[sub 2] in its red tetragonal form. A rigid-ion model including the Coulomb interaction is used which gives the best fit to the neutron scattering, infrared reflectivity, and Raman scattering data. The calculated sound velocities are also in accord with experiment.

  19. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  20. Illustrative numerical comparisons between phonon mean free paths and phonon thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, W. M.; Anderson, A. C.

    Measurements of thermal conductivity are often used as an interrogative technique to learn about phonon scattering processes in solids. In general the relationship between thermal conductivity lambda and a phonon mean free path 1 is complex and it is therefore necessary to make some simplifying assumptions in order to make this relationship tractable. These assumptions may lead to erroneous conclusions, many of which have appeared in the published literature. An intuitive insight is provided to the relationship between lambda and 1.